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IX.

ECOLOGIC MODEL

A. Hypothesis

Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas can no longer


produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that
glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed in the ells of the body.
In the case of our patient, the form of diabetes she has is Type 2; it
sometimes called age-onset or adult- onset diabetes. This is probably due to her
lifestyle before. She is fond of drinking and eating foods that are high in sugar,
environmental factors may also involve. The clients’ relatives also have this illness,
which the family or genetic history of diabetes play a role in the occurrence of diabetes
mellitus.

B. Pre-disposing Factors

• Host
-female
-63 years old
-sedentary lifestyle
-family history of diabetes
-diet
• Agent
-chemical- glucose (and any type of sugar)
• Environment
-living conditions
-economic level

Ecologic Model

Host
-female
-63 y/o
-sedentary lifestyle
-family history
-diet
Env’
Agent
-Living conditions -glucose
-economic level
C. Analysis

The agent-host-environment model is primarily use in predicting illness


rather than promoting wellness, although identification of risk factors that result from
the interactions of agent, host, and environment are helpful in promoting and
maintaining health. Because each of the agent-host-environment factors constantly
interacts with others, health is an ever changing state. Health is seen when all three
elements are in balance while illness is seen when one, two, or all three elements
are not in balance
(Fundamentals of Nursing by Kozier 2004)

Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by


elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin
secretions, insulin action or both. Insulin controls the level of glucose in the blood by
regulating the production and storage of glucose. In the diabetic state, the cells may
stop responding to insulin or the pancreas may stop producing insulin entirely.
(Fundamentals of Nursing by Taylor)

Diabetes Mellitus is disorder, when we eat; most of the food we eat is


broken down by digestive juices into chemicals. Type 2 diabetes mellitus- these clients
have insulin resistance with relative deficiency. Ages, lack of exercise, history of GDM,
hypertension, dyslipidemia are all risk factors.
(Medical- Surgical Nursing by Lois White.pg.698)

D. Conclusion

We therefore conclude that our client is suffering from Type 2 Diabetes


Mellitus. Probably due to her lifestyle before and having a family history of the disease.
Other risk factors may also involve such as age and the way of living.

E. Management

Medical Management:
-oral hypoglycemic Agents
E.g. SULFONYLUREA, GLIPZIDE, METFORMIN
Nursing Management:
• dietary mngt.-Nutritional Therapy
-provide adequate calories to maintain a reasonable weight.
• Exercise
-to maintain weight.
-lowering blood glucose
-increase circulation
-improves cardiovascular status
-decreases stress
• Monitoring glucose level and urine for ketones
• Maintain skin integrity by protecting feet from breakdown
• Health promotion
-assisting the client and family to understand diabetes and the necessary
lifestyle changes.