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Names, Titles, and Short Phrases Not Protected By Copyright Names, titles, and short phrases or expressions are

not subject to copyright protection. Even if a name, title, or short phrase is novel or distinctive or if it lends itself to a play on words, it cannot be protected by copyright. The Copyright Office cannot register claims to exclusive rights in brief combinations of words such as: Names of products or services Names of businesses, organizations, or groups (including the name of a group of performers) Names of pseudonyms of individuals (including pen name or stage name) Titles of works Catchwords, catchphrases, mottoes, slogans, or short advertising expressions Mere listings of ingredients, as in recipes, labels, or formulas. When a recipe or formula is accompanied by explanation or directions, the text directions may be copyrightable, but the recipe or formula itself remains uncopyrightable. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Subject Matter Of Copyright Copyright protection under the copyright code (title 17, section 102, U.S. Code) extends only to original works of authorship. The statute states clearly that ideas and concepts cannot be protected by copyright. To be protected by copyright, a work must contain at least a certain minimum amount of authorship in the form of original literary, musical, pictorial, or graphic expression. Names, titles, and other short phrases do not meet these requirements. What Is Not Protected By Copyright Ideas, Methods, or Systems are not subject to copyright protection. Copyright protection, therefore, is not available for:

ideas or procedures for doing, making, or building things; scientific or technical methods or discoveries; business operations or procedures; mathematical principles; formulas, algorithms; or any other concept, process, or method of operation. Section 102 of the copyright law, title 17, United States Code, clearly expresses this principle: In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work. Inventions are subject matter for patents, not copyrights. Under certain circumstances it may be possible to secure patent protection for an invention or an inventive design for an article of manufacture. For general information about the standards and conditions of the patent laws, contact the Patent and Trademark Office at the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks, Washington, D.C. 20231 or via the Internet at The Offices telephone number is (800) 786-9199 and the TTY number is (703) 305-7785. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------What Is Protected By Copyright Copyright protection extends to a description, explanation, or illustration of an idea or system, assuming that the requirements of the copyright law are met. Copyright in such a case protects the particular literary or pictorial expression chosen by the author. However, it gives the copyright owner no exclusive rights in the idea, method, or system involved. Suppose, for example, that an author writes a book explaining a new system for food processing. The copyright in the book, which comes into effect at the moment the work is fixed in a tangible form, will prevent others from publishing the text and illustrations describing the authors ideas for machinery, processes, and merchandising methods. But it will not give the author any rights to prevent others from adopting the ideas for commercial

purposes or from developing or using the machinery, processes, or methods described in the book.