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UNIVERSITY OF PUNE A PROJECT REPORT ON

UNIVERSAL SYSTEM FOR PARAMETER MEASUREMENT & CONTROL


Submitted By

SAURABH ATHAWALE B3383010 ADITYA B MAKHIJA B3383054

Under The Guidance Of

PROF. G.B JOSHI

In Partial Fulfillment Of B.E. (Electronics& Telecommunication)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGG.


MIT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KOTHRUD, PUNE 411 038 2010 2011

Universal System For Parameter Measurement & Control

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project titled Universal

System For Parameter Measurement & Control By:

SAURABH ATHAWALE B3383010 ADITYA MAKHIJA B3383054 Is a bonafide work carried out by them, under my guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Telecommunication of University of Pune.

Prof. G. B. Joshi Guide Dept. of E&TC

Prof . V.V. Shete Head, Dept. of E&TC

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGG. MIT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KOTHRUD, PUNE 411 038 2010 2011 The Project entitled Universal System For Parameter Measurement University of Pune. Examiners: 1. ______________________________________ 2. ______________________________________

&

Control is approved for the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING E&TC of

Date:

Place : Pune

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A project is an opportunity for the students to practically implement theoretical concepts. It proves to be a learning platform for the students so that they can compete successfully in their professional life. However, in this entire journey of completing the project, we need proper guidance so as to avoid obvious mistakes. We would like to thank our Principal Prof. Dr. Vijay Wadhai for their constant encouragement. We would also like to thank our Head of Dept. (E&TC), Prof. V.V. Shete . We would thank our internal guide Prof. G.B Joshi for his invaluable guidance and support. He was the real support to us in all our troubles and helped us out.

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INDEX
S.NO.
1. 2. 3.

CONTENTS
Introduction Abstract Chapter 1: Literature Survey Chapter 2:System Description 2.1 Block diagram 2.2 Block diagram description 2.3 Components used 2.3.1 PIC microcontroller 2.3.2 Op-amp op07 and op27 2.3.3 Seven segment displays 2.3.3.1 Normal Seven segment display 2.3.3.2 Seven segment displayIC 7107 2.3.4 Various Sensors those are compatible with system 2.4 Circuit Diagram 2.4.1 Amplifier section 2.4.2 Comparator section 2.4.3 PIC(16F877A) Interface 2.4.4 power supply

PAGE
1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 14

4.

20 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 27 29 30 32 32 33
IV

5.

Chapter 3:Manufacturing 3.1 PCB Indent Layout 3.2 PCB Mask Layout 3.3 Bottom Layout 3.4 Fabrication and Manufacturing 3.5 Algorithm Chapter 4:Testing/Results 4.1 Hardware/Software tradeoffs 4.2 Result

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Chapter 5: 6. 5.1 Application and scope 5.2 Components list 5.3 Conclusion 5.4 Bibliography 5.5 Datasheets
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INTRODUCTION
The circuit is designed for calculating the different parameters for different types of sensors. The device can be attached or can connected with various types of sensors like temperature, pressure, proximity, photo sensors etc. The system would be designed in such a way that user would be doing its connections and making the testing circuit, by connecting amplifier block to sensors or comparator block or filter or control block according to the requirement. System is having the control block thus I can create a control action if required. System also incorporates the micro-controller for any further control actions and for display purposes. We would need a power supply for running all these blocks efficiently. Thus Device will have a separate power supply block for triggering of sensors and for working of system.

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ABSTRACT
The circuit is designed for calculating the different parameters for different types of sensors. The device would consist of a universal input block to which variable types of sensors can be attached. At the next stage there would be a signal-processing block, which will do the processing of the signal coming from the sensor. Next stage there is a amplifier, comparator & filter block. This block could be used for amplification of the signal or for filtration of the signal or for comparing signal with some desired level. Next is microcontroller unit that would be used for driving a particular unit or for some counting purpose. A relay block is installed so that we can drive a device for certain condition. Last stage is the display block unit that consists of 7-segment display, indicators, timers and counters. We would need a power supply for running all these blocks efficiently. Thus Device will have a separate power supply block that would provide: Voltage level of: 0 - 5V & 0 - 10V Current of: 5 - 20mA & Clock pulse.

OUR AIM
Our aim is to make a device, to which various types of sensors can be connected for which the device will calculate the different parameters. Thus in practices we can create any circuit for testing in no time and the parameters can be observed easily.

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Chapter 1: Literature Survey


In present world there is no system similar to that of our system. There are few systems for measuring parameters but they cannot produce the control action, where as our system can, and also the system can read, control and display the parameters of various sensors, where as the present day systems can work with only one. The basic need of our system arises in big industries and educational institutions. Where the system is used either for testing (in industries) or for teaching and learning parameters (in institutions). In educational institutions the system can be used for learning and performing various experiments on the sensors. The student can attach any sensor and can test its behavior, its output, its parameters etc. Gary Stringham & Associates believe that engineering is lot about self learning through experiments, you need to buy a development board or system and play with it, configure it, and get the results. Our system provides all these amenities. In Industries also different systems are required for testing different components, but this can be resolved by using only one system as all the testing can be performed over one. As number of systems increases the working person is required to learn all of them and it becomes complicated. Where as in our system any circuit can be designed easily in no time and can be operated easily.

Some similar systems are:


MULTI-PARAMETER MEASUREMENT SYSTEM:

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Chapter 2: System Description


2.1 Block Diagram:

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2.2 Block Diagram Description: The system basically would somewhat look like this:

I/P BLOC K FOR

POWER SUPPLY BLOCK

AMPLIF IER

FILTER

DISPLA Y

RELAY CONTR OL

COMPAR ATOR

We can create the testing circuit for any type of sensor in no time. For example if we want to use temperature sensor and create the testing circuit or wanting to read its parameters then the sensor can be connected at the universal input port. Then the power supply block will supply the power for triggering the sensor and for other blocks.

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Then as the signal from the temperature sensor would be weak so we would need an amplifier block to amplify it so we can connect its output terminals to the amplifier block. Then if we want to display the particular parameter of the sensor we can use the filer and display block i.e. seven-segment display for it. Or if we want to produce a control action we can connect the output from amplifier to the comparator block where it will compare the signal with some reference signal and will give the required signal at output, then the signal can be given to relay control where the control action can take place using a relay. In such a way we can use any block according to our requirement and produce any type of circuit in no time.

Main Blocks With Description


A. B. C. D. E. F. Universal Input Block. Amplifier Block. Filter & Display Block. Comparator Block. Relay Control Block. Power Supply Block. A. Universal Input Block: This block is used for connecting sensors from exterior world to the system. It is the simple strip over which the sensor is connected. B. Amplifier Block: The block is made up of instrumentation amplifier or two stage amplifier of op-amp. The block is used for amplification of the signal at the input and gives the amplified signal out.

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C. Filter & Display Block: This block is used and designed to filter the signal and to display the parameter measured for the sensor. D. Comparator Block: This block is used for producing the control action by comparing the signal from the sensor with some reference signal level.

E. Relay Control Block: The Control block is used for producing the physical action from the signal at the input. It consists of a relay that clips on/off according to the signal from the comparator block. F. Power Supply Block: The block is used for supplying the power to all the blocks and also for triggering the sensors at universal the input block. Block would produce the supply of : +/-5V; +/-12V. Thus the system can be configured according to the users requirements. The user can use only the block that is required or wants to use. 2.3 Components Used: The components used in the system are as follows: I. II. III. IV. Pic Microcontroller (16F877A). Op-amp (OP07, OP27). Seven Segment Display Unit (7107). Various sensors those are compatible to system. a. Temperature Sensor.
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b. c. d. e.

Pressure Sensor. Proximity Switches. RPM or Rotation Sensors. Flow Sensors.

2.3.1 PIC MICROCONTROLLER: a) Probably the most important part on the receiver side. b) Processing of the received data, driving of the LCDs, storage of old, data, etc. functions. c) Available options are PIC16F877A/ PIC16F874A. PIC MICROCONTROLLERS PIN DIAGRAM:

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PIC16F877A Description: a) It is a 40 pin PDIP IC. b) Has the feature of parallel and serial communication. c) 4 I/O ports and 15 interrupts. d) The RAX pins are the digital I/O pins

PIC16F877A Features: a) Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM. b) Technology. c) Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V). d) Commercial & Industrial temperature ranges. e) Low-power consumption. f) 10-bit, up to 8-channel ADC. g) Brown-out Reset (BOR). h) Only 35 single-word instructions. i) All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle.

2.3.2

OP-AMP OP07 & OP27:

OP07-Features: Low VOS: 75 _V Max. Low VOS Drift: 1.3 _V/_C Max. Ultra-Stable vs. Time: 1.5 _V/Month Max. Low Noise: 0.6 _V p-p Max.
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Wide Input Voltage Range: _14 V. Wide Supply Voltage Range: 3 V to 18 V. Fits 725,108A/308A, 741, AD510 Sockets 125_C TemperatureTested Dice

OP07-Discription: obtained by trimming at the wafer stage. These low offset voltages generally eliminate any need for external nulling. The OP07 also features low input bias current (4 nA forOP07E) and high openloop gain (200 V/mV for OP07E). The low offsets and high open-loop gain make the OP07 particularlyuseful for high-gain instrumentation applications.

OP27-Features: Low Noise: 80 nV p-p (0.1 Hz to 10 Hz), 3 nV/ Hz Low Drift: 0.2 _V/_C High Speed: 2.8 V/_s Slew Rate, 8 MHz Gain Bandwidth Low VOS: 10 _V Excellent CMRR: 126 dB at VCM of 11 V High Open-Loop Gain: 1.8 Million Fits 725, OP07, 5534A Sockets Available in Die Form
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OP27-Discription: The OP27 precision operational amplifier combines the low offset and drift of the OP07 with both high speed and low noise. for precision instrumentation applications. Hz, at 10 Hz, a low 1/f noise corner frequency of 2.7 Hz, and high gain (1.8 million), allow accurate high-gain amplification of low-level signals. A gaindynamic accuracy in high-speed, data acquisition systems.

2.3.3

Seven Segment Displays:

The system will be having two displays: 2.3.3.1 Normal seven segment display 2.3.3.2 Seven segment display IC 7107

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2.3.3.1

Normal Seven Segment Display:

This display will be directly interfaced with the pic microcontroller and thus will be used by pic to display the parameters given to it. This display is a normal combination of 4 seven segments which will be displaying the value through pic microcontroller.

2.3.3.2

Seven segment display IC 7107:

7107-Features: Guaranteed Zero Reading for 0V Input on All Scales True Polarity at Zero for Precise Null Detection 1pA Typical Input Current True Differential Input and Reference, Direct Display Drive - LCD ICL7106, LED lCL7107 Low Noise - Less Than 15VP-P On Chip Clock and Reference Low Power Dissipation - Typically Less Than 10mW No Additional Active Circuits Required Enhanced Display Stability Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)

7107-Discription: 3,1/2 Digit, LCD/LED Display, A/D Converters. The Intersil ICL7106 and ICL7107 are high performance, low power, 3,1/2 digit A/D converters. Included are seven segment decoders, display drivers, a reference, and a clock. The ICL7106 is designed to interface with a liquid crystal display (LCD) and includes a multiplexed backplane drive; the ICL7107 will directly drive an instrument size light emitting diode (LED) display. The ICL7106 and ICL7107 bring together a combination of high accuracy, versatility, and true economy. It features auto zero to less than 10V, zero drift of less than 1V/oC, input bias current of 10pA (Max), and rollover error of less than one count. True differential inputs and reference are useful in all systems, but give

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the designer an uncommon advantage when measuring load cells, strain gauges and other bridge type transducers. Finally, the true economy of single power supply operation (ICL7106), enables a high performance panel meter to be built with the addition of only 10 passive components and a display.

2.3.4 Various sensors those are compatible to system: a.) Temperature Sensor: Description of temperature sensors: Operating from an input voltage range of 2.2 V to 5.5 V, the sensor requires a single resistor to set the output voltage to any value over the range, 0.69 V to 2.0
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V. The output voltage range makes the sensor particularly suitable for the 3-GHz DSP's core voltage requirements. The module incorporates a comprehensive list of features. Output over-current and over-temperature shutdown protects against most load faults. A differential remote sense ensures tight load regulation. An adjustable under-voltage lockout allows the turn-on voltage threshold to be customized. Auto-Tracksequencing is a popular feature that greatly simplifies the simultaneous power-up and power-down of multiple modules in a power system Features of temperature sensor: Up to 10-A Output Current. 2.2-V to 5.5-V Input Voltage. Designed to meet Ultra-Fast Transient. Wide-Output Voltage Adjust (0.69 V to 2.0 V) Requirements for 3-GHz DSP Systems. 1.5% Total Output Voltage Variation. Efficiencies up to 94% (CO = 2000 F, I = 3 A). Output Overcurrent Protection (Nonlatching, Auto-Reset) Wireless Infrastructure Base Stations. Operating Temperature: 40C to 85C. Safety Agency Approvals: UL/IEC/CSA-C22.2 60950-1. On/Off Inhibit. Differential Output Voltage Remote Sense.

b.) Pressure Sensors: The MPX2010/MPXV2010G series silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors provide a very accurate and linear voltage output directly proportional to the applied pressure. These sensors house a single monolithic silicon die with the strain gauge and thinfilm resistor network integrated on each chip. The sensor is laser trimmed for precise span, offset calibration and temperature compensation. Features Temperature Compensated over 0C to +85C Ratiometric to Supply Voltage Differential and Gauge Options Application Examples
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Respiratory Diagnostics Air Movement Control Controllers Pressure Switching c.) Proximity Switches: Inductive proximity switches being contact fewer sensors can be used for position sensing, counting and speed measurement. They can be used in extreme conditions, such as dusty, oily and corrosive environment. Inductive proximity switches are used in all areas of control and automotive technology. Specifications: Supply voltage: 10 -30 vdc Output: PNP / NPN Maximum load current: 300 mA Environmental protection: IP 67 Reverse polarity protection: Provided Short circuit protection: provided Status Indication: Through LED Sizes available: M 8, M 12, M 18, M 25, M 30

AC Proximity Switches: Specifications: Supply voltage: 90 - 230 vac Output logic: NO /NC Environmental protection: IP 67 Status Indication: Through LED Sizes available: M 12,M 18, M 30 Capacitive Proximity Switches: Capacitive proximity switches are non contact sensing solution to metallic as well as non -metallic object. Capacitive proximity switch is a solid-state device to sense position or level of any material like Plastic, Glass, Ceramic, Wood, Leather, Oil, Diesel, Water & Metal. They are used for Position Sensing of Plastic Pouches, Tablets, Bottles etc. counting number of Boxes, Caps, Bottles etc. for Level Sensing: Solid, Liquid, Flour, Powder,etc. Specifications:

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Supply voltage: 10 - 30 vdc Output: PNP / NPN Reverse polarity protection: Provided Short circuit protection: provided Switching frequency: 25 Hz Status Indication: Through LED Sizes available: M 18, M 30

d.) RPM sensors: Features: Self-powered operation. Direct conversion of actuator speed to output frequency. Simple installation. No moving parts. Designed for use over a wide range of speeds. Adaptable to a wide variety of configurations. Customized VRS products for unique speed sensing applications. Housing diameters: 5/8 in (M16), 3/8 in (M12), 1/4 in (8M). Housing material/style: stainless steel threaded. Terminations: MS3106 connector, preleaded. Output voltages: 4.7 Vp-p to 125 Vp-p. Potential Applications: Engine RPM (revolutions per minute) measurement on aircraft, automobiles, boats, buses, trucks and rail vehicles. Motor RPM measurement on drills, grinders, lathes and automatic screw machines. Motor RPM measurement on precision camera, tape recording and motion picture equipment. Process speed measurement on food, textile, paper, woodworking, printing, tobacco and pharmaceutical industry machinery. Motor speed measurement of electrical generating equipment. Speed measurement of pumps, blowers, mixers, exhaust and ventilating fans Flow measurement on turbine meters. Wheel-slip measurement on autos and locomotives Gear speed measurement.

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e.) Flow Sensor: The flow sensors most commonly chosen for use with a PLC are EX series and TX series insertion flow sensors. These flow sensors, which have three wires, use Hall-effect technology. They need 5-24 Volts DC and up to 8 mA current, and they are current sinking (NPN) devices. The flow sensors can connect directly to the PLC if:

The flow sensor power on the PLC is 5 - 24 VDC (VDC is typical.) The flow sensor power supply can provide at least 6 mA (100 mA is typical.) The flow sensor input on the PLC can accept a current sinking device.

If the PLC input only accepts current sourcing devices, a pull-up resistor must be added to allow the flow sensor to work correctly. Connection of this resistor is shown below. Typically, on a 24 VDC input a 2.2 K Ohm resistor will be effective. Since the three-wire, Hall-effect flow sensors are solid state, they do not exhibit switch bounce and can be used at relatively high frequencies. Any input module will have certain frequency limitations, and the table on the right gives maximum frequency that a particular flow sensor or meter could be expected to produce. If the PLC is equipped with a 4-20 mA analog input module, it is necessary to order the flow sensor with some form of 4-20 mA transmitter. Two options are the AO55 blind transmitter and FT420 flow sensor computer. Follow the connection diagrams for these products to connect the flow sensor output to the analog input.

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Connection diagram of the flow sensor:

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2.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


2.4.1 Amplifier Section:

Amplifier part2:

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2.4.2 Comparator Section:

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2.4.3 PIC (16F877A) Interface:

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2.4.4 Power Supply:

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Chapter 3: Manufacturing
3.1 PCB Indent Layout: Amplifier:

COMPARATOR

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Power supply:

3.2 PCB Mask Layout: Amplifier:

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Comparator:

Power supply:

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3.3 Bottom Layout: Amplifier:

Comparator:

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Power supply:

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3.4 FABRICATION & MECHANICAL STRUCTURE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Power supply: 80 X 60mm = 8 X 6 (cm) Amplifier: 83 X 65 mm = 8.3 X 6.5 (cm) Microcontroller: 115 X 10 mm= 11/5 X 10 (cm) Comparator and Relay: 87 X 73 mm = 8.7 X 7.3 (cm) Display: 90 X 40 mm = 9 X 4 (cm)

Total sheet size: 400cm X 300cm

Power Supply

Power Supply

Power Supply

Amplifier

P I C 16F8771 Microcontroller

Display

Display

Comparator and Relay

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3.5 ALGORITHM
Step 1: START

Step 2: Initialize all ports.

Step 3: Make pins RA0-RA5 as input pins.

Step 4: Continuously check for any signal changes on RA0-RA5.

Step 5: If signal changes at RA0 then count the pulses fed at_______

Step 6: If signal goes low to high then increment the count.

Step 7: Display the count.

Step 8: Keep counting till power is ON.

Step 9: Else if signal comes at RA1 then start the internal timer (with the resolution equal to 1sec.).

Step 10: Display the time.

Step 11: Stop the timer as soon as a low to high pulse is detected at RA1.

Step 12: All other pins (RA2-RA5) can be used for variety of applications (right now they are reserved for future improvements).

Step 13: STOP.

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Chapter 4: Testing/Results
Hardware Tradeoff: The major problems that we faced during hardware designing were how we will make all the sensors available in market compatible to the kit. We had to conceder all the parameters for various sensors, so finally we came out with the conclusion that we will make user only to make the changes with the gains and reference voltages etc. according to the component and requirement. b. Software Tradeoff: The major problem faced during programming was in which language we should write the program weather we should write the program in assembly language or in C language. But then we finally decided to write the programming in C language as it was already difficult to write program in PIC and then assembly language programming was getting more tedious. c. Result: a.

The most frequent problem that we faced during the project completion was in selection of components and calculating the values for them. After the final completion at the while of testing we didnt faced any big problems except from small errors in connections.

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Chapter 5:
5.1 Applications and Scope: The system is a universal system thus its individual block can be used in a tandem and various results can be achieved.

System can be used in educational institution for letting students practicing on various sensors and check there working as the testing circuit can be made in no time.

System can test and read various parameters according to requirement of sensors.

The system can also be used in industries for testing before installation where sensors are used and installed in various devices.

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5.2 Components list:


PARTS
PIC 16F877A

QUANTITY
1

COST
Rs. 250

TRANSFORMERS

Rs. 650

ULN2003

Rs.20

LM339

Rs.20

DISPLAY 7107

Rs.150

40106

Rs.25

78XX & 79XX

Rs.45

LM1458

4 -

Rs.25

Discrete components

Rs.1100

PCB Manufacturing TOTAL

Rs.3200 Rs.5485/-

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5.3 CONCLUSION
The system has two areas for utilization:

I. One it would reduce the efforts of a teacher and students will learn and remember things easily II. On the other hand the system when used in industries can be fruitful as only one system would b required for testing various sensors & it can be used easily.

Following are the advantages of the system: Possible to test various sensors on the same system. Testing of sensors is easy. Parameters can be calculated in no time for various sensors.

System has advance feature of producing control action for some required cases.

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5.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY
References: Internet Links: http://www.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/30292c.pdf http://www.pcb.com/spec_sheet.asp http://www.omron.com http://www.motorola.com/semiconductors/

Books: PIC microcontroller by Predco Analog integrated circuit by Ramakant Gaikwad

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5.5 DATASHEETS

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Its well said that if a kid can take things apart and then put it back together such that it still works he will become an Good Engineer.

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