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# 1. General Definitions: Acid: a substance which when added to water produces hydrogen ions [H+].

. Base: a substance which when added to water produces hydroxide ions [OH-].

acidic: if [H+] is greater than 1 x 10-7 M basic: if [H+] is less than1 x 10-7 M neutral: if [H+] if equal to 1 x 10-7 M

Next calculate the [OH-] 1.0 x 10-14 / 3.2 x 10-9 = 3.1 x 10-6 M Example 4: Calculate the pH of a solution of household ammonia whose [OH-] is 7.93 x 10-3 M. Solution: This time you first calculate the [H+] from the [OH-] 7.93 x 10-3 M OH- = 1.26 x 10-12 M H+ Then find the pH -log[1.26 x 10-12] = 11.9

Example 1: What is the [H+] of a sample of lake water with [OH-] of 4.0 x 10-9 M? Is the lake acidic, basic, or neutral? Solution: [H ] = 1 x 10
+ -14

2. Properties: Acids:

/ 4 x 10

-9

= 2.5 x 10

-6

## Therefore the lake is slightly acidic

react with zinc, magnesium, or aluminum and form hydrogen (H2(g)) react with compounds containing CO32and form carbon dioxide and water turn litmus red taste sour (lemons contain citric acid, for example) DO NOT TASTE ACIDS IN THE LABORATORY!!

Remember: the smaller the negative exponent, the larger the number is. Therefore:

acid solutions should have exponents of [H+] from 0 to -6. basic solutions will have exponents of [H+] from -8 on.
+ -

Now you try a few by yourself. You can then check your answers using the Java applet that follows, but remember, you won't learn how to do them if you don't try by yourself first. Practice #1. What is the pH of a solution of NaOH that has a [OH-] of 3.5 x 10-3 M? Practice #2. The H+ of vinegar that has a pH of 3.2 is what? Practice #3. What is the pH of a 0.001 M HCl solution? 5. Strength of Acids and Bases:

Bases:

feel soapy or slippery turn litmus blue they react with most cations to precipitate hydroxides taste bitter (ever get soap in your mouth?) DO NOT TASTE BASES IN THE LABORATORY!!

Example 2: What is the [H ] of human saliva if its [OH ] is 4 x 10-8 M? Is human saliva acidic, basic, or neutral? Solution: [H+] = 1.0 x 10-14 / 4 x 10-8 = 2.5 x 10-7 M The saliva is pretty neutral.

4. pH 3. Water dissociation: H2O(l) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) equilibrium constant, KW = [H+][OH-] / [H2O] Definition of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions based on pH Note: water is not involved in the equilibrium expression because it is a pure liquid, also, the amount of water not dissociated is so large compared to that dissociated that we consider it a constant Value for Kw = [H ][OH ] = 1.0 x 10
+ -14

## relationship between [H+] and pH pH = -log10[H+]

completely dissociate in water, forming H+ and an anion. example: HN03 dissociates completely in water to form H+ and N031-. The reaction is

acidic: if pH is less than 7 basic: if pH is greater than 7 neutral: if pH is equal to 7 The [H+] can be calculated from the pH by taking the antilog of the negative pH

HNO3(aq)

H+(aq) + N031-(aq)

## Note: The reverse reaction, H+(aq) + OH-(aq) not equal to 1 x 10-14

H2O(l) is

Example 3: calculate the [OH-] of a solution of baking soda with a pH of 8.5. Solution: First calculate the [H+] if pH is 8.5, then the antilog of -8.5 is 3.2 x 10-9. Thus the [H+] is 3.2 x 10-9 M

[H+] for pure water = 1 x 10-7 [OH-] for pure water = 1 x 10-7 Definitions of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions based on [H+]

A 0.01 M solution of nitric acid contains 0.01 M of H+ and 0.01 M N03- ions and almost no HN03 molecules. The pH of the solution would be 2.0.

There are only 6 strong acids: You must learn them. The remainder of the acids therefore are considered weak acids. 1. HCl 2. H2SO4 3. HNO3 4. HClO4 5. HBr 6. HI Note: when a strong acid dissociates only one H+ ion is removed. H2S04 dissociates giving H+ and HS04ions. H2SO4 H+ + HSO41-

3. Cations: (transition metal cations and heavy metal cations with high charge) also NH4+ dissociates into NH3 + H+ Bases 1. Strong Bases:

as a two-step reaction similar to the hydrolysis of water by cations to give acid solutions. examples: NH3(aq) + H2O(aq) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

methylamine: CH3NH2(aq) + H20(l) CH3NH3+(aq) + OH-(aq) acetate ion: C2H3O2-(aq) + H2O(aq) HC2H302(aq) + OH-(aq) General reaction: weak base(aq) + H2O(aq) weak acid(aq) + OH-(aq) Since the reaction does not go to completion relatively few OH- ions are formed. Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions: definition of a salt:

They dissociate 100% into the cation and OH(hydroxide ion). example: NaOH(aq)
(aq)

Na+(aq) + OH-

A 0.01 M solution of sulfuric acid would contain 0.01 M H+ and 0.01 M HSO41(bisulfate or hydrogen sulfate ion). 2. Weak acids:

a. 0.010 M NaOH solution will contain 0.010 M OH- ions (as well as 0.010 M Na+ ions) and have a pH of 12.

a weak acid only partially dissociates in water to give H+ and the anion for example, HF dissociates in water to give H+ and F-. It is a weak acid. with a dissociation equation that is HF(aq)
(aq)

Which are the strong bases? The hydroxides of Groups I and II.

Note: the hydroxides of Group II metals produce 2 mol of OH- ions for every mole of base that dissociates. These hydroxides are not very soluble, but what amount that does dissolve completely dissociates into ions. exampIe: Ba(OH)2(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

an ionic compound made of a cation and an anion, other than hydroxide. the product besides water of a neutralization reaction

H+(aq) + F-

determining acidity or basicity of a salt solution: 1. 2. split the salt into cation and anion add OH- to the cation a. if you obtain a strong base. the cation is neutral b. if you get a weak base, the cation is acidic 3. Add H+ to the anion a. if you obtain a strong acid, the anion is neutral b. if you obtain a weak acid. the anion is basic 4. 5. 6. 7. Salt solutions are neutral if both ions are neutral Salt solutions are acidic if one ion is neutral and the other is acidic Salt solutions are basic is one of the ions is basic and the other is neutral. The acidity or basicity of a salt made of one acidic ion and one basic ion cannot be determined without further information.

Note the use of the double arrow with the weak acid. That is because an equilibrium exists between the dissociated ions and the undissociated molecule. In the case of a strong acid dissociating, only one arrow ( ) is required since the reaction goes virtually to completion. An equilibrium expression can be written for this system: Ka = [ H+][F-] / [HF]

a. 0.000100 M Ba(OH)2 solution will be 0.000200 M in OH- ions (as well as 0.00100 M in Ba2+ ions) and will have a pH of 10.3. 2. Weak Bases: What compounds are considered to be weak bases? 1. 2. Most weak bases are anions of weak acids. Weak bases do not furnish OH- ions by dissociation. They react with water to furnish the OH- ions. Note that like weak acids, this reaction is shown to be at equilibrium, unlike the dissociation of a strong base which is shown to go to completion. 3. When a weak base reacts with water the OHcomes from the water and the remaining H+ attaches itsef to the weak base, giving a weak acid as one of the products. You may think of it

Which are the weak acids? Anything that dissociates in water to produce H+ and is not one of the 6 strong acids. 1. Molecules containing an ionizable proton. (If the formula starts with H then it is a prime candidate for being an acid.) Also: organic acids have at least one carboxyl group, -COOH, with the H being ionizable. 2. Anions that contain an ionizable proton. ( HSO41 H+ + SO42- )

Examples: determine if the following solutions are acidic, basic, or neutral Click on each one to find out the answer.

appropriate indicators 3. Strong acid-weak base titration example titration curve pH at end point species present appropriate indicators

b. What is the solubility of the calcium hydroxide in water at 30 oC? Express your answer in grams of Ca(OH)2 / 100 mL water?

## NaHPO4 LiHS NH4Cl

8. Three models of acids: l. Arrhenius Model Basis for the model--action in water

6. Acid-Base Reactions: Strong acid + strong base: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O net ionic reaction: H+ + OH- H2O Strong acid + weak base: example: write the net ionic equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid, HCl, and aqueous ammonia, NH3. What is the pH of the resulting solution? Strong base + weak acid: example: write the net ionic equation for the reaction between citric acid (H3C6H507) and sodium hydroxide. What is the pH of the resulting solution?

## base definition: produces OH1- in water solution

2. Bronsted-Lowry Model Basis for the model-- proton transfer example: titration curve for the titration of vinegar with NaOH pH at end point- approximately 8.5

## acid definition: donates a proton ( H<sup+< sup=""> ) </sup+<>

7. Titrations 1. Nomenclature: these are terms that are used when talking about titrating one substance with another. You need to learn these definitions well enough to explain them to someone else.

## titration titrant indicator equivalence point end point titration cuve

Note: no matterwhat type of titration you do, at the equivalence (end) point the number of moles of H+ is equivalent to the number of moles of OH-. This applies whether you have weak or strong acids and/or bases. Problems: l. Citric acid (C6H807) contains a mole of ionizable H+/mole of citric acid. A sample containing citric acid has a mass of 1.286 g. The sample is dissolved in 100.0 mL of water. The solution is titrated with 0.0150 M of NaOH. If 14.93 mL of the base are required to neutralize the acid. then what is the mass percent of citric acid in the sample? 2. A sample of solid calcium hydroxide is mixed with water at 30 oC and allowed to stand. A 100.0 mL sample of the solution is titrated with 59.4 mL of a 0.400 M solution of hydrobromic acid. a. What is the concentration of the calcium hydroxide solution?

base definition: accepts a proton conjugate acid definition: the acid becomes the conjugate base after it donates the proton because it can now accept it back. conjugate base definition: the base becomes the conjugate acid after it accepts the proton because it can now donate it back.

## 3. Lewis Model Basis for model--electron pair transfer

2. Strong acid-strong base titration example: titration curve pH at equivalence point species present

acid definition: accepts a pair of electrons base definition: donates a pair of electrons