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A Simple Single-Fiber CWDM Metro/Access Ring Network with Unidirectional OADM and Automatic Protection
Zhaoxin Wang, Chinlon Lin and Chun-Kit Chan
Centre for Advanced Research in Photonics Department of Information Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR. Email: zxwang3@ie.cuhk.edu.hk

Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a simple and effective CWDM metro/access network architecture using unidirectional OADM for optical protection in a hub/access-node single-fiber ring. This physical-ring/logical-star architecture provides greater simplicity over previous designs requiring Bidirectional ADM.
2005 Optical Society of American
OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060.4250) Networks

1. Introduction Much attention has been focused on single-fiber bidirectional transmission in WDM ring networks [1, 2]. Such a network is attractive since the fiber required is reduced in half and it can provide cost-effectively enhanced capacity and possible self-healing characteristics. With the development of the metro access network, some researchers have extended the design principle to the metro access WDM ring networks with the optical fiber failure protection function [3, 4]. However, these previous works are based on specially designed Bidirectional ADM (BADM) [3, 4], which makes the entire design somewhat complicated. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a simple and effective CWDM metro access network architecture for optical protection in a hub/access-node single-fiber ring. Compared with the previous works requiring BADM, it can utilize the conventional low-cost commercial thin-film unidirectional OADM instead of BADM. As a result, the network structure designs are greatly simplified without any impact on network capacity or flexibility. 2. Operating Principles The CWDM metro access network utilizes the hub/access-node ring architecture: traffic from the Access Nodes (AN) is transmitted/received to/from a Hub, and the Hub is responsible for controlling the traffic between the ANs and exchange traffic with the higher layer network. Thus, it forms a physical-ring/logical-star architecture: for each wavelength, such a network can be viewed as a point to point network between the Hub and the AN. Usually, this kind of network adopts a dual ring scheme for fiber failure protection. In the previous works [3, 4], the multi-wavelength channels are divided into two groups: one for the working channels and the other for protection channels (or carrying the low priority traffic without protection). They are transmitted to a destination node in opposite direction [clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW)] when specially designed BADM is used. Once the working channel fails due to fiber cut, the traffic will be switched to the protection channel automatically, thus realizing the survivability of the system. However, the ring can also be viewed from another perspective: it provides two paths for the connection between the Hub and any AN. Thus, we can assign one path as working path and the other as protection path. In case of working path failure, the traffic can be switched to the protection one at once. Our scheme is based on this viewpoint of route diversity. Fig. 1(a) shows the setup for the proposed CWDM metro access network architecture with protection function. It consists of one Hub and N access nodes (AN) (here, N=4 for simplicity) distributed around a single-fiber ring. At the Hub, it includes N pairs of CWDM transmitters (Tx) and receivers (Rx), one CWDM MUX/DMUX and one 12 50/50 coupler. Each pair of the Tx and Rx corresponds to one AN, responsible for the down- and up-stream traffic respectively. For each Tx and Rx, a certain wavelength is assigned. For instance, Tx2d in the Hub with the wavelength 2d is for the downstream communication with AN2 while Rx2u with the wavelength 2u is for receiving the upstream traffic from AN2. The Hub is connected with the ring through the 12 50/50 coupler from both directions. The structure of AN2 is shown in Fig. 1 (b) (for other ANs, they have the similar setups). It consists of one optical switch, one unidirectional CWDM OADM and a pair of Rx and Tx, which is named as Rx2d and Tx2u, corresponding to the Tx2d and Rx2u in the Hub. The OADM includes two parts: one is for adding channel 2u and the other is for the dropping channel 2d. Each part of the OADM can also be viewed as a modified CWDM MUX/DMUX: for a specific CWDM wavelength, it can be dropped from port 1 to port 3 or added from port 3 to

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port1. For other wavelengths, they can pass between port 1 and port 2 without restraint. Such an OADM can be built at low cost with conventional thin-film technologies and can be readily obtained. Here, the specific add/drop wavelengths are 2d and 2u, so this OADM can be used for dropping downstream traffic from the Hub and adding upstream traffic to the Hub respectively. In the normal operation state, the switch is in the bar state, so the AN2 can receive/send data from/to the Hub from the CCW direction. For other traffic streams, they can pass through AN2 from both directions freely.
Tx1d Rx1u Tx2d Rx2u Tx3d Rx3u Tx4d Rx4u

1d

1u

2d

2u

3d

3u

4d

4u

CWDM MUX/DMUX

Hub
Upstream

Optical Switch Drop 2


1 2 3 1

AN4

AN1

Add 2
2 3

Downstream AN3 AN2

Rx2d

2d

Control Circuit

CWDM OADM

Tx2u

2u

Fig. 1 (a) Proposed network architecture

Fig. 1 (b) Structure of AN2 in the normal state

Fig. 2 shows the protection scheme of the proposed CWDM metro access network architecture. In Fig. 2 (a), a fiber failure occurs between the AN2 and the AN3. In this case, the control circuit in AN2 will find this failure and change the switch state from bar to cross state. Thus, the AN2 can communicate with Hub from CW direction without interrupting other data streams passing through it. Other ANs can adjust their own state similarly. Consequently, we can achieve the protection function and maintain the survivability of the proposed network.
Tx1d Rx1u Tx2d Rx2u Tx3d Rx3u Tx4d Rx4u

1d

1u

2d

2u

3d

3u

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CWDM MUX/DMUX

Hub
Optical Switch
Upstream

AN4

AN1

Drop 2
1

Add 2
1 2 3

Downstream AN3 AN2

2 3

Rx2d
Fig. 2 (a) Network structure in case of fiber cut

2d

Control Circuit

CWDM OADM

Tx2u

2u

Fig. 2 (b) Structure of AN2 in the protection state

In such a single-fiber ring network, Rayleigh backscattering induced crosstalk might degrade the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and thus reduce the receiver sensitivity. The induced crosstalk can be divided into interband crosstalk and intraband crosstalk. When the counter-propagating signals are of different wavelength, interband crosstalk exists. However, with our proposed scheme, this crosstalk can be readily filtered out by these WDM devices. When the wavelength of the counter-propagating signals is the same, it will cause intraband crosstalk, but this situation will not occur in this scheme. For the upstream traffic, it will choose only one path from the Hub to AN; for the downstream traffic, the traffic from both directions will terminate on the same OADM (one is dropped and the other is blocked by this OADM). As a result, the Rayleigh backscattering have very little effect on the performance of the system. This is indeed an advantage of our proposed WDM architecture. 3. Experimental Demonstration The experiment setup is shown in Fig. 3. It is similar to Fig.1 but only includes one Hub and two ANs for demonstration purpose. A set of CWDM equipments with 4 wavelengths (1510nm~1570nm) spaced by 20nm spacing were used to demonstrate the principle of transmission and protection operation of the proposed network

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architecture. The wavelengths of 1510nm and 1530nm were used for the downstream and upstream traffic of AN1, respectively. Similarly, the wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm were used for the downstream and upstream signals of AN2, respectively. Here, we focus on the AN1, so only the transmitters used within AN1 (with the wavelengths of 1510nm and 1530nm) were directly modulated with 223-1 pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data to study the downstream and upstream transmission performance under the normal and the protected modes, while the other transmitters were unmodulated. On the Hub and AN1 side, the 4-channel MUX/DMUX and OADM conform to the CWDM standard. A 20/80 12 coupler combined with band filters were utilized to simulate the OADM in AN2. The Single Mode Fiber (SMF) spans used in the experiment are indicated in Fig. 3. Thus, in normal operation, both the upstream and the downstream traffic of AN1 traveled through a transmission distance of 18.8 km from the CCW direction. To simulate the fiber cut scenario, the fiber link between the AN1 and AN2 was intentionally disconnected. With the automatic protection scheme, a fiber cut was identified by a drastic drop in power in the optical power monitor. The control circuit then reconfigured the optical switch from the bar state to the cross state. Thus, both the upstream and downstream wavelengths serving the AN1 were automatically switched to the CW direction, and the rerouted traffic traveled through a distance of 10km. With this setup, we measured the bit-error-rate (BER) performance using 1.25-Gb/s 223-1 PRBS data for both the up- and the down-stream traffic of AN1, and the measurement results were depicted in Fig.4. Here, the 1.25-Gb/s data is used to represent the data rate of Gigabit Ethernet signal. In all cases, the measured receiver sensitivity varied from -28.5dBm to -28.0dBm. The slight (<0.5dBm) power penalty could be attributed to the chromatic dispersion of the fiber. We have also measured the switching time in case of the simulated fiber cut. The optical power of the downstream signals of the AN1 was monitored and the result was shown in the inset of Fig. 4. The switching time was measured to be about 9ms.
Tx1d Rx1u Tx2d Rx2u

1d

1u

2d

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10-1

CWDM MUX/DMUX

Hub
10km
BER 10-2

Back to Back normal downstream protection downstream normal upstream protection upstream

10km

Upstream

10-3 10-4

AN2

AN1 8.8km
Fig.3 Experiment Setup

Downstream

10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 -34

-33

-32

-31 -30 -29 Receiver Power (dBm)

-28

-27

Fig.4 BER measurement results. Inset shows the switching time

4. Conclusion We have proposed and demonstrated a simple and effective CWDM metro access network architecture using unidirectional OADM for optical protection in a hub/access-node single-fiber ring. The transmission characteristics using 1.25-Gb/s CWDM transceivers and fast automatic protection against fiber failure have been experimentally demonstrated and characterized. This physical-ring / logical-star architecture provides greater simplicity over previous designs requiring BADM. The CWDM metro access network architecture is data rate transparent and can be readily extended for application in multi-wavelength 10GbE single-fiber ring networks. This paper was partially supported by a research grant from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR, Project No. CUHK4216/03E. References
[1] [2] [3] [4] K. P. Ho et al, Performance of an eight-wavelength bidirectional WDM add/drop multiplexer with 80-Gbit/s capacity, in proc. OFC 97, paper TuR1 (1997) Y. Zhao et al, A novel Bidirectional add/drop Module using waveguide grating routers and wavelength channel matched fiber gratings, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol.11, no. 9, pp. 1180-1182 (1999) Y. Shen et al,A novel single-fiber bidirectional optical add/drop multiplexer for distribution networks, in proc. OFC 01, paper WY5 (2001) S. B. Park et al,Bidirectional WDM self-healing ring network for Hub/Remote nodes, IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett., Vol.15, no.11, pp. 1657-1659 (2003)