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E-Commerce Models

By now you will appreciate that e-commerce is a fast developing area of both practice and research. Much of what you read will use the terms e-business model(s) and e-commerce model(s) interchangeably. The explanation that follows makes a broad distinction between the two. i. e-business model which is a framework for classifying ebusinesses in terms of strategic business objectives, and ii. e-commerce model, which is a schema for business, processes that shows, in general terms, where the goods and money flow.

1) Government-to-Citizen (G2C) o Government-to-Citizen (abbreviated G2C) is the communication link between a government and private individuals or residents. Such G2C communication most often refers to that which takes place through Information Communication Technologies (or ICTs), but can also include direct mail and media campaigns. G2C can take place at the federal, state, and local levels. G2C stands in contrast to G2B, or Government-toBusiness networks. 2) Citizen-to-Government (C2G)
o Citizen-to-government (C2G) refers to the [r]elationship between citizens and groups of citizens on the one side and government on the other, including information, communication and transactions o C2G applications usually include tax payment, issuance of certificates or other documents, etc. Although we cannot strictly define consumer or citizen to government as e-Commerce we can see several C2G applications under the scope of transactions that are

done and handled more efficiently and effectively with e-Commerce systems and technologies.

3) Government-to-Business (G2B) o Abbreviated G2B is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector, rather than private individuals (G2C), with the purpose of providing businesses information and advice on e-business 'best practices'. o Government interacts with various business in terms of policy enforcement, collection of taxes, contract management etc. The biggest area that falls under government is contract management. 4) Business -to-Government (B2G) o Actively drive E-transactions initiatives such as e-procurement and the development of an electronic market place for government purchases; and carry out government procurement tenders through electronic means for sale of goods and services; 5) Government-to-Employee (G2E) G2E is the online interactions through instantaneous communication tools betweengovernment units and their employees. G2E is one out of the four primary delivery models of e-Government.[1][2][3] Embark on initiatives that will facilitate the management of the civil service and internal communication with governmental employees in order to make e-career applications and processing system paperless in E-office. 6) Government-to-Government (G2G) o Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the online noncommercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and other Government organisations, departments, and authorities. Its use is common in the UK, along with G2C, the online noncommercial interaction of local and central Government and private individuals, and G2B the online non-commercial interaction of local and central Government and the commercial business sector. 7) B2B E-Commerce
E-commerce B2B (Business to Business) is the business oriented between the various companies operating over the Internet, it arises from the need for interactions between companies, customers, partners and business partners who work through the connection of their Intranets, or better known as Extranet, giving way to a developed company concept that covers different areas of a business.

Examples of B2B Supply chain Electronic procurement

Vertical industry tendering and bidding systems (e.g. in the maritime industry)

8) B2C E-Commerce
Business to Consumer (B2C ) E-commerce (NAC for its initials in Spanish) defined as "the use of the Internet technologies for transactions among companies and customers," the business is directed from companies to the consumer. The most notable advantages of B2C e-commerce are: Faster and more comfortable purchase. Updated offers and prices. Web integrated customer service centers.

Examples of B2C : Online Shops (Amazon, BOL, etc.) Local services (e.g. traffic information service) News, publication services
9) B2A E-commerce
Business to Administration E-commerce (B2A) is a service offered by management companies and to citizens, also, so that the administrative procedures over the Internet can be done. There are obvious advantages to companies: Considerable savings of time and effort. The possibility to download forms and models of administrative procedures. 24 hours a day availability. Updated information.

Examples of B2A / C2A o Paying taxes & fees o Change of address o Licenses
10) B2E E-Commerce
The following trend arose because of security problems, which made companies use technologies, not on Internet anymore, but inwards over an Intranet to have a greater control and security in their transactions with which Business to Employee (B2E) appears, or business model to employee, where basically transactions are carried out through an Intranet between the company and its employees.

11) C2C E-Commerce


o Consumer to Consumer E-commerce (C2C) is the type of trade which is carried out among consumers, either through the exchange of electronic mail or via technologies P2P (peer to peer), which is used to download content such as music, movies, etc., without having a primary server. One of the most common strategies of the C2C Commerce for Internet is defined by that type of business which aims to facilitate the marketing of

goods and/or services between individuals. Well known examples are e-bay or mercadolibre.com.

12) Consumer-to-Business (C2B) Model


The C2B model involves a transaction that is conducted between a consumer and a business organization. It is similar to the B2C model, however, the difference is that in this case the consumer is the seller and the business organization is the buyer. In this kind of a transaction, the consumers decide the price of a particular product rather than the supplier. This category includes individuals who sell products and services to organizations. For example, www.monster.com is a Web site on which a consumer can post his bio-data for the services he can offer. Any business organization that is interested in deploying the services of the consumer can contact him and then employ him, if suitable.

13) B2M (Business to Machines) E-Commerce


B2M is a fast developing area within E-commerce allowing companies to link to remote machines via the internet. B2M technology allows the company to monitor their machines from a far; determine if they need repair or restocking; know exactly how many products are in each delivering machine by type of the product etc. The parties here are business (some employee who controls the process), computer program and machines.

14) M2C (Manager to Consumer)


It is an extension of B2M schema as well as self-developing trend. M2C doesnt target at final consumers, while M2C faces consumers not companies. Managers sells products to consumers, similar to the C2C, but not completely. C2C is a traditional profit schema, whose earning is the price difference of the offered goods. As for the profit models ofM2C they are abundant and flexible; they can be both the price difference and commission. M2Cs logistics management mode can be also more diverse than C2C, such as zero inventories; and cash flow has more advantages than traditional C2C.

15) G2X - X2G(GOVT to OTHERS-OTHERS to GOVT)


Apart from mentioned above schemas there are other examples, including all types of transaction with the participation of government and its institutions such as online bill payments, wire payment to another country, buying stocks, business registrations, renewing licenses etc.

16) B2M (Business to Manager)


B2M is a new mode of E-business. It refers to transaction between enterprises (product sellers or any other workers) and professional managers. B2M schema consists of finding out the information on the net and earning commission by providing services for enterprises.

17) Education-to- Students (E2S) Model


A s the name suggests E2S model envisages an educational institute providing learning experience to students through the web site. A student have to register for online education program at these sites. Benefits of E2S Model -This model has considerable potential for mass education programs that permit overcoming the geographical boundaries and problems of students in commuting to their learning places. Students from far off places can attend on-line" class and can access online tutorials and even appear for online examinations . Experts in respective fields, spread across a

wide geographical region can come together at the E2S site to share their knowledge and experience with the students.

18) Individuals-to-Administration Model (I2A) E-Commerce


Government-to-Citizen is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central Government and private individuals. This also called Individuals-to-Administration Model (I2Amodel) of E-Commerce. Individuals filing tax returns at the government web site is an example of I2Abusiness model of e-commerce. It can help reduce hassles and avoid queues in government offices and enhance productivity