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BIOENERGY

(CORE BIOTECHNOLO GY-II) PRESENTED BY

Name
ARCHANA PRIYA VENUGOPAL DEEPA JANARDHAN DIYYA MARY SRUJANA MRIDU AGGARWAL YUNFEI ZHAO

STUDENT ID
8099845 7836005 8183791 8106065 7977160

Many countries currently rely on coal, oil and natural gas to meet their energy needs. Depending on fossil fuels on a long term basis is risky as they will eventually run out. Fossil fuels cause air and water pollution, including production of greenhouse gases that could increase global warming.

The need of the hour is to use alternatives to fossil fuels such as bio energy.

[1] Source:

http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictiona

ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF BIOENERGY -- BIOMASS


BIOMASS: Material that is derived from living or recently living biological organisms. In the energy context it is often used to refer to plant material, however by-products and waste from livestock farming, food processing and preparation and domestic organic waste, can all form sources of biomass. [2] Biomass is ranked fourth after coal, oil and natural gas with regard to natural source of energies in the world.

FORESTRY
[2] Source-

INDUSTRY

ANIMAL WASTE

SEWAGE WASTE

http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk

Bio Energy Bio fuels Solid Bio fuels Liquid Bio fuels Gas Bio fuels

Wood

Biogas

Charcoal

SNG

Biomass Pellets Bio Ethanol Bio Diesel Bio Gasoline

Bio propane

Chemical Conversion

Bio-chemical Conversion

Thermal Conversion

EXCESS AIR

PURE AIR

NO AIR

COMBUSTION

GASSIFICATION

PYROLYSIS

HEAT

BIO OIL

LIQUID FUEL

Chemical conversion
Different chemical processes are involved in the conversion of biomass.

Bio-chemical conversion
Fermentation /Anaerobic digestion of organic matter to produce biogas. Example: production of biogas from animal/human excreta. Enzymes from micro-organisms are used in the breakdown of biomass. Example: cellulase and hemicellulase

BIOGAS

PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS

Fig.1

Bioethanol is a liquid form of biofuel.

Bioethanol (bioalcohol) is produced by fermenting simple sugar components of biomass.


Sources: corn, sugarcane and starch crop.

USES: Bioethanol is mixed with isobutene which is a non renewable petroleum derivative to produce ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) . It is used as a gasoline additive.

Fuel that is made from natural elements such as plants, vegetables and reusable materials. SOURCES: Soya bean oil, Canola and Hemp oil. Used instead of petroleum diesel and heating oil for buildings.

Advantages: Cleaner than diesel Pleasant odour Long engine life

PROS: Available in abundance Cause no/less pollution Available in solid, liquid and gaseous forms Abundant energy can be formed and stored for use Reduces the waste collected in landfills Produces no harmful waste

CONS: Competition for land Use of agricultural crops like cassava, sugarcane Production of bioenergy is time consuming Low productivity Low investment money for research

Use of plants like switch grass which can be grown in poor soil conditions.
Also, it is better to use waste and organic residues for the production of bioenergy so that there is no issues over the land use. Moreover, solar and wind energy are more cleaner source of renewable energy and doesnt require much land.

In Brazil, Angra 1 nuclear plant uses stored chemical energy in sugarcane to produce 657 MW energy. Korea uses the livestock excretions to produce biogas and the bioenergy plant can produce 600 KW of energy in 24 hours. Japan is investing US$ 7 billion in The Sunshine Project. India successfully produces 10% of bioenergy for use. Used cooking oil is converted into biofuel and is used in vehicles in Yeoju-gun.

Projects are being undertaken in Aston University and University of Manchester, UK, to find a novel way of producing algal bio fuel.
Research is being carried out in US laboratories to find out ways of breaking bonds between sugar molecules of plant cell walls which is then a rich source for bioenergy production.

It enhances to develop the Carbon Dioxide neutral power systems. Increasing biomass power by 30GW taking into account of the crops and agricultural wastes. 20 MW project near Carlisle which will use pyrolysis to convert forestry residues to liquid biofuel. Meeting bioenergy demands by overlaying the global energy demand by increasing energy supply by 1000EJ by the year 2050.

Further 120 million tonnes of oil of biomass needs to be created by 2020.

REFERENCES
IMAGE SOURCES: http://www.google.co.uk/images. http://www.steam-boilers.org/boiler/biogas-2.html CONTENT SOURCE : gcep.stanford.edu/pdfs/assessments/biomass assessment.pdf www.cyberlipid.org/glycer/biodiesel.html www.cpast.org/articles/fetch.adp?topicnum=61 www.businessdictonary.com/definition/biodiesel.html science.jrank.org/.../Bioenergy-Advantages-disadvantages-bioenergy. www.abc-alternative-energy.de/bioenergy/disadvantages-bioenergy.htm http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm http://inventors.about.com/od/greeninventions/a/alternative_ene.htm http://saveenergy.about.com/od/alternativeenergysources/g/bioenergy.htm YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3UafRz3QeO8 Wikipedia articles WWF Videos on the internet http://www.localenergy.org/pdfs/Document%20Library/Bioenergy%20conversion%20factors.pdf http://www.globalproblems-globalsolutionsfiles.org/gpgs_files/pdf/UNF_Bioenergy/UNF_Bioenergy_5.pdf ALTENER (2001) The impact of renewable on employment and economic growth, EU EU (2001) National Energy Policy Overview, available at http://energytrends.pnl.gov/eu/ eu004.htm on June 23, 2004. European Commission (2000) Green Paper Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/livrevert/final/ Report en.pdf on June 23, 2004.