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# Formal Languages and Automata Theory Academic Year: 2011-12 UNIT-I 1.

1 Syllabus Fundamentals: strings, Alphabet, Language, Operations, Finite state machine Definitions, finite automation model, acceptance of strings and languages, deterministic finite automation and non-deterministic finite automation, transition diagrams and language recognizers. 1.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Learn the basic mathematical (Set Theory) concepts. Understand the defining and differentiating the strings. Use the different types of operators in the languages. Understand the finite state machine and finite automation model. Analyze the language recognition tools. 1.3 Lesson Plan Fundamentals: Strings, Operations Finite state automation Finite automation model, acceptance of strings DFA and NFA problems Transition Diagrams Total number of hours required Unit -2 2.1 Syllabus Finite Automata: NFA with e transitions Significance, acceptance of languages, Conversions and Equivalences: Equivalence between NFA with and without e transitions, NFA to DFA conversion, minimization FSM, equivalence between two FSMs, output machines: Moore and Mealy machine. 2.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to List out the differences between DFA and NFA Solve the problems related to DFA and NFA Understand the process for converting the NFA to DFA so that we can design the equivalent DFA for the given NFA. Learn the procedure to minimize the DFA. Learn the output machines: moore and mealy machines. 2 hrs. 2 hrs. 2 hrs. 3 hrs. 1 hr. ------------------10 hrs. ------------------Year: III Semester: I

2.3 Lesson Plan NFA with transitions NFA to DFA Conversion and related problems NFA and DFA equivalence DFA minimization Finite Automata with output machines Total number of hours required: Unit -III 3.1 Syllabus Regular Languages: Regular Sets, Regular Expressions, identity Rules,Constructing Finite automata for a given regular expressions, Conversion of Finite automata to regular expressions, Pumping lemma of regular sets , closure properties of regular sets (proofs not required). 3.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Understand the regular expressions Learn the usage of identity rules Learn the concept of equivalence between RE and Finite automata. Understand the concept of pumping Lemma 3.3 Lesson Plan Regular sets Identity rules and problems Finite automata for a given regular expression Conversion of regular expression to finite automata Pumping lemma Closure properties Total number of hours required Unit -IV 4.1 Syllabus Grammar Formalism: Regular Grammars right linear and left linear grammars, Equivalence between regular grammar and FA, Context Free grammar, derivation trees, sentential forms right most and left most derivations of strings. 1hr 2hrs 2hrs 2hrs 2hrs 2hrs ------------------11hrs -------------------2hrs 2hrs 2hrs 2hrs 3hrs ------------------11hrs -------------------

4.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Define the grammar and types of grammars. Understand the relation between the RE and FA. Learn more on Derivation and the types of derivations. Learn exclusively on the Context Free grammars in deep. 4.3 Lesson Plan Grammar Equivalence between Regular Grammar and FA Context Free grammar Derivation and derivation trees Total number of hours required Unit -V 5.1 Syllabus Context Free Grammars: Ambiguity context free grammars. minimization of context free grammars, Chomsky normal form, Greiback normal form , Pumping Lemma for Context Free Languages. Enumeration of properties of CFL (proofs omitted). 5.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Know what is meant by ambiguity. Learn the Chomsky Normal forms Learn the Greiback Normal Forms Understand the pumping Lemma for CFG 5.3 Lesson Plan Ambiguity in CFG Minimization of CFG CNF and GNF Pumping Lemma for CFG Properties of CFL Total number of hours Required Unit -VI 6.1 Syllabus Push down Automata: Push down automata, definition, model, acceptance of CFL, Acceptance by finite state and acceptance by empty state and its equivalence, Equivalence of CFL and PDA, Introduction to DCFL and DPDA. 1hr 2hrs 3hrs 3hrs 1hr ------------------10 hrs ------------------2hrs 2hrs 2hrs 2hrs ------------------8hrs -------------------

6.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Learn the purpose of push down automata Understand the acceptance of CFL Understand the acceptance of finite state and empty state Gain the knowledge on CFL and PDA 6.3 Lesson Plan Push down automata 3hrs Acceptance of CFL 2hrs Acceptance by finite state and acceptance by empty state and its equivalence 3hrs Equivalence of CFL and PDA 2hrs ------------------Total number of hours Required 10 hrs ------------------Unit -VII 7.1 Syllabus Turing Machine: Turing machine, Definition, model, Design of TM, computable functions, recursively enumerable languages. Churchs hypothesis, counter machine, types of Turing machines (proofs not required) 7.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Learn the purpose of Turing machine Understand the design of TM. Usages of computation functions Learn recursively enumerable languages Understand the churchs hypothesis. Understand the counter machines. 7.3 Lesson Plan Turing machine Design of Turing Machine Recursively enumerable languages Churchs hypothesis Counter machine Types of Turing machines Total number of hours Required 2hrs 3hrs 1hr 1hr 1hr 2hrs ------------------10 hrs -------------------

Unit -VIII 8.1 Syllabus Computability Theory: Chomsky hierarchy of languages, linear bounded automata and context sensitive languages, LR (0) grammar, decidability of problems, Universal TM, undesirability of posts. Correspondence problem, Definition of P and NP problems, NP complete and NP hard problems. 8.2 Objectives After completion of the syllabus, you will be able to Learn the concept on Chomsky hierarchy of languages Learn Context sensitive languages Work on the LR (0) grammars Understand the P and NP problems 8.2 Lesson Plan Chomsky hierarchy of languages Linear bounded automata and context sensitive languages LR (0) grammar Decidability of problems Universal TM, undesirability of posts P and NP problems, NP complete and NP hard problems Total number of hours Required 1hr 1hr 2hrs 2hrs 1hr 3hrs -----------------10 hrs -------------------