Anda di halaman 1dari 3

Chapter 18 Key Terms

activator alternative RNA splicing bicoid cell differentiation control element corepressor cyclic AMP (cAMP) cytoplasmic determinants determination differential gene expression egg-polarity gene embryonic lethal enhancer epigenetic inheritance feedback inhibition genomic imprinting histone histone acetylation homeotic gene inducer induction maternal effect gene micro-RNA (miRNA) morphogen morphogenesis oncogene operator operon p53 pattern formation polyp positional information proteasome proto-oncogene Ras gene regulatory gene repressor RNA interference (RNAi) small interfacing RNA (siRNA) tumor-suppressor gene

viroid virulent phage

Chapter 20 Key Terms


bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) biofuel biotechnology cDNA library clone cloning vector complementary DNA (cDNA) DNA ligase DNA microarray assay electroporation expression vector gel electrophoresis gene cloning gene therapy genetic engineering genetic profile genetically modified (GM) organism genomic library Huntingtons disease in situ hybridization in vitro mutagenesis northern blotting nucleic acid hybridization nucleic acid probe Parkinsons disease plasmid pluripotent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) recombinant DNA restriction fragment restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) restriction site reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) RNA interference (RNAi) short tandem repeats (STRs) sickle-cell disease single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Southern blotting stem cell sticky end Ti plasmid yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)

polyploidy proteomics pseudogene retrotransposon short tandem repeats (STRs) simple sequence DNA systems biology transposable element transposon

Chapter 22 Key Terms


adaptation analogous artificial selection biogeography catastrophism continental drift convergent evolution endemic evolutionary tree fossil homologous structures Homology marsupial natural selection paleontology Pangaea stratum trait uniformitarianism vestigial structure

Chapter 24 Key Terms


allopatric speciation allopolyploid autopolyploid biological species concept ecological species concept hybrid hybrid zone macroevolution morphological species concept phylogenetic species concept postzygotic barrier prezygotic barrier punctuated equilibrium reinforcement reproductive isolation speciation species sympatric speciation

Chapter 19 Key Terms


AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) bacteriophage capsid HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) host range lysogenic cycle lytic cycle pandemic phage prion prophage provirus restriction enzyme retrovirus reverse transcriptase temperate phage vaccination vaccine viral envelope

Chapter 21 Key Terms


bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) bioinformatics cytogenetic map evo-devo evolution genome genomics homeobox homeotic gene Human Genome Project lysozyme multigene family phylogenetic tree physical map

Chapter 25 Key Terms


adaptive radiation amino acid ammonite Cambrian explosion endosymbiosis geologic record half-life heterochrony macroevolution marsupial mass extinction paedomorphosis Pangaea

physiology protobiont radioactive isotope radiometric dating ribozyme serial endosymbiosis stromatolite

Chapter 26 Key Terms


analogy Animalia Archaea archaean binomial branch point carnivore clade cladistics class Eukarya family genome genus homoplasy horizontal gene transfer ingroup kingdom maximum likelihood maximum parsimony molecular clock molecular systematics monophyletic neutral theory orthologous genes outgroup paralogous genes paraphyletic phylocode phylogenetic bracketing phylogenetic tree phylogeny phylum Plantae polyphyletic polytomy rooted shared ancestral character shared derived character sister taxa systematics taxon taxonomy

conjugation cooperativity decomposer endospore endotoxin exotoxin extreme halophile extreme thermophile extremophile F factor F plasmid facultative anaerobe fimbria Gram stain gram-negative gram-positive heterocyte heterotroph horizontal gene transfer host methanogen mutualism nitrogen fixation nucleoid nucleoid region obligate aerobe obligate anaerobe parasite parasitism pathogen peptidoglycan photoautotroph photoheterotroph R plasmid symbiont symbiosis taxis technology transduction transformation

holdfast isomorphic kinetoplastid mixotroph oomycete opisthokont parabasalid plasmodial slime mold plasmodium producer protist pseudopodium radiolarian red alga redox reaction rhizaria secondary endosymbiosis stipe stramenopile thallus unikonta

Chapter 29 Key Terms


alternation of generations angiosperm antheridium apical meristem archegonium bryophyte cuticle embryophyte evolution foot gametangium gametophore gametophyte grade gymnosperm heterosporous homosporous hornwort leaf lignin liverwort lycophyte megaphyll megaspore microphyll microspore moss mycorrhizae peat peristome phloem phragmoplast placental transfer cell Plantae protonema pterophyte rhizoid root seed seedless vascular plants seta

Chapter 28 Key Terms


alternation of generations alveolate amoeba amoebozoan apicomplexan archaeplastida blade brown algae cellular slime mold chromalveolata ciliate coral reef cytoplasmic streaming diatom dinoflagellate diplomonad euglenid euglenozoan excavata foraminiferan (foram) golden alga heteromorphic

Chapter 27 Key Terms


adaptation anaerobic respiration autotroph Bacteria binary fission biofilm bioremediation capsule chemoautotroph chemoheterotroph commensalism

sorus sporangium spore sporocyte sporophyll sporophyte sporopollenin stoma strobili tracheid vascular plant vascular tissue xylem

Chapter 30 Key Terms


angiosperm basal angiosperms carpel conifer cotyledon cross-pollination dicots double fertilization endosperm eudicots filament flower fossil fruit gymnosperm indeterminate cleavage integument magnoliids monocots ovary ovule petal pollen grains pollination progymnosperms radial symmetry seed sepal sporangium spore sporophyte stamen stigma style

dikaryotic ectomycorrhizal fungi endophyte Fungi glomeromycete haustorium heterokaryon hypha karyogamy lichen lignin mold mycelium mycorrhizae nucleariid pheromone plasmogamy sac fungus septum (plural, septa) soredium yeast zoospore zygomycete zygosporangium

radial symmetry spiral cleavage triploblastic

Chapter 33 Key Terms


alimentary canal ammonite amoebocyte arachnid arthropod book lung brachiopod chelicerae cheliceriform choanocyte cnidocyte complete metamorphosis copepod coral reef crustacean cuticle decapod ecdysozoans echinoderm ectoproct eurypterid exoskeleton foot gastrovascular cavity hemolymph hermaphrodite hexapod incomplete metamorphosis invertebrate isopod mandible mantle mantle cavity medusa mesohyl molting myriapod nematocyst osculum parthenogenesis planarian protonephridium radula spongocoel suspension feeder torsion trochophore larva tube foot visceral mass water vascular system

Chapter 32 Key Terms


anterior archenteron arthropod bilateral symmetry bilaterian blastopore blastula body cavity body plan Cambrian explosion cell wall cephalization chordate clade cleavage coelom coelomate determinate cleavage deuterostome development diploblastic ecdysozoans ectoderm endoderm Eukarya eumetazoan gastrula gastrulation grade heterotroph larva lophophore lophotrochozoan mesoderm metamorphosis molting protostome development pseudocoelomate radial cleavage

Chapter 31 Key Terms


arbuscular mycorrhizal arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ascocarp ascomycete ascus basidiocarp basidiomycete basidium chitin chytrid club fungus coenocytic fungus coidia deuteromycete