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K.L.

E SOCIETYS COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION LINGRAJ COLLEGE, BELGAUM

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K.L.E SOCIETYS COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION LINGRAJ COLLEGE, BELGAUM

BUSINESS AWARENESS -II

K.L.E SOCIETYS COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION LINGRAJ COLLEGE, BELGAUM

Table of content

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

CONTENT Foundry industry Company profile Owner profile Name of the items produced Raw material Procedure Transportation Name of the customer Quality Factor Safety to Employees Employees benefits Competitors Advantages Disadvantages Bibliography

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Small Business
A small business is a business that is privately owned and operated, with a small number of employees and relatively low volume of sales.

What is small scale industry?


Small scale industrial units are those engaged in the manufacture, processing or preservation of goods and whose investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs.1 crore. Registration to SSI is given by the District Industries Center (DIC).

Foundry Industry
The Indian Metal casting (Foundry Industry) is well established. According to the recent World Census of Castings by Modern Castings, USA India Ranks as 2nd largest casting producer producing estimated 7.44 Million MT of various grades of Castings as per International standards.

The various types of castings which are produced are ferrous, on ferrous,Aluminium Alloy, graded cast iron, ductile iron, Steel etc for application in Automobiles, Railways, Pumps Compressors & Valves, Diesel Engines, Cement/Electrical/Textile Machinery, Aero & Sanitary pipes & Fittings etc & Castings for special applications.However,Grey iron castings is the major share approx 70 % of total castings produced.

There are approx 4500 units out of which 80% can be classified as Small Scale units & 10% each as Medium & Large Scale units. Approx 500 units are having International Quality Accreditation. The large foundries are modern & globally competitive & are working at nearly full capacity. Most foundries use cupolas using LAM Coke. There is growing awareness about environment & many foundries are switching over to induction furnaces & some units in Agra are changing over to coke less cupolas.

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Indian Foundries.com brings together all the major players involved in the Indian Foundry industry. i.e.
The foundry manufacturers and exporters, the producers, suppliers and importers of raw materials, machinery and equipment, the agents, quality controllers and other service providers, the federations and institutions. Facility to post casting requirements and tradefair, Foundry materials, Coimbatore foundries, Indian foundries, foundry job seekers and foundry machineries.

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Company Profile
Name of the company: Harsha Enterprise Or Harsha Metals It's a sole proprietary firm. Products manufactured: C I Graded Casting (Cast Iron ) Company situated in Macchhe Industrial Area in area of 900 sq.meters. Capital invested at the beginning of the commencement of the company Rs.27 Lakhs in the year 1997 No of workers : 12 person Time:10-2 and 3-5

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OWNERS PROFILE
Name of the owner : Mr. Channabasappa C.Hondadkatti Qualification: B.E.( Associate Member of Institution of Engineers) , Mechanical, (1979-1983), Completed degree in B.V.B

Engineering college Hubli. Worked in Bangalore for 4 years in company called Rajamane Industries Pvt Ltd. Now presently supplying our goods to the same company (Rajamane Industries Pvt Ltd Joint Secretary of the Belgaum Small Scale Industries Association (BSSIA). It is a association with KASSIA(Karnataka small scale Industries association (Bangalore) Life member of the Indian institute of Foundry men(ITF) It is registered in Delhi and Head office is also in Delhi.

Its regional office is in Bangalore

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Name of the Items produced


Motor Body Coolant pump body Dumbbell plates (GYM Equipments) Impellers & impeller casing etc

Motor body

The company specializes in manufacturing of MOTOR BODY PART CASTING which are made up with high quality raw material so that make them durable and longs lasting. These Hastelloy Castings are designed and developed at our advanced equipments equipped manufacturing unit under the supervision of experts. All the castings are properly checked before final delivery to ensure international standards maintained during the manufacturing process. We are manufacturer & supplier of MOTOR BODY PART CASTING. These machine parts are manufactured from excellent quality raw materials. Our machine parts can be custorized as per our customer requirements and it can be availed at industrial leading price.

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Coolant Pump
A distinguished range of coolant pumps can be purchased from us within competitive prices. These are fabricated using superior grade metals, which have high tensile strength and greater resistance to corrosion. This pump is used in coolant technology around the world and it is certified by the top quality certification body of the country

Plate Type Dumbbells


We are manufacturer and exporter of Plate type dumbbells which is extensively used for body building and fitness purposes. These are fabricated from superlative quality material using hi-tech process which ensures its flawless functioning. It can also fabricated as per the mentioned requirements of any individual as well as commercial sector. A well established Plate type dumbbells manufacturer brings forth for you enormous exercise equipments at market leading price.

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Impeller with Casing (RKG)


Empowered with our rich industrial expertise and experience, we have emerged as one of the noted manufacturers, exporters and suppliers of Impeller With Casing (RKG), which is used for increasing the pressure and flow of a fluid. This engineered following stringent quality control measures and is acclaimed in the market for its high operational efficiency and reliable service life. Further, it is also easy to install and requires less maintenance. Our portfolio includes all types of pump spares like shaft , sleeve, impeller, casing, stuffing box and others.

Features:

High efficiency Better performance Robustdesig

We provide customized solutions on our decorative castings on the following parameters: Design Material of construction Size

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RAW MATERIAL
1) Sand:
1) Green Sand (base sand):-Greensand or Green sand is either a sand or sandstone, which has a greenish color. This term is specifically applied to shallow marine sediment that contains noticeable quantities of rounded greenish grains. These grains are called glauconies and consist of a mixture of mixed-layer clay minerals, such as smectite and glauconitic mica. Greensand is also loosely applied to any glauconitic sedimen 2) Bentonite (binder):Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially

impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. There are different types of bentonite, each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminium(Al). Experts debate a number of nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water

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3) Patterns and moulding box : For preparation of the moulds.

2) Metal composition:
1. Cast iron or pig iron (form of an iron ore): It is imported from Goa from the company called Sesa Goa this is the main composition to produce casting. 2. Coke: It is generally called as coal .Which helps to ignite fire and increase the temperature of the furnace which results in the melting of the pig iron. 3. It is imported from Ahmadabad its from the company called Balaji Coke 4. .Lime stone: It act as a flux, whose application is to separate the pure metal from impurities .

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Casting
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Casting is a 6000 year old process. The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC.

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Pig iron
pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal andanthracite have also been used as fuel. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.54.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. The traditional shape of the molds used for these ingots was a branching structure formed in sand, with many individual ingots at right angles to a central channel or runner. Such a configuration is similar in appearance to a litter of piglets suckling on a sow. When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the pigs) were simply broken from the much thinner runner (the sow), hence the name pig iron. As pig iron is intended for remelting, the uneven size of the ingots and the inclusion of small amounts of sand caused only insignificant problems considering the ease of casting and handling them.

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Cupola furnace
A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, ni-resist iron and some bronzes. The cupola can be made almost any practical size. The size of a cupola is expressed in diameters and can range from 1.5 to 13 feet (0.5 to 4.0 m).[1] The overall shape is cylindrical and the equipment is arranged vertically, usually supported by four legs. The overall look is similar to a large smokestack. The bottom of the cylinder is fitted with doors which swing down and out to 'drop bottom'. The top where gases escape can be open or fitted with a cap to prevent rain from entering the cupola. To control emissions a cupola may be fitted with a cap that is designed to pull the gases into a device to cool the gasses and remove particulate matter. The shell of the cupola, being usually made of steel, has refractory brick and refractory patching material lining it. The bottom is lined in a similar manner but often a clay and sand mixture ("bod") may be used, as this lining is temporary.Finely divided coal ("sea coal") can be mixed with the clay lining so when heated the coal decomposes and the bod becomes slightly friable, easing the opening up of the tap holes. The bottom lining is compressed or 'rammed' against the bottom doors. Some cupolas are fitted with cooling jackets to keep the sides cool and with oxygen injection to make the coke fire burn hotter.

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Air blower machine


A device that produces a continuous flow of air

Ladle Refining Furnaces


Ladle refining furnaces (LRFs) are used to desulfurize steels, remove other impurities and hold the molten steel for casting operations. Without LRFs, higher tap temperatures are normally required from steel making furnaces due to heat losses during refining with conventional ladles. Costs of extended furnace time, refractory wear and power or fuel consumption can all be reduced using LRFs to perform holding and refining. Reduced scrap melting capacity in basic oxygen furnaces (BOF) is another disadvantage of higher tap temperatures. The ladle refining furnace also acts as a buffer between the steel making furnace (either BOF or electric Arc furnace (EAF)) and the continuous caster, reducing casting costs and allowing greater flexibility in steel making operations.

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Application and Benefits:


Ladle refining furnaces are used to increase productivity in steelmaking operations. By allowing the steel making furnaces to be used exclusively as melting units, tap-to-tap times are decreased, increasing the production capacity and decreasing overhead costs per ton of steel produced. Flexible scheduling can result with LRFs, steel can be held at the proper temperature while waiting for casting availability

Sand Casting
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. It is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. A suitable bonding agent (usually clay) is mixed or occurs with the sand. The mixture is moistened with water to develop strength and plasticity of the clay and to make the aggregate suitable for molding. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via a sand casting process

Basic Process
There are six steps in this process:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Place a pattern in sand to create a mold. Incorporate the pattern and sand in a gating system. Remove the pattern. Fill the mold cavity with molten metal. Allow the metal to cool. Break away the sand mold and remove the casting

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Components Patterns

Pattern (casting)
From the design, provided by an engineer or designer, a skilled pattern maker builds a pattern of the object to be produced, using wood, metal, or a plastic such as expanded polystyrene. Sand can be ground, swept or strickled into shape. The metal to be cast will contract during solidification, and this may be non-uniform due to uneven cooling. Therefore, the pattern must be slightly larger than the finished product, a difference known as contraction allowance. Pattern-makers are able to produce suitable patterns using 'Contraction rules' (these are sometimes called "shrink allowance rulers" where the ruled markings are deliberately made to a larger spacing according to the percentage of extra length needed). Different scaled rules are used for different metals because each metal and alloy contracts by an amount distinct from all others. Patterns also have core prints that create registers within the molds into which are placed sand cores. Such cores, sometimes reinforced by wires, are used to create under cut profiles and cavities which cannot be molded with the cope and drag, such as the interior passages of valves or cooling passages in engine blocks. Paths for the entrance of metal into the mold cavity constitute the runner system and include the sprue, various feeders which maintain a good metal 'feed', and in-gates which attach the runner system to the casting cavity. Gas and steam generated during casting exit through the permeable sand or via risers, which are added either in the pattern itself, or as separate pieces.

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Molding box and materials


A multi-part molding box (known as a casting flask, the top and bottom halves of which are known respectively as the cope and drag) is prepared to receive the pattern. Molding boxes are made in segments that may be latched to each other and to end closures. For a simple objectflat on one sidethe lower portion of the box, closed at the bottom, will be filled with molding sand. The sand is packed in through a vibratory process called ramming and, in this case, periodically screeded level. The surface of the sand may then be stabilized with a sizing compound. The pattern is placed on the sand and another molding box segment is added. Additional sand is rammed over and around the pattern. Finally a cover is placed on the box and it is turned and unlatched, so that the halves of the mold may be parted and the pattern with its sprue and vent patterns removed. Additional sizing may be added and any defects introduced by the removal of the pattern are corrected. The box is closed again. This forms a "green" mold which must be dried to receive the hot metal. If the mold is not sufficiently dried a steam explosion can occur that can throw molten metal about. In some cases, the sand may be oiled instead of moistened, which makes possible casting without waiting for the sand to dry. Sand may also be bonded by chemical binders, such as furane resins or amine-hardened resins.

Chills:To control the solidification structure of the metal, it is possible to place metal plates, chills, in the mold. The associated rapid local cooling will form a finer-grained structure and may form a somewhat harder metal at these locations. In ferrous castings the effect is similar to quenching metals in forge work. The inner diameter of an engine cylinder is made hard by a chilling core. In other metals chills may be used to promote directional solidification of the casting. In controlling the way a casting freezes it is possible to prevent internal voids or porosity inside castings.

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Cores:To produce cavities within the castingsuch as for liquid cooling in engine blocks and cylinder headsnegative forms are used to

produce cores. Usually sand-molded, cores are inserted into the casting box after removal of the pattern. Whenever possible, designs are made that avoid the use of cores, due to the additional set-up time and thus greater cost. Two sets of castings (bronze and aluminum) from the above sand mold With a completed mold at the appropriate moisture content, the box containing the sand mold is then positioned for filling with molten metaltypically iron, steel, bronze, brass, aluminium, magnesium alloys, or various pot metal alloys, which often include lead, tin, and zinc. After filling with liquid metal the box is set aside until the metal is sufficiently cool to be strong. The sand is then removed revealing a rough casting that, in the case of iron or steel, may still be glowing red. When casting with metals like iron or lead, which are significantly heavier than the casting sand, the casting flask is often covered with a heavy plate to prevent a problem known as floating the mold. Floating the mold occurs when the pressure of the metal pushes the sand above the mold cavity out of shape, causing the casting to fail.

Left: Core box, with resulting (wire reinforced) cores directly below. Right:- Pattern (used with the core) and the resulting casting below (the wires are from the remains of the core) After casting, the cores are broken up by rods or shot and removed from the casting. The metal from the sprue and risers is cut from the rough casting. Various heat treatments may be applied to relieve stresses from the initial cooling and to add hardnessin the case of steel or iron, by treatment like shot penningthat adds resistance to tensile cracking and smooths the rough surface.

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Design requirements:The part to be made and its pattern must be designed to accommodate each stage of the process, as it must be possible to remove the pattern without disturbing the molding sand and to have proper locations to receive and position the cores. A slight taper, known as draft, must be used on surfaces perpendicular to the parting line, in order to be able to remove the pattern from the mold. This requirement also applies to cores, as they must be removed from the core box in which they are formed. The sprue and risers must be arranged to allow a proper flow of metal and gasses within the mold in order to avoid an incomplete casting. Should a piece of core or mold become dislodged it may be embedded in the final casting, forming a sand pit, which may render the casting unusable. Gas pockets can cause internal voids. These may be immediately visible or may only be revealed after extensive machining has been performed. For critical applications, or where the cost of wasted effort is a factor, non-destructive testing methods may be applied before further work is performed.

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Procedure

A desired ratio from pig iron, coke and lime stone i.e.; 75% of Pig iron , 20 % of coke and 5% of lime
stone Will be introduced in the furnace called (Cupola Furnace),and hot air will be blown to it Due to the presence of coke and fire, the temperature will be increased up to 1400 deg C. Resulting in the melting in the pig iron, the pure molten metal is collected from an outlet in a bucket shaped contained called laddle And the molten metal is poured in the moulds previously prepared using sand and patterns. After solidification of the molten metal we get a desired shaped and sized casting.. Which will be later machined and transported to the customers

In general, we can distinguish between two methods of sand casting; the first one using green sand and the second being the air set method.

Green sand:These expendable molds are made of wet sands that are used to make the mold's shape. The name comes from the fact that wet sands are used in the molding process. Green sand is not green in color, but "green" in the sense that it is used in a wet state (akin to green wood). Unlike the name suggests, "green sand" is not a type of sand on its own, but is rather a mixture of:

Silica sand (SiO2), or chromite sand (FeCr2O), or zircon sand (ZrSiO4), 75 to 85%, or olivine, or staurolite, or graphite.

bentonite (clay), 5 to 11% water, 2 to 4% inert sludge 3 to 5% Anthracite (0 to 1%)

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There are many recipes for the proportion of clay, but they all strike different balances between moldability, surface finish, and ability of the hot molten metal to degas. The coal, typically referred to in foundries as seacoal, which is present at a ratio of less than 5%, partially combusts in the presence of the molten metal leading to offgassing of organic vapors. Green Sand for non-ferrous metals do not use coal additives since the CO created is not effective to prevent oxidation. Green Sand for aluminum typically uses olivine sand (a mixture of the minerals forsterite and fayalite which are made by crushing dunite rock). The choice of sand has a lot to do with the temperature that the metal is poured. At the temperatures that copper and iron are poured, the clay gets inactivated by the heat in that the montmorillonite is converted to illite, which is a non-expanding clay. Most foundries do not have the very expensive equipment to remove the burned out clay and substitute new clay, so instead, those that pour iron typically work with silica sand that is inexpensive compared to the other sands. As the clay is burned out, newly mixed sand is added and some of the old sand is discarded or recycled into other uses. Silica is the least desirable of the sands since metamorphic grains of silica sand have a tendency to explode to form sub-micron sized particles when thermally shocked during pouring of the molds. These particles are picked up by Brownian motion and can lead to silicosis in the workers. Iron foundries spend a lot of energy on aggressive dust collection to capture that fine silica. The sand also has the dimensional instability associated with the conversion of quartz from alpha quartz to beta quartz at 1250 degrees F. Often additives such as wood flour are added to create a space for the grains to expand without deforming the mold. Olivine, Chromite, etc. are used because they do not have a phase conversion that causes rapid expansion of the grains plus they offer greater density which cools the metal faster and produces finer grain structures in the metal. Since they are not metamorphic minerals, they do not have the polycrystals and subsequently do not form submicron sized grains that are a health hazard.

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The "air set" method


The air set method uses dry sand bonded with materials other than clay, using a fast curing adhesive. The latter may also be referred to as no bake mold casting. When these are used, they are collectively called "air set" sand castings to distinguish them from "green sand" castings. Two types of molding sand are natural bonded (bank sand) and synthetic (lake sand); the latter is generally preferred due to its more consistent composition. With both methods, the sand mixture is packed around a pattern, forming a mold cavity. If necessary, a temporary plug is placed in the sand and touching the pattern in order to later form a channel into which the casting fluid can be poured. Air-set molds are often formed with the help of a two-part mold having a top and bottom part, termed the cope and drag. The sand mixture is tamped down as it is added around the pattern, and the final mold assembly is sometimes vibrated to compact the sand and fill any unwanted voids in the mold. Then the pattern is removed along with the channel plug, leaving the mold cavity. The casting liquid (typically molten metal) is then poured into the mold cavity. After the metal has solidified and cooled, the casting is separated from the sand mold. There is typically no mold release agent, and the mold is generally destroyed in the removal process.[2] The accuracy of the casting is limited by the type of sand and the molding process. Sand castings made from coarse green sand impart a rough texture to the surface, and this makes them easy to identify. Castings made from fine green sand can shine as cast but are limited by the depth to width ratio of pockets in the pattern. Airset molds can produce castings with smoother surfaces than coarse green sand but this method is primarily chosen when deep narrow pockets in the pattern are necessary, due to the expense of the plastic used in the process. Air-set castings can typically be easily identified by the burnt color on the surface. The castings are typically shot blasted to remove that burnt color. Surfaces can also be later ground and polished, for example when making a large bell. After molding, the casting is covered with a residue of oxides, silicates and other compounds. This residue can be removed by various means, such as grinding, or shot blasting. During casting, some of the components of the sand mixture are lost in the thermal casting process. Green sand can be reused after adjusting its composition to replenish the lost moisture and additives. The pattern itself can be reused indefinitely to produce new sand molds. The sand molding process has been used for many centuries

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to produce castings manually. Since 1950, partially automated casting processes have been developed for production lines.

Cold box:Uses organic and inorganic binders that strengthen the mold by chemically adhering to the sand. This type of mold gets its name from not being baked in an oven like other sand mold types. This type of mold is more accurate dimensionally than green-sand molds but is more expensive. Thus it is used only in applications that necessitate it.

No bake molds:No bake molds are expendable sand molds, similar to typical sand molds, except they also contain a quicksetting liquid resin and catalyst. Rather than being rammed, the molding sand is poured into the flask and held until the resin solidifies, which occurs at room temperature. This type of molding also produces a better surface finish than other types of sand molds.[3] Because no heat is involved it is called a cold-setting process. Common flask materials that are used are wood, metal, and plastic. Common metals cast into no bake molds are brass, iron ferrous, and aluminum alloys.

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Transportation

Usually goods were transportated through Trucks and lories. Beside the goods should be supplied in the local city using Auto carrier.

Name of the customers


Supply goods to various companies like:-

1) Rajamane industries Pvt.Ltd,Bangalore 2) Kirloskar Electric Company, Hubli. 3) NGEF (New Government Electrical factory)Ltd,Hubli
4) Position Engineering Corporation ,Belgaum

Again they supply the Gym equipments(Dumbbells and plates) to the leading sports outlet in Belgaum and other cities like:5) Aurora sports,Bgm 6) Hanuman sports,Bgm 7) Dalvi sports,Bgm 8) Hira sports, Hubli

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Future plan
As the business scale is increasing, the orders are increasing, demands an needs of the customers are also increasing . Therefore their planning is to increase the rate of production in future by increasing and maintaining the quality of the products. Planning to install new machines an Equipments To renovate the infrastructure of the company Planning to advertise the industry to the world by entering in to the multimedia like internet by opening their official website etc.

Quality factor
Quality factor is a major factor of any small Scale Industry which will decide impression of the Company. They maintain all the records regarding the quality and try to improve and maintain the same in future All the mechanical properties such as Hardness,Brittleness,Roughness will be tested and recorded in the quality test sheet

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SAFETY TO EMPLOYEES
Safety Gogal Safety Gogal Welding. Face shild. Safety shoes. Hand Gloves(Leather) Hand Gloves(Rubber) Affron

Employees benefit
1) They have made certain amount of savings in the bank in the name of the Employee Inividually , which will be given to them at the time of retiring from the company along with the interest 2) E.S.I (Employees State Insurance)is made on each and every employees which is very helpful to the employees.

E.S.I
Employees State Insurance Scheme of India, is a multidimensional social security system tailored to provide socio-economic protection to worker population and their dependants covered under the scheme. Besides full medical care for self and dependants, that is admissible from day one of insurable employment, the insured persons are also entitled to a variety of cash benefits in times of physical distress due to sickness, temporary or permanent disablement etc. resulting in loss of earning capacity, the confinement in respect of insured women, dependants of insured persons who die in industrial accidents or because of employment injury or occupational hazard are entitled to a monthly pension called the dependants benefit. BUSINESS AWARENESS -II

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Competitors
As belgaum is one of the leading producers of castings in India, then obviously there are lot of companies including in such a kind of business.

Therefore there is a lot of Competition in this business . Some of them re: VLS Metals Kudale Iron Works Abhishek Alloys Sai Alloys Venketesh Iron works Lakshmi Iron works etc

Advantage
Quality of Product. Take care of labours Take care of their safety etc.

Disadvantage
Labours Problem Raw material shortage Electricity etc

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Biblography
www.google.com By the Company Manual.

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