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CHAPTER 1 Process control system Introduction 1.1 Conventional control panel 1.

2 Control panel with a PLC controller 1.3 Systematic approach to designing a process control system Introduction A process control system is made up of a group of electronic devices that provide stability, accuracy and eliminate harmful transition statuses in production processes. Operating systems can have different arrangements and implementation, from energy supply units to machines. As technology quickly progresses, many complex operational tasks have been solved by connecting programmable logic controllers and a central computer. Beside connections with devices (e.g., operating panels, motors, sensors, switches, valves, etc.) possibilities for communication among instruments are so great that they allow a high level of exploitation and process coordination. In addition, there is greater flexibility in realizing a process control system. Each component of a process control system plays an important role, regardless of its size. For example, without a sensor, the PLC wouldn't know what is going on during a process. In an automated system, a PLC controller is usually the central part of a process control system. With the execution of a program stored in program memory, PLC continuously monitors status of the system through signals from input devices. Based on the logic implemented in the program, PLC determines which actions need to be executed with output instruments. To run more complex processes it is possible to connect more PLC controllers to a central computer. A system could look like the one pictured below:

1.1 Conventional control panel At the outset of industrial revolution, especially during sixties and seventies, relays were used to operate automated machines, and these were interconnected using wires inside the control panel. In some cases a control panel covered an entire wall. To discover an error in the system much time was needed especially with more complex process control systems. On top of everything, a lifetime of relay contacts was limited, so some relays had to be replaced. If replacement was required, machine had to be stopped and production too. Also, it could happen that there was not enough room for necessary changes. control panel was used only for one particular process, and it wasnt easy to adapt to the requirements of a new system. As far as maintenance, electricians had to be very skillful in finding errors. In short, conventional control panels proved to be very inflexible. Typical example of conventional control panel is given in the following picture.

In this photo you can notice a large number of electrical wires, time relays, timers and other elements of automation typical for that period. Pictured control panel is not one of the more complicated ones, so you can imagine what complex ones looked like. Most frequently mentioned disadvantages of a classic control panel are: - Too much work required in connecting wires - Difficulty with changes or replacements - Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force - When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long. 1.2 Control panel with a PLC controller With invention of programmable controllers, much has changed in how an process control system is designed. Many advantages appeared. Typical example of control panel with a PLC controller is given in the following picture.

Advantages of control panel that is based on a PLC controller can be presented in few basic points:

1. Compared to a conventional process control system, number of wires needed for connections is reduced by 80% 2. Consumption is greatly reduced because a PLC consumes less than a bunch of relays 3. Diagnostic functions of a PLC controller allow for fast and easy error detection. 4. Change in operating sequence or application of a PLC controller to a different operating process can easily be accomplished by replacing a program through a console or using a PC software (not requiring changes in wiring, unless addition of some input or output device is required). 5. Needs fewer spare parts 6. It is much cheaper compared to a conventional system, especially in cases where a large number of I/O instruments are needed and when operational functions are complex. 7. Reliability of a PLC is greater than that of an electro-mechanical relay or a timer. 1.3 Systematic approach in designing a process control system first, you need to select an instrument or a system that you wish to control. Automated system can be a machine or a process and can also be called an process control system. Function of an process control system is constantly watched by input devices (sensors) that give signals to a PLC controller. In response to this, PLC controller sends a signal to external output devices (operative instruments) that actually control how system functions in an assigned manner (for simplification it is recommended that you draw a block diagram of operations flow). Secondly, you need to specify all input and output instruments that will be connected to a PLC controller. Input devices are various switches, sensors and such. Output devices can be solenoids, electromagnetic valves, motors, relays, magnetic starters as well as instruments for sound and light signalization. Following an identification of all input and output instruments, corresponding designations are assigned to input and output lines of a PLC controller. Allotment of these designations is in fact an allocation of inputs and outputs on a PLC controller which correspond to inputs and outputs of a system being designed. Third, make a ladder diagram for a program by following the sequence of operations that was determined in the first step. Finally, program is entered into the PLC controller memory. When finished with programming, checkup is done for any existing errors in a program code (using functions for diagnostics) and, if possible, an entire operation is simulated. Before this system is started, you need to check once again whether all input and output instruments are connected to correct inputs or outputs. By bringing supply in, system starts working. CHAPTER 2 Introduction to PLC controllers Introduction 2.1 First programmed controllers 2.2 PLC controller parts 2.3 Central Processing unit -CPU 2.4 Memory 2.5 How to program a PLC controller 2.6 Power supply 2.7 Input to a PLC controller 2.8 Input adjustable interface 2.9 Output from a PLC controller

2.10 Output adjustable interface 2.11 Extension lines Introduction Industry has begun to recognize the need for quality improvement and increase in productivity in the sixties and seventies. Flexibility also became a major concern (ability to change a process quickly became very important in order to satisfy consumer needs). Try to imagine automated industrial production line in the sixties and seventies. There was always a huge electrical board for system controls, and not infrequently it covered an entire wall! Within this board there was a great number of interconnected electromechanical relays to make the whole system work. By word "connected" it was understood that electrician had to connect all relays manually using wires! An engineer would design logic for a system, and electricians would receive a schematic outline of logic that they had to implement with relays. These relay schemas often contained hundreds of relays. The plan that electrician was given was called "ladder schematic". Ladder displayed all switches, sensors, motors, valves, relays, etc. found in the system. Electrician's job was to connect them all together. One of the problems with this type of control was that it was based on mechanical relays. Mechanical instruments were usually the weakest connection in the system due to their moveable parts that could wear out. If one relay stopped working, electrician would have to examine an entire system (system would be out until a cause of the problem was found and corrected). The other problem with this type of control was in the system's break period when a system had to be turned off, so connections could be made on the electrical board. If a firm decided to change the order of operations (make even a small change), it would turn out to be a major expense and a loss of production time until a system was functional again. It's not hard to imagine an engineer who makes a few small errors during his project. It is also conceivable that electrician has made a few mistakes in connecting the system. Finally, you can also imagine having a few bad components. The only way to see if everything is all right is to run the system. As systems are usually not perfect with a first try, finding errors was an arduous process. You should also keep in mind that a product could not be made during these corrections and changes in connections. System had to be literally disabled before changes were to be performed. That meant that the entire production staff in that line of production was out of work until the system was fixed up again. Only when electrician was done finding errors and repairing,, the system was ready for production. Expenditures for this kind of work were too great even for well-to-do companies. 2.1 First programmable controllers "General Motors" is among the first who recognized a need to replace the system's "wired" control board. Increased competition forced auto-makers to improve production quality and productivity. Flexibility and fast and easy change of automated lines of production became crucial! General Motors' idea was to use for system logic one of the microcomputers (these microcomputers were as far as their strength beneath today's eight-bit microcontrollers) instead of wired relays. Computer could take place of huge, expensive, inflexible wired control boards. If changes were needed in system logic or in order of operations, program in a microcomputer could be changed instead of rewiring of relays. Imagine only what elimination of the entire period needed for changes in wiring meant then. Today, such

thinking is but common, then it was revolutionary! Everything was well thought out, but then a new problem came up of how to make electricians accept and use a new device. Systems are often quite complex and require complex programming. It was out of question to ask electricians to learn and use computer language in addition to other job duties. General Motors Hidromatic Division of this big company recognized a need and wrote out project criteria for first programmable logic controller ( there were companies which sold instruments that performed industrial control, but those were simple sequential controllers not PLC controllers as we know them today). Specifications required that a new device be based on electronic instead of mechanical parts, to have flexibility of a computer, to function in industrial environment (vibrations, heat, dust, etc.) and have a capability of being reprogrammed and used for other tasks. The last criteria was also the most important, and a new device had to be programmed easily and maintained by electricians and technicians. When the specification was done, General Motors looked for interested companies, and encouraged them to develop a device that would meet the specifications for this project. "Gould Modicon" developed a first device which met these specifications. The key to success with a new device was that for its programming you didn't have to learn a new programming language. It was programmed so that same language a ladder diagram, already known to technicians was used. Electricians and technicians could very easily understand these new devices because the logic looked similar to old logic that they were used to working with. Thus they didn't have to learn a new programming language which (obviously) proved to be a good move. PLC controllers were initially called PC controllers (programmable controllers). This caused a small confusion when Personal Computers appeared. To avoid confusion, a designation PC was left to computers, and programmable controllers became programmable logic controllers. First PLC controllers were simple devices. They connected inputs such as switches, digital sensors, etc., and based on internal logic they turned output devices on or off. When they first came up, they were not quite suitable for complicated controls such as temperature, position, pressure, etc. However, throughout years, makers of PLC controllers added numerous features and improvements. Today's PLC controller can handle highly complex tasks such as position control, various regulations and other complex applications. The speed of work and easiness of programming were also improved. Also, modules for special purposes were developed, like communication modules for connecting several PLC controllers to the net. Today it is difficult to imagine a task that could not be handled by a PLC. 2.2 PLC controller components PLC is actually an industrial microcontroller system (in more recent times we meet processors instead of microcontrollers) where you have hardware and software specifically adapted to industrial environment. Block schema with typical components which PLC consists of is found in the following picture. Special attention needs to be given to input and output, because in these blocks you find protection needed in isolating a CPU blocks from damaging influences that industrial environment can bring to a CPU via input lines. Program unit is usually a computer used for writing a program (often in ladder diagram). 2.3 Central Processing Unit - CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of a PLC controller. CPU itself is usually one of the microcontrollers. Aforetime these were 8-bit microcontrollers such as 8051, and now these are 16- and 32-bit microcontrollers. Unspoken rule is that you'll find mostly Hitachi

and Fujicu microcontrollers in PLC controllers by Japanese makers, Siemens in European controllers, and Motorola microcontrollers in American ones. CPU also takes care of communication, interconnectedness among other parts of PLC controller, program execution, memory operation, overseeing input and setting up of an output. PLC controllers have complex routines for memory checkup in order to ensure that PLC memory was not damaged (memory checkup is done for safety reasons). Generally speaking, CPU unit makes a great number of check-ups of the PLC controller itself so eventual errors would be discovered early. You can simply look at any PLC controller and see that there are several indicators in the form of light diodes for error signalization.

2.4 Memory System memory (today mostly implemented in FLASH technology) is used by a PLC for an process control system. Aside from this operating system it also contains a user program translated from a ladder diagram to a binary form. FLASH memory contents can be changed only in case where user program is being changed. PLC controllers were used earlier instead of FLASH memory and have had EPROM memory instead of FLASH memory which had to be erased with UV lamp and programmed on programmers. With the use of FLASH technology this process was greatly shortened. Reprogramming a program memory is done through a serial cable in a program for application development. User memory is divided into blocks having special functions. Some parts of a memory are used for storing input and output status. The real status of an input is stored either as "1" or as "0" in a specific memory bit. Each input or output has one corresponding bit in memory. Other parts of memory are used to store variable contents for variables used in user program. For example, timer value, or counter value would be stored in this part of the memory.

2.5 Programming a PLC controller PLC controller can be reprogrammed through a computer (usual way), but also through manual programmers (consoles). This practically means that each PLC controller can programmed through a computer if you have the software needed for programming. Today's transmission computers are ideal for reprogramming a PLC controller in factory itself. This is of great importance to industry. Once the system is corrected, it is also important to read the right program into a PLC again. It is also good to check from time to time whether program in a PLC has not changed. This helps to avoid hazardous situations in factory rooms (some automakers have established communication networks which regularly check programs in PLC controllers to ensure execution only of good programs). Almost every program for programming a PLC controller possesses various useful options such as: forced switching on and off of the system inputs/ouputs (I/O lines), program follow up in real time as well as documenting a diagram. This documenting is necessary to understand and define failures and malfunctions. Programmer can add remarks, names of input or output devices, and comments that can be useful when finding errors, or with system maintenance. Adding comments and remarks enables any technician (and not just a person who developed the system) to understand a ladder diagram right away. Comments and remarks can even quote precisely part numbers if replacements would be needed. This would speed up a repair of any problems that come up due to bad parts. The old way was such that a person who developed a system had protection on the program, so nobody aside from this person could understand how it was done. Correctly documented ladder diagram allows any technician to understand thoroughly how system functions. 2.6. Power supply Electrical supply is used in bringing electrical energy to central processing unit. Most PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC. On some PLC controllers you'll find electrical supply as a separate module. Those are usually bigger PLC controllers, while small and medium series already contain the supply module. User has to determine how much current to take from I/O module to ensure that electrical supply provides appropriate amount of current. Different types of modules use different amounts of electrical current. This electrical supply is usually not used to start external inputs or outputs. User has to provide separate supplies in starting PLC controller inputs or outputs because then you can ensure so called "pure" supply for the PLC controller. With pure supply we mean supply where industrial environment can not affect it damagingly. Some of the smaller PLC controllers supply their inputs with voltage from a small supply source already incorporated into a PLC. 2.7 PLC controller inputs Intelligence of an automated system depends largely on the ability of a PLC controller to read signals from different types of sensors and input devices. Keys, keyboards and by functional switches are a basis for man versus machine relationship. On the other hand, in order to detect a working piece, view a mechanism in motion, check pressure or fluid level you need specific automatic devices such as proximity sensors, marginal switches, photoelectric sensors, level sensors, etc. Thus, input signals can be logical (on/off) or analogue. Smaller PLC controllers usually have only digital input lines while larger also accept analogue inputs through special units attached to PLC controller. One of the most

frequent analogue signals are a current signal of 4 to 20 mA and milivolt voltage signal generated by various sensors. Sensors are usually used as inputs for PLCs. You can obtain sensors for different purposes. They can sense presence of some parts, measure temperature, pressure, or some other physical dimension, etc. (ex. inductive sensors can register metal objects). Other devices also can serve as inputs to PLC controller. Intelligent devices such as robots, video systems, etc. often are capable of sending signals to PLC controller input modules (robot, for instance, can send a signal to PLC controller input as information when it has finished moving an object from one place to the other.) 2.8 Input adjustment interface Adjustment interface also called an interface is placed between input lines and a CPU unit. The purpose of adjustment interface to protect a CPU from disproportionate signals from an outside world. Input adjustment module turns a level of real logic to a level that suits CPU unit (ex. input from a sensor which works on 24 VDC must be converted to a signal of 5 VDC in order for a CPU to be able to process it). This is typically done through optoisolation, and this function you can view in the following picture. Opto-isolation means that there is no electrical connection between external world and CPU unit. They are "optically" separated, or in other words, signal is transmitted through light. The way this works is simple. External device brings a signal which turns LED on, whose light in turn incites photo transistor which in turn starts conducting, and a CPU sees this as logic zero (supply between collector and transmitter falls under 1V). When input signal stops LED diode turns off, transistor stops conducting, collector voltage increases, and CPU receives logic 1 as information.

2.9 PLC controller output automated system is incomplete if it is not connected with some output devices. Some of the most frequently used devices are motors, solenoids, relays, indicators, sound signalization and similar. By starting a motor, or a relay, PLC can manage or control a simple system such as system for sorting products all the way up to complex systems such as service system for positioning head of CNC machine. Output can be of analogue or digital type. Digital output signal works as a switch; it connects and disconnects line. Analogue output is used to generate the analogue signal (ex. motor whose speed is controlled by a voltage that corresponds to a desired speed). 2.10 Output adjustment interface

Output interface is similar to input interface. CPU brings a signal to LED diode and turns it on. Light incites a photo transistor which begins to conduct electricity, and thus the voltage between collector and emmiter falls to 0.7V , and a device attached to this output sees this as a logic zero. Inversely it means that a signal at the output exists and is interpreted as logic one. Photo transistor is not directly connected to a PLC controller output. Between photo transistor and an output usually there is a relay or a stronger transistor capable of interrupting stronger signals.

2.11 Extension lines Every PLC controller has a limited number of input/output lines. If needed this number can be increased through certain additional modules by system extension through extension lines. Each module can contain extension both of input and output lines. Also, extension modules can have inputs and outputs of a different nature from those on the PLC controller (ex. in case relay outputs are on a controller, transistor outputs can be on an extension module). CHAPTER 3 Connecting sensors and execution devices Introduction 3.1 Sinking-sourcing concept 3.2 Input lines 3.3 Output lines Introduction Connecting external devices to a PLC controller regardless whether they are input or output is a special subject matter for industry. If it stands alone, PLC controller itself is nothing. In order to function it needs sensors to obtain information from environment, and it also needs execution devices so it could turn the programmed change into a reality. Similar concept is seen in how human being functions. Having a brain is simply not enough. Humans achieve full activity only with processing of information from a sensor (eyes, ears, touch, smell) and by taking action through hands, legs or some tools. Unlike human being who receives his sensors automatically, when dealing with controllers, sensors have to be subsequently connected to a PLC. How to connect input and output parts is the topic of this chapter. 3.1 Sinking-Sourcing Concept

PLC has input and output lines through which it is connected to a system it directs. Input can be keys, switches, sensors while outputs are led to different devices from simple signalization lights to complex communication modules. This is a very important part of the story about PLC controllers because it directly influences what can be connected and how it can be connected to controller inputs or outputs. Two terms most frequently mentioned when discussing connections to inputs or outputs are "sinking" and "sourcing". These two concepts are very important in connecting a PLC correctly with external environment. The most brief definition of these two concepts would be: SINKING = Common GND line (-) SOURCING = Common VCC line (+) First thing that catches one's eye are "+" and "-" supply, DC supply. Inputs and outputs which are either sinking or sourcing can conduct electricity only in one direction, so they are only supplied with direct current. According to what we've said thus far, each input or output has its own return line, so 5 inputs would need 10 screw terminals on PLC controller housing. Instead, we use a system of connecting several inputs to one return line as in the following picture. These common lines are usually marked "COMM" on the PLC controller housing.

3.2 Input lines Explanation of PLC controller input and output lines have up to now been given only theoretically. In order to apply this knowledge, we need to make it a little more specific. Example can be connection of external device such as proximity sensor. Sensor outputs can be different depending on a sensor itself and also on a particular application. Following pictures display some examples of sensor outputs and their connection with a PLC controller. Sensor output actually marks the size of a signal given by a sensor at its output when this sensor is active. In one case this is +V (supply voltage, usually 12 or 24V) and in

other case a GND (0V). Another thing worth mentioning is that sinking-sourcing and sourcing - sinking pairing is always used, and not sourcing-sourcing or sinking-sinking pairing.

If we were to make type of connection more specific, we'd get combinations as in following pictures (for more specific connection schemas we need to know the exact sensor model and a PLC controller model).

3.3 Output lines PLC controller output lines usually can be: -transistors in PNP connection -transistors in NPN connection -relays The following two pictures display a realistic way how a PLC manages external devices. It ought to be noted that a main difference between these two pictures is a position of "output

How something is connected with a PLC output depends on the element being connected. In short, it depends on whether this element of output load device is activated by a positive supply pole or a negative supply pole. CHAPTER 4 Architecture of specific PLC controller Introduction

4.1 Why OMRON? 4.2 CPM1A PLC controller 4.3 PLC controller input lines 4.4 PLC controller output lines 4.5 How PLC controller works 4.6 CPM1A PLC controller memory map 4.7 Timers and counters Introduction This book could deal with a general overview of some supposed PLC controller. Author has had an opportunity to look over plenty of books published up till now, and this approach is not the most suitable to the purposes of this book in his opinion. Idea of this book is to work through one specific PLC controller where someone can get a real feeling on this subject and its weight. Our desire was to write a book based on whose reading you can earn some money. After all, money is the end goal of every business! 4.1 Why OMRON? Why not? It is a huge company which has high quality and by our standards inexpensive controllers. Today we can say almost with surety that PLC controllers by manufacturers round the world are excellent devices, and altogether similar. Nevertheless, for specific application we need to know specific information about a PLC controller being used. Therefore, the choice fell on OMRON company and its PLC of micro class CPM1A. Adjective "micro" itself implies the smallest models from the viewpoint of a number of attached lines or possible options. Still, this PLC controller is ideal for the purposes of this book, and that is to introduce a PLC controller philosophy to its readers. 4.2 CPM1A PLC controller Each PLC is basically a microcontroller system (CPU of PLC controller is based on one of the microcontrollers, and in more recent times on one of the PC processors) with peripherals that can be digital inputs, digital outputs or relays as in our case. However, this is not an "ordinary" microcontroller system. Large teams have worked on it, and a checkup of its function has been performed in real world under all possible circumstances. Software itself is entirely different from assemblers used thus far, such as BASIC or C. This specialized software is called "ladder" (name came about by an association of program's configuration which resembles a ladder, and from the way program is written out). Specific look of CPM1A PLC controller can be seen in the following picture. On the upper surface, there are 4 LED indicators and a connection port with an RS232 module which is interface to a PC computer. Aside from this, screw terminals and light indicators of activity of each input or output are visible on upper and lower sides. Screw terminals serve to manually connect to a real system. Hookups L1 and L2 serve as supply which is 220V~ in this case. PLC controllers that work on power grid voltage usually have a source of direct supply of 24 VDC for supplying sensors and such (with a CPM1A source of direct supply is found on the bottom left hand side and is represented with two screw terminals. Controller can be mounted to industrial "track" along with other automated elements, but also by a screw to the machine wall or control panel.

Controller is 8cm high and divided vertically into two areas: a lower one with a converter of 220V~ at 24VDC and other voltages needed for running a CPU unit; and, upper area with a CPU and memory, relays and digital inputs. When you lift the small plastic cover you'll see a connector to which an RS232 module is hooked up for serial interface with a computer. This module is used when programming a PLC controller to change programs or execution follow-up. When installing a PLC it isn't necessary to install this module, but it is recommended because of possible changes in software during operation.

To better inform programmers on PLC controller status, maker has provided for four light indicators in the form of LED's. Beside these indicators, there are status indicators for each individual input and output. These LED's are found by the screw terminals and with their status are showing input or output state. If input/output is active, diode is lit and vice versa. 4.3 PLC controller output lines Aside from transistor outputs in PNP and NPN connections, PLC can also have relays as outputs. Existence of relays as outputs makes it easier to connect with external devices. Model CPM1A contains exactly these relays as outputs. There a 4 relays whose functional contacts are taken out on a PLC controller housing in the form of screw terminals. In reality this looks as in picture below.

With activation of phototransistor, relay comes under voltage and activates a contact between points A and B. Contacts A and B can in our case be either in connection or interrupted. What state these contacts are in is determined by a CPU through appropriate bits in memory location IR010. One example of relay status is shown in a picture below. A true state of devices attached to these relays is displayed.

4.4 PLC controller input lines Different sensors, keys, switches and other elements that can change status of a joined bit at PLC input can be hooked up to the PLC controller inputs. In order to realize a change, we need a voltage source to incite an input. The simplest possible input would be a common key. As CPM1A PLC has a source of direct voltage of 24V, the same source can be used to incite input (problem with this source is its maximum current which it can give continually and which in our case amounts to 0.2A). Since inputs to a PLC are not big consumers (unlike some sensor where a stronger external supply must be used) it is possible to take advantage of the existing source of direct supply to incite all six keys.

4.5 How PLC controller works Basis of a PLC function is continual scanning of a program. Under scanning we mean running through all conditions within a guaranteed period. Scanning process has three basic steps: Step 1. Testing input status. First, a PLC checks each of the inputs with intention to see which one of them has status ON or OFF. In other words, it checks whether a sensor, or a switch etc. connected with an input is activated or not. Information that processor thus obtains through this step is stored in memory in order to be used in the following step. Step 2. Program execution. Here a PLC executes a program, instruction by instruction. Based on a program and based on the status of that input as obtained in the preceding step, an appropriate action is taken. This reaction can be defined as activation of a certain output, or results can be put off and stored in memory to be retrieved later in the following step. Step 3.

Checkup and correction of output status. Finally, a PLC checks up output status and adjusts it as needed. Change is performed based on the input status that had been read during the first step, and based on the results of program execution in step two. Following the execution of step 3 PLC returns to the beginning of this cycle and continually repeats these steps. Scanning time is defined by the time needed to perform these three steps, and sometimes it is an important program feature.

4.6 CPM1A PLC controller memory map By memory map we mean memory structure for a PLC controller. Simply said, certain parts of memory have specific roles. If you look at the picture below, you can see that memory for CPM1A is structured into 16-bit words. A cluster of several such words makes up a region. All the regions make up the memory for a PLC controller.

Unlike microcontroller systems where only some memory locations have had their purpose clearly defined (ex. register that contains counter value), a memory of PLC controller is completely defined, and more importantly almost entire memory is addressable in bits. Addressability in bits means that it is enough to write the address of the memory location and a number of bits after it in order to manipulate with it. In short, that would mean that

something like this could be written: "201.7=1" which would clearly indicate a word 201 and its bit 7 which is set to one. IR region Memory locations intended for PLC input and output. Some bits are directly connected to PLC controller inputs and outputs (screw terminal). In our case, we have 6 input lines at address IR000. One bit corresponds to each line, so the first line has the address IR000.0, and the sixth IR000.5. When you obtain a signal at the input, this immediately affects the status of a corresponding bit. There are also words with work bits in this region, and these work bits are used in a program as flags or certain conditional bits. SR region Special memory region for control bits and flags. It is intended first and foremost for counters and interrupts. For example, SR250 is memory location which contains an adjustable value, adjusted by potentiometer no.0 (in other words, value of this location can be adjusted manually by turning a potentiometer no.0. TR region When you move to a subprogram during program execution, all relevant data is stored in this region up to the return from a subprogram. HR region It is of great importance to keep certain information even when supply stops. This part of the memory is battery supported, so even when supply has stopped it will keep all data found therein before supply stopped. AR region This is one more region with control bits and flags. This region contains information on PLC status, errors, system time, and the like. Like HR region, this one is also battery supported. LR region In case of connection with another PLC, this region is used for exchange of data. Timer and counter region This region contains timer and counter values. There are 128 values. Since we will consider examples with timers and counters, we will discus this region more later on. DM region Contains data related to setting up communication with a PC computer, and data on errors. Each region can be broken down to single words and meanings of its bits. In order to keep the clarity of the book, this part is dealt with in Attachments and we will deal with those regions here whose bits are mostly used for writing.

Note: 1. IR and LR bits that are not used for their allocated functions can be used as work bits. 2. The contents of the HR area, LR area, Counter area, and read/write DM area are backed up by a capacitor. At 25 oC, the capacitor will back up memory for 20 days. 3. When accessing a PV, TC numbers are used as word data; when accessing Completing Flags, they are used as bit data. 4. Data in DM6144 to DM6655 cannot be overwritten from the program, but they can be changed from a Peripheral Device 4.7 Timers and counters

Timers and counters are indispensable in PLC programming. Industry has to number its products, determine a needed action in time, etc. Timing functions is very important, and cycle periods are critical in many processes. There are two types of timers delay-off and delay-on. First is late with turn off and the other runs late in turning on in relation to a signal that activated timers. Example of a delay-off timer would be staircase lighting. Following its activation, it simply turns off after few minutes. Each timer has a time basis, or more precisely has several timer basis. Typical values are: 1 second, 0.1 second, and 0,01 second. If programmer has entered .1 as time basis and 50 as a number for delay increase, timer will have a delay of 5 seconds (50 x 0.1 second = 5 seconds). Timers also have to have value SV set in advance. Value set in advance or ahead of time is a number of increments that timer has to calculate before it changes the output status. Values set in advance can be constants or variables. If a variable is used, timer will use a real time value of the variable to determine a delay. This enables delays to vary depending on the conditions during function. Example is a system that has produced two different products, each requiring different timing during process itself. Product A requires a period of 10 seconds, so number 10 would be assigned to the variable. When product B appears, a variable can change value to what is required by product B. Typically, timers have two inputs. First is timer enable, or conditional input (when this input is activated, timer will start counting). Second input is a reset input. This input has to be in OFF status in order for a timer to be active, or the whole function would be repeated over again. Some PLC models require this input to be low for a timer to be active, other makers require high status (all of them function in the same way basically). However, if reset line changes status, timer erases accumulated value. With a PLC controller by Omron there are two types of timers: TIM and TIMH. TIM timer measures in increments of 0.1 seconds. It can measure from 0 to 999.9 seconds with precision of 0.1 seconds more or less. Quick timer (TIMH) measures in increments of 0.01 seconds. Both timers are "delay-on" timers of a lessening-style. They require assignment of a timer number and a set value (SV). When SV runs out, timer output turns on. Numbers of a timing counter refer to specific address in memory and must not be duplicated (same number can not be used for a timer and a counter). CHAPTER 5 Ladder diagram Introduction 5.1 Ladder diagram 5.2 Normally open and normally closed contacts 5.3 Brief example Introduction Programmable controllers are generally programmed in ladder diagram (or "relay diagram") which is nothing but a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Symbols were selected that actually looked similar to schematic symbols of electric devices, and this has

made it much easier for electricians to switch to programming PLC controllers. Electrician who has never seen a PLC can understand a ladder diagram. 5.1 Ladder diagram There are several languages designed for user communication with a PLC, among which ladder diagram is the most popular. Ladder diagram consists of one vertical line found on the left hand side, and lines which branch off to the right. Line on the left is called a "bus bar", and lines that branch off to the right are instruction lines. Conditions which lead to instructions positioned at the right edge of a diagram are stored along instruction lines. Logical combination of these conditions determines when and in what way instruction on the right will execute. Basic elements of a relay diagram can be seen in the following picture.

Most instructions require at least one operand, and often more than one. Operand can be some memory location, one memory location bit, or some numeric value -number. In the example above, operand is bit 0 of memory location IR000. In a case when we wish to proclaim a constant as an operand, designation # is used beneath the numeric writing (for a compiler to know it is a constant and not an address.) Based on the picture above, one should note that a ladder diagram consists of two basic parts: left section also called conditional, and a right section which has instructions. When a condition is fulfilled, instruction is executed, and that's all!

Picture above represents a example of a ladder diagram where relay is activated in PLC controller when signal appears at input line 00. Vertical line pairs are called conditions. Each condition in a ladder diagram has a value ON or OFF, depending on a bit status assigned to it. In this case, this bit is also physically present as an input line (screw terminal) to a PLC controller. If a key is attached to a corresponding screw terminal, you can change bit status from a logic one status to a logic zero status, and vice versa. Status of logic one is usually designated as "ON", and status of logic zero as "OFF". Right section of a ladder diagram is an instruction which is executed if left condition is fulfilled. There are several types of instructions that could easily be divided into simple and complex. Example of a simple instruction is activation of some bit in memory location. In the example above, this bit has physical connotation because it is connected with a relay inside a PLC controller. When a CPU activates one of the leading four bits in a word IR010, relay contacts move and connect lines attached to it. In this case, these are the lines connected to a screw terminal marked as 00 and to one of COM screw terminals. 5.2 Normally open and normally closed contacts Since we frequently meet with concepts "normally open" and "normally closed" in industrial environment, it's important to know them. Both terms apply to words such as contacts, input, output, etc. (all combinations have the same meaning whether we are talking about input, output, contact or something else). Principle is quite simple, normally open switch won't conduct electricity until it is pressed down, and normally closed switch will conduct electricity until it is pressed. Good examples for both situations are the doorbell and a house alarm. If a normally closed switch is selected, bell will work continually until someone pushes the switch. By pushing a switch, contacts are opened and the flow of electricity towards the bell is interrupted. Of course, system so designed would not in any case suit the owner of the house. A better choice would certainly be a normally open switch. This way bell wouldn't work until someone pushed the switch button and thus informed of his or her presence at the entrance. Home alarm system is an example of an application of a normally closed switch. Let's suppose that alarm system is intended for surveillance of the front door to the house. One of the ways to "wire" the house would be to install a normally open switch from each door to the alarm itself (precisely as with a bell switch). Then, if the door was opened, this would close the switch, and an alarm would be activated. This system could work, but there

would be some problems with this, too. Let's suppose that switch is not working, that a wire is somehow disconnected, or a switch is broken, etc. (there are many ways in which this system could become dysfunctional). The real trouble is that a homeowner would not know that a system was out of order. A burglar could open the door, a switch would not work, and the alarm would not be activated. Obviously, this isn't a good way to set up this system. System should be set up in such a way so the alarm is activated by a burglar, but also by its own dysfunction, or if any of the components stopped working. (A homeowner would certainly want to know if a system was dysfunctional). Having these things in mind, it is far better to use a switch with normally closed contacts which will detect an unauthorized entrance (opened door interrupts the flow of electricity, and this signal is used to activate a sound signal), or a failure on the system such as a disconnected wire. These considerations are even more important in industrial environment where a failure could cause injury at work. One such example where outputs with normally closed contacts are used is a safety wall with trimming machines. If the wall doors open, switch affects the output with normally closed contacts and interrupts a supply circuit. This stops the machine and prevents an injury. Concepts normally open and normally closed can apply to sensors as well. Sensors are used to sense the presence of physical objects, measure some dimension or some amount. For instance, one type of sensors can be used to detect presence of a box on an industry transfer belt. Other types can be used to measure physical dimensions such as heat, etc. Still, most sensors are of a switch type. Their output is in status ON or OFF depending on what the sensor "feels". Let's take for instance a sensor made to feel metal when a metal object passes by the sensor. For this purpose, a sensor with a normally open or a normally closed contact at the output could be used. If it were necessary to inform a PLC each time an object passed by the sensor, a sensor with a normally open output should be selected. Sensor output would set off only if a metal object were placed right before the sensor. A sensor would turn off after the object has passed. PLC could then calculate how many times a normally open contact was set off at the sensor output, and would thus know how many metal objects passed by the sensor. Concepts normally open and normally closed contact ought to be clarified and explained in detail in the example of a PLC controller input and output. The easiest way to explain them is in the example of a relay.

Normally open contacts would represent relay contacts that would perform a connection upon receipt of a signal. Unlike open contacts, with normally closed contacts signal will interrupt a contact, or turn a relay off. Previous picture shows what this looks like in practice. First two relays are defined as normally open , and the other two as normally closed. All relays react to a signal! First relay (00) has a signal and closes its contacts. Second relay (01) does not have a signal and remains opened. Third relay (02) has a signal and opens its contacts considering it is defined as a closed contact. Fourth relay (03) does not have a signal and remains closed because it is so defined. Concepts "normally open" and "normally closed" can also refer to inputs of a PLC controller. Let's use a key as an example of an input to a PLC controller. Input where a key is connected can be defined as an input with open or closed contacts. If it is defined as an input with normally open contact, pushing a key will set off an instruction found after the condition. In this case it will be an activation of a relay 00. If input is defined as an input with normally closed contact, pushing the key will interrupt instruction found after the condition. In this case, this will cause deactivation of relay 00 (relay is active until the key is pressed). You can see in picture below how keys are connected, and view the relay diagrams in both cases.

Normally open/closed conditions differ in a ladder diagram by a diagonal line across a symbol. What determines an execution condition for instruction is a bit status marked beneath each condition on instruction line. Normally open condition is ON if its operand bit has ON status, or its status is OFF if that is the status of its operand bit. Normally closed condition is ON when its operand bit is OFF, or it has OFF status when the status of its operand bit is ON. When programming with a ladder diagram, logical combination of ON and OFF conditions set before the instruction determines the eventual condition under which the instruction will be, or will not be executed. This condition, which can have only ON or OFF values is called instruction execution condition. Operand assigned to any instruction in a relay diagram can be any bit from IR, SR, HR, AR, LR or TC sector. This means that conditions in a relay diagram can be determined by a status of I/O bits, or of flags, operational bits, timers/counters, etc. 5.3 Brief example Example below represents a basic program. Example consists of one input device and one output device linked to the PLC controller output. Key is an input device, and a bell is an output supplied through a relay 00 contact at the PLC controller output. Input 000.00 represents a condition in executing an instruction over 010.00 bit. Pushing the key sets off a 000.00 bit and satisfies a condition for activation of a 010.00 bit which in turn activates the bell. For correct program function another line of program is needed with END instruction, and this ends the program.

The following picture depicts the connection scheme for this example.

CHAPTER 6 SYSWIN program for programming a PLC controller Introduction 6.1 Connecting a PLC controller with a PC computer 6.2 SYSWIN program installation 6.3 Writing your first program 6.4 Saving a project 6.5 Program transfer to PLC controller 6.6 Testing program function 6.7 Interpretation of "Tools" icons

6.8 PLC controller working modes 6.9 Run mode 6.10 Monitor mode 6.11 Program-Stop mode 6.12 Program execution and monitoring 6.13 Impact on the program during monitoring 6.14 Graphic representation of dimension changes in a program Introduction SYSWIN is a software designed for OMRON programmable controllers class C and CV. It is designed for creating and maintaining a program, as well as for testing PLC controller function, in off-line and controller's operational regime. Necessary conditions for starting SYSWIN are Microsoft Windows environment on a standard IBM or 386/486 compatible or Pentium computer, with 8MB RAM at least, and 10MB free disc space. 6.1 Connecting a PLC controller with a PC computer PLC controller is linked with a PC computer through an RS-232 cable. One end of the cable is connected to a serial PC port (9-pin or 25-pin connector), while the other end is connected to an RS-232C connector on RS232 module of a CPM1A controller. In order to establish a connection with a PC, DIP switch on the connector must be set in "Host" position.

6.2 SYSWIN program installation Instruction package for CPM1A is covered by three SYSWIN installation diskettes. It can be installed in Windows 3.1, 3.11, 95, 98 or NT 4.0. In order to start the installation you need to select RUN option from a START menu.

A window will come up like the one below where you need to write in the file command "setup.exe". Mentioned file can be found in the installation directory of Syswin program. Following a brief installation procedure you will get a program group Syswin 3.4. Double-click on Syswin icon starts a Syswin program which opens as in the following picture.

6.3 Writing your first program Writing a program begins with New Project option from a File menu. In a message window that appears you need to select options as in picture below.

Select a PLC controller by clicking on OK, and a program is ready to be used. It is recommended when you begin working that you write in a header a title of a program, author's name and inputs/outputs used. This may seem as a waste of time, but really isn't because this habit of writing comments will pay off in the future. Program written here is just a basic program made for learning Syswin. Program can detect when a key has been pressed and can activate a relay at the PLC controller output. As long as the key is pressed down, a relay is active. Operation of a relay and a key can be followed via LED diodes on PLC controller housing. Writing a program begins with a click on the first icon to the left, recognized by two vertical lines. Icon beneath this one is similar to the first but for a slash. These two icons correspond with concepts normally open and normally closed contact which all instruction lines start with. You can select an option with an open contact by clicking on the first icon. When you click on the black rectangle to the right, a small window will appear where you need to write in the address of a bit a contact relates to. It is very important to use addresses in a regular way when programming with SYSWIN. Addresses can have two parts, first refers to the word address, and the second to bit address in that word (both numbers must be separated by a period). For example, if address 200 is used, SYSWIN will interpret this as 2.00, and a zero bit whose word address is 2 will be called for. If you wish to access word 200 or its zero bit, you must use a call 20000, or better even 200.00. In this example address 000.00 is assigned for input address (key). This address represents a zero bit for word 000 from memory region IR. Simply said, it is an input screw terminal designated as 00 input. By connecting a key to it, and to one of the COMM terminal screws, a needed connection between PLC controller and keys is established.

Address dialogue box for a bit that contact refers to When you have written in 000.00, select OK, and first segment of the program will come up. Bit address will appear above the symbol with two vertical lines which refers to this bit, and a black rectangle will move one space to the right.

First element of a program myprog.swp First instructions up to the bus bar are called conditions because their execution activates instructions found to the right of the condition instructions. When a condition is entered, you also need to enter a corresponding instruction that is set off by an execution of the condition. In this example it is a relay controlled by a 00 bit in a word 010 of memory region IR. Output instructions are represented by a circle, or a circle and a line if we are dealing with a normally closed contact. By clicking on the icon with a circle, you select an output option with normally open contacts. Click on a black rectangle, and a contact window will come up where you need to write in the address for the output bit 010.00. Output of the IR region is found at address IR010, and first four bits of this word represent a relay within a PLC controller (if we are talking about a model CPM1A with relay outputs). Program done so far looks as in picture below.

Second element of myprog.swp program The basic functional entirety of some program is Network. Program consists of several networks found one below the other. Operations with these are found in Block option of the menu. Of all options, two basic ones, Insert network and Delete network are used the most. Other makers for PLC controllers use different concepts such as Rung instead of the term Network. Simply said, we are talking about a PLC program sequence which has one or more executing instructions, and along with END instruction can make up one correct PLC program. As the first network in a program is already in use, the next one has to be added. Adding a Network is done with Insert network command from a Block menu.

When selecting this option, a small window appears where you need to select whether a new network will appear above or below the existing one.

In our case you should choose the second option and click on OK. Following this, a new network appears as in picture below.

Last network in every program must contain END instruction. Since this is a simple example, second network is also the last. End instruction is found among the functions. In order to come to it, you need to click on FUN icon following which a window as in picture below will come up.

Selecting a function by clicking on FUN icon. END instruction can be obtained either by writing in "END" in newly obtained window or by clicking on Select which gives all PLC controller instructions sorted by the regions as in the following picture.

Selecting END instruction from a set of instructions sorted in regions. By entering the END instruction your writing of a program is finished. Finished program looks as in the following picture.

Finished myprog.swp program

6.4 Saving a project Since you've finished writing a program, you need to save a project. Select Save Project option from a File menu, and write in the file name in a message window (myprog.swp in this case). After you click on OK, project will be saved. You can access SYSWIN file contents only from SYSWIN; file type is identified by extension: Project.swp - SYSWIN program Project.swl- SYSWIN library Project.swt - SYSWIN pattern Project.swb - SYSWIN back-up file Project.prg - PMD program 6.5 Program transfer to PLC controller First you need to check whether PLC is connected with a PC correctly, and you'll do this by checking physical connection through a serial cable. Following this you need to select a Communication option from Project menu in order to set parameters for serial communication. Of all the parameters, the most important one to be selected is a serial port of a computer that PLC is connected to. Default settings for CPM1A are: COM1, 9600

Baud, Unit 00, protocol ASCII 7 bit Even Parity 2 stop and they need to be left so. To check how communication functions, you can click on Test PLC to test link with a PLC controller.

When a connection has been established, program transfer begins with a click on download from Online menu. Select expansion function or memory allocation. Before you program a PLC, it's good to erase program's memory contents. Finally, after a successful program transfer to a PLC, a message window will come up to inform us of this. 6.6 Testing program function Program check option from a Project menu allows testing of program function. Message that appears following a command has several options that can be selected before you run a test. Once these options have been selected, click on Execute, and a report on testing and errors will be displayed. You can further check for errors, and there is also a 'Go to Network' command which transfers you to a segment where the error was found. SYSWIN has classic editorial capabilities, such as Edit/Find or Edit/Replace commands. Searching through a program for assigned values or symbols is quick and offers a large number of optional filters. We can search through an entire program or its segments, and this is defined with option call. Also, there are possibilities for defining a search path, as well as for different actions when looking for a desired element. Beside this, SYSWIN provides various advantages in situations where we need permanent archiving of user program. It is especially important to periodically print projects that are made quick and easy by SYSWIN. Projects can be printed in many different formats, and printing can include specific sections of a project. 6.7 Meaning of "Tools" icons SYSWIN has several types of editors among whom a relay diagram also known as relay editor, or first editor that awaits us upon starting a SYSWIN program is the most frequently used editor. First we need to explain tools palette (Drawing Tools) and the meaning of each icon. Aside through the usual mouse click, you can access the specific elements of this palette from a keyboard. You'll find a corresponding key of the keyboard by each icon, and you can accomplish the same action with it as you would using a mouse.

By clicking on the icon, we have selected a desired tool, and with a click on network section this symbol will be stored in a program. Explanation for each of the icons is given as follows: Open contact icon. By clicking on this icon (or using a key '"') we enter an open contact into Network. We need to position the element we have entered at a specified place (black space). Following this, a message window where data can be entered (open contact address-number of words, bit position) is activated automatically. Closed contact icon. By clicking on this icon (or '/' on keyboard) we enter a closed contact or inverted condition into network. Horizontal line. By clicking on this icon (or using '-' on a keyboard), horizontal line is lengthened out from left to right. SYSWIN, however, retains a right to make drawn lines optimal in terms of length, or to point out possible errors. This option is used when you need to add another condition before an instruction contingent upon this condition, or when something simply can not fit. Vertical line. With a click on this icon, or use of '?', we draw vertical lines from top to bottom. This option is necessary to realize parallel connections between contacts. Output instruction. This represents an instruction that is executed if condition instruction preceding it is executed. With the help of this instruction we advance a result of logical expression with output variables (bits). We can arrive to this instruction with the help of keyboard ('O' key). Inverted output instruction (shortcut-key 'Q'). Similarly to the previous case, with this executing instruction we advance a result of logical expression to an output bit, and the only difference is that this bit is turned on if a condition is not executed and vice versa. PLC functions (shortcut-key 'F'). Click on this icon accomplishes possibility of installment

of complex PLC instructions into a program. Window that appears following a click on the icon contains all instructions sorted by sections. Some of these instructions are given separately as icons, and some can be accessed only through this option. One such instruction is END instruction which is used in each program. Window that comes up is displayed in the following picture.

When this window pops up, select an instruction and click on OK. Click on this icon (or using 'T' key) will give you an option to enter a timer into the program. Using a mouse, click on the bright area of the monitor, and a message window comes up where you can enter needed information relating to a timer (timer designation and duration in milliseconds). This way, we get a classic timer or timer with a delay when turned on. If some other version of a timer is needed, preceding FUN icon should be used, and option Timers and counters (see picture above) selected. Counter icon. Click on this icon (or 'C' key), and this will install a classic counter into a PLC program. Prior to this we enter needed information in message window: designation of the counter (CNT001 for instance) and counter value. Change of counter status (decrementing by 1) is done when an input signal (CP) changes from OFF to ON status. With this icon we can invert previously entered contact, output or input. Inversion is done so that we first click on this icon, and then on a variable whose inversion we wish to perform. Erase icon. Click on this icon and a shaded area of network erases the shaded part of the program. Mouse plays an important part in the SYSWIN program. Each double-click on any PLC instruction results in a corresponding editor where necessary changes can be entered. This principle is accordingly installed into SYSWIN, so double-click on block or network heading (BLOCK HEADER BAR or NETWORK HEADER BAR) gives the same results.

6.8 PLC controller working modes There are several ways to find out the present working mode, for example from an Online Mode menu or its display in a Toolbar. This option is accessible if communication was successfully established with a PLC controller. If we choose a mode that differs from a present one, change of mode will be momentary. In order to avoid an accidental change of PLC controller mode, there is an option that obliges a computer to ask a question before each mode change, whether that is the option a user really wants (this option is included as default). PLC controller has three modes in class C, MONITOR, RUN and PROGRAM/STOP mode. 6.9 RUN MODE This PLC mode enables program to be executed as basic operation. It is used in final testing, after a program has been tested in detail, and errors have been eliminated. SYSWIN can not change memory contents of PLC controller in this mode, neither is the change of a program being executed possible. Of course, when program is finished and tested, PLC begins its new life in command closet, being first set to RUN mode. 6.10 Monitor mode In this mode, program execution is possible, as well as editing and monitoring during operation. This is the most frequently used mode in program development. When this mode has been selected, controller has an obligation to supply a PC with information which relates to program itself, or more precisely to status of variables in the program. If we additionally confirm Monitoring option from an Online menu, we can follow current values of variables on the monitor itself, in real time. All changes in inputs and outputs can be viewed on the monitor, and status of variables and program locations used in the program are registered and memorized. 6.11 Program-Stop mode Choosing this mode simply stops a PLC controller if PLC was in RUN or MONITOR mode. It is used for data and program transfer to PLC controller. 6.12 Program execution and monitoring Program transferred from a PC to a PLC starts executing at the moment when you move from a Stop/Program mode to a Monitor or Run mode. When Monitoring function starts executing, some sections of the monitor will be shaded (see picture above), and this way you can follow program execution. Monitoring is active during editing of some program segment, and is stopped at the moment when a changed section of the program is transferred into a PLC controller. 6.13 Impact on the program during monitoring During monitoring, you can use the right button on the mouse to call up a menu of some elements of ladder diagram. Menu that appears when we click on location where address of some bit is positioned, contains the following elements:

Force Set - used for permanent forced set up of bit status to ON Force Reset - used for permanent forced set up of bit status to OFF Cancel - cancels out the forced status Set (1) - used for a brief change of bit status from OFF to ON status Reset (0) - used for a brief change of bit status from ON to OFF status Cancel All - cancels out forced status of all bits With the help of these options, status of bits can be changed, word contents in controller memory can also be changed, and all or some of the earlier forced settings can be cancelled out. The concept of forcing entails forced set up of some input/output to ON or OFF status for program reevaluation. At the moment when PLC leaves monitoring regime, data on forced bits and words is lost. Simultaneous forcing and evaluation of contents of a greater number of dimensions, and Data Set Bar is used for this, usually found at the bottom of the monitor (see previous picture). Editing as well as defining an area in Data Set Bar is accomplished with a double click following which a corresponding message window appears, and we write here address for the bit whose status we are following. 6.14 Graphic representation of dimension changes in a program SYSWIN allows graphic representation of dimensions with time as abscissa. When a monitoring mode is in use, monitor display changes through time, showing changes in values of monitored dimensions. Monitor refreshment is done after a reception of each sample where sample intervals are 0,1-65.5 seconds. Graphics saved in this way can be stored for later analysis as a file, or read in an already saved file. Procedure for starting graphic monitoring is following: - from Editors menu select Time chart monitoring option - from a new tools palette select Trace Configure (pictured as a key). - Fill out message box Configure Time Chart Monitor (see next picture) - From Online menu choose Tracing. With Trace/Configure command adjust parameters for monitoring. Necessary parameters are Trigger or an event where saving will begin, sampling period and bits and/or words whose values we are monitoring. Mapping of a time diagram for dimensions previously specified begins after the last command. Quitting is done with a click on a black square icon, and restarting is performed by clicking on an a red circle icon. Return to the editor with a ladder diagram by clicking on Editors menu and Program editor submenu.

CHAPTER 7 EXAMPLES

Introduction 7.1 Self-maintenance 7.2 Making large time intervals 7.3 Delays of ON and OFF status 7.4 Counter over 9999 7.5 Alternate ON-OFF output 7.6 Automation of parking garage 7.7 Operating a charge and discharge process 7.8 Automation of product packaging 7.9 Automation of storage door Introduction Programming only related examples make up the first group of examples. They are given as separate small programs that can later be incorporated into larger ones. Second group consists of examples which can be applied to some real problems. 7.1 Self-maintenance Program allows input to remain at ON status even when the condition that brought it to that status stops. Example in picture below illustrates how use of a key connected to the input IR000.00 changes IR010.01 output status to ON. By letting the key go, output IR010.01 is not reset. This is because IR010.01 output keeps itself at status ON through OR circuit (having IR000.00), and it stays in this status until key at input IR000.01 is pressed. Input IR000.01 is in I connection with the output pin IR010.01 which cancels out a condition, and resets an IR010.01 bit. Example of self-maintenance is quite frequent in specific applications. If a user was connected to IR010.01 output, START and STOP functions could be realized from two keys (without the use of switches). Specifically, input IR000.00 would be a START key, and IR000.01 would be a STOP key.

7.2 Making large time intervals If it's necessary to make a bigger time interval of 999.9 seconds (9999x0.1s) two linked timers, or a timer and a counter can be used as in this example. Counter is set to count to 2000, and timer is set to 5 seconds which gives a time interval of 10.000 seconds or 2.77 hours. By executing a condition at IR000.00 input, timer begins to count. When it reaches the limit, it sets a flag TIM001 which interrupts the link and simultaneously resets a timer. Once 5 seconds have run out, flag TIM001 changes its status to ON and executes a

condition at the counter input CNT002. When a counter numbers 2000 such changes in timer flag status, TIM001 sets its flag CNT002 which in turn executes a condition for IR010.00 to change status to ON. Time that has elapsed from the change of IR000.00 input status to ON and a change of IR010.00 input status to ON comes to 10.000 seconds. Ladder Diagram:

7.3 Delays of ON and OFF status Example shows how to make output (IR010.00) delay as opposed to ?(in relation to ?? unclear meaning) input (IR000.00). By executing a condition at IR000.00 input, timer TIM000 begins counting a set value 10 in steps of 0.1 seconds each. After one second has elapsed, it set its flag TIM000 which is a condition in changing output status IR010.00 to ON. Thus we accomplish a delay of one second between ON status of IR000.00 input and ON status IR010.00 input. By changing IR010.00 output status to ON, half of the condition for activation of the second timer is executed. Second half of the timer is executed when IR000.00 input changes status to OFF (normally closed contact). Timer TIM001 sets its flag TIM001 after one second, and interrupts a condition for keeping an output in ON status.

Ladder Diagram:

7.4 Counter over 9999 If you need to count over 9999 (maximum value for a counter), you can use two connected timers. First counter counts up to certain value, and the other one counts flag status changes of the first counter. Thus you get the possibility of counting up to a value which is a result of set values of the first and second counter. In an example at the bottom, first counter counts up to 1000, and second up to 20 which allows you to count to 20000. By executing a condition at IR000.00 input (line whose changes are followed is brought to it), first counter decreases its value by one. This is repeated until counter arrives at zero when it sets its flag CNT001 and simultaneously resets itself (is made ready for a new cycle of counting from 1000 to 0). Each setting of CNT001 influences the other counter which sets its flag after twenty settings of the first counter's flag. By setting CNT002 flag of the second counter, a condition is executed for an IR010.00 output to be activated and to stay in that status through self-maintenance.

Ladder Diagram:

Same effect can be achieved with a modified program below. First change is that there is a "switch" for the whole program, and this is IR000.00 input (program can accomplish its function only while this switch is active). Second change is that the line whose status is followed is brought to IR000.01 input. The rest is the same as in the previous version of the program. Counter CNT002 counts status changes of the CNT001 counter flag. When it numbers them, it changes the status of its flag CNT002 which executes the condition for status change of IR010.00 output. This changes IR010.00 output status after 20000 changes of input IR000.01.

Ladder Diagram:

7.5 Alternate ON-OFF output Example makes a certain number of impulses of desired duration at PLC controller IR010.00 output. Number of impulses is given in instruction of the counter (here it is a constant #0010 or ten impulses) impulse duration in two timer instructions. First timer defines duration of ON status, and second one duration of OFF status of IR010.00 output bit. In the example these two durations are the same, but through assigning them different parameters they can differ so that duration of ON status can be different from duration of OFF status.

Program starts executing a condition at IR000.00 bit. Since a normally closed contact which refers to counter flag (that isn't set) is linked with this IR000.00 bit in "I" circuit, this

status of IR200.00 bit will change to ON. Bit IR200.00 keeps its status through selfmaintenance until counter flag is not set and a condition interrupted. When an IR200.00 bit is set, timers TIM001 and TIM002 start counting a set interval number at 0.1 s ( in the example, this number is 10 for the first timer, or 20 for the second timer, and this sets the period of one or two seconds). With both timers, a normally closed contact which refers to TIM002 timer flag is connected with IR200.00 bit. When this flag is set which happens every two seconds, both timers are reset. Timer TIM002 resets timer TIM001 and itself, and this starts a new cycle. At the start of a program, IR010.00 output bit changes status to ON and stays in this status until TIM001 flag changes status to ON (after one second). By changing TIM001 flag status to ON, condition is broken (because it is represented as normally closed contact) and IR010.00 bit changes status to OFF. IR010.00 output status changes to ON again when time has run out on TIM002 timer. This resets TIM001 timer and its flag which in turn executes a condition for status change of the IR010.00 output. Cycle is thus repeated until a counter numbers 10 changes of TIM001 flag status. With the change of status of CNT000 counter flag, a condition for an assisting bit IR200.00 is broken, and program stops working.

Ladder Diagram:

7.6 Automation of parking garage We are dealing with a simple system that can control 100 car at the maximum. Each time a car enters, PLC automatically adds it to a total sum of other cars found in the garage. Each car that comes out will automatically be taken off. When 100 cars park, a signal will turn on signalizing that a garage is full and notifying other drivers not to enter because there is no space available.

Signal from a sensor at the garage entrance sets bit IR200.00. This bit is a condition for execution of the following two instructions in a program. First instruction resets carry bit CY (it is always done before some other calculation that would influence it), and the other instruction adds one to a number of cars in word HR00, and a sum total is again stored in HR00. HR memory space is selected for storing a total number of cars because this keeps the status even after supply stops. Symbol "#" in addition and subtraction instructions defines decimal constant that is being added or subtracted from a number of cars already in the garage. Condition for executing comparison instruction CPM is always executed because bit SR253.13 is always set; this practically means that comparison will be done in each cycle regardless whether car has entered or left the garage. Signal lamp for "garage full" is connected to an output IR010.00. Working of the lamp is controlled by EQ (equal) flag at address SR255.06 and GR (greater than) flag at address SR255.05. Both bits are in OR connection with an output IR010.00 where the signal lamp is. This way lamp will emit light when a number of cars is greater than or equal to 100. Number of cars in a real setting can really be greater than 100 because some untrusting driver may decide to check whether there is any space left, and so a current number of cars can increase from a 100 to 101. When he leaves the garage, a number of cars goes down to 100 which is how many parking spots there are in fact.

Ladder diagram:

7.7 Operating a charge and discharge process Charge and discharge of a reservoir is a common process in industry as well as a need for mixing two or more substances. By using automated valves this process can be completely automated. Let's say that fluid used in the example is water, and that a reservoir has to be filled up and emptied four times. When you push T1 on the operating panel, valve V1 opens and a reservoir starts filling up with water. At the same time, motor M of the mixer starts working. When the reservoir fills up, water level goes up and reaches the level set by a sensor S1. V1 valve closes and motor of the mixer stops. Valve V2 opens then, and a reservoir starts emptying. When water level falls below the level set by a sensor S2, valve V2 closes. By repeating the same cycle four times, lamp that indicates end of a cycle is activated. Pressing T1 key will start a new

cycle.

Both types of differentiators are used in this example. You can get an idea of what their role is from picture below. Level S1 and S2 sensors provide information on whether fluid level goes beyond a specified value. This type of information is not important when you wish to know whether fluid level goes up or down in a certain sequence. Mainly, event of approaching the upper level, or a moment when fluid that fills up a reservoir goes beyond upper level and activates sensor S1 is detected in segment 3 of a ladder diagram. Brief activation of IR200.02 output has as a consequence a turn off of an output V1 (valve for water, prevents further flow of water but also motor operation in the mixer). Moment prior to this (segment 5) valve V2 turns on which marks a beginning of fluid outflow. Other two differentiators (in segments 6 and 7) have a task of registering events such as closing a

valve MV2 and drop in fluid level below allowed minimum. Ladder diagram:

7.8 Automation of product packaging Product packaging is one of the most frequent cases for automation in industry. It can be encountered with small machines (ex. packaging grain like food products) and large systems such as machines for packaging medications. Example we are showing here solves the classic packaging problem with few elements of automation. Small number of needed inputs and outputs provides for the use of CPM1A PLC controller which represents simple and economical solution.

By pushing START key you activate Flag1 which represents an assisting flag (Segment 1) that comes up as a condition in further program (resetting depends only on a STOP key). When started, motor of an conveyor for boxes is activated. The conveyor takes a box up to the limit switch, and a motor stops then (Segment 4). Condition for starting a conveyor with apples is actually a limit switch for a box. When a box is detected, a conveyor with apples starts moving (Segment 2). Presence of the box allows counter to count 10 apples

through a sensor used for apples and to generate counter CNT010 flag which is a condition for new activation of a conveyor with boxes (Segment 3). When the conveyor with boxes has been activated, limit switch resets counter which is again ready to count 10 apples. Operations repeat until STOP key is pressed when condition for setting Flag1 is lost. Picture below gives a time diagram for a packaging line signal. Ladder diagram:

7.9 Automation of storage door Storage door or any door for that matter can be automated, so that man does not have to be directly involved in their being opened or closed. By applying one three-phased motor where you can change direction of its movement, doors can be lifted up and lowered back down. Ultrasonic sensor is used in recognizing presence of a vehicle by the doors, and photo-electric sensor is used to register a passing vehicle. When a vehicle approaches, the doors move up, and when a vehicle passes through the door (a ray of light is interrupted on photo-electric sensor) they lower down.

By setting a bit IR000.00 at the PLC controller input where ultrasonic sensor is connected, output IR010.00 (a switch is attached to this output) is activated, so that a motor lifts the doors up. Aside from this condition, the power source for lifting the doors must not be active (IR010.01) and the doors must not be in upper position already (IR000.02). Condition for upper limit switch is given as normally closed, so change of its status from OFF to ON (when doors are lifted) will end a condition for bit IR010.00 where power source for lifting the doors is (Segment 1). Photo-electric switch registers a vehicle that passes by, and sets flag IR200.00. DIFD instruction is used. This instruction is activated when a condition that precedes it changes status from ON to OFF. When a vehicle passes through a door, it interrupts a ray and bit IR000.01 status changes from ON to OFF (Segment 2). Ladder diagram:

By changing status of an assisting flag from OFF to ON a condition for lowering a door is executed (Segment 3). Aside from this condition, it is necessary that a unit power source for lifting a door is turned off, and that door is not in lower position already. Bit which operates this power source for lowering, IR010.01 is automatic, so doors are lowered until

they come to the bottom limit switch which is represented in a condition as normally closed. Its status change from OFF to ON interrupts a condition of the power source for lowering doors. With oncoming new vehicle, cycle is repeated.

APPENDIX A Expanding the number of input/output lines INTRODUCTION A.1 Differences and similarities A.2 Marking the PLC controller A.3 Specific case

Introduction This appendix is an answer to the question What if more input or output lines are needed ?. Model detailed in the book carries the mark CPM1A-10CDR-A and is taken as an optimal for its price and features. Alternative models with greater number of lines include CPM1A-20CDR-A, CPM1A-30CDR-A or CPM1A-40CDR-A. The last two can be expanded with three additional modules with 20 extra I/O lines each, totaling 100 I/O lines as a maximum (if this is still insufficient, maybe it is time for you to start using some of more powerful PLC controllers). If not even the most powerful model of CPM1A family satisfies your needs, then extra modules with 20 I/O lines are added. This form of connection reaches 100 input/outputs, which is a significant number in industrial proportions. A.1. Differences and similarities Taking the other model of PLC controller from CPM1A class basically doesnt change a thing! Everything said for one model also applies to the other. Only thing that changes is the number of screw terminal and the number of bits in IR area connected to that screw

terminal. If model with 10 I/O lines (model described in the book) has 6 inputs on addresses IR0000 - IR0005, then the 20 I/O lines model will have 12 inputs on addresses IR0000 - IR0011. Expanding itself should not be a problem. After taking off the cover on the right side, there is a connector which is then connected to the expansion module via flat cable. Still, it requires skill when assigning inputs and outputs because expansion increases the cost of the project. All the models and expansions of CPM1A class carry additional marks defining them more precisely.

Description 10 I/O points

Input points 6 points

Output points Power Supply Model Number 4 point Relay 100 to240 VAC, CPM1A-10CDR-A Output 50/60 Hz 24 VDC 24 VDC 24 VDC CPM1A-10CDR-D CPM1A-l0CDT-D

20 I/O points

12 points

Transistor NPN Transistor PNP 8 points

30 I/O points

18 points

Transistor NPN Transistor PNP 12 points

CPM1A-10CDT1D 100 to 240 VAC, CPMlA-20CDR-A 50/60 Hz 24 VDC CPM1A-20CDR-D 24 VDC CPM1A-20CDT-D 24 VDC CPMlA-20CDT1-D

40 I/O points

24 points

Transistor NPN Transistor PNP 16 points

100 to 240 VAC, CPM1A-30CDR-A 50/60 Hz 24 VDC CPM1A-30CDR-D 24 VDC CPM1A-30CDT-D 24 VDC CPM1A-30CDT1D 100 to 240 VAC, CPM1A-40CDR-A 50/60 Hz 24 VDC CPM1A-40CDR-D 24 VDC CPM1A-40CDT-D 24 VDC CPM1A-40CDT1D

Transistor NPN Transistor PNP

Notice that PLC controllers with 10 and 20 I/O lines do not have an expansion port. Generally speaking, if there is the slightest possibility for expansion in the project, PLC controller with 30 or 40 I/O lines should be used. A.2. Marking the PLC controller

Marking the controller and the expansion module undergoes three criteria. The first is voltage, the second is the type of input/output and the third is number of I/O lines. The picture below is self-explanatory.

A.3. Specific case If two 20 I/O lines expansion modules and one analog module are added to 30 I/O lines model, assigned inputs/outputs will have the addresses from the following table.

1 2 3 4

Unit Assigned input bits Central processing unit IR 00000-IR 00011 and (CPM2A-30CDX-X) IR 00100-IR 00105 Unit for I/O expansion IR 00200-IR 02011 (CPM1A-20EDxxx) Analog I/O unit (CPM1A- IR 00300-IR 03015 and MAD01) IR 00400-IR 00415 Unit for I/O expansion IR 00500-IR 00511 (CPM1A-EDxxx)

Assigned output bits IR 01000-IR 01007 and IR 01100-IR 01103 IR 01200-IR 01207 IR 01300-IR 01315 IR 01400-IR 01415

APPENDIX C PLC diagnostics INTRODUCTION C.1 Diagnostic functions of PLC C.2 Non-fatal errors C.3 Fatal errors

C.4 User defined errors C.5 Failure alarm - FAL(06) C.6 Severe Failure alarm - FALS(07) C.7 MESSAGE - MSG(46) C.8 Syntax errors C.9 Algorithm for finding errors in the program

Introduction The whole work of PLC controller can be represented with a diagram shown on the following page. After turning on the power, PLC is first initialized (clearing IR, SR i AR areas, presetting system timers and checking I/O lines), and if no errors were detected, monitoring process, program execution, calling the I/O lines and serving the peripheral devices starts to occur in cycles.

C.1 Diagnostic functions of PLC PLC controller features additional functions that make locating errors easier. Errors can be divided into two categories according to severity : 1. Fatal errors are severe and they prevent PLC controller from operating until their cause is located and solved. 2. Non-fatal errors are those that do not prevent PLC controller from operating. After detecting one or more non-fatal errors, program execution will continue. Nevertheless, it is necessary to correct these errors as soon as possible. C.2 Non-fatal errors When one of these errors takes place, indicators POWER and RUN will be on, and the indicator ERR/ALM will blink. Upon locating non-fatal error, manual for the given PLC

controller should be consulted and the flags checked in order to understand the cause of a problem and correct the error. C.3 Fatal erros When any of the fatal errors take place, PLC controller stops operating and all outputs are shut down. PLC controller cannot be put back to work until the controller is turned off and then turned back on, or until it is switched to PROGRAM mode via peripheral device and the fatal error corrected. With these errors, indicators ERR/ALM are on, while the RUN indicator remains off. It is necessary to check the error flag in the manual of the given PLC in order to locate the cause of the problem and to correct the error. C.4 User defined errors There are three instructions for user to define his own errors or messages. FAL(06) causes non-fatal error, FAL(07) causes fatal error, while MSG(46) sends a message to program console or to the host computer connected to the PLC controller. C.5 Failure alarm - FAL(06) Instruction FAL(06) generates the code of non-fatal error that took place to provide the information on the possible cause of the problem for the programmer. Upon execution of the instruction FAL(06) following events take place: 1. Indicator ERR/ALM will blink, while PLC continues to work. 2. Two-digits BCD number of instruction FAL (01 do 99) is written from SR253000 to SR25307. Same number must not be assigned to both FAL and FALS instructions. To delete the code of an error, error should be corrected and FAL 00 instruction executed. C.6 Severe failure alarm - FALS(07) Instruction FALS(07) generates the code of fatal error that took place. In this case the following happens: 1. Program stops and all outputs are shut down. 2. Indicator ERR/ALM is turned on. 3. Two-digit BCD number (01 do 99) of instruction FALS is written from SR 253000 to SR25307. 4. If memory card with RTC is used, part of the memory where the presence of error is recorded will also contain numbers of FALS instruction and exact time when error took place. Numbers of FALS instruction can be assigned to certain states. Same number must not be assigned to both FAL and FALS instructions. To delete FALS error, PLC controller must be in PROGRAM mode, cause of error solved and then error code deleted. C.7 Message - MSG (46)

MSG(46) is used for printing messages on program console display. Message cannot exceed 16 characters, and it appears when specified condition is fulfilled. C.8 Syntax errors During the program check with operation Program Check, syntax errors are detected. There are three levels of program check at users disposal. By selecting the level, types of errors to be checked for are selected. The following table shows types of errors, corresponding messages that appear on display and explains all of syntax errors. Zero level check searches for errors of A, B and C type. First level check searches for errors of A and B type, while the second searches only for errors of type A.

Type

Message ????? CIRCUIT ERR OPERAND ERR NO END INSTR LOCN ERR

JME UNDEFD

DUPL

SBN UNDEFD

STEP ERR B IL-ILC-ERR

JMP=JME ERR

Meaning and the appropriate action Program is damaged by creating non-existing function in the code. Re-enter your program. Number of logical blocks doesn't match the instructions of logical blocks. Check the program. Entered constant is not in allowed range. Change the constant so that it fits in the proper range. Program is missing the instruction END(01). Add END(01) to the last address of the program. Instruction is in the wrong place of the program. Check what the instruction demands and correct the mistake. Instruction JME(04) is missing the instruction JMP(05). Correct the number of jump and add the correct JME(04) instruction. Same number of jump or subroutine is used twice in the program. Correct the program so that each number is used only once. Instruction SBS(091) is programmed for nonexisting subroutine. Correct the number of subroutine or create the missing one. STEP(08) with the number of section and STEP(08) without the number of section are used illegally. Check the demands of instruction STEP(08) and correct the mistake. IL(02) and ILC(03) are not used in pair. Check if every instruction IL(02) has its corresponding ILC(03). This message will also appear in case that multiple IL(02) instructions were used with single ILC(03) instruction. Check if that's exactly what you wanted... JMP(04) and JME(05) are not used in pair. Before proceeding, check if the program is written exactly the way you wanted.

SEN-RET ERR

COIL DUPL

C JMP UNDEFD

SBS UNDEFD

If the address of instruction SBN(92) is displayed, there are two different subroutines with the same number. Change one of the numbers or delete one of the subroutines in question. If the address of instruction RET(93) is displayed, RET(93) wasn't used appropriately. Check the demands of this instruction and correct the mistake. Same bit is controlled by more than one instruction (for example, OUT, OUT NOT, DIFU(13), KEEP(11), SFT(10)...). Although certain instructions allow this, you should check the demands of specific instructions, make sure that the program is correct or rearrange the program so that each bit is controlled by single instruction. JME(05) is used without JMP(04) with the same number of jump. Add the instruction JMP(04) with the same number or delete JME(05) that is not used. There is a subroutine that is not called by SBS(91). Add subroutine call to an appropriate place in the program or delete the subroutine.

C.9 Algorithm for finding errors in the program

APPENDIX D Numerical systems INTRODUCTION D.1 Decimal numerical system D.2 Binary numerical system D.3 Hexadecimal numerical system

Introduction

People were always difficult to except the fact that something is different from themselves or their way of thinking. It is probably one of the reasons why numerical systems other than decimal are hard to understand. Still, whether we like it or not, reality is quite different. Decimal system used in everyday life is by far less used than binary code, which is the working basis for millions of computers across the world. Each numerical system rests upon its basis. With decimal numerical system, this basis is 10, with binary it is 2, while with hexadecimal it equals 16. Value of each digit depends on its position in the number, represented in certain numerical system. Sum of values of each digit is the value of the number. Binary and hexadecimal systems are especially interesting for this course. Besides these two, decimal system will be detailed, too, for the sake of comparison. Although there is nothing new to tell about decimal system, we will give it a look for its relations with other numerical systems. D.1 Decimal numerical system Decimal numerical system is defined with its basis 10 and decimal positioning from right to left, and it consists of digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. This means that the rightmost digit is multiplied by 1 in total sum, next digit to it is multiplied by 10, next one by 100, etc. Example:

Operations of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication in decimal numerical system are well known, so we will not detail these. D.2 Binary numerical system Binary numerical system is quite different from the decimal that we got used to in common life. Its basis is 2 and each digit can have one of two values, 1 or 0. Binary numerical system is used for computers and microcontrollers, because it is much easier for processing than decimal. Usually, binary number consists of 8, 16 or 32 binary digits. Origins of this division are irrelevant for this course, so we will just take it for granted. Example: 10011011 - binary number with 8 digits To understand the logic of binary numbers, let us have an example. Lets assume that we have a cabinet with four drawers and that we should tell someone to bring us something from one of these. Nothing simpler, we could say in the lower row on the left and it would be quite sufficient. However, if it must be done without this kind of orientation, left, right, up, down and the likes, then we have a problem. There is a plenty of solutions for the situation, but we should look for the best and the most efficient! Let us mark the columns with A and rows with B. If A=1, we assume the upper row of drawers, and if A=0 we

assume the lower. Similar with columns, B=1 is the left column and B=0 is the right column (following picture). Now, it is easier to explain which drawer we think of, just use one of the four combinations 00, 01, 10 or 11. This naming of each drawer is nothing more than binary nomenclature of numbers, that is, converting decimal numbers into binary system. In short, labels first, second, third and fourth are substituted with 00, 01, 10 and 11.

We still need to understand the logic of binary numerical system, i.e. how to get the decimal value of a number out of the sequence consisting of ones and zeros. This procedure is called conversion of binary number to decimal value. As it can be seen, conversion of binary number to decimal value is done by totaling the sum on the right. Depending on the position in the binary number, digits carry different weight multiplied by themselves, and totaling them all gives us an understandable decimal number.

Lets further assume that there are marbles in each of the drawers, 2 in the first, 4 in the second, 7 in the third and 3 in the fourth. Let the person opening the drawers also use the binary system. Under these conditions, question would be How many marbles are there in 01?, and the answer would be There are 100 marbles in 01! Notice that both question and answer are clear, although we did not use common terminology. Further, notice that two digits are sufficient for decimal numbers from 0 to 3, and that all values greater than 3 require additional binary digits. Thus, for 0 ~ 7 range, three digits are sufficient, four digits cover the range 0 ~ 15, etc. Simply put, the greatest decimal number that can be represented with n binary digits is 2 raised to power n, decreased by one. Example: 24-1 = 16 - 1 = 15

So, 4 binary digits cover decimal values from 0 to 15, including the values 0 and 15, which is 16 different values. Arithmetical operations that exist in decimal numerical system also apply in binary system. In this chapter, we will cover only addition and subtraction, for simplicity sake. Basic rules that apply to binary addition are: Addition works similar to decimal numerical system - we add the digits of the same weight. If both digits added are zero, the result remains zero, while 0 and 1 total 1. Two ones give zero, but one is carried to the left position.

We can do the check by converting these numbers to decimal system and adding them. Value of the first number is 10, value of the second is 9 and 19 as result, which means that operation was done correctly. Problem occurs when the result is greater than can be represented with given number of binary digits. There are various solutions, one of them being expanding the number of binary digits like in the example below.

Subtraction works on the same principles as addition does. Two zeros give zero in result, as do two ones, while subtraction of one from zero requires borrowing one from the higher position in binary number. Example: Conversion of numbers to decimal system gives as values 10 and 9, with the result of subtraction of 1, which is correct.

D.3 Hexadecimal numerical system Hexadecimal numerical system has number 16 for basis. Therefore, there are 16 different digits used in this system. These are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. Letters A, B, C, D, E and F represent values 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and are used for the sake of easier notation. As with binary numerical system, we can apply the same formula here for determining the greatest decimal number that can be represented with a given number of hexadecimal digits. Example: 162 - 1 = 256 - 1 = 255 Usually, hexadecimal numbers have prefix $ or 0x to emphasize the fact that

hexadecimal system is used. Thus, number A37E should be represented with $A37E or 0xA37E. No calculations are needed for converting the hexadecimal number to binary system - it is simple substituting of hexadecimal digits with binary ones. Since maximum value of hexadecimal digit is 15, 4 binary digits are required per one hexadecimal.

Example: Check, i.e. converting both numbers to decimal system, gives us value 228 which is correct. In order to calculate decimal equivalent of hexadecimal number, each digit of number should be multiplied by 16 raised to power equal to the position in the number and then added altogether.

Addition works similar to two previous numerical systems.

Example: It is required to add the appropriate digits of a number, and if their sum equals 16, that position takes value 0. Values exceeding 16 should be added to the sum of digits on higher position. First number converted equals 14891, while other is 43457. Their sum is 58348, that is $E3EC converted to decimal numerical system. Subtraction works identically to previously mentioned systems. Example: Conversion gives us numbers 11590 and 5970, and the result of subtractions is 5620, that is $15F4 converted to decimal numerical system.

Conclusion

Binary numerical system remains the most commonly used, decimal system the most intelligible, while hexadecimal is somewhere in between. Its simple conversion to binary system makes it, besides binary and decimal, the most important numerical system to us. APPENDIX E Ladder diagram instructions (1/3)

Introduction "Ladder" is the most frequent method of programming PLC controllers at present. We could divide instructions on the input ones for stating the conditions and the output ones that are executed when the conditions are fulfilled. By combining the two, logical blocks are created according to the logic of the system being automated. The purpose of this appendix is to introduce these instructions and to give details on flags and limitations of each of these. INDIRECT ADDRESSING Placing the character * ahead of operand from DM memory area allows us to use the indirect addressing. Simply put, value in the word *DM will be the address of the word that is the true operand. The picture below shows the MOV instruction with one operand given indirectly. The contents of location DM0003 equal 1433 which is actually a pointer marking the address DM1433 with contents 0005. The result of this instruction will be moving the value 0005 from word DM1433 to word LR00. In order to use the indirect addressing, contents of the word that is the indirect operand have to be in BCD format. Besides that, value of the contents of indirect operand must not be greater than the number of addresses in DM area.

INSTRUCTION FORMAT Operand is the address of a word or a bit in PLC controller memory (most of the instructions has one or more operands). The common term for a word is just operand and in the case of bit we call it operand bit. Also, operand can be a direct numerical value marked by character # placed ahead of the value (i.e.. #12, #345 etc). The state of operand bit can be ON or OFF. ON means that its logic state equals 1, while OFF stands for 0. Besides these, terms set and reset are also used. Symbols SV and PV commonly appear in instruction syntax. These abbreviations stand for Set Value and Present Value and are most frequently encountered with instructions concerning counters and timers. DIFFERENTIAL INSTRUCTION FORM Differential form is supported by almost all of the instructions. What differs this form from the classical one is the character @ placed ahead of the name of the instruction. This form ensures that the instruction with condition fulfilled will not be executed in every cycle, but only when its condition changes state from OFF to ON. Differential from is commonly used because it has a lot of applications in real-life problems.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BINARY AND BCD REPRESENTATIONS OF WORD CONTENTS Generally, there are two dominant ways for comprehending values of memory locations. The first is binary and is related to the contents of the word which is treated as a union of 16 bits. Value is calculated as a sum of each bit (0 or 1) multiplied by 2 on power n, where n represents the position of bit in the word. Bit of the least value has position zero, while bit of greatest value has position 15. BCD is an abbreviation for Binary Coded Decimal number. It is nothing more than representing each decimal figure with 4 bits, similar to binary coding hence the name comes from. The picture below shows the difference between binary and BCD representations of the number. Same contents can be interpreted as either 612 or 264. For that reason, proper attention should be given to the format of the value within the word that will be sent to the instruction as an operand.

LADDER DIAGRAM INSTRUCTIONS Instructions may be divided into several basic groups according to their purpose :

- Input instructions - Output instructions - Control instructions - Timer/counter instructions - Data comparison instructions - Data movement instructions - Increment/decrement instructions - BCD/binary calculation instructions - Data conversion instructions - Logic instructions - Special calculation instructions - Subroutine instructions - Interrupt control instructions - I/O units instructions - Display instructions - High-speed counter control instructions - Damage diagnosis instructions - Special system instructions Each of these instruction groups is introduced with a brief description in the following tables and with more detailed examples and descriptions afterwards. Sequence Input Instructions Instruction LOAD LOAD NOT Mnemonic Code LD 0 LD NOT 0 Function Connects an NO condition to the left bus bar. Connects an NC condition to the left bus bar.

AND AND NOT OR OR NOT AND LOAD OR LOAD

AND AND NOT OR OR NOT AND LD OR LD

0 0 0 0 0 0

Connects an NO condition in series with the previous condition Connects an NC condition in series with the previous condition Connects an NO condition in parallel with the previous condition. Connects an NC condition in parallel with the previous condition. Connects two instruction blocks in series. Connects two instruction blocks in parallel.

Sequence Output Instructions Instruction OUTPUT OUT NOT SET RESET KEEP DIFFERENTIATE UP DIFFERENTIATE DOWN Mnemonic Code OUT 0 OUT NOT 0 SET 0 RESET 0 KEEP 11 DIFU DIFD 13 14 Function Outputs the result of logic to a bit. Reverses and outputs the result of logic to a bit. Force sets (ON) a bit. Force resets (OFF) a bit. Maintains the status of the designated bit. Turns ON a bit for one cycle when the execution condition goes from OFF to ON. Turns ON a bit for one cycle when the execution condition goes from ON to OFF.

Sequence Control Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code 00 01 02 03 04 05 --Required at the end of the program. It the execution condition for IL(02) is OFF, all outputs are turned OFF and all timer PVs reset between IL(02) and the next ILC(03). ILC(03) indicates the end of an interlock (beginning at IL(02)). If the execution condition for JMP(04) is ON, all instructions between JMP(04) and JME(05) are treated as NOP(OO). JME(05) indicates the end of a jump (beginning at JMP(04)). Function

NO OPERATION NOP END INTERLOCK INTERLOCK CLEAR JUMP JUMP END END IL ILC JMP JME

Timer/Counter Instructions Instruction TIMER COUNTER Mnemonic Code TIM CNT 0 0 A decrementing counter. Function An ON-delay (decrementing) timer.

REVERSIBLE COUNTER HIGH-SPEED TIMER

CNTR TIMH

12 15

Increases or decreases PV by one. A high-speed, ON-delay (decrementing) timer.

Data Comparison Instructions Instruction COMPARE DOUBLE COMPARE BLOCK COMPARE TABLE COMPARE Mnemonic Code CMP CMPL (@)BCMP (@)TCMP 20 60 68 85 Function Compares two four-digit hexadecimal values. Compares two eight-digit hexadecimal values. Judges whether the value of a word is within 16 ranges (defined by lower and upper limits). Compares the value of a word to 16 consecutive words.

Data Movement Instructions Instruction MOVE MOVE NOT BLOCK TRANSFER BLOCK SET DATA EXCHAGE SINGLE WORD DISTRIBUTE DATA COLLECT MOVE BIT MOVE DIGIT Mnemonic (@)MOV (@)MVN (@)XFER (@)BSET (@)XCHG (@)DIST (@)COLL (@)MOVB (@)MOVD Code 21 22 70 71 73 80 81 82 83 Function Copies a constant or the content of a word to a word. Copies the complement of a constant or the content of a word to a word. Copies the content of a block of up to 1,000 consecutive words to a block of consecutive words. Copies the content of a word to a block of consecutive words. Exchanges the content of two words. Copies the content of a word to a word (whose address is determined by adding an offset to a word address). Copies the content of a word (whose address is determined by adding an offset to a word address) to a word. Copies the specified bit from one word to the specified bit of a word. Copies the specified digits (4-bit units) from a word to the specified digits of a word.

Shift Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code Function

SHIFT REGISTER WORD SHIFT ASYNCHRONOUS SHIFT REGISTER ARITHMETIC SHIFT LEFT ARITHMETIC SHIFT RIGHT ROTATE LEFT ROTATE RIGHT ONE DIGIT SHIFT LEFT ONE DIGIT SHIFT RIGHT REVERSIBLE SHIFT REGISTER

SFT (@)WSFT (@)ASFT (@)ASL (@)ASR (@)ROL (@)ROR (@)SLD (@)SRD (@)SFTR

0/10 16 17 25 26 27 28 74 75 84

Copies the specified bit (0 or 1) into the rightmost bit of a shift register and shifts the other bits one bit to the left. Creates a multiple-word shift register that shifts data to the left in one-word units. Creates a shift register that exchanges the contents of adjacent words when one is zero and the other is not. Shifts a 0 into bit 00 of the specified word and shifts the other bits one bit to the left. Shifts a 0 into bit 15 of the specified word and shifts the other bits one bit to the right. Moves the content of CY into bit 00 of the specified word, shifts the other bits one bit to the left, and moves bit 15 to CY. Moves the content of CY into bit 15 of the specified word, shifts the other bits one bit to the left, and moves bit 00 to CY. Shifts a 0 into the rightmost digit (4-bit unit) of the shift register and shifts the other digits one digit to the left. Shifts a 0 into the rightmost digit (4-bit unit) of the shift register and shifts the other digits one digit to the right. Creates a single or multiple-word shift register that can shift data to the left or right.

Increment/Decrement Instructions Instruction INCREMENT DECREMENT Mnemonic Code (@)INC 38 (@)DEC 39 Function Increments the BCD content of the specified word by 1. Decrements the BCD content of the specified word by 1.

BCD/Binary Calculation Instructions Instruction BCD ADD BCD SUBTRACT BDC MULTIPLY Mnemonic Code (@)ADD 30 (@)SUB (@)MUL 31 32 Function Adds the content of a word (or a constant). Subtracts the contents of a word (or constant) and CY from the content of a word (or constant). Multiplies the content of two words (or contents).

BCD DIVIDE

(@)DIV

33 50 51 52 53

Divides the contents of a word (or constant) by the content of a word (or constant). Adds the contents of two words (or constants) and CY. Subtracts the content of a word (or constant) an CY from the content of the word (or constant). Multiplies the contents of two words (or constants).

BINARY (@)ADB ADD BINARY (@)SBB SUBTRACT BINARY ()MLB MULTIPLY BINARY (@)DVB DIVIDE DOUBLE BCD (@)ADDL ADD DOUBLE BCD (@)SUBL SUBTRACT DOUBLE BCD (@)MULL MULITPLY DOUBLE (@)DIVL BCD DIVIDE

Divides the content of a word (or constant) by the content of a word and obtains the result and remainder. Add the 8-digit BCD contents of two pairs of words (or constants) 54 and CY. Subtracts the 8-digit BCD contents of a pair of words 55 (or constants) and CY from the 80digit BCD contents of a pair of words (or constants) 56 57 Multiplies the 8-digit BCD contents of two pairs of words (or constants). Divides the 8-digit BCD contents of a pair of words (or constants) by the 8digits BCD contents of a pair of words (or constants)

Data Conversion Instructions Instruction BCD TO BINARY BINARY TO BCD 4 to 16 DECODER 16 to 4 DECODER ASCII CODE CONVERT Mnemonic Code (@)BIN (@)BCD (@)MLPX (@)DPMX (@)ASC 23 24 76 77 86 Function Converts 4-digit BCD data to 4-digit binary data. Converts 4-digit binary data to 4 digit BCD data. Takes the hexadecimal value of the specified digit(s) in a word and turn ON the corresponding bit in a word(s). Identifies the highest ON bit in the specified word(s) and moves the hexadecimal value(s) corresponding to its location to the specified digit(s) in a word. Converts the designated digit(s) of a word into the equivalent 8-bit ASCII code.

Logic Instructions Instruction COMPLEMENT LOGICAL AND LOGICAL OR Mnemonic (@)COM (@)ANDW (@)ORW Code 29 34 35 Function Turns OFF all ON bits and turns ON all OFF bits in the specified word Logically ANDs the corresponding bits of two word (or constants) Logically ORs the corresponding bits of two word (or constants)

EXCLUSIVE OR (@)XORW EXCLUSIVE NOR (@)XNRW

36 37

Exclusively ORs the corresponding bits of two words (or constants) Exclusively NORs the corresponding bits of two words (or constants).

Special Calculation Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code BIT COUNTER (@)BCNT 67 Function Counts the total number of bits that are ON in the specified block

Subroutine Instructions Instruction SUBROUTINE ENTER SUBROUTINE ENTRY SUBROUTINE RETURN MACRO Mnemonic Code (@)SBS SBN RET MACRO 91 92 93 99 Function Executes a subroutine in the main program. Marks the beginning of a subroutine program. Marks the end of a subroutine program. Calls and executes the specified subroutine, substituting the specified input and output words for the input and output words in the subroutine.

Interrupt Control Instructions Instruction INTERVAL TIMER INTERRUPT CONTROL Mnemonic Code (@)STIM (@)INT 69 89 Function Controls interval timers used to perform scheduled interrupts. Performs interrupts control, such as masking and unmasking the interrupt bits for I/O interrupts.

Step Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code 08 09 Function Defines the start of a new step and resets the previous step when used with a control bit. Defines the end of step execution when used without a control bit. Starts the execution of the step when used with a control bit.

STEP DEFINE STEP STEP START SNXT

Peripheral Device Control Instructions Instruction BCD TO BINARY BINARY TO BCD 4 to 16 DECODER 16 to 4 DECODER ASCII CODE CONVERT Mnemonic Code (@)BIN (@)BCD (@)MLPX (@)DPMX (@)ASC 23 24 76 77 86 Function Converts 4-digit BCD data to 4-digit binary data. Converts 4-digit binary data to 4-digit BCD data. Takes the hexadecimal value of the specified digit(s) in a word and turn ON the corresponding bit in a word(s). Identifies the highest ON bit in the specified word(s) and moves the hexadecimal value(s) corresponding to its location to the specified digit(s) in a word. Converts the designated digit(s) of a word into the equivalent 8-bit ASCII code.

I/O Units Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code 7-SEGMENT (@)SDEC 78 DECODER I/O REFRESH (@)IORF 97 Function Converts the designated digit(s)of a word into an 8-bit, 7-segment display code. Refreshes the specified I/O word.

Display Instructions Instruction MEASSAGE Mnemonic Code (@)MSG 46 Function Reads up to 8 words of ASCII code (16 characters) from memory and displays the message on the Programming Console or other Peripheral Device.

High Speed Counter Control Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code MODE (@)INI 61 CONTROL PV READ (@)PRV 62 COMPARE (@)CTBL 63 TABLE LOAD Function Starts and stops counter operation, compares and changes counter PVs, and stops pulse output. Reads counter PVs and status data. Compares counter PVs and generates a direct table or starts operation.

Damage Diagnosis Instructions Instruction Mnemonic Code Function

FAILURE ALARM SEVERE FAILURE ALARM

(@)FAL FAL

06 07

Generates a non-fatal error when executed. The Error/Alarm indicator flashes and the CPU continues operating. Generates a fatal error when executed. The Error/Alarm indicator lights and the CPU stops operating.

Special System Instructions Instruction SET CARRY CLEAR CARRY Mnemonic Code (@)STC 40 (@)CLC 41 Function Sets Carry Flag 25504 to 1. Sets Carry Flag 25504 to 0.

E.1 LOAD - Normally open output Description First condition, that any logical block in the ladder diagram starts with, corresponds to LOAD or LOAD NOT instructions. Both of these instructions require one line in mnemonic code. On the right of these instructions any executive instruction may be used. Ladder symbol

Limitations There are no limitations, except that it is used as the first instruction from left to right. Flag Example It has no effect on any particular flag.

Pressing the button on the input 00 in the word IR000 activates the relay 00 on the output of PLC controller. Conditional instruction doesnt have be from input memory area; it can be any bit from other memory areas, i.e. SR area as in the following example.

When one of the instructions activates the bit 00 in the word SR200, bit 00 is activated in the output word IR010. In a word, every ON state of the bit at input causes the ON state at output.

E.2 LOAD NOT - Normally closed input Description First condition, that any logical block in the ladder diagram starts with, corresponds to LOAD or LOAD NOT instructions. Both of these instructions require one line in mnemonic code. On the right of these instructions any executive instruction may be used.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

There are no limitations, except that it is used as the first instruction from left to right. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Pressing the button on the input 00 in the word IR000 activates the relay 00 on the output of PLC controller. Conditional instruction doesnt have be from input memory area; it can be any bit from other memory areas, i.e. SR area as in the following example.

When one of the instructions activates the bit 00 in the word SR200, bit 00 is activated in the output word IR010. In a word, every ON state of the bit at input causes the OFF state at output.

E.3 AND - Logical "AND" with normally open contacts Description Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Example There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag. When two are linked serially in one instruction line, first of them corresponds to instructions LOAD or LOAD NOT, while the other represents instructions AND or AND NOT.

After the LOAD instruction on 00 input, AND instruction is linked to input 01. Instruction on the right will be executed only when both of the conditions from the line are fulfilled, i.e. when both inputs 00 and 01 are in the ON state.

E.4 AND NOT - Logical "AND" with normally closed contacts Description When two or more conditions are linked serially in one instruction line, first of them corresponds to instruction LOAD or LOAD NOT, while the other represents instruction AND or AND NOT.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Example There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag.

After the LOAD instruction on 00 input, AND NOT instruction is linked to input 01. Instruction on the right will be executed only when both of the conditions from the line are fulfilled, i.e. when input 00 is in ON state and input 01 is in OFF state.

E.5 OR - Logical "OR" with normally open contacts Description When two or more conditions coexist on separate, paralel lines that connect at a given point, the first condition corresponds to LOAD or LOAD NOT instructions, while others correspond to OR or OR NOT instructions.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Example

Inputs 00 and 01 are in OR relation with the output 00. One of the inputs with ON state is sufficient to activate the output 00.

E.6 OR NOT - Logical "OR" with normally closed contacts Description When two or more conditions coexist on separate, paralel lines that connect at a given point, the first condition corresponds to LOAD or LOAD NOT instructions, while others correspond to OR or OR NOT instructions.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Inputs 000.00 and 000.01 are in OR NOT relation with the output 010.00. Bit 010.00 will retain ON state until bit 01 changes to ON state (thus breaking the connection, because it is normally closed). One of the inputs with ON state is sufficient to activate the output 00.

E.7 OUTPUT - Normally open output Description The easiest way for getting results that fulfill input conditions is their direct connection to the instructions OUTPUT and OUTPUT NOT. These instructions are used for controlling the

status bit, which is defined as the instruction carrier. When OUTPUT instruction is used, bit assigned to it will be ON if the execution condition is ON, and it will be OFF if the execution condition is OFF. Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Example Attention should be paid not to overlap the instructions concerning the bit being controlled. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Bit IR010.00 will remain ON as long as bit IR000.00 is ON. When bit IR000.00 changes to OFF, bit IR010.00 also changes to OFF. This instruction cannot be used for assigning ON or OFF states to more than one bit. In case that there is a need for assigning values to all of the bits in word, it can be done only one bit at a time.

E.8 OUTPUT NOT - Normally closed output Description The easiest way for getting results that fulfill input conditions is their direct connection to the instructions OUTPUT and OUTPUT NOT. These instructions are used for controlling the status bit, which is defined as the instruction carrier. When OUTPUT instruction is used, bit assigned to it will be ON if the execution condition is OFF, and it will be OFF if the execution condition is ON.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Example Attention should be paid not to overlap the instructions concerning the bit being controlled. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Bit IR010.00 will remain ON as long as bit IR000.00 is OFF, while prelaskom changing bit IR000.00 to ON changes bit IR010.00 to OFF. This instruction cannot be used for assigning ON or OFF states to more than one bit. In case that there is a need for assigning values to all of the bits in word, it can be done only one bit at a time.

E.9 SET - Changes bit state to ON Description Instruction changes the state of the specified bit to ON when the execution condition is ON. In case that the condition is OFF, bit state remains unchanged (unlike the instruction OUT which changes bit state to OFF even when the condition is OFF).

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag.

If condition state on bit IR000.00 changes to ON, state of bit IR200.00 also changes to ON. When condition state of bit IR000.00 changes from ON to OFF, bit IR200.00 remains ON.

E.10 RESET - Changes bit state to OFF Description Ladder symbol Instruction changes the state of the specified bit to OFF when the execution condition is ON. In case that the condition is OFF, bit state remains unchanged.

Limitations Flag Example

There are no limitations. It has no effect on any particular flag.

If condition state on bit IR000.00 changes to ON, state of bit IR200.00 changes to OFF. When condition state of bit IR000.00 changes from ON to OFF, bit IR200.00 remains OFF.

E.11 KEEP - Changes bit state according to 2 inputs Description Instruction is used for maintaining the status of corresponding bit according to 2 inputs. The first input changes bit state to ON whenever the condition of the first line is fulfilled, while the second changes bit state to OFF whenever the condition of the second line is fulfilled. Bit state remains unchanged as long as inputs remain unchanged.

Ladder symbol

Flag Example

It has no effect on any particular flag.

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes to ON bit IR200.00 also changes to ON. If bit IR000.01 changes to ON, bit IR200.00 changes to OFF and remains OFF until state of bit IR000.00 is ON again.

E.12 DIFFERENTIATE UP - Changes bit state to ON for duration of one cycle Description Ladder symbol Instruction changes bit state to ON during one cycle when the preceding condition is fulfilled.

Flag Example

It has no effect on any particular flag.

Instruction changes state of bit IR200.00 to ON for duration of one cycle. If bit IR000.00 is ON, bit IR200.00 changes to ON for duration of one scan cycle.

E.13 DIFFERENTIATE DOWN - Changes bit state to OFF for duration of one cycle Description Ladder symbol Instruction changes bit state to OFF during one cycle when the preceding condition is fulfilled.

Flag Example

It has no effect on any particular flag.

If bit IR000.00 is ON, state of bit IR200.00 changes to OFF for duration of one scan cycle.

E.14 NO OPERATION - No operation Description Ladder symbol Flag It has no effect on any particular flag. Generally, usage of this instruction in programs is not recommended. When PLC gets to this instruction nothing happens and the following instruction is executed.

E.15 INTERLOCK - Interlock Description Instruction IL is always used in pair with the instruction ILC. Their purpose is to reset all the outputs, flags, control bits, timers and counters that are within instructions between IL and ILC. Timers and counters stop working and retain values they had at the moment of executing IL instruction. It is possible to have multiple IL instructions and to reset one or more parts of

the program, accordingly. Instruction is executed when condition state changes from ON to OFF! Ladder symbol Flag It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.16 INTERLOCKS CLEAR - End of the program part encompassed by interlock Description Instruction ILC is always used in pair with instruction IL. When the condition of instruction IL is fulfilled all the outputs, flags, control bits, timers and counters that are within instructions between IL and ILC are reset. Timers and counters stop working and retain values they had at the moment of executing IL instruction.

Ladder symbol Flag It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.17 END - End of program Description This is mandatory instruction at the end of every program. Any instruction following this one will not be executed. It can be used for debugging purposes in program, so as to designate the point where the monitoring of program execution stops. If the program uses subroutines, it is necesssary to have instruction END following the last subroutine.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag There are no limitations. Changes states of flags ER, CY, GR, EQ and LE to OFF.

E.18 JUMP - Jump to another location in the program Description Certain part of the program may be skipped depending on the state of defined condition for jump execution. Jumps can be created using JUMP (JMP(04)) or JUMP END (JME(05)) instructions. If condition state is ON, program executes normally, as if the instruction was never used. If status of execution condition is OFF, program execution continues from the JUMP END instruction corresponding to JUMP instruction. Which JUMP END corresponds to which JUMP instruction is defined with a number that follows the instruction. Value 0 can

be used unlimited number of times in the course of program for this purpose, while each of other 99 available numbers may be used only once. Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Total number of JUMP and JUMP END pairs cannot exceed 99. Each value from 1-99 range can be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.19 JUMP END - Location where the program execution continues after JUMP Description Ladder symbol Instruction JME is used in pair with JMP instruction as integral part of it. If there is no JME assigned to JMP instruction, program will report an error.

Limitations Flag

Total number of JUMP and JUMP END pairs cannot exceed 99. Each value from 1-99 range can be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

Example

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes to OFF, jump instruction skips all the instruction lines between itself and the corresponding JME instruction. Another way for using jump instruction is assigning value 0 to JMP instruction. Unlimited number of jumps can be programmed in this way and the destination for each of these is a unique location defined with instruction JUMP END with index 0. Instruction JUMP END with parameter 0 may be used multiple times in the program. In that case, program execution after the jump defined with JUMP (index 0) continues from the first following JUMP END instruction with this index. Time of execution with this form of jump function is somewhat longer, as the program must first locate the closest appropriate JUMP END instruction. The following example demonstrates programming greater number of jump functions ending at the same destination: Changing the state of bits IR000.00 or IR000.03 to OFF executes the jump to the line containing instruction JME.

E.20 TIMER - Timer with 0.1s resolution Description Timers are complex instructions with the purpose of separating two programming actions. Changing the state of condition to ON starts the timing with 0.1s increments starting from zero. Value of parameter SV (abbreviation for Set Value) is multiplied by 0.1 s, the result being total time in seconds. Value given in the middle part of the block is called TC number. Each TC number can be used for defining one couner or timer. It can take values from 000 - 127 range. Lower part of the block is reserved for displaying the starting value of timer. Word with this role can belong to sectors IR, AR, DM, HR, LR or can be given as a constant, with values from 000.0 - 999.9 range. The most common and the simplest way to apply a timer is to have a constant here, whether given directly or programmed on some memory location (if parameter SV is given as a constant, it is necessary to put character # ahead of value).

Ladder symbol

Limitations The number of timer cannot be used for counter or another timer. Flag Example Affects the appropriate flag in TC area.

Changing the state of bit IR000.00 to ON starts the timing (in this case, time is 100*0.1s=10 seconds). After the passing of given period of time, the appropriate bit IM002 changes state to ON, thus fulfilling the condition for executing the instructions on the right (in this case bit IR010.01 changes state to ON). Condition bit must be constantly ON for a given time period for bit TIM002 to be set. If condition state changes to OFF during the given time period, timer resets and goes back to the beginning of period.

APPENDIX E Ladder diagram instructions (2/3)

E.21 HIGH-SPEED TIMER - Timer with 0.01s resolution Description This instruction is identical to the previous TIM instruction, except for the resolution of decrementing. In case of TIM instruction this interval equals 0.1s, while with TIMH instruction it equals 0.01s. Changing the condition to ON start the countdown with 0.01s decrements from the predefined value down to zero. If the state of condition changes to OFF timer will be reset. Value of parameter SV (abbreviation for Set Value) is multiplied by 0.01 s resulting in total time in seconds. Value given in the middle part of the block is called TC number. Each TC number can be used for defining one counter or timer. It can take values from 000 - 127 range. Lower part of the block is reserved for displaying the starting value of timer. Word with this role can belong to sectors IR, AR, DM, HR, LR or can be given as a constant, with values from 00.00 99.9.9 range. If parameter SV is given as a constant, it is necessary to put character # ahead of value. Ladder symbol

Limitations The number of timer cannot be used for a counter or another timer. Value of SV must be in 00.00 - 99.99 range. Recommended range for a number of timer is 000 - 003. Flag Example Affects the appropriate flag in TC area.

Changing the state of condition bit IR000.00 to ON starts the countdown (in this case for

27*0.01s=0.27 seconds). After the passing of given period of time, the appropriate bit IM003 changes state to ON, thus fulfilling the condition for executing the instructions on the right (in this case bit IR010.01 changes state to ON). Condition bit must be constantly ON for a given time period for bit TIM002 to be set. If condition state changes to OFF during the given time period, timer resets and goes back to the beginning.

E.22 COUNTER - Counter Description Counter decrements the value given with SV for every ON state of the condition on CP line (abbreviation for Count Pulse). Each time the state on CP line changes from OFF to ON value of SV is decremented by one. Fulfilling the condition on R (reset) line sets the counter to a starting state with a given SV value. When the zero is reached, instruction changes the state of appropriate bit from TC area corresponding to the number of a counter (bit can be returned to OFF state by fulfilling the condition on reset line). If parameter SV is given as a constant, it is necessary to place character # ahead of value. Ladder symbol

Limitations The number of timer cannot be used for a counter or another timer. Flag Affects the appropriate flag in TC area.

Example

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes from OFF to ON, counter value decreases to 299, next change of bit IR000.00 lowers it to 298 and so on. When counter value reaches zero, state of bit CNT004 changes to ON, fulfilling the condition for executing instructions on the right (in this case, it is a normally closed contact that will open).

E.23 REVERSIBLE COUNTER - Incrementing / decrementing counter Description This instruction is an extension of the previous one, having the added input for increasing counter value by one. Counter CNTR has two counting inputs: incrementing and decrementing. Decrementing input is identical to one from CNT instruction. For every ON state of condition on II line (Increment Input) counter value increases by one. If this value reached SV, counter value remains unchanged. Every time state on DI line (Decrement Input) changes from OFF to ON, value of SV decreases by one. If counter value reached zero it remains unchanged. Fulfilling the condition on R (reset) line sets the counter to a starting state given with value of SV. With reaching the zero, instruction changes the state of bit in TC area appropriate to the number of the counter. This bit can be returned to OFF state by fulfilling the condition on na reset line or increment II line. If the parameter SV is given as a constant it is necessary to place the character # ahead of value.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Number of a counter cannot be used for a timer or another counter. Flag Example Affects the appropriate bit in TC area.

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes from OFF to ON, counter value decreases to 122, next change of bit IR000.00 lowers it to 121 and so on. When the state of bit IR000.01 changes counter value increases by one. When counter value reaches zero, state of bit CNT006 changes to ON fulfilling the condition for executing instructions on the right (in this case, it is normally closed contact that will open). ON state of bit IR00.02 will return the counter to a given value, while a bit CNT006 returns it to OFF state.

E.24 COMPARE - Compares two memory locations Description Instruction CMP(20) compares two words upon fulfilling the preceding condition. Depending on the relation of the two words, output can be: 1. Equal - state of bit EQ in SR memory area changes to ON. 2. Cp1 is lower than Cp2 - state of bit LE in SR memory area changes to ON. 3. Cp1 is greater than Cp2 - state of bit GR in SR memory area changes to ON.

Flag GR EQ LE Ladder symbol

Address 25505 25506 25507

Cp1<Cp2 OFF OFF ON

Cp1=Cp2 OFF ON OFF

Cp1>Cp2 ON OFF OFF

Limitations

Comparison that include the current values of timer or a counter require values in BCD format. Checking the flags GR, LE and EQ should take place immediately after the CMP (20) instruction, because another instruction may affect their states. Affects the flags GR, LE and EQ in SR memory area.

Flag

Example

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes to ON, condition for comparing the values of memory locations IR200 and IR201 is fulfilled. If value of IR200 is greater than IR201, state of bit IR010.00 changes to ON. If value of IR200 is lesser than IR201, state of bit IR010.02 changes to ON. In case of equal values of locations IR200 and IR201, state of bit IR010.01 changes to ON.

E.25 DOUBLE COMPARE - Compares two consecutive words Description Instruction CMPL(60) compares the two consecutive words with other two consecutive words. Depending on the relation, output can be: 1. Equal - state of bit EQ in SR memory area changes to ON. 2. Cp1+1, Cp1 is lower than Cp2+1, Cp2 - state of bit LE in SR memory area changes to ON. 3. Cp1+1, Cp1 is greater than Cp2+1, Cp2 - state of bit GR in SR memory area changes to ON.

Flag GR EQ LE Ladder symbol

Address 25505 25506 25507

Cp1+1,Cp1 <Cp2+1,Cp2 OFF OFF ON

Cp1+1,Cp1=Cp2+1,Cp2 Cp1+1,Cp1>Cp2+1,Cp2 OFF ON OFF ON OFF OFF

Limitations Flag

Checking the flags GR, LE and EQ should take place immediately after the CMP(20) instruction, because another instruction may affect their states. Affects the flags GR, LE and EQ in SR memory area.

Example

When the state of bit IR000.00 changes to ON, condition for comparing the values of memory locations IR200+IR2001 and HR00+HR01 is fulfilled. If value of the first operand is greater, state of bit IR010.00 changes to ON. If value of the first operand is lesser, state of bit IR010.02 changes to ON. In case of equal values, state of bit IR010.01 changes to ON.

E.26 BLOCKS COMPARE - Block compare

Description

Instruction BCMP compares the value of memory location CD with values of memory locations CB - CB+31. The method consists of finding the pair of CB locations where the value of CD location fits in between. Upon locating that area, the appropriate bit is set in the result word R. Based on this information, the programmer knows the general area of value of location CD.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Values of CB block must be in order, so that the value of location CB is lesser than value of CB+1. Flag Example It has no effect on any particular flag.

Comparison will be executed for as long as the state of condition is ON. If value of location HR00 equals 0210, then it will be set between DM0014 and DM0015 corresponding to the second bit of the result word LR05.

E.27 TABLE COMPARE - Table compare Description Instruction TCMP compares value of memory location CD with values of memory locations TB, TB+1, TB+2, TB+3 ... TB+15. If value of location CB is equal to one of TB values, the appropriate bit of the result word R is set. Based on this information, the programmer knows which TB value matches the value of location CD. Ladder symbol

Limitations Locations DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used for the result word. Flag It has no effect on any particular flag.

Example

Comparation will be executed as long as the state of bit IR000.00 is ON. If value of location HR00 is 0210, then it equals the values of locations DM0002, DM0006, DM0010 and DM0014. Accordingly, the appropriate bits of the word IR216 change states to ON (they are set).

E.28 MOVE - Moves the contents of one memory location to another Description Instruction MOVE is used for moving the contents of one memory location to another. The operand S represents the word whose contents should be moved to a word that is operand D. Operand S can be a constant, if the character # is placed ahead of four-digit value.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D. The current state of timer or counter also cannot be used as operand D. Instruction BSET(17) should be used for that purpose. Flag EQ from TC area changes state to ON when all zeros are written into operand D. Therefore, flag EQ provides us with information if the moved value equals zero. In case of error, state of flag ER changes to ON.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00, instruction moves the contents of memory location IR001 to memory location HR05. Every bit of word IR001 is copied to the appropriate bit of word HR05. Instruction MOV can be very helpful when reading the signals controller sends or receives from peripheral devices. Input states are moved to a working area, where they are processed and then they are sent to the output points of PLC controller.

E.29 MOVE NOT - Moves the complement Description Instruction MOVE NOT is used for moving the complemented (inverted bits, bit 0 becomes 1and vice versa) contents of one memory location to another. The operand S represents the word whose complemented contents should be moved to a word that is operand D. Operand S can be a constant, if the character # is placed ahead of four-digit value.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D. The current state of timer or counter also cannot be used as operand D. Instruction BSET(17) should be used for that purpose. Flag EQ from TC area changes state to ON when all zeros are written into operand D. Therefore, flag EQ provides us with information if the moved value equals zero. In case of error, state of flag ER changes to ON.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00, instruction moves the complemented contents of memory location IR001 to memory location HR05. Every bit of word IR001 is complemented and copied to the appropriate bit of word HR05.

E.30 BLOCKS TRANSFER - Copies one block of words to another Description Instruction BLOCK TRANSFER copies the contents of one memory block of words to another. Parameter N represents the number of memory locations copied, S is the address of starting source memory location, while D represents the address of the starting destination memory location.

Ladder symbol

Limitations

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D. S and S+N have to be from the same memory area. D and D+N also have to be from the same memory area. N has to be a BCD number. State of ER flag changes to ON if N is not a BCD number or in case that S and S+N, D and D+N are not from the same memory area.

Flag Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00, instruction moves the contents of ten memory locations IR200 - IR210 to memory locations HR00 - HR10.

E.31 BLOCK SET - Copies the contents of one memory location to multiple locations

Description Instruction copies the contents of one memory location S to a block of memory locations from St to E. Parameter St contains the starting address of the block and parameter E contains the ending address of the block. It is possible to change the contents of the current timer/counter values with this instruction, unlike with instructions MOV and MVN. Operand S can be a constant, if the character # is placed ahead of four-digit value. Ladder symbol

Limitations Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands St and E. Address in the operand St has to be lesser than the address in operand E. Both the operands St and E have to be from the same memory block. Flag Example State of ER flag changes to ON if St and E do not belong to the same memory block or in the case that the second parameter is greater than first.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00, instruction moves the contents of memory location IR000 (zero) to locations HR00 - HR05. In this way, it is possible to clear the memory block or to set it to a certain value. Same effect could be achieved if constant #0000 was used instead

of memory location IR200 containing all zeros.

E.32 DATA EXCHANGE - Exchanges values of two memory locations Description Instruction exchanges the values of memory locations E and E1. Ladder symbol

Limitations Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands E1 and E2. Flag Example State of ER flag changes to ON if non-existing indirect address of location from DM area is used as an operand.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00 instruction exchanges the contents of memory locations IR000 (all zeros) and IR201 (all ones). As a result, memory location IR201 contains all ones and memory location IR200 contains all zeros.

E.33 SINGLE WORD DISTRIBUTE - Creates a stack Description Instruction can be used in two ways depending on the states of bits 12, 13, 14 and 15 of memory location in parameter C. If these 4 bits have value between 0 and 8, then the instruction copies the word from parameter S (or a constant if it is given with character # ahead) to an address calculated by adding the base address from parameter DBs and the shift defined in the rest of the word of parameter C. When bits 12-15 in memory location of parameter C form the number 9, then the instruction is used for stack operations. The rest of the value of word of parameter C now defines number of the words in stack (from 000 to 999) and the contents of DBs represent the stack pointer.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand DBs. Address of the operand DBs has to be in the same memory block with BDs + shift. The argument C has to be BCD number. EQ flag changes state to ON when the contents of memory location in parameter S equal zero. State of ER flag changes to ON in case of error.

Examples

Bits 12-15 in the word LR10 from parameter C form the number 0011, which is in 0 - 8 range. Therefore, the instruction is used in the first form. Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR00.00, instruction copies the constant #00FF to an address calculated by adding the base address (in this case HR10) and three lower numbers from the word LR10.

Bits 12-15 in the word IR216 from parameter C form the number 0101, which exceeds 8. Therefore, the instruction is used in the second form. The example above shows how to create a stack between memory locations DM0001 and DM0005. Location DM0000 is used as a pointer marking the top of the stack.

E.34 DATA COLLECT - FIFO, LIFO stack Description Instruction can be used in three different ways depending on the states of bits 12-15 in the word of parameter C: 1. If four bits have value between 0 and 7, the instruction copies the word D to an address calculated by adding the address of the word SBs with the rest of the word C. 2. If value of four bits of word C equals 9, instruction creates the FIFO stack (First In First Out). The rest of the bits of the word C determine the number of the words in stack (000 to 999), while SBs represents the pointer marking the top of the stack. 3. If value of four bits of word C equals 8, instruction creates the LIFO stack (Last In First Out). The rest of the bits of the word C determine the number of the words in stack (000 to 999), while SBs represents the pointer marking the top of the stack.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand DBs. Parameter C has to be a BCD number. SBs and SBs + shift have to be from the same memory block. EQ flag changes state to ON when the contents of memory location in parameter S equal zero. State of ER flag changes to ON in case of error, such as overflow or assigning non-BCD contents to parameters S or D.

Examples

Bits 12 - 15 in the word IR200 form 0, while the rest of the word forms value 005, defining stack size to be 5 locations. Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction copies the contents of word LR00 to an address calculated by adding the address DM0000 with the shift defined in the word IR200 (lower three digits) : DM0000 + 005 = DM0005.

Bits 12 - 15 in word IR216 form a number 9, while the rest of the word forms value 005, defining the stack size to be 5 locations. Number 9 as the first digit of word IR216 determines that the instruction works with FIFO stack. Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction moves the contents of the stack by one address, so that the element that first came into the stack (AAAA) is copied to the word IR001, while the stack pointer decreases by one.

Bits 12 - 15 of the word IR216 form a number 8, while the rest of the word forms value 005, defining the stack size to be 5 locations. Number 8 as the first digit of the word IR216 means that the instructions works with LIFO stack. Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction copies the value of the last word that came into stack to the location IR001, while the stack pointer decreases by one.

E.35 MOVE BIT - Copies a bit from one word to another Description Instruction copies a specified bit from the word S to a specified bit of word D. The word Bi determines the positions of bits in question. The upper 2 digits determine the destination bit, while lower 2 determine the source bit.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Values of destination and source bits have to be between 0 and 15. Words DM6144 DM6655 cannot be used as operands Bi or D.

E.36 MOVE DIGIT - Moves a digit from one word to another Description Instruction copies a specified digit from the word S to a specified digit of the word D. The word Di determines the positions of digits in question.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Value of destination and source bit has to be between 0 and 15. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands Bi or D. ER flag changes state to ON if at least one of three digits in the word Di isnt in the specified range (between 0 and 3). The examples below show copying digits from one word to another depending on the value of word Di.

E.37 SHIFT REGISTER - Shifts the contents of a word for 1 bit to the left

Description

Instruction shifts the contents of word St for 1 bit to the left. The highest bit of the word St moves to the place of the lowest bit in the word St+1, the highest bit of the word St+1 moves to the position of the lowest bit in the word St+2 and so forth, up to the word E. The highest bit of the word E is irreversibly lost with every shifting. Input I define whether 0 or 1 fills the lowest bit position. If the state of I line is ON, value is one, while OFF defines zero. Input P is used as clock for the instruction and switching it from OFF to ON changes the bit shift. State on R line can be OFF when the instruction can be executed and ON when all the bits within word range from St to E are set to 0. As long as the state of R line isnt set to OFF state, instruction cannot be executed.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

E has to be greater or equal to the address in parameter St. ER flag changes state to ON if St is lower address than E or if they are not in the same memory area.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction uses one-second clock on bit 255.02 in order to move the contents of the word HR00. Bit IR200.00 will be ON every time the bit HR00.07 equals one.

E.38 WORD SHIFT - Shifts whole words Description Instruction shifts the whole contents of the word St to an address greater by one than the current. Value of the word from the parameter St is moved to St+1 up to the the word defined

with parameter E. Word that equals zero fills the place on the right for every shifting. Value of the word on the address from parameter E is irreversibly lost. Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

E has to be greater or equal address to the one from parameter St. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands St and E. ER flag changes state to ON if St is lower address than E or if they are not from the same memory area.

E.39 ARITHMETIC SHIFT LEFT - Arithmetic shift left Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word Wd for one bit to the left. The lowest bit becomes 0, while the highest bit is moved to carry bit.

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 se ne mogu koristiti za operand Wd. EQ flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd equal zero. CY flag takes the

value of the highest bit of the word Wd and changes state accordingly.

E.40 ARITHMETIC SHIFT RIGHT - Arithmetic shift right Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word Wd for 1 bit to the right. The highest bit takes value 0, while the lowest bit moves to carry bit (CY).

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. EQ flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd equal zero. CY flag takes the value of the lowest bit of the word Wd and changes state accordingly.

E.41 ROTATE LEFT - Rotates the contents of a word for 1 bit to the left Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word Wd for one bit to left, using the carry bit CY. Bit from CY is then moved to the lowest bit to close the circle.

Limitations Flag

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. EQ flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd equal zero. CY flag takes value of the highest bit of the word Wd and changes state accordingly.

E.42 ROTATE RIGHT - Rotates the contents of a word for 1 bit to the right Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word Wd for one bit to the right, using the carry bit CY. Bit from CY is then moved to the highest bit to close the circle.

Limitations Flag

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. EQ flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd equal zero. CY flag takes value of the lowest bit of the word Wd and changes state accordingly.

E.43 ONE DIGIT SHIFT LEFT - Shifts word for one digit to the left Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word St for one digit to the left. The highest digit of the word E is irreversibly lost and the lowest digit of the word St takes zero value.

Limitations

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands St and E. Operands St and E have to be in the same memory area, while the address of operand E has to be greater or equal to the address of operand St.

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if St and E are not from the same memory area or in case that the address of parameter E is lower than the address of parameter St.

E.44 ONE DIGIT SHIFT RIGHT - Shifts word for one digit to the right Description Ladder symbol Instruction shifts the contents of the word St for one digit to the right. The lowest digit of the word E is irreversibly lost and the lowest digit of the word St takes zero value.

Limitations

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands St and E. Operands St and E have to be in the same memory area and the address of the operand E has to be lower or equal to the address of the operand St. ER flag changes state to ON if St and E are not from the same memory area or in case that the address of parameter E is higher than the address of parameter St.

Flag

E.45 REVERSIBLE SHIFT REGISTER - Shifts words to the left or to the right Description Instruction is used for shifting one or several words in both directions, according to the states of the highest 4 bits in the control word C. The control word determines shifting direction, input value, clock and reset input.

Ladder symbol

Limitations

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands C, St and E. Operands St i E have to be from the same memory area and the address of the operand St has to be lower or equal to the address of the operand E. ER flag changes state to ON if St and E are not from the same memory area or the address of parameter St is higher than the address of parameter E. CY changes according to the state of the lowest bit of the word St or the highest bit of the word E, depending on the shifting direction set in the control word C.

Flag

Example

First instruction line determines the shifting direction, second determines input, third determines the clock and fourth determines reset. The shifting direction depends on the bit 12

of the control word. Depending on it, data bit moves to CY carry bit, while the opposite end becomes 0 or 1 depending on bit 13 of the control word. Condition for executing this instruction is located in the bit IR000.04, but besides this it is necessary to have the clock (bit 14 of the control word) ON. If the instruction is being executed with reset bit (bit 15 of the control word) OFF, all data bits as well as carry bit CY are set to 0.

E.46 BCD INCREMENT - Increases the contents of a word by 1 Description Ladder symbol Instruction increases the contents of the word Wd by one when the condition is fulfilled. Increment does not affect the carry bit.

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON when the result of increment equals 0.

E.47 BCD DECREMENT - Decreases the contents of a word by 1 Description Ladder symbol Instruction decreases the contents of the word Wd by one when the condition is fulfilled. Decrement does not affect the carry bit.

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word Wd are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON when the result of decrement equals 0.

E.48 BCD ADD - Adds two values Description Instruction adds the contents of words Au and Ad (Au + Ad + CY) and stores the result in location R. If the result is greater than 9999 carry bit CY is set.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Au and Ad are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is greater than 9999. Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.02, carry bit is cleared and the value of memory location IR200 is added to the constant 6103. The result is stored in the memory location DM0100. The example further shows how to save the carry bit if the result was greater than 9999. If the result exceeded 9999, memory location DM0101 will take value 1 and if not it will take value 0. In this way, locations DM0100 and DM0101 form one 32-bit word, which may prove to be useful.

Example

E.49 SUBTRACT - Subtracts two values Description Instruction subtracts the contents of the word Su and a value of carry bit CY from the contents of the word Mi. The result is stored in the memory location R If the result is negative, carry bit CY is set and a 10complement of the result is stored into R. To get the real result, just subtract the value in R from zero.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mi and Su are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is negative.

Example

Carry bit status should be checked before the subtraction. It is best to clear it with CLC instruction. The check is more necessary after the subtraction, because there is chance of misinterpretation. If the carry bit is set (value is 1) the result of subtraction is negative and the result word contains 10 complement of the real result. When the condition is fulfilled on bit IR000.02, carry bit is cleared and the value of memory location DM0100 is subtracted from value of location IR201. The result is stored in the location HR10. Upon subtraction, carry bit CY is checked. If it is set, condition on SR255.04 (the very carry bit) will be fulfilled, clearing it anew and commencing the new subtraction in order to get the real result of the first subtraction. The second subtraction instruction subtracts the value of the result word HR10 from zero, storing the result into HR10 again. It is useful to set a certain bit for a programmer to have information on negative result. In the following example this bit is HR1100. Changing the state of carry bit to OFF doesnt change

the state of bit HR1100.

Character @ ahead of SUB(31) represents the differencial form of the instruction, or simply put, this instruction will not execute non-stop while the condition is fulfilled. Only changing the condition from OFF to ON executes the instruction. This means that the second subtraction instruction wont take place immediately after the first one. Before executing the second instruction, it is necessary that bit IR000.02 changed state from OFF to ON at least once.

E.50 BCD MULTIPLY - Multiplies two values Description Ladder symbol Instruction multiplies values of locations Md and Mr and stores the result into memory locations R and R+1.

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mr and Md are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the there is a carry in the result.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction multiplies the values of memory locations IR013 and DM0005. The result is stored into two sequential memory locations HR07 and HR08. The result is stored so that HR08 contains higher bits and that HR07 contains lower bits. APPENDIX E Ladder diagram instructions (3/3)

E.51 BCD DIVIDE - Divides two values Description Instruction divides the contents of location Dd with contents of location Dr. The result of division is stored in locations R and R+1. The first contains the rounded off result of division, while R+1 contains the fraction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Dd and Dr are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction divides the value of memory location IR216 by the value of memory location HR09. The result is stored into two sequential memory locations DM0017 and DDM0018. The result is stored so that DM0017 contains round number and DM0018 contains the fraction.

E.52 DOUBLE BCD ADD - Adds two 32-bit words Description Instruction adds values from addresses Au and Au+1 to values from addresses Ad, Ad+1 and carry bit CY. If the result exceeds 99999999 carry bit CY is set.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Au and Ad are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if there is a carry in the result.

E.53 DOUBLE BCD SUBTRACT - Subtracts two 32-bit words Description Instruction subtracts the contents of two words Su+1 and Su with carry bit CY added from the contents of words Mi+1 and Mi. The result is stored into memory locations R+1 and R. If the result is negative, carry bit CY is set and 10complement of the result is stored into R. To get the real result, contents of R should be subtracted from zero.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mi, Mi+1, Su, Su+1 are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

CY flag changes state to ON if the result is negative.

E.54 DOUBLE BCD MULTIPLY - Multiplies two pairs of words Description Instruction multiplies values of locations Md, Md+1 with the values of locations Mr, Mr+1. The result is stored into 4 locations: R, R+1, R+2 i R+3.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mr, Mr+1, Md and Md+1 are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if there is a carry in the result.

E.55 DOUBLE BCD DIVIDE - Divides two pairs of words Description Instruction divides the contents of locations Dd, Dd+1 by the contents of locations Dr i Dr+1. The result is stored into locations R and R+1 while locations R+2 and R+3 contain the fraction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in two cases, if the contents of words Dd, Dd+1, Dr and Dr+1 are not BCD or if the contents of locations Dr and Dr+1 equal zero. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

E.56 BINARY ADD - Binary addition Description Ladder symbol Instruction executes binary addition of words Au and Ad with carry bit and stores the result into memory location R. If the result is greater than FFFF the carry bit CY is set.

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is greater FFFF. OF flag changes state if the result is greater than +32.767 (7FFF). UF flag changes state if the result is lower than od +32.768 (7FFF).

Example

The example demonstrates how the binary addition works. As A6E2+80C5 equals 127A7, carry bit CY is set and the value of location R+1 (which is, in this case, on HR11) changes to 1 to enable easier handling of the result on addresses R and R+1 later in the program. If overflow occurs, carry bit CY will be set, fulfilling the condition on bit SR255.04. This condition controls the lower MOV instruction, which sets 1 to location HR11.

E.57 BINARY SUBTRACT - Binary subtraction

Description Instruction subtracts values Su+CY from the value Mi and stores the result into location R. If the result is negative, carry bit CY is set and the 2complement of the real result is stored into location R. Ladder symbol

Limitations Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. Flag ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is negative. OF flag changes state if the result is greater than +32.767 (7FFF) UF flag changes state if the result is lower than +32.768 (7FFF).

Example The example subtracts the value of location LR00 increased by the state of carry bit CY from the value of location IR200. As the result is positive, carry bit CY will not be set. In case of negative result, location HR01 would contain 2complement of the result, so that a conversion would be necessary for getting the real result.

E.58 BINARY MULTIPLY - Binary multiplication Description Instruction multiplies values of location Md by the value of location Mr. The result is stored in two memory locations R and R+1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state u ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state u ON if the result equals 0.

E.59 BINARY DIVIDE - Binary division Description Instruction divides the value of location Dd with the value of location Dr. The result is stored into location R, while the fraction is stored in R+1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R and the instruction cannot be used for dividing signed numbers. ER flag changes state to ON in case that Dr contains value 0. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

E.60 BCD TO BINARY - Converts decimal number to a binary number Description Ladder symbol Instruction converts binary representation of decimal number from the word S to binary number in the word R. Contents of the word S remains unchanged.

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word S are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction changes the contents of memory location IR200 so that its numerical value remains unchanged; in other words, only the representation of the locations contents changes. If the contents of the location IR200 is 164 decimal, this instruction would convert it to 0000000010100100. One of the purposes of this instruction is preparing the contents of memory location for one of the binary operations.

E.61 BINARY TO BCD - Converts binary number to a decimal number Description Instruction converts binary represented number from the word S to a decimal number in the word R. Contents of the word S remains unchanged.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction changes the contents of memory location IR200 so that its numerical value remains unchanged; in other words, only the representation of the locations contents changes. If the contents of location IR200 is 000000101100100 binarny, this instruction would convert it to 740 decimaly. One of the purposes of this instruction is preparing the contents of memory location for one of BCD operations.

E.62 4 TO 16 DECODER - 4 to 16 decoder

Description

Instruction converts up to four 4-bit hexadecimal digits of values from 0 to 15. The result of the instruction is stored into memory locations from address R to R+3, depending on how many digits was converted. Converted digit in the result is represented with a set bit on a position corresponding to the value of a digit. If the value of a digit is C (12 decimaly) the twelfth bit of the result word will be set.

The first digit to be converted, as well as the number of digits to be converted, is determined in the control word Di. If the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew. The structure of the control word Di is shown on the picture below.

Some of the combinations of control word values along with their meaning are given below:

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Two rightmost digits of the word Di have to be between 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case that (R + number of digits) exceeds the range of a given memory block.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction converts three digits from the digit no.1 in the word DM0020. As there are three digits to be converted, the result will take three memory locations starting from HR10. Digit 0 in the word DM0020 is not converted.

E.63 16 TO 4 ENCODER - 16 to 4 encoder Description Instruction determines the highest set bit in SB and according to it, stores the 4-bit hexadecimal value to a certain place in the result word R. In the example below, bit 12 of the location on address SB is set, which would be C in a hexadecimal representation.

Precise place for storing the converted value in the word R is determined by a control word Di. The same word also determines the number of words to be converted, starting from the address of the word SB. For this example, the control word would be 0001.

The first digit to be converted, as well as the number of digits to be converted, is determined in the control word Di. If the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew. The structure of the control word Di is shown on the picture above. Some of the combinations of control word values along with their meaning are given below:

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Two rightmost digits of the word Di have to be between 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands R, SB and Di. ER flag changes state to ON if (SB + number of digits) exceeds the range of a given memory block or if the word to be converted equals zero.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, first DMPX instruction converts two words, IR200 and IR201. The control word is 0010, meaning that two words are converted (digit 1) and stored starting from the zero digit in the result (rightmost digit 0). After the first DMPX instruction, the second one is executed, converting two words from addresses LR10 and LR11 and storing them in the result word HR10, starting from the digit no.2. Therefore, the word HR10 contains four converted words in the following order: IR200, IR201, LR10, LR11. More detailed explanation of how the instruction works is given on the following picture.

Presuming that binary value is the one from locations IR200, IR201, LR10 and LR11, as in example, the result of conversion in the result word HR10 would be 5B7D.

E.64 ASCII CONVERT - Converts to ASCII code Description Instruction converts digits from the word S to their ASCII equivalent and stores the result in the words starting from the address D. The control word Di determines the first converted digit, the number of digits to be converted and which half of the word D contains the first 8bit ASCII converted code. IIf the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew from the word S. Digit with the highest position of the word Di has a role of parity bit and it can take values between 0 and 2 - not having parity, parity and non-parity. Parity bit is actually a highest bit of the 8-bit ASCII code. When the third digit of the word Di equals zero, this bit is always zero. If the third digit of the word Di equals one, then this bit represents parity, or simply put, this bit is set when the number of ones in the other 7 bits of ASCII is odd making the number of ones even. If the ASCII value equals 31 (binary 0011 0001), even parity would change the highest bit to one, changing the ASCII number to 1011 0001 or B1. The status of parity bit does not affect the interpretation of ASCII code. Odd parity bit behaves in similar fashion, but with the opposite function. Its purpose is to ensure that the number of ones in ASCII code is always odd. The following picture represents interpreting the value of word Di and the picture after that gives several versions of values of

the word Di and how they affect the instruction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations

Two lower digits of the words Di must have values betweenmoraju imati 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D.

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if two rightmost digits of the word Di do not fall within the specified range (0-3) or the result word exceeds the boundaries of memory area.

E.65 COMPLEMENT - Complements a word Description Instruction executes the second complement of the word Wd and stores it into word Wd again. The second complement means that ones become zeros and vice versa.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.66 LOGICAL AND - Operation logical "AND" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes the operation logical AND on words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into word R. Operation logical AND puts one in the result only if the same position of words I1 and I2 also contain one.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.67 LOGICAL OR - Operation logical "OR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes the operation logical OR on words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation logical OR puts the one in the result if at least one of the words I1 and I2 contains one on that position.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.68 EXCLUSIVE OR - Operation "EXCLUSIVE OR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes operation EXCLUSIVE OR on the words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation exlusive OR puts one in the result only if the same position of the words I1 and I2 contains different values.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.69 EXCLUSIVE NOR - Operation "EXCLUSIVE NOR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes operation EXCLUSIVE OR on the words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation exclusive NOR puts one in the result only if the same position of words I1 and I2 contains the same value, whether it is 0 or1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.70 BIT COUNTER - Counts the number of ones in a given word Description Instruction counts the number of bits with the state 1 in words from address SB to SB+(N1) and puts the result on the address of the word R.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. Word N cannot have zero value. ER flag changes state to ON in case that N isnt BCD number or in case that SB and SB+(N1) dont belong to the same memory area. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.71 SUBROUTINE ENTRY - Enters the subroutine Description Instruction changes the course of the main program towards subroutine, at the instruction line of the main program which contains the instruction SBS. Number of instructions N has to be in 000 - 049 range. When the instruction condition is fulfilled, all the instructions between SBN(92) and the first RET(92) instruction are executed. Upon processing the RET instruction, program returns to the line immediately following the instruction SBS which called the subroutine in the first place. The same subroutine may be called from several places in the program.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Number of subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. ER flag changes state to ON when non-existing subroutine is called, when the subroutine calls itself or when the subroutine being executed at the moment is called.

E.72 SUBROUTINE DEFINE - Beginning of a subroutine Description Instruction marks the beginning of a subroutine. Each subroutine is defined with its number N. All subroutines have to be placed after the main program and instruction END has to follow the last RET instruction of the last subroutine SBN.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.73 SUBROUTINE RETURN - Return from a subroutine Description Instruction executes the return from the subroutine to the main program. Each subroutine must contain the RET instruction. This instruction jas on number of its own, naturally assuming that it belongs to the previous SBN instruction.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.74 MACRO - Macro Description Instruction MCRO enables one subroutine to substitiute several subroutines having the same structure, but different operands. Instruction has 4 input words SR232 to SR235 and 4 output words SR236 to SR239 used for sending or receiving the subroutine parameters. Upon fulfilling the condition, the instruction copies the contents of locations I1 - I3 to words SR232 - SR235. Upon execution of subroutine N, values of the words SR236 - SR239 are copied to words O1 - O3.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. ER flag changes state to ON when non-existing subroutine is called, when the subroutine

calls itself or when the subroutine, being executed at the moment, is called. Example

Instruction MCRO calls the subroutine with the number 010. Contents of words DM0010 DM0013 is copied to SR232 - SR235 and upon execution of the instruction, contents of words SR236 - SR239 is copied to the words DM0020 - DM0023.

E.75 INTERRUPT CONTROL - Interrupt control Description Instruction controls the interrupts and executes one of the seven functions presented in the table below, according to the value of the word C1.

C1 000 001 002 003 004 100 200

Function Mask/unmask interrupts Clear the interrupt input Read the current mask for interrupt inputs Reset decrement counter and unmask interrupts Reset increment counter and unmask interrupts Mask all interrupts Unmask all interrupts

NOTE: Value of the word C1 004 refers to models CPM2A/CPM2C of PLC controller, so it will not be detailed here. C1=000 Function is used for masking and unmasking the interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006. Masked interrupts are registered, but the part of the program assigned to them will not be executed until the mask is off. Upon unmasking interrupt input, interrupt routine will immediately take place (unless, in the

meantime the bit corresponding to that interrupt input is reset with the instruction INT, parameter C1=001). The input being masked or unmasked is determined by parameter C2 according to the following scheme (bear in mind that we work with bits and not with digits of the word C2). Bits 4, 5, 6...15 should be set to zero. All interrupt inputs are masked upon starting the PLC controller.

C1=001 Function resets the registered interrupts, so that interrupt routine cannot take place upon unmasking the interrupt input. Bits 4, 5, 6...15 of the word C2 should be set to zero.

C1=002 Function reads the status of the mask for interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006 and stores the read state into the word C2. Interrupt input is masked if the state of the corresponding bit equals 1. Bits 00 03 correspond to interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006.

C1=003 Function restarts the interrupt inputs in the counter mode. The current counter value (SR240 SR243) is set to the starting state and the interrupt is unmasked. If C1=003, decremental counter is restarted, while in the case of C1=004 incremental counter is restarted. As CPM1A model of PLC does not feature incremental counter, this option should not be used. When using the options C1=003 or C1=004 differencial form of the instruction shoud be used @INT or else the current counter state (PV) will be reset to the starting state (SV) and the interrupt will never be generated. Writing the value 0000 to the starting counter state and executing the INT instruction with

parameter C1=003 stops the counter and disables interrupts. To start the counter again, non-zero value should be written to a starting value SV and the instruction INT executed. Interrupts in the counter mode can be masked by executing the instruction INT with parameter C1=000 and set corresponding bit in C2. If same is done, but with 0 for the appropriate position in the word C2 interrupt input will behave as a regular interrupt ulaz and not as counter interrupt input.

C1=100 Function masks all the interrupts including the interval timer interrupts and the high-speed counter interrupts. Masked interrupts are registered, but are not executed. This function is also called a global interrupt mask and it does not affect the masks of specific interrupts. This option should be used for temporary disabling all the interrupts. It is cmmonly used in pair, one function masks all the interrupts and the other one unmasks them. Function cannot be used within the interrupt routine.

C1=200 Function unmasks all the interrupts including the interval timer interrupts and the high-speed counter interrupts. If the specific interrupt is masked, global unmasking does not affect the state of the specific interrupt input state. Function cannot be used within the interrupt routine.

Ladder symbol

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if: C1 is not 000, 001, 002, 003, 004, 100 or 200. C2 is not in 0000 - 000F range. INT instruction is executed with C1=100 or 200 within the interrupt routine. INT instruction is executed with C1=100 when all inputs are already masked. INT instruction is executed with C1=200 when all inputs are already unmasked.

E.76 INTERVAL TIMER - Interval timer Description Instruction is used for controling the timer interrupt. Instruction mode is determined according to the value of the word C1.

C1 000 003 006 010

Function Start the interrupt timer with only one timer Start the timer with periodical interrupts Read the current timer value Stop the timer

C1=001 or 003 C2 can be either a constant or an address of a word in PLC controller memory.

C2=constant If C2 is a constant, then it represents the starting value of decremental counter in BCD format (form 0000 to 9999 which is equivalent to 0 - 9.999 ms) and C3 represents the number of the interrupt routine (from 000 to 049). C2=address of a word in memory If C2 is a word in PLC controller memory, then its contents is a starting value of decremental counter in BCD format. Cotents of the word C2+1 represents the measurement unit (BCD, 0005 - 0320) in 0.1s decrements. Interval is, in that case, 0.5 - 32ms. Starting value of the timer is calculated as C2 * (C2+1) * 0.1s. C3 represents the number of the interrupt routine. C1=006 Function reads the current timer state. Parameter C2 represents the memory address where the read timer state is stored, while C2+1 stores the measurement unit. Parameter C3 reresents the memory address where the data concerning the time passed since the last decrementation of timer in BCD format is stored in 0.1s units. C1=010 Function stops the timer. Parameters C2 and C3 are without function and should be set to 0000. Ladder symbol

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if C1 is not 000, 003, 006 or 010 or in case that the number of interrupt routine is not within 0000 - 0049 range.

E.77 7-SEGMENT DECODER - Seven-segment decoder Description Instruction translates the digits of the word S to 8-bit 7-segment code and stores it into destination word D. The control word Di determines the first digit of S to be translated, number of digits to be translated and which half of the word D will contain the result of the first translation. The following picture interprets the values of digits of the word Di and the picture after that displays a few versions of the word Di and how they affect the instruction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error.

Example

E.78 I/O REFRESH - Premature writing to I/O table Description Instruction checks the states of words from the address St to the address E and refreshes them according to the current state of the program. Instruction is used when we want to know the state of certain bit without waiting it to be refreshed in the course of regular cycle of refreshing the inputs and outputs of PLC controller (IR000 - IR019).

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Address of the word St has to be lower or equal to the address of the word E. ER flag changes state to ON if words St and E do not belong to IR000 - IR019 range or in case that the address of the word St is greater than the address of the word E.

E.79 MESSAGE - Displays message in the programming console Description Instruction reads the contents of eight words from the address FM and displays them in the program console. Contents of the word has to be in ASCII format, with every word containing 2 ASCII characters. If not all the words are to be displayed in the console, displaying can be stopped if the string OD is put into following word.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand FM. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error.

E.80 MODE CONTROL - Controls the high-speed counter or the pulse output Description Instruction controls the high-speed counter. There are several functions depending on parameters P, C and P1. Parameter P defines if either high-speed counter or pulse output will be controlled with this instruction.

P 000

Function Designates the input of PLC controller that will be used as high-speed counter (000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with no acceleration/deceleration (outputs 010.00 and 010.01)

Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with trapezoid acceleration/deceleration (output 010.00) 010* 100* 101
*

Determines mono-phase signal "1" with no acceleration/deceleration (output 010.01) Designates interrupt input 0 in counter mode (input 000.03) Designates interrupt input 1 in counter mode (input 000.04) Designates interrupt input 2 in counter mode (input 000.05) Designates interrupt input 3 in counter mode (input 000.06) NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models.

102* 103*

C 000 001 002 003 005* 006*

P1 000 000

Function Starts comparing the current value with the values from comparison table (CTBL) Stops comparing the current value with the values from comparison table (CTBL)

New value of the Changes the current value PV of high-speed current state (PV) counter or interrupt input in counter mode 000 Stops the pulse output New value of the Changes the current state of pulse output current state (PV) 000 Stops the synchronized pulse output

NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models. C=000 or C=001 Function starts or stops comparing the current value of high-speed counter PV with the values from the comparison table created with instruction CTBL. If the comparison table wasnt created ahead of executing the INI instruction, the error occurs. Generally, when INI instruction with C=000 is used, differential form @INI is recommended, because one set of starting comparisons is sufficient. C=002 Function changes value of the current state of the high-speed counter or the interrupt in the counter mode. Fast counter PV ( P=0 ) Function changes the contents of PV to 8-digit BCD number contained in the words P1 and P1+1. If differential-phase mode or up/down input mode is used, PV can have value between F838 8608 and 0838 8607, where F as the first digit is treated as a minus sign. PV can have value between 000 0000 and 1677 7215 in incremental mode.

Interrupt counter input PV ( P=100, P=101, P=102, P=103) Function changes the contents of PV to 4-digit hexadecimal number from the word P1 (from 0000 to FFFF). C=003 Function stops the pulse output. C=004 Function changes the value of the current PV pulse output state to an 8-digit BCD value in the words P1 and P1+1. Change cannot be done while the pulse output is in function. New value can be from -16.777.215 to +16.777.215. Bit no.15 of the word P1+1 behaves like a sign: 0 stands for positive, 1 stands for negative number. C=003 Function stops the synchronized pulse output. Ladder symbol

Limitations

If CPM1 or CPM1A PLC controller is used, parameter P has to be 000 and parameter C has to be 000, 001, 002 or 003. P1 has to be 000 if C is not 002 or 004. If an address from DM memory area is used as parameter P1, reading and writing to that location has to be enabled. ER flag changes state to ON if comparison table exceeds one memory area.

Flag

E.81 HIGH-SPEED COUNTER PV READ - Reads the current value of high-speed counter

Description

Instruction controls the current state of high-speed counter, pulse output, interrupt input in counter mode or input frequency for synchronized input. There are several functions depending on parameters P, C and D. Parameter P defines if either high-speed counter or pulse output will be controlled with this instruction.

P 000

Function Designates the input of PLC controller that will be used as high-speed counter (inputs 000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Designates input frequency for synchronized pulse input (inputs 000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with no acceleration/deceleration (outputs 010.00 and 010.01) Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with trapezoid acceleration/deceleration (output 010.00)

010* 100* 101* 102 103


* *

Determines mono-phase signal "1" with no acceleration/deceleration (output 010.01) Designates interrupt input 0 in counter mode (input 000.03) Designates interrupt input 1 in counter mode (input 000.04) Designates interrupt input 2 in counter mode (input 000.05) Designates interrupt input 3 in counter mode (input 000.06) NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models.

Control word determines the type of data to be accessed.

C 000 001 002 003

Destination word D and D+1 D D D and D+1

Function Reads the current state of high-speed counter, of interrupt input in counter mode or input frequency of synchronized pulse control Reads the status of high-speed counter or pulse output Reads the results of comparing with values from comparison table Reads the current value of pulse output

NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models. C=000 Function reads the current value of PV of the specified high-speed counter or the interrupt

input in counter mode. Fast counter PV or input frequency (P=000) When the output is used as the high-speed counter, instruction reads the current value of the specified fast counter and writes an 8-digit BCD value to D and D+1. If differential-phase mode or up/down input mode is used, PV can have value between F838 8608 and 0838 8607, where F as the first digit is treated as a minus sign. PV can have value between 000 0000 and 1677 7215 in incremental mode. When the input is used as synchronic pulse input, the instruction reads the input frequency and writes an 8-digit BCD value to D and D+1. Range of the input frequency is 0000 0000 - 0002 0000. Interrupt counter input PV ( P=100, P=101, P=102, P=103) Function changes the contents of PV to 4-digit hexadecimal number from the word D (from 0000 to FFFF). C=001 Function reads the status of the high-speed counter or the pulse input and stores the data into D. Status of the high-speed counter or the pulse input 0 (P=000) The table below shows the function of bits in the word D when P=000. Bits not mentioned are not used and are always zero.

For... High-speed counter

Bit 00 01

Function Status of comparing high-speed counter with values from comparison table (0: not compared, 1:compared) High-speed counter below/above the specified value (0: in range, 1:out of range) Total number of pulses defined for pulse output 0 (0: number of pulses not defined, 1:number of pulses defined) Defined number of pulses on output 0 executed (0: not executed, 1:executed) Pulse output 0 state (0: stopped, 1:executing) Current state PV of pulse output (0: in range, 1:out of range) Rate on pulse output 0 (0: constant, 1:accelerates/decelerates)

Pulse output 05 06 07 08 09

Status of the pulse output 1 (P=010) The table below shows the function of bits in the word D when P=010. Bits not mentioned are

not used and are always zero.

Bit 05 06 07 08 09

Function Total number of pulses defined for pulse output 1 (0: number of pulses not defined, 1:number of pulses defined) Defined number of pulses on output 1 executed (0: not executed, 1:executed) Pulse output 1 state (0: stopped, 1:executing) Current state PV of pulse output (0: in range, 1:out of range) Rate on pulse output 1 (0: constant, 1:accelerates/decelerates)

C=002 Function reads the result of comparing the current value PV with 8 areas defined by instruction CTBL and stores data into D. Bits 0 to 7 contain the results of comparing with 8 ranges from the comparison table (0: not in range, 1: in range). C=003 Function reads the value of current state of PV pulse output and stores it to 8-digit BCD value in words D and D+1. PV can have value from -16.777.215 to +16.777.215. Bit no.15 of the word D+1 behaves like a sign: 0 stands for positive, 1 stands for negative number. Ladder symbol

Limitations

If CPM1 or CPM1A PLC controller is used, parameter D has to be 000 and parameter C has to be 000, 001 or 002. If an address from DM memory area is used as parameter D, reading and writing to that location has to be enabled. D and D+1 have to belong to the same memory area. ER flag changes state to ON if an error concerning the value of instruction operand occurred.

Flag

E.82 COMPARISON TABLE LOAD - Defines a comparison table

Description

Instruction forms the comparison table for working with high-speed counter. Depending on parameter C, comparison can be immediate or it can be called upon with instruction INI.

C 000 001 002 003

Function Registers comparison table containing values and starts comparing Registers comparison table containing ranges and starts comparing Registers comparison table containing values. Comparing starts with INI instruction Registers comparison table containing ranges. Comparing starts with INI instruction

When the current value of PV matches some of the specified table values or it belongs to one of the specified ranges, the appropriate subroutine is called. If the high-speed counter is not enabled in PC area (DM6642) instruction CTBL cannot be executed. Comparing with values Comparison table can have up to 16 values. Each of these values is assigned a number of subroutine that is called when the current value matches the table value. With CPM1 and CPM1A models, comparison is done one at a time in each cycle, while with models CPM2A and CPM2C comparison is done for all table values simultaneously. After comparing with the last table value, comparison starts from the first value again. The table below shows the structure of the comparison table containing values. Each value is assigned three words in the table. If the value FFFF is used as the number of subroutine, no subroutine will be executed in case of a match.

TB TB+1 TB+2 TB+3 ...

Number of values that current value is compared with (0001 to 0016, BCD) Value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format) Value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine for matching the first value

Comparing with a range of values Comparison table with ranges contains 8 ranges, which the current value PV is compared with. Ranges can overlap, allowing that the current value PV falls into several of these; in this case, the subroutine of the first matching area is called. If the value FFFF is used as the number of subroutine, no subroutine will be executed in case of a match.

TB

Lower value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format)

TB+1 TB+2 TB+3 TB+4 ... TB+35 TB+36 TB+37 TB+38 TB+39 Ladder symbol

Lower value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine in case that the current value PV is within range no.1 Lower value no.8 (lower four digits in BCD format) Lower value no.8 (higher four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.8 (lower four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.8 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine in case that the current value PV is within range no.8

Limitations

In each area lower border has to be lower than the upper border. Number of subroutine can be used for several ranges. Table has to belong to a single memory area. Parameter D has to be 000 and the parameter C has to be 000, 001, 002 or 003. ER flag changes state to ON if an error concerning the value of instruction operand occurred.

Flag

E.83 FAILURE ALARM AND RESET - Generates error code Description Instruction generates the code of an error that took place, so that the programmer can use that information for debugging or program maintenance. Error code is stored in the first 8 bits of the word SR253 and has value between 01 and 99.

In case of multiple errors, only one code will be displayed. To display the other codes, it is necessary to reset bits 00-07 of the word SR253 via instruction FAL with parameter N=00. Upon each reset, new error code will be displayed (if there is more than one error). Error code

remains in PLC controller memory after the power is off. When error occurs, besides the code, programmer will be notified with blinking diode on the casing of PLC controller. Instruction FAL with parameter N=0 may be used for resetting the message created with the instruction MSG. Ladder symbol

E.84 SEVERE FAILURE ALARM - Generates fatal error code Description Instruction generates the code of an error that took place, so that the programmer can use that information for debugging or program maintenance. Error code is stored in the first 8 bits of the word SR253 and has value between 01 and 99. Upon occurence of fatal error, diode ALARM/ERROR turns on on the casing of PLC controller and the PLC stops operating.

PLC controller continues the program execution only when cause of error is removed. Error code remains written and may be read. Ladder symbol

E.85 SET CARRY - Sets carry bit Description Ladder symbol Instruction changes the state of carry bit CY to ON. Carry bit is an integral part of the word SR255, and its address is SR255.04.

E.86 CLEAR CARRY - Resets carry bit Description Instruction changes state of carry bit CY to OFF. Carry bit is an integral part of the word SR255, and its address is SR255.04.

Ladder symbol

APPENDIX E Ladder diagram instructions (3/3)

E.51 BCD DIVIDE - Divides two values Description Instruction divides the contents of location Dd with contents of location Dr. The result of division is stored in locations R and R+1. The first contains the rounded off result of division, while R+1 contains the fraction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Dd and Dr are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction divides the value of memory location IR216 by the value of memory location HR09. The result is stored into two sequential memory locations DM0017 and DDM0018. The result is stored so that DM0017 contains round number and DM0018 contains the fraction.

E.52 DOUBLE BCD ADD - Adds two 32-bit words Description Instruction adds values from addresses Au and Au+1 to values from addresses Ad, Ad+1 and carry bit CY. If the result exceeds 99999999 carry bit CY is set.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Au and Ad are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if there is a carry in the result.

E.53 DOUBLE BCD SUBTRACT - Subtracts two 32-bit words Description Instruction subtracts the contents of two words Su+1 and Su with carry bit CY added from the contents of words Mi+1 and Mi. The result is stored into memory locations R+1 and R. If the result is negative, carry bit CY is set and 10complement of the result is stored into R. To get the real result, contents of R should be subtracted from zero.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mi, Mi+1, Su, Su+1 are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

CY flag changes state to ON if the result is negative.

E.54 DOUBLE BCD MULTIPLY - Multiplies two pairs of words Description Instruction multiplies values of locations Md, Md+1 with the values of locations Mr, Mr+1. The result is stored into 4 locations: R, R+1, R+2 i R+3.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of words Mr, Mr+1, Md and Md+1 are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if there is a carry in the result.

E.55 DOUBLE BCD DIVIDE - Divides two pairs of words Description Instruction divides the contents of locations Dd, Dd+1 by the contents of locations Dr i Dr+1. The result is stored into locations R and R+1 while locations R+2 and R+3 contain the fraction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in two cases, if the contents of words Dd, Dd+1, Dr and Dr+1 are not BCD or if the contents of locations Dr and Dr+1 equal zero. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

E.56 BINARY ADD - Binary addition Description Ladder symbol Instruction executes binary addition of words Au and Ad with carry bit and stores the result into memory location R. If the result is greater than FFFF the carry bit CY is set.

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is greater FFFF. OF flag changes state if the result is greater than +32.767 (7FFF). UF flag changes state if the result is lower than od +32.768 (7FFF).

Example

The example demonstrates how the binary addition works. As A6E2+80C5 equals 127A7, carry bit CY is set and the value of location R+1 (which is, in this case, on HR11) changes to 1 to enable easier handling of the result on addresses R and R+1 later in the program. If overflow occurs, carry bit CY will be set, fulfilling the condition on bit SR255.04. This condition controls the lower MOV instruction, which sets 1 to location HR11.

E.57 BINARY SUBTRACT - Binary subtraction

Description Instruction subtracts values Su+CY from the value Mi and stores the result into location R. If the result is negative, carry bit CY is set and the 2complement of the real result is stored into location R. Ladder symbol

Limitations Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. Flag ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0. CY flag changes state to ON if the result is negative. OF flag changes state if the result is greater than +32.767 (7FFF) UF flag changes state if the result is lower than +32.768 (7FFF).

Example The example subtracts the value of location LR00 increased by the state of carry bit CY from the value of location IR200. As the result is positive, carry bit CY will not be set. In case of negative result, location HR01 would contain 2complement of the result, so that a conversion would be necessary for getting the real result.

E.58 BINARY MULTIPLY - Binary multiplication Description Instruction multiplies values of location Md by the value of location Mr. The result is stored in two memory locations R and R+1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state u ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state u ON if the result equals 0.

E.59 BINARY DIVIDE - Binary division Description Instruction divides the value of location Dd with the value of location Dr. The result is stored into location R, while the fraction is stored in R+1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R and the instruction cannot be used for dividing signed numbers. ER flag changes state to ON in case that Dr contains value 0. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

E.60 BCD TO BINARY - Converts decimal number to a binary number Description Ladder symbol Instruction converts binary representation of decimal number from the word S to binary number in the word R. Contents of the word S remains unchanged.

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON if the contents of the word S are not BCD. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction changes the contents of memory location IR200 so that its numerical value remains unchanged; in other words, only the representation of the locations contents changes. If the contents of the location IR200 is 164 decimal, this instruction would convert it to 0000000010100100. One of the purposes of this instruction is preparing the contents of memory location for one of the binary operations.

E.61 BINARY TO BCD - Converts binary number to a decimal number Description Instruction converts binary represented number from the word S to a decimal number in the word R. Contents of the word S remains unchanged.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Word DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals 0.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction changes the contents of memory location IR200 so that its numerical value remains unchanged; in other words, only the representation of the locations contents changes. If the contents of location IR200 is 000000101100100 binarny, this instruction would convert it to 740 decimaly. One of the purposes of this instruction is preparing the contents of memory location for one of BCD operations.

E.62 4 TO 16 DECODER - 4 to 16 decoder

Description

Instruction converts up to four 4-bit hexadecimal digits of values from 0 to 15. The result of the instruction is stored into memory locations from address R to R+3, depending on how many digits was converted. Converted digit in the result is represented with a set bit on a position corresponding to the value of a digit. If the value of a digit is C (12 decimaly) the twelfth bit of the result word will be set.

The first digit to be converted, as well as the number of digits to be converted, is determined in the control word Di. If the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew. The structure of the control word Di is shown on the picture below.

Some of the combinations of control word values along with their meaning are given below:

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag Example

Two rightmost digits of the word Di have to be between 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case that (R + number of digits) exceeds the range of a given memory block.

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, instruction converts three digits from the digit no.1 in the word DM0020. As there are three digits to be converted, the result will take three memory locations starting from HR10. Digit 0 in the word DM0020 is not converted.

E.63 16 TO 4 ENCODER - 16 to 4 encoder Description Instruction determines the highest set bit in SB and according to it, stores the 4-bit hexadecimal value to a certain place in the result word R. In the example below, bit 12 of the location on address SB is set, which would be C in a hexadecimal representation.

Precise place for storing the converted value in the word R is determined by a control word Di. The same word also determines the number of words to be converted, starting from the address of the word SB. For this example, the control word would be 0001.

The first digit to be converted, as well as the number of digits to be converted, is determined in the control word Di. If the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew. The structure of the control word Di is shown on the picture above. Some of the combinations of control word values along with their meaning are given below:

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Two rightmost digits of the word Di have to be between 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operands R, SB and Di. ER flag changes state to ON if (SB + number of digits) exceeds the range of a given memory block or if the word to be converted equals zero.

Example

Upon fulfilling the condition on bit IR000.00, first DMPX instruction converts two words, IR200 and IR201. The control word is 0010, meaning that two words are converted (digit 1) and stored starting from the zero digit in the result (rightmost digit 0). After the first DMPX instruction, the second one is executed, converting two words from addresses LR10 and LR11 and storing them in the result word HR10, starting from the digit no.2. Therefore, the word HR10 contains four converted words in the following order: IR200, IR201, LR10, LR11. More detailed explanation of how the instruction works is given on the following picture.

Presuming that binary value is the one from locations IR200, IR201, LR10 and LR11, as in example, the result of conversion in the result word HR10 would be 5B7D.

E.64 ASCII CONVERT - Converts to ASCII code Description Instruction converts digits from the word S to their ASCII equivalent and stores the result in the words starting from the address D. The control word Di determines the first converted digit, the number of digits to be converted and which half of the word D contains the first 8bit ASCII converted code. IIf the number of digits for conversion is greater than the number of digits remaining in the word S, then the missing digits are taken from the starting digit anew from the word S. Digit with the highest position of the word Di has a role of parity bit and it can take values between 0 and 2 - not having parity, parity and non-parity. Parity bit is actually a highest bit of the 8-bit ASCII code. When the third digit of the word Di equals zero, this bit is always zero. If the third digit of the word Di equals one, then this bit represents parity, or simply put, this bit is set when the number of ones in the other 7 bits of ASCII is odd making the number of ones even. If the ASCII value equals 31 (binary 0011 0001), even parity would change the highest bit to one, changing the ASCII number to 1011 0001 or B1. The status of parity bit does not affect the interpretation of ASCII code. Odd parity bit behaves in similar fashion, but with the opposite function. Its purpose is to ensure that the number of ones in ASCII code is always odd. The following picture represents interpreting the value of word Di and the picture after that gives several versions of values of

the word Di and how they affect the instruction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations

Two lower digits of the words Di must have values betweenmoraju imati 0 and 3. Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D.

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if two rightmost digits of the word Di do not fall within the specified range (0-3) or the result word exceeds the boundaries of memory area.

E.65 COMPLEMENT - Complements a word Description Instruction executes the second complement of the word Wd and stores it into word Wd again. The second complement means that ones become zeros and vice versa.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand Wd. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.66 LOGICAL AND - Operation logical "AND" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes the operation logical AND on words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into word R. Operation logical AND puts one in the result only if the same position of words I1 and I2 also contain one.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM 6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.67 LOGICAL OR - Operation logical "OR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes the operation logical OR on words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation logical OR puts the one in the result if at least one of the words I1 and I2 contains one on that position.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.68 EXCLUSIVE OR - Operation "EXCLUSIVE OR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes operation EXCLUSIVE OR on the words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation exlusive OR puts one in the result only if the same position of the words I1 and I2 contains different values.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.69 EXCLUSIVE NOR - Operation "EXCLUSIVE NOR" on the contents of a word Description Instruction executes operation EXCLUSIVE OR on the words I1 and I2. The result of the operation is stored into the word R. Operation exclusive NOR puts one in the result only if the same position of words I1 and I2 contains the same value, whether it is 0 or1.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.70 BIT COUNTER - Counts the number of ones in a given word Description Instruction counts the number of bits with the state 1 in words from address SB to SB+(N1) and puts the result on the address of the word R.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand R. Word N cannot have zero value. ER flag changes state to ON in case that N isnt BCD number or in case that SB and SB+(N1) dont belong to the same memory area. EQ flag changes state to ON if the result equals zero.

E.71 SUBROUTINE ENTRY - Enters the subroutine Description Instruction changes the course of the main program towards subroutine, at the instruction line of the main program which contains the instruction SBS. Number of instructions N has to be in 000 - 049 range. When the instruction condition is fulfilled, all the instructions between SBN(92) and the first RET(92) instruction are executed. Upon processing the RET instruction, program returns to the line immediately following the instruction SBS which called the subroutine in the first place. The same subroutine may be called from several places in the program.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Number of subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. ER flag changes state to ON when non-existing subroutine is called, when the subroutine calls itself or when the subroutine being executed at the moment is called.

E.72 SUBROUTINE DEFINE - Beginning of a subroutine Description Instruction marks the beginning of a subroutine. Each subroutine is defined with its number N. All subroutines have to be placed after the main program and instruction END has to follow the last RET instruction of the last subroutine SBN.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.73 SUBROUTINE RETURN - Return from a subroutine Description Instruction executes the return from the subroutine to the main program. Each subroutine must contain the RET instruction. This instruction jas on number of its own, naturally assuming that it belongs to the previous SBN instruction.

Ladder symbol Limitations Flag Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. It has no effect on any particular flag.

E.74 MACRO - Macro Description Instruction MCRO enables one subroutine to substitiute several subroutines having the same structure, but different operands. Instruction has 4 input words SR232 to SR235 and 4 output words SR236 to SR239 used for sending or receiving the subroutine parameters. Upon fulfilling the condition, the instruction copies the contents of locations I1 - I3 to words SR232 - SR235. Upon execution of subroutine N, values of the words SR236 - SR239 are copied to words O1 - O3.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Number of the subroutine has to be in 000 - 049 range. Each number may be used only once. ER flag changes state to ON when non-existing subroutine is called, when the subroutine

calls itself or when the subroutine, being executed at the moment, is called. Example

Instruction MCRO calls the subroutine with the number 010. Contents of words DM0010 DM0013 is copied to SR232 - SR235 and upon execution of the instruction, contents of words SR236 - SR239 is copied to the words DM0020 - DM0023.

E.75 INTERRUPT CONTROL - Interrupt control Description Instruction controls the interrupts and executes one of the seven functions presented in the table below, according to the value of the word C1.

C1 000 001 002 003 004 100 200

Function Mask/unmask interrupts Clear the interrupt input Read the current mask for interrupt inputs Reset decrement counter and unmask interrupts Reset increment counter and unmask interrupts Mask all interrupts Unmask all interrupts

NOTE: Value of the word C1 004 refers to models CPM2A/CPM2C of PLC controller, so it will not be detailed here. C1=000 Function is used for masking and unmasking the interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006. Masked interrupts are registered, but the part of the program assigned to them will not be executed until the mask is off. Upon unmasking interrupt input, interrupt routine will immediately take place (unless, in the

meantime the bit corresponding to that interrupt input is reset with the instruction INT, parameter C1=001). The input being masked or unmasked is determined by parameter C2 according to the following scheme (bear in mind that we work with bits and not with digits of the word C2). Bits 4, 5, 6...15 should be set to zero. All interrupt inputs are masked upon starting the PLC controller.

C1=001 Function resets the registered interrupts, so that interrupt routine cannot take place upon unmasking the interrupt input. Bits 4, 5, 6...15 of the word C2 should be set to zero.

C1=002 Function reads the status of the mask for interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006 and stores the read state into the word C2. Interrupt input is masked if the state of the corresponding bit equals 1. Bits 00 03 correspond to interrupt inputs 00003 - 00006.

C1=003 Function restarts the interrupt inputs in the counter mode. The current counter value (SR240 SR243) is set to the starting state and the interrupt is unmasked. If C1=003, decremental counter is restarted, while in the case of C1=004 incremental counter is restarted. As CPM1A model of PLC does not feature incremental counter, this option should not be used. When using the options C1=003 or C1=004 differencial form of the instruction shoud be used @INT or else the current counter state (PV) will be reset to the starting state (SV) and the interrupt will never be generated. Writing the value 0000 to the starting counter state and executing the INT instruction with

parameter C1=003 stops the counter and disables interrupts. To start the counter again, non-zero value should be written to a starting value SV and the instruction INT executed. Interrupts in the counter mode can be masked by executing the instruction INT with parameter C1=000 and set corresponding bit in C2. If same is done, but with 0 for the appropriate position in the word C2 interrupt input will behave as a regular interrupt ulaz and not as counter interrupt input.

C1=100 Function masks all the interrupts including the interval timer interrupts and the high-speed counter interrupts. Masked interrupts are registered, but are not executed. This function is also called a global interrupt mask and it does not affect the masks of specific interrupts. This option should be used for temporary disabling all the interrupts. It is cmmonly used in pair, one function masks all the interrupts and the other one unmasks them. Function cannot be used within the interrupt routine.

C1=200 Function unmasks all the interrupts including the interval timer interrupts and the high-speed counter interrupts. If the specific interrupt is masked, global unmasking does not affect the state of the specific interrupt input state. Function cannot be used within the interrupt routine.

Ladder symbol

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if: C1 is not 000, 001, 002, 003, 004, 100 or 200. C2 is not in 0000 - 000F range. INT instruction is executed with C1=100 or 200 within the interrupt routine. INT instruction is executed with C1=100 when all inputs are already masked. INT instruction is executed with C1=200 when all inputs are already unmasked.

E.76 INTERVAL TIMER - Interval timer Description Instruction is used for controling the timer interrupt. Instruction mode is determined according to the value of the word C1.

C1 000 003 006 010

Function Start the interrupt timer with only one timer Start the timer with periodical interrupts Read the current timer value Stop the timer

C1=001 or 003 C2 can be either a constant or an address of a word in PLC controller memory.

C2=constant If C2 is a constant, then it represents the starting value of decremental counter in BCD format (form 0000 to 9999 which is equivalent to 0 - 9.999 ms) and C3 represents the number of the interrupt routine (from 000 to 049). C2=address of a word in memory If C2 is a word in PLC controller memory, then its contents is a starting value of decremental counter in BCD format. Cotents of the word C2+1 represents the measurement unit (BCD, 0005 - 0320) in 0.1s decrements. Interval is, in that case, 0.5 - 32ms. Starting value of the timer is calculated as C2 * (C2+1) * 0.1s. C3 represents the number of the interrupt routine. C1=006 Function reads the current timer state. Parameter C2 represents the memory address where the read timer state is stored, while C2+1 stores the measurement unit. Parameter C3 reresents the memory address where the data concerning the time passed since the last decrementation of timer in BCD format is stored in 0.1s units. C1=010 Function stops the timer. Parameters C2 and C3 are without function and should be set to 0000. Ladder symbol

Flag

ER flag changes state to ON if C1 is not 000, 003, 006 or 010 or in case that the number of interrupt routine is not within 0000 - 0049 range.

E.77 7-SEGMENT DECODER - Seven-segment decoder Description Instruction translates the digits of the word S to 8-bit 7-segment code and stores it into destination word D. The control word Di determines the first digit of S to be translated, number of digits to be translated and which half of the word D will contain the result of the first translation. The following picture interprets the values of digits of the word Di and the picture after that displays a few versions of the word Di and how they affect the instruction.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand D. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error.

Example

E.78 I/O REFRESH - Premature writing to I/O table Description Instruction checks the states of words from the address St to the address E and refreshes them according to the current state of the program. Instruction is used when we want to know the state of certain bit without waiting it to be refreshed in the course of regular cycle of refreshing the inputs and outputs of PLC controller (IR000 - IR019).

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Address of the word St has to be lower or equal to the address of the word E. ER flag changes state to ON if words St and E do not belong to IR000 - IR019 range or in case that the address of the word St is greater than the address of the word E.

E.79 MESSAGE - Displays message in the programming console Description Instruction reads the contents of eight words from the address FM and displays them in the program console. Contents of the word has to be in ASCII format, with every word containing 2 ASCII characters. If not all the words are to be displayed in the console, displaying can be stopped if the string OD is put into following word.

Ladder symbol

Limitations Flag

Words DM6144 - DM6655 cannot be used as operand FM. ER flag changes state to ON in case of error.

E.80 MODE CONTROL - Controls the high-speed counter or the pulse output Description Instruction controls the high-speed counter. There are several functions depending on parameters P, C and P1. Parameter P defines if either high-speed counter or pulse output will be controlled with this instruction.

P 000

Function Designates the input of PLC controller that will be used as high-speed counter (000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with no acceleration/deceleration (outputs 010.00 and 010.01)

Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with trapezoid acceleration/deceleration (output 010.00) 010* 100* 101
*

Determines mono-phase signal "1" with no acceleration/deceleration (output 010.01) Designates interrupt input 0 in counter mode (input 000.03) Designates interrupt input 1 in counter mode (input 000.04) Designates interrupt input 2 in counter mode (input 000.05) Designates interrupt input 3 in counter mode (input 000.06) NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models.

102* 103*

C 000 001 002 003 005* 006*

P1 000 000

Function Starts comparing the current value with the values from comparison table (CTBL) Stops comparing the current value with the values from comparison table (CTBL)

New value of the Changes the current value PV of high-speed current state (PV) counter or interrupt input in counter mode 000 Stops the pulse output New value of the Changes the current state of pulse output current state (PV) 000 Stops the synchronized pulse output

NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models. C=000 or C=001 Function starts or stops comparing the current value of high-speed counter PV with the values from the comparison table created with instruction CTBL. If the comparison table wasnt created ahead of executing the INI instruction, the error occurs. Generally, when INI instruction with C=000 is used, differential form @INI is recommended, because one set of starting comparisons is sufficient. C=002 Function changes value of the current state of the high-speed counter or the interrupt in the counter mode. Fast counter PV ( P=0 ) Function changes the contents of PV to 8-digit BCD number contained in the words P1 and P1+1. If differential-phase mode or up/down input mode is used, PV can have value between F838 8608 and 0838 8607, where F as the first digit is treated as a minus sign. PV can have value between 000 0000 and 1677 7215 in incremental mode.

Interrupt counter input PV ( P=100, P=101, P=102, P=103) Function changes the contents of PV to 4-digit hexadecimal number from the word P1 (from 0000 to FFFF). C=003 Function stops the pulse output. C=004 Function changes the value of the current PV pulse output state to an 8-digit BCD value in the words P1 and P1+1. Change cannot be done while the pulse output is in function. New value can be from -16.777.215 to +16.777.215. Bit no.15 of the word P1+1 behaves like a sign: 0 stands for positive, 1 stands for negative number. C=003 Function stops the synchronized pulse output. Ladder symbol

Limitations

If CPM1 or CPM1A PLC controller is used, parameter P has to be 000 and parameter C has to be 000, 001, 002 or 003. P1 has to be 000 if C is not 002 or 004. If an address from DM memory area is used as parameter P1, reading and writing to that location has to be enabled. ER flag changes state to ON if comparison table exceeds one memory area.

Flag

E.81 HIGH-SPEED COUNTER PV READ - Reads the current value of high-speed counter

Description

Instruction controls the current state of high-speed counter, pulse output, interrupt input in counter mode or input frequency for synchronized input. There are several functions depending on parameters P, C and D. Parameter P defines if either high-speed counter or pulse output will be controlled with this instruction.

P 000

Function Designates the input of PLC controller that will be used as high-speed counter (inputs 000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Designates input frequency for synchronized pulse input (inputs 000.00, 000.01 and 000.02). Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with no acceleration/deceleration (outputs 010.00 and 010.01) Determines mono-phase signal of logical zero with trapezoid acceleration/deceleration (output 010.00)

010* 100* 101* 102 103


* *

Determines mono-phase signal "1" with no acceleration/deceleration (output 010.01) Designates interrupt input 0 in counter mode (input 000.03) Designates interrupt input 1 in counter mode (input 000.04) Designates interrupt input 2 in counter mode (input 000.05) Designates interrupt input 3 in counter mode (input 000.06) NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models.

Control word determines the type of data to be accessed.

C 000 001 002 003

Destination word D and D+1 D D D and D+1

Function Reads the current state of high-speed counter, of interrupt input in counter mode or input frequency of synchronized pulse control Reads the status of high-speed counter or pulse output Reads the results of comparing with values from comparison table Reads the current value of pulse output

NOTE: * refers to CPM2A/CPM2C PLC controller models. C=000 Function reads the current value of PV of the specified high-speed counter or the interrupt

input in counter mode. Fast counter PV or input frequency (P=000) When the output is used as the high-speed counter, instruction reads the current value of the specified fast counter and writes an 8-digit BCD value to D and D+1. If differential-phase mode or up/down input mode is used, PV can have value between F838 8608 and 0838 8607, where F as the first digit is treated as a minus sign. PV can have value between 000 0000 and 1677 7215 in incremental mode. When the input is used as synchronic pulse input, the instruction reads the input frequency and writes an 8-digit BCD value to D and D+1. Range of the input frequency is 0000 0000 - 0002 0000. Interrupt counter input PV ( P=100, P=101, P=102, P=103) Function changes the contents of PV to 4-digit hexadecimal number from the word D (from 0000 to FFFF). C=001 Function reads the status of the high-speed counter or the pulse input and stores the data into D. Status of the high-speed counter or the pulse input 0 (P=000) The table below shows the function of bits in the word D when P=000. Bits not mentioned are not used and are always zero.

For... High-speed counter

Bit 00 01

Function Status of comparing high-speed counter with values from comparison table (0: not compared, 1:compared) High-speed counter below/above the specified value (0: in range, 1:out of range) Total number of pulses defined for pulse output 0 (0: number of pulses not defined, 1:number of pulses defined) Defined number of pulses on output 0 executed (0: not executed, 1:executed) Pulse output 0 state (0: stopped, 1:executing) Current state PV of pulse output (0: in range, 1:out of range) Rate on pulse output 0 (0: constant, 1:accelerates/decelerates)

Pulse output 05 06 07 08 09

Status of the pulse output 1 (P=010) The table below shows the function of bits in the word D when P=010. Bits not mentioned are

not used and are always zero.

Bit 05 06 07 08 09

Function Total number of pulses defined for pulse output 1 (0: number of pulses not defined, 1:number of pulses defined) Defined number of pulses on output 1 executed (0: not executed, 1:executed) Pulse output 1 state (0: stopped, 1:executing) Current state PV of pulse output (0: in range, 1:out of range) Rate on pulse output 1 (0: constant, 1:accelerates/decelerates)

C=002 Function reads the result of comparing the current value PV with 8 areas defined by instruction CTBL and stores data into D. Bits 0 to 7 contain the results of comparing with 8 ranges from the comparison table (0: not in range, 1: in range). C=003 Function reads the value of current state of PV pulse output and stores it to 8-digit BCD value in words D and D+1. PV can have value from -16.777.215 to +16.777.215. Bit no.15 of the word D+1 behaves like a sign: 0 stands for positive, 1 stands for negative number. Ladder symbol

Limitations

If CPM1 or CPM1A PLC controller is used, parameter D has to be 000 and parameter C has to be 000, 001 or 002. If an address from DM memory area is used as parameter D, reading and writing to that location has to be enabled. D and D+1 have to belong to the same memory area. ER flag changes state to ON if an error concerning the value of instruction operand occurred.

Flag

E.82 COMPARISON TABLE LOAD - Defines a comparison table

Description

Instruction forms the comparison table for working with high-speed counter. Depending on parameter C, comparison can be immediate or it can be called upon with instruction INI.

C 000 001 002 003

Function Registers comparison table containing values and starts comparing Registers comparison table containing ranges and starts comparing Registers comparison table containing values. Comparing starts with INI instruction Registers comparison table containing ranges. Comparing starts with INI instruction

When the current value of PV matches some of the specified table values or it belongs to one of the specified ranges, the appropriate subroutine is called. If the high-speed counter is not enabled in PC area (DM6642) instruction CTBL cannot be executed. Comparing with values Comparison table can have up to 16 values. Each of these values is assigned a number of subroutine that is called when the current value matches the table value. With CPM1 and CPM1A models, comparison is done one at a time in each cycle, while with models CPM2A and CPM2C comparison is done for all table values simultaneously. After comparing with the last table value, comparison starts from the first value again. The table below shows the structure of the comparison table containing values. Each value is assigned three words in the table. If the value FFFF is used as the number of subroutine, no subroutine will be executed in case of a match.

TB TB+1 TB+2 TB+3 ...

Number of values that current value is compared with (0001 to 0016, BCD) Value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format) Value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine for matching the first value

Comparing with a range of values Comparison table with ranges contains 8 ranges, which the current value PV is compared with. Ranges can overlap, allowing that the current value PV falls into several of these; in this case, the subroutine of the first matching area is called. If the value FFFF is used as the number of subroutine, no subroutine will be executed in case of a match.

TB

Lower value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format)

TB+1 TB+2 TB+3 TB+4 ... TB+35 TB+36 TB+37 TB+38 TB+39 Ladder symbol

Lower value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.1 (lower four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.1 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine in case that the current value PV is within range no.1 Lower value no.8 (lower four digits in BCD format) Lower value no.8 (higher four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.8 (lower four digits in BCD format) Higher value no.8 (higher four digits in BCD format) Number of subroutine in case that the current value PV is within range no.8

Limitations

In each area lower border has to be lower than the upper border. Number of subroutine can be used for several ranges. Table has to belong to a single memory area. Parameter D has to be 000 and the parameter C has to be 000, 001, 002 or 003. ER flag changes state to ON if an error concerning the value of instruction operand occurred.

Flag

E.83 FAILURE ALARM AND RESET - Generates error code Description Instruction generates the code of an error that took place, so that the programmer can use that information for debugging or program maintenance. Error code is stored in the first 8 bits of the word SR253 and has value between 01 and 99.

In case of multiple errors, only one code will be displayed. To display the other codes, it is necessary to reset bits 00-07 of the word SR253 via instruction FAL with parameter N=00. Upon each reset, new error code will be displayed (if there is more than one error). Error code

remains in PLC controller memory after the power is off. When error occurs, besides the code, programmer will be notified with blinking diode on the casing of PLC controller. Instruction FAL with parameter N=0 may be used for resetting the message created with the instruction MSG. Ladder symbol

E.84 SEVERE FAILURE ALARM - Generates fatal error code Description Instruction generates the code of an error that took place, so that the programmer can use that information for debugging or program maintenance. Error code is stored in the first 8 bits of the word SR253 and has value between 01 and 99. Upon occurence of fatal error, diode ALARM/ERROR turns on on the casing of PLC controller and the PLC stops operating.

PLC controller continues the program execution only when cause of error is removed. Error code remains written and may be read. Ladder symbol

E.85 SET CARRY - Sets carry bit Description Ladder symbol Instruction changes the state of carry bit CY to ON. Carry bit is an integral part of the word SR255, and its address is SR255.04.

E.86 CLEAR CARRY - Resets carry bit Description Instruction changes state of carry bit CY to OFF. Carry bit is an integral part of the word SR255, and its address is SR255.04.

Ladder symbol