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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS

All Seasons

CLIMATE COMFORT
Heating Air Conditioning Applied Systems Refrigeration

New trends in HVAC systems and equipment

Martin Dieryckx Environment research center Daikin Europe NV

10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS

EU policies 20 20 20
Non Energy 20% Energy 61% 80%
20% less primary energy use compared to 2020 projections

80% of CO2 emissions in EU is caused by energy consumption

Economy

Global Warming

ENERGY
Security of supply
20% share of Renewable Energy sources by 2020

CO2 eq. emissions : 20% reduction by 2020 New proposal = 30% by 2020 (DG climate May 2010)

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How is policy translated ?


1. 2. 20% less primary energy 3. 4. 5. Revision of Energy performance of Buildings directive Development criteria for Energy related products: water heaters, boilers, air conditioners, windows, Revision of Energy labels Ecolabel : the EU ecoflower Energy Service Directive

20% less CO2 emissions

5. Regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases (F gas regulation)

20% share renewable energy

6. the Renewable Energy Source directive, incl. aerothermal, hydrothermal & geothermal energy

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Energy facts in Europe


Industry

HVAC
Hot 8% Water Others

27% 28%

41% 41%

Comfort Hot Water Hot Water Cooling 3%

10-25% 10-25%

2015

10-25% 50%
Space Heating

50-60% 50-60%
Space Space Heating

32% 31%
Energy for Transport

Buildings

Others

Comfort Cooling

20%

20%

2003

2015and beyond

Main portion (41%) of energy consumption is related to buildings

Energy Performance of Buildings directive


HVAC sector (33%) is largest energy consumer in the EU. Space heating and hot water heating are the major part while comfort cooling has a strong increase. To minimise the impact, we require drastic Energy efficiency improvements for hot water heating, space heating and comfort cooling equipment.

Energy related product requirements in the EU

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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS

Energy performance of Buildings directive

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Energy performance of buildings (EPBD) in the EU

Direction is set towards net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) & Scope is extended before: more than1000 m2 Now : all buildings

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Nearly Zero Energy Buildings


Level has to be defined by every member state

Target newest EPBD : nearly Zero Energy Building (2020)


Energy conservation e.g. Passive house Generation of renewable energy on site e.g. Photovoltaic, wind energy,
Remark: for residential: HVAC-energy for commercial: HVAC-energy + lighting

Net ZERO ENERGY BUILDING Simplified definition: Produce as much primary energy (export) as you use (import) during a year. Can both be nZEB High Efficient building Large energy savings low energy consumption small production needed

See next page for Normal efficient literal definition building Standard energy savings standard energy consumption Large production needed
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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS DEFINITION "nearly zero energy building" means a building that has a very high energy performance, determined in accordance with Annex I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should to a very significant extent be covered by energy from renewable sources, including renewable energy produced on-site or nearby Annex I: The methodology shall be laid down taking into consideration at least the following aspects: (a) the following actual thermal characteristics of the building (including its internal partitions). (i) thermal capacity; (ii) insulation; (iii) passive heating; (iv) cooling elements; and (v) thermal bridges; (b) heating installation and hot water supply, including their insulation characteristics; (c) air-conditioning installations (d) natural and mechanical ventilation, which may include air-tightness (e) built-in lighting installation (mainly in the non-residential sector); (f) the design, positioning and orientation of the buildings, including outdoor climate;

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Timing EPBD
2015: certain percentage of the buildings should be nearly zero energy shall be defined by the member states 2018: all new public buildings have to be nearly zero energy 2020: all new buildings have to be nearly zero energy

General direction in view of EPBD


Better insulation of buildings More tight buildings Better orientation of buildings Lower heating load, limited cooling load, Enhanced ventilation/ purification to keep indoor air quality

High efficient ventilation/purification and hot water production including recovery techniques become more important

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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS COMPARISON HEATING LOADS AND HEATING SYSTEM
Comparison heating loads
(Source: IEA HPP Annex 32)

CURRENT PRACTICE
Big investment

10 35 15

15

35 15

VENTILATION ACCOUNTS FOR 50% of heat losses.

Low Energy house with heat reclaim ventilation: 45 kWh/m.Y

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What is the trend?


-Most important for business = customers decision -Several factors will influence the customers decision:
Cost BAT
Tendency Legal requirement

Total life cycle cost Running cost

Incentives
Tendency to increase due to energy prices

Tendency to decrease

Investment cost LLCC (least life cycle cost) Energy consumption kWh/year

-Complex Customer perception of these factors will decide -Investment cost is always an important factor Legal requirements and incentives to move towards LLCC.

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Heating Example

Daikin Altherma, the intelligent way to comfort

CAPACITY RANGE: - room heating : 5.7 16.0 kW - domestic hot water: 150 300 l - room cooling: 5.1 - 13.0 kW

Solar panel

5 6 2 1

COMPONENTS: 1 Outdoor unit (6 types) 2 Indoor unit = Hydrobox 3 Domestic hot water tank (optional)

EMITTERS 4 Fan Coils 5 LT radiators 6 Floor heating


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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS Daikin launches a NEW heatpump series

Heating

Leaving water temperatures up to 80C

Cooling

Leaving water temperatures starts from 5C

Domestic hot water


Tank temperatures up to 70C First system in the world !

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concept explanation

Layout of the product: apartment with indoor unit and outdoor unit.
1 or more in/outdoor units Daikin altherma HT for apartment buildings and collective housing
= 1 or more outdoor unit(s) + several indoor units => a modular system outdoor
Heating Cooling

=
indoor outdoor unit Indoor unit hydro box

+
DHW tank

Modular system
5.6kW 5.0kW

1 APARTMENT

9kW 8kW

23 kW 20 kW

TOTAL BUILDING
45 kW 40 kW

Install separate outdoor units to reach higher capacities (separate systems)

1P, 230V

3P, 400V

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Energy related products directive and energy labels

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Eco-design for energy using products (EUP) in the EU

EU target = Top runner on global level Energy label as driver Extended to energy related products (ERP)

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Framework directive10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS 2009/125/EC


Commissions Energy (ENER) and Enterprise (ENTR)
1. boilers 2. waterheaters 3. PC 4. copiers 5. TV, 6. Stand by loss 7. Battery charger 8. Office lights 9. Street lights 10.Airconditioner<12kW 11. motors, fans,.. 12. comm. Refriger. 13. dom. Refriger 14. dishwashers 15. Fossil fuel burner 16. Laundry driers 17. Vacuum cleaners 18. Set top boxes 19. Domestic lighting 20. Local room heating prod. 21. Central heat. prod hot air 22. ovens 23. Hobs & grills 24. prof.washing machines, dryers, dishwashers 25. Non tertiary coffee mach. 26. Networked stand by loss ENTR 1 refrigeration ENTR 2 transformers ENTR 3 mulitmedia ENTR 6 airco and ventilation

Studies finished

Ongoing
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EUP lot 1- boilers


%PE

Market share A+++


Vertical ground source HP Gas fired HP Best air based HP Average horizontal groundsource HP Best solar assisted gas boiler Micro CHP Best condensing boiler Average condensing boiler Best low temperature boiler Average low temperature boiler

All technologies in 1 label on primary energy efficiency

<1% <1% 2% 8% 10% 12% 15% 30% 15% 6%

119%

A++
103% 87%

A+ A

79%

B
71%

C D

Ban in 2015

64% 56%

E
48%

Low end low temperature boiler

Improve energy efficiency = push for renewable energy

F
40% 34%

Average atmospheric low-end atmospheric Electric resistance

*based on available information, in EUP lot 1

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EUP lot 10 - cooling


present Rescaling of energy label. Ban of non inverter technology
te r inver

Future 2013 EUP A/C12kW


A+++ A++ A+ A B C D F G 7 6,4 5,9 5,2 4,3 3,6 3,1 2,7 2,3
A B C D E F G 7 6,4 5,9 5,2 4,3 3,6 3,1

Ban 2015 Ban 2013

A B C D E F G

3,2 3 2,8 2,6 2,4 2,2 2,2


EER @ 35C

N on

inver ter

Seasonal EER including standby and off mode

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Highest efficiency in its segment Inverter controlled

Split type unit

Temperature control Humidity control Ventilation

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Renewable energy source directive

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National targets for 2020


0%
2.2% 9.4% 6.1% 5.8% 3.1% 6.9% 8.7% 10.3% 5.2% 2.9% 13% 32.6% 15% 0.9% 4.3% 0% 2.4% 7.2% 10% 14% 23.3% 15% 20.5% 17.8% 16% 6.7% 14% 28.5%
1.3%

10%
13% 16% 13% 17.0% 18% 18.0% 16% 18% 20%

20%

30%

40% Renewable energy share


RES share inshare in 2005 RES 2005

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

30% 25%

RES 2020 RES share inshare in 2020

23% 17% 40%

23%

11% 13%

34% 31% 24% 25% 38% 39.8% 49%

15%

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Air-, ground- and water energy are recognised as renewable energy Heat pumps are a tool to exploit these sources

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How to count air-, ground- and water energy exploited with heat pumps
Counting of RES
Renewable Ambient heat 100 Primary energy

Minimum requirements

Useful heat

>115

Power plant

Electricity

HP

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Impact to the heat pump market


Power plant efficiency 0.4 2005 0.438
CO2/kWh

Power plant CO2 emission 460 g/kWh Target 0 g/kWh

2010

Power plant efficiency is increasing Minimum requirement for SPF is decreasing


SPF

2005 2050 CO2 emissions per kWh is dropping with zero emission target for 2050

2.88 2.63

actual

Hydronic Heat pump Market forecast

Minimum requirement

2.5 times 2005 2010

year 2005 2010 Seasonal efficiency of heat pumps is increasing due to energy label

17 times 2030

Depend on oil and gas price

year
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Energy service directive

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CURRENT GRID

FROM

Centralized, producer-controlled network

Central power plant

SMART GRID

Merging of electricity infrastructure and communication infrastructure

TO
Less centralized and more consumerinteractive network

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What role can the HVAC industry play ?


Adaptation of the electricity use to the intermitted electricity supply will become in important criteria for competitiveness in the market. The smart Grid requires smart Consumers. Building inertia can be considered as a huge energy battery Heat pumps can provide efficient hot water production and thermal energy storage

-Intelligent use of the available electricity and energy storage technologies will become a key factor for HVAC systems. -The most economic solution will be the winner
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Regulation on fluorinated gases

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Energy-efficiencies
Annual efficiency (APF) comparison
(R410A ratio) Case of 4kW Room A/C by JRAIA

In case of Residential A/C Commercial A/C

32

Peak power comparison


(R410 ratio) under cooling condition Outside 35C, room 27CDB/19.5 CWB
5 4 3 2 1

HFO1234yf (1.2 kg) HFC32 (1.2kg) R290 (0.49kg) R744 (CO2)(1.05Kg) HFC410A (1.4kg)

Efficiency ratio

0. 5

Power ratio

50

100

150

200

Consideration: As for annual efficiency of APF, CO2 is the worst, HFO needs further optimization, and the rest of the candidates are equivalent to R410A.

Consideration: A big difference exists in the peak power under cooling condition. HFO and CO2 will cause the peak power problem in large cities.

Calculation conditions: HFO1234yf A/C is modified to improve efficiency, such as an increase in the pipe size of heat exchanger. Note: for cold climates CO2 shows good performance

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Total overview of candidates


Nedo conference (Feb 10) : Daikin view for refrigerant candidates : Application MAC Direct expansion AC Exist. refrigerant HFC134a Possible new refrigerant HFO1234yf , CO2 High outdoor temperature, warm area Cold area HFC134a HFC407C HFC410A HFC134a HFC134a Water heater, hot water heating HFC407C HFC410A CO2

HFC410A

HFC32 Other HFC32 CO2 HFO1234yf HFC32 Other

Positive displacement chiller Centrifugal water chiller

Large size Medium to small size HFO1234yf Hot water heating Water heater & hot water heating Hot water supply only

HFO1234yf HFC32 Other CO2


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10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS

10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS


All Seasons

CLIMATE COMFORT
Heating Air Conditioning Applied Systems Refrigeration

New trends in HVAC systems and equipment

Martin Dieryckx Environment research center Daikin Europe NV