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A project report On



Under the Guidance of : Dr. T. K. Das (Senior Lecturer) Dept. Of Business Administration

Prepared By: Nazia ZAbin Memon Roll No. 1411MBA035 3rd Trimester

P.G. Department Of Business Administration Sambalpur University Jyoti Vihar , Burla

I do hereby declare that the report entitled as A PROJECT REPORT OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON HAWKINS COOKER in Sambalpur submitted to the Department of Business Administration, Sambalpur University under the esteemed guidance of Dr. T. K. Das (Senior Lecturer) is of my own and is not published anywhere before. Its genuinely the true copy.

Nazia Zabin Memon Roll no. 1411MBA35 M.B.A, 3rd Trimester, Sambalpur University


I am extremely thankful to Prof. Biswajit Sathpathy the present H.O.D. of Department of Business Administration, Sambalpur University, for giving his helping hand in completing my project. My sincere thanks to my subject teacher Dr. T. K. Das without whose guidance it would have not been possible on my part to complete Research Methodology Project.

I am very thankful to my friends and relatives who have helped me a lot in collection of necessary information.

Thanking You

Yours Sincerely
Nazia Zabin Memon 3rd Trimester M.B.A. Sambalpur University

In recent days India is witnessing a change in consumerism. The market is now predominantly consumer driven. The focus is shifting for product based marketing to need based marketing. Consumer is given many options to decide. Cooking equipment segment is no exception to this general trend. An effective market communication is imperative for reaching the target audience. So it is important that we study the consumer perceptions and behaviour of the cooker owner which will give us feedback on how marketing strategies can be worked. Sambalpur, a town of western Orissa which is in the eastern part of India, has a progressive and growing market for cooking appliances. This down was selected for this study. Pre-testing was done by an Interview schedule which was developed and administered to a convenient sample of twenty five car owners. A Simple Random sampling technique was adopted in the study to select the sample respondents. As the size of the universe is restricted, the study has been conducted on the respondents who are the owners of all the segments of passenger cars. A total of 110 Interview schedules were prepared and out of this, only 100 interview schedules were filled up and collected. Data were collected through an interview schedule regarding perception of the respondents on the usage of cars. The following tools were used in testing the hypotheses and in the analysis of the data. Descriptive statistical tools such as Percentage, Mean, Median and Standard deviation have been used to describe the profiles of consumers, preferred product attributes and level of satisfaction. ANOVA, t-Test and F-Test have been used to test the

significant differences between the groups of respondents in their perception and satisfaction for selected independent variables like age, sex and income. Chi-Square test has been used to test the association between the consumer demographic characteristics and preferred product attributes and satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis has been used to study the influence of income and lifestyle on overall satisfaction level of respondents. Correlation analysis has been used to establish the relationship between the factors which influenced the purchase and the factors which favoured the level of satisfaction. Factor analysis is employed to identify the key factors responsible for the consumers purchase of cars and level of satisfaction after purchase. Cluster analysis has been used to identify the consumers with similar tastes an preferences with respect to purchase of car. The study throws light on various features that the manufacturers should concentrate on to attract the prospective buyers. This study concludes that consumer behaviour plays a vital role in marketing cars and there is more scope for extensive research in this area



Human beings, in general, are complex creatures who often do not seem even to know their own minds. It is seldom easy, and sometimes impossible, to generalize about human behaviour. Each individual is a unique product of heredity, environment and experience. Predicting such a strange behaviour of people is a difficult and complicated task, filled with uncertainties, risks, and surprises. Accurate predictions can yield vast fortunes and inaccurate predictions can result in the loss of millions of rupees. Today, business around the world recognizes that the consumer is the king. Knowing why and how people consume products helps marketers to understand how to improve existing products, what types of products are needed in the market place, or how
to attract consumers to buy their products. The era of liberalization, privatization and globalization has brought changes in society and lifestyle of people. Marketers can justify their existence only when they are able to understand consumers wants and satisfy them. The modern marketing concept for successful management of a firm requires marketers to consider the consumer as the focal point of their business activity. Although it is important for the firm to understand the buyer and accordingly evolve its marketing strategy, the buyer or consumer continues to be an enigma - sometimes responding the way the marketer wants and on other occasions just refusing to buy the product from the same marketer. For this reason, the buyers mind has been termed as a black box, which should be opened by the seller to be a successful marketer. The study of consumer behaviour also includes an analysis of factors that influence purchase decisions and product use. Understanding how consumers make purchase decisions can help marketing managers in several ways. For example, if a manager knows through research that fuel mileage is the most important attribute for a certain target market, the manufacturer can redesign the product to meet that criterion. If the firm cannot change the design in the short run, it can use promotion in an effort to change

consumers decision making criteria. For example, an automobile manufacturer can advertise a cars maintenance-free features while downplaying fuel mileage.

In todays supermarkets an abundance of alternatives and a great variety of choice exists. How much information do customers need, how much can they in fact absorb and how do they perceive brands? Ultimately, all these questions lead to the question of how customers buying behaviour is composed and affected. Primarily, it has to be stated that various difficulties are involved in understanding consumers buying decisions, since there are unknown and sub-conscious variables within consumers minds and psychology (Randall, 2000, p. 45). Nevertheless, research has found that there are patterns that apply to most purchase situations and clients. Generally, Randall (2000, p. 40) distinguishes between two types of consumption or buying situations. On the one hand, there are low-involvement situations, that are routine and trivial to the respective customer and therefore, do not require a long decision-making process. Most consumer goods, especially fast moving ones, represent such low-involvement situations and decisions are made on the basis of developed preferences. On the other hand, there are high-involvement situations, where alternatives are analysed and evaluated in detail on the basis of additional information seeking.

During his research in the field of consumer buying behaviour Ehrenberg (cited in Randall, 2000, p. 43 ff) found that consumers generally buy a repertoire of brands. This notion contradicts the concept of brand loyalty to a certain degree, since it implies that customers buy several brands over a period of time. In other words, consumers hold a set of acceptable brands, some of which they buy more often than others dependent on their particular preferences. These acceptable brands are, however, clearly delimited from brands they do not buy at all. Moreover, it was observed that once buying patterns are established in consumers minds, it is very difficult to change them (Randall, 2000, p. 44). Furthermore, according to the 31Pareto or 80/20 rule (Greenberg, 2001), 80 per cent of the sales are generated by 20 per cent of the customers, the main customer base, where priority has to be

placed on. The consumers perception of the overall brand quality reflects the general attitude towards the product and ultimately also the likelihood of purchasing the brand (James, 2005, p. 4). According to Monroe and Krishnan (1985, cited in Baldauf, 2003, p. 3), perceived quality is positively related to the perceived value. This higher perceived quality represents the reason to opt for a product in many purchase situations, and some customers are therefore even willing to pay a price premium. Obviously, brand loyalty also influences the perception of overall value to a great extent. Moreover, there is a general trend towards positioning brands as authentic, which stresses the importance of timeless values desired by customers in comparison to the apparent commercial motives of a brand (Beverland, 2005, p. 1/2).Attributes of authenticity, such as handcrafted methods, respect for traditions, culturallinks or strong, historical values, all downplay the commercial identity of companiesand depend on the shared history of a community of consumers. The challenge formodern organizations therefore is to balance the call for authenticity and thecommercial character of every business by detaching formal structures and day-today operations. Thereby, moral legitimacy can be maintained, by also allowing for theessential pursue of profitability.Concerning the perception of brands, there are also some basic principles that canbe applied to various consumption situations. People perceive the brand as awhole, which means that they do not mentally break it down into its separateelements, but rather perceive it as a unity (Randall, 2000, p. 45/46). According toHarris and de Chernatony (2001, p. 1; de Chernatony and McDonald, 1998, p. 189),there is a development moving from line branding to corporate branding. This impliesfirst of all that the whole company needs to be very focused, since branding evolves around it, and secondly that the emphasis in building competitive advantages will be placed more and more on emotional, rather than functional assets due to the ubiquity of technology. Hansen and Christensen (2003, pp. 60-62) state that two general understandings of corporate brands exist. The company-as-brand-strategy where only one brand is communicated and high emphasis is placed on internal factors, such as staff, values and identity. Beyond it, there is the approach where one brand has the endorsement function behind other brands, such as present in Microsoft Or Nestl. Companies that engage in corporate branding generally communicate the company as a brand, fully embody the value system of the organization and create are cognizable and valuable name in consumers minds (de Chernatony and32McDonald, 1998, p. 189). Corporate branding can strengthen the

credibility and standing of a company, since it reduces uncertainties and delivers consistency. If there is a lack of corporate credibility, however, the consequences can be extensive, since the whole corporation will be questioned (Hansen and Christensen, 2003, pp. 60-62). According to Eysenck and Keane (1990, cited in Harris and de Chenatony, 2001, p. 4) perception depends on a persons expectations and previous knowledge as well as the information presented by the stimulus, () the brand. Furthermore, perception is selective and restricted, which means that only around seven items of information can be absorbed by a consumer and some fall victim to the selective filtering on the basis of experiences, beliefs and attitudes (Randall, 2000, p. 45/46). This means that not all information that is available, will or can be incorporated. Even though consumers might not identify some information or issue as an influential factor in their decision-making, it can, nevertheless, manipulate the purchase subconsciously. Consumer perception theory is any attempt to understand how a consumers perception of a product or service influences their behavior. Those who study consumer perception try to understand why consumers make the decisions they do, and how to influence these decisions. Usually, consumer perception theory is used by marketers when designing a campaign for a product or brand. However, some people study consumer perception in order to understand psychology in a much more general sense.

1. Perception

In general psychological terms, perception is our ability to make some kind of sense of reality from the external sensory stimuli to which we are exposed. Several factors can influence our perception, causing it to change in certain ways. For example, repeated exposure to one kind of stimuli can either make us oversensitive or desensitized to it. Additionally, the amount of attention we focus on something can cause a change in our perception of it.


A brand, or a brand name, is the attempt to impose some kind of identifying feature on a product or service so that it is easily recognized by the general public. A brand is oftentimes associated with an image, a set of expectations or recognizable logo. The goal of a brand is to set a product or service apart from others of its kind, and influence the consumers to choose the product over similar products simply because of its associations.

Positioning, Repositioning or Depositioning


Positioning is the process whereby marketers attempt to build a brand. Marketers actively try to create an image which is both recognizable and appeals to a certain group of people or target market. Repositioning is the process of altering this image, usually in order to influence a larger target market and thereby influence the behavior of a greater number of consumers. Depositioning is the practice of trying to devalue alternative, competing brands in the perceptions of a shared target market.

Value and Quality


Value refers to the perceptions a consumer has of a product's benefits when weighed against its cost. Value can be measured both qualitatively--the emotional or psychological pleasure a consumer derives from a product or service--and quantitatively, in terms of the actual financial gain it wins them. Quality can be related to value, and may be taken into account when measuring the value of a product or service. More formally, it refers to the way in which a product or service relates to its competitors, or else conforms to a set of measurable standards.

Buyers remorse 1. Buyers remorse is a strong feeling of regret which occurs after a purchase has been made. It is a specific case of cognitive dissonance, or the psychological state of worry or unease which comes about when attempting to come to terms with conflicting ideas, perceptions or motives. Buyers remorse usually occurs after a consumer has made a purchase he or she has come to regret. Generally, it involves the realization that the opportunity of purchasing one product or service over another in some way outweighs the value of the purchase. In this regard, it occurs when a consumers perception of a purchase changes after he or she has already invested in it. Perception

In general psychological terms, perception is our ability to make some kind of sense of reality from the external sensory stimuli to which we are exposed. Several factors can influence our perception, causing it to change in certain ways. For example, repeated exposure to one kind of stimuli can either make us oversensitive or desensitized to it. Additionally, the amount of attention we focus on

All of us are consumers. We consume things of daily use, we also consume and buy these products according to our needs, preferences and buying power. These can be consumable goods, durable goods, speciality goods or, industrial goods. What we buy, how we buy, where and when we buy, in how much quantity we buy depends on our perception, self concept, social and cultural background and our age and family cycle, our attitudes, beliefs values, motivation, personality, social class and many other factors that are both internal and external to us. While buying, we also consider whether to buy or not to buy and, from which source or seller to buy. In some societies there is a lot of affluence and, these societies can afford to buy in greater quantities and at shorter intervals. In poor societies, the consumer can barely meet his barest needs. The marketers therefore tries to understand the needs of different consumers and having understood his different behaviours which require an in-depth study of their internal and external environment, they formulate their plans for marketing.

Management is the youngest of sciences and oldest of arts and consumer behaviour in management is a very young discipline. Various scholars and academicians concentrated on it at a much later stage. It was during the 1950s, that marketing concept developed, and thus the need to study the behaviour of consumers was recognised. Marketing starts with the needs of the customer and ends with his satisfaction. When every thing revolves round the customer, then the study of consumer behaviour becomes a necessity. It starts with the buying of goods. Goods can be bought individually, or in groups. Goods can be bought under stress (to satisfy an immediate need), for comfort and luxury in small quantities or in bulk. For all this, exchange is required. This exchange is usually between the seller and the buyer. It can also be between consumers. Consumer behaviour can be defined as the decision-making process and physical activity involved in acquiring, evaluating, using and disposing of goods and services.This definition clearly brings out that it is not just the buying of goods/services that receives attention in consumer behaviour but, the process starts much before the goods have been acquired or bought. A process of buying starts in the minds of the consumer, which leads to the finding of alternatives between products that can be acquired with their relative advantages and disadvantages. This leads to internal and external research. Then follows a process of decision-making for purchase and using the goods, and then the post purchase behaviour which is also very important, because it gives a clue to the marketers whether his product has been a success or not. To understand the likes and dislikes of the consumer, extensive consumer research studies are being conducted. These researches try to find out: What the consumer thinks of the company.s products and those of its competitors? How can the product be improved in their opinion? How the customers use the product? What is the customer.s attitude towards the product and its advertising? What is the role of the customer in his family? The following key questions should be answered for consumer research. A market comes into existence because it fulfils the needs of the consumer. In this connection, a marketer has to know the 70.s framework for consumer research. Taking fro an example of soap.

Who constitutes the market? Parent, Child, Male, Female Occupants What does the market buy? Soap, Regular, Medicated, with Glycerine, Objects Herbal what Brand, what siz Who participates in buying? Parent, Child, Male, Female Organisations How does the market buy? Cash, Credit, Mail-order etc. Operations When does the market buy? Monthly, Weekly etc. Prescribed by Doctor Occasions (Medicinal) Where does the market buy? Supermarket, Retail store etc. Outlet Why does the market buy? For Cleansing, Bathing, Fresh feeling etc. Objectives (taken from Multi-markete) Consumer behaviour is a complex, dynamic, multidimensional process, and all marketing decisions a

Marketing Strategy and Consumer Behaviour

(i) Marketing Analysis (a) Consumer (b) Company (c) Competition (d) Condition (ii) Marketing Segmentation (e) Identify product related needs (f) Group customers with similar need sets (g) Describe each group (h) Select target market (iii) Marketing Strategy (i) Product (j) Price (k) Distribution (l) Communication (m) Service (iv) Consumer Decision Process (n) Problem recognition (o) Information searchinternal, external (p) Alternative evaluation (q) Purchase (r) Use

(s) Evaluation (v) Outcomes (t) Customer satisfaction (u) Sales (v) Product/Brand image Then follows the process of decision-making, as shown in the rectangle which consists of the problem recognition, information search (which is both internal and external) then the evaluation and selection procedure, and finally the purchase. After the purchase and use of the product the customer may be satisfied or dissatisfied with the product. This is known as post-purchase behaviour. The existing situations also play an important role in the decision-making process. The dotted line show the feedback.

Market analysis requires an understanding of the 4-Cs which are consumer, conditions, competitor and the company. A study is undertaken to provide superior customer value, which is the main objective of the company. For providing better customer value we should learn the needs of the consumer, the offering of the company, vis-a-vis its competitors and the environment which is economic, physical, technological, etc. A consumer is anyone who engages himself in physical activities, of evaluating, acquiring, using or disposing of goods and services. A customer is one who actually purchases a product or service from a particular organisation or a shop. A customer is always defined in terms of a specific product or company.However, the term consumer is a broader term which emphasises not only theactual buyer or customer, but also its users, i.e. consumers. Sometimes a product ispurchased by the head of the family and used by the whole family, i.e. a refrigerator or a car. There are some consumer behaviour roles which are played by different members of the family.

Role Description Initiator - The person who determines that some need or want is to be met (e.g.a daughter indicating the need for a colour TV). Influencer The person or persons who intentionally or unintentionally influence the decision to buy or endorse the view of the initiator. Buyer The person who actually makes a purchase. User The person or persons who actually use or consume the product. All the consumer behaviour roles are to be kept in mind but, the emphasis is on

the buyer whose role is overt and visible. (a) The Consumer To understand the consumer; researches are made. Sometimes motivational research becomes handy to bring out hidden attitudes, uncover emotions and feelings. Many firms send questionnaires to customers to ask about their satisfaction, future needs and ideas for a new product. On the basis of the answers received, changes in the marketing mix is made and advertising is also streamlined. (b) The External Analysis (Company) The external analysis may be done by the feedbacks from the industry analyst and by marketing researches. The internal analysis is made by the firm.s financial conditions, the quantum of the sales, force and other factors within the company. The study of these factors leads to a better understanding of the consumer and his needs. (c) The Competition In the analysis of the market, a study of the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors, their strategies, their anticipated moves and their reaction to the companies. moves and plans is to be made. The company after getting this information, reacts accordingly and changes its marketing mix and the offering is made in a manner which can out do the competitor. This is a very difficult process and it is easier said than done. To have correct information about the competitors and to anticipate their further moves is the job of the researcher. (d) The Conditions The conditions under which the firms are operating has also to be seriously considered. The factors to be studied are the economy, the physical environment, the government regulations, the technological developments, etc. These effect the consumer needs, i.e. the deterioration of the environment and its pollution may lead to the use and innovation of safer products. People are health conscious and are concerned with their safety. Hence, in this case, safer products have a better chance with the consumer. In case of recession, the flow of money is restricted greatly. This leads to the formulation of different marketing strategies.

(e) Market Segmentation The market is divided into segments which are a portion of a larger market whose needs are similar and, they are homogeneous in themselves. Such segments are identified with similar needs. 1. Geography 2. Population 3. Urban-Rural 4. Sex 5. Age factor 6. Literacy level 7. Incentive level 8. Linguistic diversity 9. Religion 10. Dress, food 11. Habits and fashion (f) Need Set By need set, it is meant that there are products which satisfy more than one need. An automobile can fill the transportation needs, status need, fun needs or time saving needs. So the company tries to identify the need sets which its product can fulfil. Then we try to identify the groups who have similar needs, i.e. some people need economical cars, others may go for luxury cars. (g) Demographic and Psychographic Characteristics These groups are identified and they are described in terms of their demographic and psychographic characteristics. The company finds out how and when the product is purchased and consumed. (h) Target Segment After all the above preliminary work is done, the target customer group known as the target segment is chosen, keeping in mind how the company can provide superior customer value at a profit. The segment which can best be served with the company.s capabilities at a profit is chosen. It has to be kept in mind that different target segments require different marketing strategies and, with the change in the

environmental conditions the market mix has to be adjusted accordingly. Attractiveness of the segment can be calculated by marking the various criterion on a 1 to 10 scale as given below: Table 1.1 Criterion Score on 1 to 10 scale with company being most favourable Segment size . Segment growth rate . Competitor strength . Customer satisfaction with existing product . Fit with company image . Fit with company objectives . Fit with company resources . Fit with other segments . Investment required . Stability/Periodicability . Zest to serve . Sustainable advantage available . Leverage to other segments/markets . Risk . Marketing Strategy Strategies are formulated to provide superior customer value. In formulating market strategies, the 4-ps are directed at the target market. (i) Product Product is anything that is offered to the consumer which is tangible and can satisfy a need and has some value.

(j) Price Price is the amount of money one must pay to obtain the right to use the product. (k) Distribution (Place) The goods can be distributed by many channels. These could be retailers,

wholesalers, agents or by direct selling. Distribution outlets play an important role in reaching the goods to the consumer. They provide, time, place and possession utilities. Some goods need to be marketed through the channels or the middleman. Others can be marketed directly by the company to the actual consumer. (l) Promotion Promotion is the means of changing the attitudes of the consumer, so that it becomes favourable towards the company.s products. Various means of promotion are advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity. (m) Service Service refers to auxiliary service that enhances the value of the product or the service. For instance, while buying a car. Free services are provided over a certain period of time. Check-ups are free and maintenance is also covered on the charge of an adequate amount along with the product purchased. These auxiliary services are provided at a cost with money. These provide value to the product or the customer. These services give an advantage to the customer and he is free from the botheration of occasional checkups or risk. The risk is considerably reduced and, the customer derives satisfaction with his decision to purchase. Product, Price, Promotion, Place Target Market (n) Consumer Decision Process The decision-making process consists of a series of steps which the consumer undergoes. First of all, the decision is made to solve a problem of any kind. This may be the problem of creating a cool atmosphere in your home. For this, information search is carried out, to find how the cool atmosphere can be provided, e.g. by an air-conditioner or, by a water-cooler. This leads to the evaluation of alternatives and a cost benefit-analysis is made to decide which product and brand image will be suitable, and can take care of the problem suitably and adequately. Thereafter the purchase is made and the product is used by the consumer. The constant use of the product leads to the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the consumer, which leads to repeat purchases, or to the rejection of the product. The marketing strategy is successful if consumers can see a need which a company.s product can solve and, offers the best solution to the problem. For a

successful strategy, the marketer must lay emphasis on the product/brand image in the consumer.s mind. Position the product according to the customers. likes and dislikes. The brand which matches the desired image of a target market sells well. Sales are important and sales are likely to occur if the initial consumer analysis was correct and matches the consumer decision process. Satisfaction of the consumer, after the sales have been effected, is important for repeat purchase. It is more profitable to retain existing customers, rather than looking for new ones. The figure below gives an idea of the above discussion.

Objectives of the study:

1. To find out the usage of Hawkins cookers in different age groups and gender in Sambalpur. 2. To know the present consumers demand of Hawkins cookers . 3. To know how often they purchase and use this product. 4. To analyze, how far the consumers are satisfied with the product of Hawkins company. 5. To find out whether they are satisfied with the quality price being maintained by the Company. 6. To find out what factors affect to choose this product. 7. From what sources they did come to know about the product. 8. Getting suggestion regarding improving the quality and packing rendered by the Company.

Hawkins Cookers Limited has been in business since 1959. Today, it has two offices, three factories and about 900 persons working. It is the leader in the pressure cooker market in India and has exported its products since 1974 to various countries in each of the six continents of the world.

Hawkins has sold over 48 million pressure cookers worldwide. Today, it makes 57 different models of pressure cookers in 10 different types. All Hawkins pressure cookers are listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc., USA, a not-for-profit institution testing products for public safety.

Each pressure cooker made by Hawkins features an inside fitting lid. This design is inherently safer than conventional pressure cookers. To open any Hawkins cooker, you have to first lower the lid slightly into the body of the cooker; and that cannot be done until the steam pressure inside the cooker falls to a safe level. Thus Hawkins pressure cookers are pressure-locked for safety - like a jetliner door!

The Hawkins Company is well known for not compromising on quality and for continual product innovation. The most thorough research and development, the

most careful selection of materials, the best manufacturing practices and the strictest quality control - all go into making pressure cookers which are trusted by the millions of families using them.

Each cooker is tested to be leak-proof. Along with a superior pressure regulating system, this ensures that Hawkins cooks quickest. Each pressure cooker comes individually packed in an attractive full-colour carton. Cookbooks/Instruction Manuals come free with each pressure cooker. All Hawkins pressure cookers are guaranteed for five years. Started in 1959 by a professional-manager-turned-enterprenuer when pressure cookers were virtually unknown in India, Hawkins Cookers was known as Pressure Cookers and Appliances. In 1986, the company acquired the present name. It is a leading manufacturer of cookers with a 32% market share, competing with more than 100 models of cookers in the market, from both the organised and unorganised sectors. Hawkins has an extensive product range consisting of pressure cookers, cooker accessories, non-stick cookware, cuisinettes and satilon cookware. The company markets its entire product range in the domestic market under its own brand name, Hawkins, while it exports its products to the US under the Futura brand name. It is sold in some of the top departmental stores in Europe and America. The company also exports to Yugoslavia, Japan, Panama, Mexico, Finland and the Netherlands. In 1989, with the sale of cookers crossing the one crore mark, it joined a select group of companies which have sold more than one crore consumer durables. The company diversified by launching blended spices, specially formulated for pressure cooking. PCA Engineers, a subsidiary, was merged with the company in 1993 and

its entire business and undertakings were transferred to Hawkins. Company has launched four new model of pressure cooker in the market 3.5 litre Contura, 5.5 litre & 7 litre Miss Mary and 6 litre Hawkins Heavybase pressure cookers. In Cookware company has launched Cookware Sets in Satilon and Non Sticks, Hawkins Non Stick Frying Pan (30 cm diameter) and Hawkins non-stick Saute Pan (3.25 litre Capacity). During the year 1999-2000, the company launched four new models of pressure cookers; 1.5 litre Hawkins, 3 litre Futura, 5.5 litre Futura Stainless Steel and 10 litre Hawkins Stainless Steel. In cookware section five items including an additional Futura Seta and a Hawkins Non-Stick Set, Futura Deep Fry Pan (medium) with 2 handles, Futura Flat Tava 26 cm and Hawkins Non-stick Flat Tava 26 cm was launched. During the year 2000-2001, company's PBT stood at Rs. 24.90 million, which is 52% lower than the previous year. The reason for this decline is the fact that Central Excise Duty on pressure cookers was increased from 8% to 16% with effect from March 2000.The company's PAT stood at Rs. 18.70 million, which is 48% lower than the previous year.During the year, company's export is up by 11% over the previous year. During the year,the company has launched 3 new models of pressure cookers a. 18 ltr Hawkins b. 4 ltr Futura & c. 8.5 ltr Miss Mary.In cookware the company has launched 6 items : Futura Tawa 22cm diameter, Futura Tawa 26cm diameter, 4.88mm thick, Futura Small Deep Fry Pan 1.5 ltr, Hawkins Nonstick All-Purpose Pan & Hawkins Universal Nonstick Tawa.

The Company presently has two offices, three factories and about 1000 persons working for it.The company markets its product range under its own brand names, Hawkins and Futura. The plants are located at Thane in

Maharashtra, Hoshiarpur in Punjab and Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh with installed capacities of 7,265,200 pressure cookers and 140,000 idli stands.

Business area of the company:Hawkins Cookers is the leader in the pressure cooker market in India and has exported its products since 1974 to various countries in each of the six continents of the world. The company makes 57 different models of pressure cookers in 10 different types. All Hawkins pressure cookers are listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc., USA, a not-for-profit institution testing products for public safety. Its products:Hawkins offers 57 different pressure cooker models in three different brands - Hawkins, Futura and Miss Mary The different types of pressure cookers:

Hawkins Classic model Futura Pressure Cooker

Futura in Stainless Steel -Hard Anodised Body & Stainless Steel

-Hard Anodised Body & Stainless Steel

Hawkins Cookers Limited is engaged in the manufacturing, trading and sale of kitchenware. The Companys products include pressure cookers, cookware and parts. Its brand include Hawkins, Futura and Miss Mary. It has sold over 45 million pressure cookers worldwide. As of March 31, 2011, the Company made 57 different models of pressure cookers in 10 different types. All Hawkins pressure cookers are listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. The Company's plants are located at Thane (Maharashtra), Hoshiarpur (Punjab) and in Jaunpur District (Uttar Pradesh). During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2011, the Company produced 3,136,002 units of pressure cooker and 77,359 units of idli stands.

Scope of the study:

A The topic is generally not well documented, especially concerning the customerspoint of view. This thesis will concentrate on investigating the influence of strategic decision-making in M&As on overall customer perceptions of the original brand. B. The research will not evaluate the correctness of the decision in favour of the acquisition of Body Shop, since various company-specific factors influence it and these are not the focus of this study. C . It will be necessary to interview various customers, preferably from Body Shops target group, to understand buyers perceptions and to display a representative image of the post-merger situation. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative questionnaire in order to calculate average perceptions and illustrate it graphically. D. In order to add a critical aspect, the study will also cover the companys point of view through an open, qualitative questionnaire. This enables the research to contrast experiences of different groups affected by the acquisition. E. The research will include consumers from different national backgrounds, in order to make it more representative and to create the possibility for analysis if the outcomes differ. Specifically the questionnaires will be addressed to English customers, the country of origin of Body Shop, German and Swedish ones. The degree of familiarity with the brand, as well as the media attention given to the topic may vary from country to country and, therefore, give interesting insights. F. The literature review is not going to elaborate the formation of strong brands and their elements, since the case is dealing with already established brands and wants to investigate how the brand image and overall perception changes.

G. The efforts within the empirical as well as the analytical part will be concentrated on the target group. Respondents outside the target group will be observed for possible revelations that deviate from the initial findings. Respondents over the age of 35 year are discarded completely, due to limited relevance and response rate.

This project explains the analysis of consumers perception regarding Hawkins Cookers product sales, quality, price, consumer

service and the image of the Company. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the nature of consumers perception of the company in Sambalpur block. Our findings indicate about the effect of advertisement, Brand image, sales volume, and qualification of the test being done. Consumers perceived price offs to have relatively greater impact compare to any other form of sales promotion.

The consumers stated that television advertising has been very important for providing information to know about the product. As retailers interacts and observes consumers more frequently and closely than the manufacturer, it would be beneficial for the Company to know the consumer perception regarding the product through the retailers. However, in order to enhance the effectiveness manufacturers should understand consumers and retailers interpretations of their buying behaviors. A study of these perceptions will reveal their preferences, their knowledge and motivation. The study here pertains to consumers perception regarding age, gender, qualifications and their occupations.

The firm sales force and promotion of the product depends upon how much training and motivation dealers need. This is because promotion provides benefits such as monetary savings, added value, increase quality and conveniences to the customers and prospective customers. This study is an attempt to address the gap between manufacturer and the consumers by providing empirical support.

According to Cooper (1988) '... a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe, summarise, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports.'The review of relevant literature is nearly always a standard chapter of a thesis or dissertation. The review forms an important chapter in a thesis where its purpose is to provide the background to and justification for the research undertaken (Bruce 1994). Bruce, who has published widely on the topic of the literature review, has identified six elements of a literature review. These elements comprise a list; a search; a survey; a vehicle for learning; a research facilitator; and a report (Bruce 1994)
A crucial element of all research degrees is the review of relevant literature. So important is this chapter that its omission represents a void or absence of a major element in research (Afolabi 1992). According to Bourner (1996) there are good reasons for spending time and effort on a review of the literature before embarking on a research project These reasons include: A good literature review requires knowledge of the use of indexes and abstracts, the ability to conduct exhaustive bibliographic searches, ability to organise the collected data meaningfully, describe, critique and relate each source to the subject of the inquiry, and present the organised review logically, and last, but by no means least, to correctly cite all sources mentioned (Afolabi 1992). The Library offers a range of training for research students that will assist with the production of literature reviews including sessions on electronic databases, using the bibliographic management software EndNote to download

records, Internet searching using Netscape, Library catalogue searching, off-campus student orientation, subject resources, and research skills. Please contact your Liaison Librarian for more details.

to identify gaps in the literature to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others) to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area to identify seminal works in your area to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work to identify opposing views to put your work into perspective to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project to identify methods that could be relevant to your project

As far as the literature review process goes, ultimately the goal for students is to complete their review in the allocated time and to ensure they can maintain currency in their field of study for the duration of their research (Bruce 1990).

One of the most important early steps in a research project is the conducting of the literature review. This is also one of the most humbling experiences you're likely to have. Why? Because you're likely to find out that just about any worthwhile idea you will have has been thought of before, at least to some degree. I frequently have students who come to me complaining that they couldn't find anything in the literature that was related to their topic. And virtually every time they have said that, I was able to show them that was only true because they only looked for articles that were exactly the same as their research topic. A literature review is designed to

identify related research, to set the current research project within a conceptual and theoretical context. When looked at that way, almost no topic is so new or unique that you can't locate relevant and informative related research. Here are some tips about conducting the literature review. First, concentrate your efforts on the scientific literature. Try to determine what the most credible research journals are in your topical area and start with those. Put the greatest emphasis on research journals that use a blind or juried review system. In a blind or juried review, authors submit potential articles to a journal editor who solicits several reviewers who agree to give a critical review of the paper. The paper is sent to these reviewers with no identification of the author so that there will be no personal bias (either for or against the author). Based on the reviewers' recommendations, the editor can accept the article, reject it, or recommend that the author revise and resubmit it. Articles in journals with blind review processes are likely to have a fairly high level of credibility. Second, do the review early in the research process. You are likely to learn a lot in the literature review that will help you determine what the necessary tradeoffs are. After all, previous researchers also had to face tradeoff decisions. What should you look for in the literature review? First, you might be able to find a study that is quite similar to the one you are thinking of doing. Since all credible research studies have to review the literature themselves, you can check their literature review to get a quick start on your own. Second, prior research will help ensure that you include all of the major relevant constructs in your study. You may find that other similar studies routinely look at an outcome that you might not have included. Your study would not be judged credible if it ignored a major construct. Third, the literature review will help you to find and select appropriate measurement instruments. You will readily see what measurement instruments researchers used themselves in contexts similar to yours. Finally, the literature review will help you to anticipate common problems in your research context. You can use the prior experiences of others to avoid common traps and pitfalls. The chapter reviews the various empirical literatures available on the subject of externalities and common property resources. The literature on the subject is very large and it has been delimited to review some important literature to trace the coreissues. On the basis of the identified issues, objectives were drawn to prosecute afresh study in the study region. One of the most important elements in the beginning of a research project

is the literature review. A researcher, especially one who is new to the particular problem, needs to map the landscape of relevant work done by other researchers. Some of the questions that the literature review can help answer are listed below. For each question, I have given two versions: the first is the direct question that you should attempt to answer by reading the literature, and the second is the indirect question that should influence your thinking about the research project and its directions. 1. What are the applications associated with this problem? Why is this problem of interest? 2. Who are the researchers who have investigated this problem, and who funded them to study it? 3.Who is interested in this problem? 4.. What models have been used to study this problem, and what assumptions are inherent in each? 5. What model assumptions might be relaxed to obtain new and hopefully useful results? 6. What methods have others used in analyzing this problem? What methods are available for you to use? 7. What important questions have others raised that have not yet been answered? 8.What opportunities are there to answer questions that will be of interest to the research community?

Search Tools

There are several useful tools for searching the technical literature, and most of them are available on the internet, with connections from the VT Library webpage2. However, some of these internet-based tools only go back a decade or two, and many interesting engineering problems were investigated longer ago than that. Thus, youll also need to become familiar with paper-based literature search tools in the library. One of the more useful web-based tools for searching the recent literature is FirstSearch. This is a commercial service that that is paid for by the library, and includes many databases. Your first decision when you access this tool is which database to use. The three that I find most useful are ArticleFirst, PapersFirst, and Dissertations. ArticleFirst is a database of journal articles from some 12,000 technical journals, PapersFirst is a database of conference from a large number of technical conferences,and Dissertations is a database of M.S. theses and Ph.D. Dissertations. Generally, youll want to find journal articles on your subject because journal articles have more credibility than conference papers. However, conference papers can be quite useful, because they frequently are somewhat longer and Another useful feature is that you can mark found items and email the entries to yourself. This keeps you from having to take copious notes while using FirstSearch to find articles. Finally, note that FirstSearch generally does not provide any information other than what you would find in a typical bibliography entry, so you really do need to find the article and read it. A useful tool for aerospace-related literature searches is the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS4). This search tool provides a lot of information about each found item, and in some cases includes the complete article in PDF format. Usually, however, only the abstract and bibliographic information are provided. Science Citation Index (SCI5) is extremely useful when trying to complete a literature review, but is not as useful in the beginning stages. This tool

permits you to find all the articles that have cited a particular article of interest. Thus, suppose you have found a great article written in 1957 on the application of a gyroscope for pointing a spacecraft. Youre curious about whether this is the first paper on this topic, and if so, you want to be able to cite it as such in the literature review of your thesis. None of the papers references are about this subject, but that doesnt quite answer the question. Using SCI, you can identify all the future papers that have cited your target paper. Unfortunately, the online version of SCI doesnt go back to 1957, so youll need to use the paper version6. Once youve found all the papers that cite your target, you can look at each of these to see what other papers they cited. Did they cite any earlier papers that treated this particular application? If so, bingo! If not, you have a better case that your target paper is in fact the first (you still dont have a proof though). Now, this may not seem all that important, but it is. A convincing literature review adds substantially to the credibility of any research document, including M.S. thesis, Ph.D. dissertation, conference paper, or journal article. Another benefit of using SCI to find these future papers is that some of them may also be quite useful in your literature review. Frequently someone will find a way to apply results Frequently someone will find a way to apply results from one field in another unrelated field. So, someone working in the field of stabilizing kayaks may find that gyroscopes have some application and may cite that 1957 paper. While you may not be interested in kayak stabilization, this is a useful piece of information for answering Question 1 above. 2 Finding the Papers Using the tools described above is part science and part art. For example, if you use FirstSearch and search for the keyword space, you will find too many items to be of any use. Thus you must be careful when searching. I highly recommend learning to use the Boolean7 search options of the various tools. Your goal is to find a reasonably large set of candidate articles before going up to the 5th floor of the library to begin your reading. Once you find a set of candidate articles, youll need to find the actual paper or electronic versions of them. Assuming that the search tool didnt provide an electronic

version, there are four basic possibilities: 1) the library owns the item and it is easy to find, 2) the library owns the item and it is difficult to find, 3) the library owns the item and it is in storage, and 4) the library does not own the item. Case 1 is self-explanatory; if it isnt, then its really Case 2. For Case 2, ask a reference librarian for assistance. If you still cant find it, then put in an ILL request for the item. When they cancel your request because the item is in the library, the cancel notification will usually tell you where the item is. For Case 3, you need to request the item from a reference librarian. Although this might at first seem to be a hassle, in this case, the library will make a free copy of the item for you, so its actually better than Case 1, and certainly better than Case 2. It usually only takes a couple of days to get the item. For Case 4, put in an ILL request and youll usually get a free paper copy of the item within a few days. Since the delay is longer than for Cases 1-3, you should put in the ILL requests as soon as you identify the particular papers in Case 4. Many technical papers, especially journal articles, are fairly short, typically 510 pages. However, they are usually written in such concise style that 7Boolean searches use AND, OR, and so forth. For example, some tools allow you to search for space and (tether or umbilical). This would find articles with space and tether as well as articles with space and umbilical. reading them can be fairly challenging. Also, youll have a lot of papers that youll need to read, so its important to develop a system for reading them and getting the gist of them as quickly as possible. Heres what I recommend: First, read Abstract, Introduction, and Conclusions to determine whether the paper is actually useful to you. These 3 sections are usually just 3 different versions of the same information, but written from a different perspective. The Abstract is a one-paragraph synopsis of the entire paper. The Introduction varies in length but usually includes the motivation for the problem being discussed as well as the background literature review. The Conclusions is usually one or two paragraphs and is intended to state the conclusions that can be drawn from the work presented in the paper. Quite often, however, this section is actually written as a summary of the paper. Once youve read these 3 sections, you should have a pretty good idea of what the paper is about and whether it will be useful in your own project.

Lets call this the AIC filter. If the paper doesnt pass the AIC filter, you might still want to include it in your literature review. Furthermore, you want to document your reading so that you dont accidentally end up reading the paper again in a year or so. So, whether it passes or not, you should make a complete bibliography entry and make some detailed notes about what you read. If the paper does pass the AIC filter, youll want to take even more detailed notes, and of course make a complete bibliography entry so you dont have to go back and look for the paper again later. Here are typical questions you want to answer in your note-taking: 1. What type of system is the motivation for the paper? (e.g., EVA, Hubble solar panel vibrations, control moment gyro failures, etc.) This information is important in establishing the significance of your work. 2. What system model is used? (e.g., string model of tether, point mass model of spacecraft, rigid body model of spacecraft, gyrostat model of spacecraft, flat earth, spherical earth, oblate earth, etc.) This will help you to identify models you can use as well as to identify what models have not been studied. 3. What analysis methods are used? (e.g., numerical integration, Lyapunov stability, linear stability, LQR control synthesis, etc.) This will help you identify potential methods for you to use, as well as to identify methods that have not been used. 4. What results are obtained? (e.g., stability criteria, design guidelines, etc.) This will help you identify what is known about the problem (subject to the simplifying assumptions arising from the authors model choice). 5. Do the authors raise any interesting unanswered questions? (e.g., in a recent paper by Barden and Howell on halo orbits, the authors state that no analytical solution has been found for the amplitude of periodic orbits for which halo orbits exist. This statement could be viewed as a challenge.) This will help you to identify what is not known about the problem. 6. Are there any great figures? Identifying really great graphics in others

articles will give you some ideas about creating great graphics of your own. 7. How many references are there and how good is the discussion of them? Identify any references that look particularly relevant and find them. The importance of this information in developing your own literature review is obvious. 8. Where do the authors work and who funded the research? This will help you to understand who is interested in this problem

The literature review. A review of the literature is an essential part of your academic research project. The review is a careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question.

Literature reviewed typically includes scholarly journals, scholarly books, authoritative databases and primary sources. Sometimes it includes newspapers, magazines, other books, films, and audio and video tapes, and other secondary sources.

Primary sources are the origin of information under study, fundamental documents relating to a particular subject or idea. Often they are first hand accounts written by a witness or researcher at the time of an event or discovery. These may be accessible as physical publications, as publications in electronic databases, or on the Internet.

Secondary sources are documents or recordings that relate to or discuss information originally presented elsewhere. These, too, may be accessible as physical objects or electronically in databases or on the Internet.

All good research and writing is guided by a review of the relevant literature. Your literature review will be the mechanism by which your research is viewed as a cumulative process. That makes it an integral component of the scientific process. More about the research question Why do it? The purpose of the literature review remains the same regardless of the research method you use. It tests your research question against what already

is known about your subject. Through the literature review you will discover whether your research question already has been answered by someone else. If it has, you must change or modify your question. Considering your question. If you find that your research question has not been answered satisfactorily by someone else, then search for these answers:

What is known about my subject? What is the chronology of the development of knowledge about my subject?

Are there any gaps in knowledge of my subject? Which openings for research have been identified by other researchers? How do I intend to bridge the gaps?

Is there a consensus on relevant issues? Or is there significant debate on issues? What are the various positions?

What is the most fruitful direction I can see for my research as a result of my literature review? What directions are indicated by the work of other researchers?

Remember that nothing is completely black or white. Only you can determine what is satisfactory, relevant, significant or important in the context of your own research.

Mechanics of a Literature Review

Literature review will have two components:

A search through the literature The writing of the review

Obviously, the search is the first step. However, you must remember that you love knowledge and that academic databases can be seductive. You could spend untold hours clicking around the bibliographies of your favorite collections. You may have fun, but you might not advance your literature review. The solution? Have your research question written down and at hand when you arrive at the computer to search databases or a library catalog. Prepare in advance a plan and a preset time limit. Finding too much? If you find so many citations that there is no end in sight to the number of references you could use, its time to re-evaluate your question. It's too broad. Finding too little? On the other hand, if you can't find much of anything, ask yourself if you're looking in the right area. Your topic is too narrow. Leading edge research. What if you are trying to research an area that seems never to have been examined before? Be systematic. Look at journals that print abstracts in that subject area to get an overview of the scope of the available literature. Then, your search could start from a general source, such as a book, and work its way from those references to the specific topic you want. Or, you could start with a specific source, such as a research paper, and work from that author's references. There isn't a single bestapproach. Take thorough notes. Be sure to write copious notes on everything as you proceed through your research. It's very frustrating when you can't find a reference found earlier that now you want to read in full. It's not hard to open up a blank text document in WordPad (Windows) or TextEdit (Macintosh) to keep a running set of notes during a computer search session. Just

jump back and forth between the Web browser screen and the notepad screen. Using resources wisely. Practice makes perfect. Learn how and then use the available computer resources properly and efficiently. Log onto the Internet frequently. Visit your research resources regularly. Play with the discipline resources. Enter the databases. Scope out of the reference desk material . Identify publications which print abstracts of articles and books in your subject area. Look for references to papers from which you can identify the most useful journals. Identify those authors who seem to be important in your subject area. Identify keywords in your area of interest to help when you need to narrow and refine database searches. Read online library catalogs to find available holdings. Be sure to write copious notes on everything. Getting ready to write. Eventually, a broad picture of the literature in your subject area an overview will begin to emerge. Then it's time to review your note. Begin to draft reference material but where to start.Suppose you have several WordPad or TextEdit files full of notes you've written. And a dozen real books and copies of three dozen journal articles. Pile them on a table and sit down. Turn to your research question. Write it out again at the head of a list of the various keywords and authors that you have uncovered in your search. Do any pairings or groupings pop out at you? You now are structuring or sketching out the literature review which is the first step in writing a research paper, thesis or dissertation.

Writing the lit review. One draft won't cut it. Plan from the outset to write and rewrite. Naturally, you will crave a sense of forward momentum, so don't get bogged down. Don't restrict yourself to writing the review in a linear fashion from start to finish. If one area of the writing is proving difficult, jump to another part. Edit and rewrite. Your goal is to communicate effectively and efficiently the answer you found to your research question in the literature. Edit your work so it is clear and concise. If you willbe writing an abstract and introduction, leave them for the last. Communicating ideas is the objective of your writing, so make it clear, concise and consistent. Big words and technical terms are not clear to everyone. They make it hard for all readers to understand your writing. Consider their use very carefully and









Style and writing guides are worth browsing if you are unsure how to approach writing. Always re-read what you have written. Get someone else to read it. Read it aloud to see how it sounds to your ear. Then revise and rewrite.

Writing the conclusion. Throughout your written review, you should communicate your new knowledge by combining the research question you asked with the literature you reviewed. End your writing with a conclusion that wraps up what you learned. While the interaction between the research question and the relevant literature is foreshadowed throughout the review, it usually is written at the very end. The interaction itself is a learning process that gives researchers new insight into their area of research. The conclusion should reflect this. A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a description, summary, and

critical evaluation of these works. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits into the larger field of study. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simple a summary of key sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem. The analytical features of a literature review might:

give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant, or

usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.

The purpose of a literature review is to:

Place each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the research problem being studied, Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration, Identify new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in previous research, Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies, Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort, Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research, and Locate your own research within the context of existing literature.

It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers.* First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the original studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study.

Types of literature reviews include: ARGUMENTIVE REVIEW This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e.g., educational reform; immigration control], argumentative approaches to analyzing the literature can be a legitimate and important form of discourse. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic review INTEGRATIVE Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated. The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. HISTORICAL Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical reviews are focused on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research.

Methodological A review does not always focus on what someone said [content], but how they said it [method of analysis]. This approach provides a framework of understanding at different levels (i.e. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches and data collection and analysis techniques), enables researchers to draw on a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection and data analysis, and helps highlight many ethical issues which we should be aware of and consider as we go through our study. Systematic Review

This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a causeand-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?" Theoretical Review

The purpose of this form is to concretely examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review help establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework.

Sources of Data Collection:

The data pertaining to the present study has been collected from the primary sources only with a view to analyze their satisfaction level regarding the quality of the product, its price and the services provided by the company to get the consumers valuable suggestions to improve there on.

The primary data has been collected by conducting a survey with the help of structured questionnaires. The information collected is first and original in nature. In primary data collection, you collect the data yourself
using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

questionnaires interviews focus group interviews observation case-studies diaries critical incidents


The primary data, which is generated by the above methods, may be qualitative in nature (usually in the form of words) or quantitative (usually in the form of numbers or where you can make counts of words used). We briefly outline these methods but you should also read around the various methods. A list of suggested research methodology texts is given in your Module Study

Guide but many texts on social or educational research may also be useful and
you can find them in your library. Questionnaires Questionnaires are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. Advantages:

Can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing or a telephone survey.

Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed. Can cover a large number of people or organisations. Wide geographic coverage. Relatively cheap. No prior arrangements are needed. Avoids embarrassment on the part of the respondent. Respondent can consider responses. Possible anonymity of respondent.

No interviewer bias.


Design problems. Questions have to be relatively simple. Historically low response rate (although inducements may help). Time delay whilst waiting for responses to be returned. Require a return deadline. Several reminders may be required. Assumes no literacy problems. No control over who completes it. Not possible to give assistance if required. Problems with incomplete questionnaires. Replies not spontaneous and independent of each other. Respondent can read all questions beforehand and then decide whether to complete or not. For example, perhaps because it is too long, too complex, uninteresting, or too personal.

The search for answers to research questions calls of collection of data. Data are facts, figures and other relevant materials, past and present, serving as bases for study and analysis.

Types of Data
The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings, (b) Data relating to organisations, and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas.

Personal data or data related to human beings consist of Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals like age, sex, race, social class, religion,
marital status, education, occupation, income, family size, location of the household, life style, etc. and Behavioural variables like attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.

Organisational data consist of data relating to an organisations origin, ownership,

objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.

Territorial data are related to geophysical characteristics, resources endowment,

population, occupational pattern, infrastructure, economic structure, degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, Tabias, Woredas, state/ regions and the nation.

Importance of data
The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the ques-tions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guesswork cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypotheses formulated in a Study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measure-ment scales and tables, which are analysed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical, analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus the scientific process of measurement, analysis, testing and

inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence the importance of data for any research studies. SOURCES OF DATA The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and (b) secondary sources.

Primary Sources
Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected, e.g., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.

Secondary Sources
These are sources containing data that have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consist of readily available compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researches for their studies, e.g., census reports, annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statements, Reports of Government Departments, Annual Reports on currency and finance published by the National Bank for Ethiopia, Statistical Statements relating to Cooperatives, Federal Cooperative Commission, Commercial Banks and Micro Finance Credit Institutions published by the National Bank for Ethiopia, Reports of the National Sample Survey Organisation, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organisations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO, WHO, etc., Trade and Financial Journals, newspapers, etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records, etc.

Features of Secondary Sources: Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials, they have certain common characteristics. First, they are readymade and readily available, and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. Second, they consist of data over which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. Others shape both the form and the content of secondary sources. Clearly, this is a feature, which can limit the research value of secondary sources. Finally, secondary sources are not limited in time and space. That is, the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered.


The researcher directly collects primary data from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required data precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of Primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research such as socio-economic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions, marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm management studies, business management studies, etc., required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In all cases where the available data are inappropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. .

Methods of Primary Data Collection

There are various methods of data collection. A Method is different from a Tool. While a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instrument used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d) experimentation, (e) simulation, and (f) projective technique. Observation involves gathering of data relating to the selected research by viewing and/or listening. Interviewing involves face-to-face con-versation between the investigator and the respondent. Mailing is used for collecting data by getting questionnaires completed by respondents. Ex-perimentation

involves a study of independent variables under controlled conditions. Experiment may be conducted in a laboratory or in field in a natural setting. Simulation involves creation of an artificial situation similar to the actual life situation. Projective methods aim at drawing inferences on the characteristics of respondents by presenting to them stimuli. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.

Choice of Methods of Data Collection

Which of the above methods of data collection should be selected for a proposed research project? This is one of the questions to be considered while designing the research plan. One or More methods has/have to be chosen. No method is universal. Each method's unique features should be compared with the needs and conditions of the study and thus the choice of the methods should be decided.

Research Methodology :

Meaning of Research:
Research is a common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic research for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry specially through research for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory - define research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. The term research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating hypotheses, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solution(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies);

3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associate with something else (studies with this object in view are known as

diagnostic research studies);

4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies). MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; 4. Desire to be of service to society; 5. Desire to get respectability. However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research operations. TYPES OF RESEARCH The basic types of research are as follows: (i) Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use Research Methodology: An Introduction 3 the term Ex post facto

research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristic of this method is
that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto

studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they
cannot control the variables. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In

analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information
already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. (ii) Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory.Gathering knowledge for knowledges sake is termed pure or basic research.4 Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research. Similarly, research studies, concerning human behaviour carried on with a view to make generalisations about human behaviour, are also examples of fundamental research, but research aimed at certain conclusions (say, a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood) or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research. Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem, whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus, adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge. (iii) Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behaviour (i.e., why people think or do certain things), we quite often talk of Motivation Research, an important type of qualitative research. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose. Other techniques of such research are word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. Attitude or opinion research i.e., research designed to find out how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution is also qualitative research. Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour. Through such research we can

analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing. It may be stated, however, that to apply qualitative research in

Research problem:
In research problem the first and foremost step happens to be that of selecting and properly defining a research problem. Research problem in general refers to some difficulty, which a researcher experience in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and want to obtain a solution for the same. My research problem is with regard to rural areas and brand implementation. Companies are having new strategies and implementation, which help improving status of the company in different area. With regard to brand, brand implementation in rural areas is one of biggest problem facing by different company. Maximum people in rural areas are having low perception idea toward new brand and technology.My research objective is to implement perception qualities in rural area through different sources i.e. through advertising, satisfaction etc.

Sampling Method:
In statistics, a simple random sample is a group of subjects (a sample) chosen from a larger group (of population). Each subject from the population is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process. This process and technique is known as simple random sampling, and shouldnt be confused with random sampling. In small populations such sampling is typically done without replacement i.e. one deliberately avoids choosing any member of the population more than once. An unbiased random selection of subjects is important so that in the long run, the sample represents the population. However this doesnt guarantee that a particular sample is a perfect representation of the population. Simple random sampling merely allows one to draw externally valid conclusions about the entire population based on the sample. Although simple random sampling can be conducted with replacement instead, this is less common and would normally described more fully as simple random sampling with replacement. Conceptually, simple random sampling is the simplest of the probability sampling techniques. It requires a complete sampling frame, which may not be available or feasible to construct for large populations. Even if a complete frame is available, more efficient approaches may be possible if other useful information is available about the units in the population.

Analysis of Variance / ANNOVA

Analysis of variance abbreviated as ANNOVA is an extremely useful technique concerning researches in the field of both natural science and social science. This technique is used when multiple sample cases are involved. The significance of the difference between the means of the two samples can be judged through either Z-test or T-test but the difficulty arises when we happen to examine the significance of difference among more than two sample means at the same time. ANNOVA technique enables us to perform this simultaneous test and is considered to be an important tool of analysis. Using this technique one can draw inferences about whether the sample mean of the samples have been drawn from the population having the same arithmetic mean. The essence of ANNOVA is that total amount of variation in a set of data is broken down into two types that amount which can be attributed to chance and that amount which can be attributed to the specific causes. Basic principles of ANNOVA : It is to test for difference among the means of the population by examining the amount of variation within each of these samples relative to the amount of variations between the samples. We have to make two estimates population variation, one based on between sample variance and the other based within sample variance then the said two estimates of population variance are compared with F-test.

Chi-square Test:
The chi-square value if often used to judge the significance of population variance i.e. we can use the test to judge the random sample has been drawn from a normal population with mean ( ) and with a specified variance (p2). The test is based on the 2-distribution.Such as a distribution we encounter when we deal with collections of value that involve adding up squares. Variance of sample requires us to add a collection of squared quantities and thus have distributions that are related to chi-square distribution. If we take each one of a collection sample variances, divided them by the known population variance and multiply the quotient by (n-1), where the n means the no. of items in the sample, we shall obtain 2 distribution with (n-1) degrees of freedom. The 2 distribution is not symmetrical and all the values are positive. For making use of this distribution, one is required to know the degrees of freedom. When we have to use chi-square as a test population variance, we have to work out the value of 2 to test the null hypothesis as under2 = (p2/ s2) (n-1) Where, s2 = variance of the sample p2 = variance of the population (n-1) = degree of freedom Then by comparing the calculated value with the table value of 2 for (n1) degree of freedom at a given level of significance, we may either accept or reject the null hypothesis. If the calculated value of 2 is less than the table value, the hypothesis is rejected.

The best known situations in which the chi-square distribution is use are the common chi-square tests for goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one, and of the independence of two criteria of classification of qualitative data. However, many other statistical tests lead to use of this distribution. One example is Friedmans analysis of variance by ranks.

The chi-square distribution has numerous applications in inferential statistics, for instance in chi-square tests and in estimating variances. It enters the problem of testing the mean of a normally distributed population and the problem of estimating the slope of a regression line via its role in students tdistribution. It enters all analysis of variance problems via its role in the fdistribution, which is the distribution of the ratio of two independent chisquared random variables divided by their respective degrees of freedom.

For the use of non parametric test, 2=(Oij- Eij)/ Eij Where, Oij = observed frequency of the cell in the ith row and jth column. Eij= expected frequency of the cell in the ith row and jth column.


Chi-Square Test -1:

Null hypothesis (Ho): On the basis of age group there is no significant difference between the users and Non-users of Hawkins Cookers in Sambalpur block.

1. Users and Non-Users On the basis of Age Groups:

Observed Values: Age Group Users Non-Users Total Below 17 04 04 8 17-22 16 16 32 22-30 72 02 74 30 Above 08 09 17 Total 100 20 120

Chi-Square Test: Observed Frequency(O) 14 12 13 11 06 03 02 09 Expected Frequency(E) 14 10 10 14 05 04 04 05 (O-E) 0 2 3 -3 1 -1 -2 4 6.59 Here, Degree Of Freedom (d.f)=(r-1)(c-1) (2-1)(4-1)=3 (O-E)2 0 4 9 9 1 1 4 16 (O-E)2/E 0 0.40 0.90 0.64 0.20 0.25 1.00 3.20 2 = (O-E)2/E=

Chi-Square Test- 2:
Null hypothesis (Ho): Most respondents view about Hawkins is appropriately priced. 2. On the basis of male and female:

Observed Values: Gender Appropriate Pricing Non appro. Pricing Total Chi-Square Test: Observed Frequency(O) 5 10 3 2 2.75 Expected Frequency(E) 4 10 2 1 (O-E) 1 0 1 1 9 0 1 1 (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E 1.25 0 0.50 1 2 = (O-E)2/E= Male 5 3 8 Female 10 2 12 Total 15 5 20

Here, Degree Of Freedom (d.f)=(r-1)(c-1) (2-1)(2-1)=1

Chi-square test: 3

Null Hypothesis(Ho): Respondents used Hawkins cookers irrespective of their educational back ground 3. On the Basis of Educational Qualifications:

Observed Values: Educational Qualification Brand Affect Brand not Affects Total Below 10th 03 12 15 10th 06 05 11 +2 08 03 11 +3 10 02 12 P.G.& Total Professional 16 43 01 23 17 66

Chi-square test: 3
Null Hypothesis(Ho): Respondents were influenced by their financial back ground.

4. Advertisement effect on the basis of occupation:

Observed Values: Occupation T.V. Ads. Effect Others Effects Total Students 24 05 29 Employees 07 02 09 Business 05 04 09 Others 04 02 06 Total 40 13 53

Data Analysis and Interpretation: 1. Null hypothesis (Ho): On the basis of age group there is no significant difference between the users and Non-users of Hawkins Cooker in Sambalpur town. 2= (O-E)2/E= 6.59 but the tabulated value of 2 for 4 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance =7.81.Comparing table value and the calculated value we find that calculated value is less than the tabulated value. So, hypothesis is accepted. It means there is significant difference between Hawkins cooker user and non-user. 2. Null hypothesis (Ho): Most respondents view about Hawkins Cookers are appropriately priced. 2= (O-E)2 /E= 2.75 but The tabulated value of 2 for 1 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance =2.75. Comparing table value and the calculated value we find that calculated value is less than the tabulated value. So, hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, the Hawkins Cooker is appropriately priced. 3. Null hypothesis (Ho): Brand affect plays an important role in purchasing Hawkins cookers . 4. Null hypothesis (Ho): Television advertisement is not an effective way for purchasing Hawkins Cookers.

From the above data analysis and interpretation it is clear that Sambalpur town people are using Hawkins Cookers very much . Respondents were giving their view clearly and are co-operative in nature. Quality and consumer service of the product is quite good. Brand name is famous in the area. TV ads are the most effective way of advertisement here. Packing system of the product is also good. While using Hawkins Cookers they feel satisfactory. When ever they purchase often they prefer to purchase Hawkins cookers to any other brands cooker. It is clear from the questionnaires people always use Hawkins cookers when ever they plan to buy a cooker. It used by both males and females, on one hand where females prefer it as a home appliance chefs at hotels too prefer Hawkins cookers for commercial purposes at restaurants and hotels. Its the middle class and higher income group which most prefers Hawkins applainces, but the lower income group find it out of their reach. The price is affordable , quality is very nice & available in every where. Hence it is used by the major segment of people without hesitation. To improve the consumer percentage more and more advertisement should be necessary ,varieties of different quality & in different packing size is should be necessary for all people for that they able to get it easily without hesitation...

We have to know that , customer is the king of the market. He is the one, who is to decide what should be served to him, whether it may be a product or service or pricing or packing . To survive in todays competitive market one has to improve its taste, packing quality, Reduce his product price, improve its service quality and also specialization, its services according to the changing needs of the customer. Thats why many companies, now-a-days, are setting grievance cells, feedback mechanism. Problem resolution departments, customer care services and again some are also hiring agencies for conducting market survey to know consumers perception about the company, companys product and services. One has to devise its products and services according to the costumers needs and desires.

The customers are given the right to give its suggestions and also comment on what is served to them. Also it is important to implement these suggestions to make changes accordingly. One can never satisfies its customers fully, there will be some complaint always but one should continuously work toward minimizing the number of complaints, so that it will meet the expectations of maximum number of customers. The Company should market its product in better and convenient way, so that it will easily be acceptable to the customers. The Company should give its priority to the quality of the products. The price of product should be reasonable to its quality. The company should make available of the product in different fragrance. In this globalised world information plays an important role, so advertisements should be transparent and effective (through mobile) to catch the people mind. Thus, it is a continuous and long process to build Brand and Company image in the people mind. Consistent and steady effort only can do the job. Its the prerequisite for any marketers to know the trends of the market for which one has to have constant observation of the market dynamics.


1. 2. 3. 4.


Kothari C.R, Research Methodology, Wishwa Publication. Gupta S.P, Statistical Methods, (3rd Edition), Sultan Chand and Sons Gupta S.C, Kapoor V.K, Mathematical Science, (4th Edition), Sultan Chand and Sons. Biddle Karen Golder, Locke Karren, Composing Qualitative Research,(2nd Edition), Sage Publication. Fowler J.Fowler, Survey Research Methods. Applied Social Research Methods, (3rd Edition), Sage Publication, International Education & Professional Publisher . Quantitative Technique and Methodology by Digambar Patri


Dear Sir/Madam I, am a student of Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla pursuing MBA in business administration department. I am conducting a survey on Perception on Hawkins Cookers. I need some relevant information from you. I assure that your information should be kept confidential. Your cooperation will be highly appreciated.

Know the respondent Name:______________ Address:_________________ Age:______ Sex:___________ Education:_______________ Working status:______________ Annual Income:_____________ Family Income:__________________ Contact No.:_____________________ E-mail Id (if any):__________________

1.Do you use pressure cooker?



2. Why do you use pressure cooker? It saves enery It saves time Its esay to handle Its easy to clean It adds status 3.Which brand do you prefer? Hawkins Prestige United Others

4. If Hawkins, which model will you prefer? Contura Futura Ventura Others

5.Which quantity model do you prefer? 2Lt. 3Lt. 3.5Lt 5Lt.

6.Are you satisfied with its service? Yes No

7.Are you getting after sales service? Yes No

8.Are you getting after sales service? Yes No

9.How many warranty years do you get? 5 Yrs . 10 yrs

10.Do ypu have a service centre in Sambalpur ? Yes NO

11.Where is the service centre? __________ 12.What about the cookers weight? Light Heavy Average

13. What do you think about its price? High Low Average

14.If prices fluctuate , then you will Purchase the same

Prefer the model Prefer another brands Cant say 15. Did you know about Hawkins cash back scheme? Yes No

16. Your cooker lasts for how many years? 0-2 yrs 5-7 yrs 2-5 yrs 7 yrs or above

17. Is it available in the market? Rural Urban

18. Do you want any modification? If yes, please specify? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________