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by Joo F. Almeida (Tecbnical University, Lisbon, Portugal), Jlio A.S. Appleton (Tecbnical University, Lisbon, Portugal), Carlos A.P. Martins (University of Algarve, Portugal)

Summary The specification of maximum span to thickness ratios allows the designer to avoid deflection calculations and is useful for preliminary design of reinforced concrete slabs. This problem is generally not addressed with the same detail in concrete codes or recommendations for post-tensioned slabs, where the multiplicity of parameters affecting deflections makes it more difficult to estab-

are other important parameters, namely the amount of prestress and the live load leveI, which significantly influence deflections. The multiplicity of such parameters makes more difficult the establishment of simplified rules for checking deflections without calculations. In Table 1 the indications of several recommendations for post-tensioned slabs design are presented1.2.3.4. Most of these documents point out that the slendemess limits are only indicated to give some guidance in estimating the slab thickness. In general they recognize the influence of the live load levei, at least qualitatively. The main results of a parametric study, undertaken with the object of c1arifying the influence of the principal parameters affecting deflection control in post-tensioned slabs, are presented. Indications are given concerning preliminary design and indirect control of deflections in post-tensioned flat slabs. Deflecon limits Prestressing in post-tensioned slabs fundamentally influences the behaviour of the structure under service loads. The effects of posttensioning tendons can be simulated by equivalent loads, inducing strain and stress resultants that counteract the applied loads. The control of deflections allows a global evaluation of the slab behaviour, and can be the basis for the definition of the prestress design criteria in post-tensioned slabs. The prestressing force is related with a degree of prestress, k, defined as the ratio between equivalent load or maxirnum deflection due to effective prestress (after losses), and the corresponding values due to quasi-permanent actions. Values of k between 0.6 and 1.0 are currently obtained in practical applications, depending on technical prescriptions of codes or on economical considerations. To conc1ude this section some remarks are presented about the quantification of deflection limit values. As genera1ly recognized by concrete codes, maximum values for deflection in slabs should be related with aesthetic or functional aspects, or, on the other hand, with the sensitivity of non-structural or structural elements deformations.For the secondcondition,onlythe part to excessive

lishsimplifiedrules.

The main results of a study performed on the influence of the principal parameters affecting deflections of post-tensioned slabs are presented. Recommendations are given concerning preliminary design and control of deflections without calculations in posttensioned slabs. The presented specifications were adopted for indirect control of deflections in the 'FIP Recommendations for the design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts', under preparation by FIP Commission 3. 'Practical Design. Professor Appleton is Chairman of this Commission and Dr Almeida is Secretary of the Commission. Introduction The use of post-tensioned solutions in building design presents, in many cases, important technical and economical advantages. Post-tensioned slabs are usually used for long spans and/or high live loads where the control of deflections assumes a significant role. Prestress has a favourable influence, balancing a part of the imP9sed verticalloads, but, on the other hand, it allows for more slender slabs, which are more sensitive to deflections. Because of the variability of parameters affecting deformations, it is important to use relatively simple procedures so that deslgners will not place undue reliance on ~mputed deflection results. For reinforced concrete slabs, the specification of niaximum span to thickness ratios enables the designer to avoid complex calculations and is useful in the preliminary design of the structure. This procedure of indirect control of deflections is widely adopted in concrete codes. The problem does not present the same simplicity for posttensioned slabs. In addition to the slendemess of the slab, there

14

Table 1 - Span to thickness ra/iosproposed in technical documents for post-tensioned slabs l/h ACI-ASCE Committee 423 'Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrete Flat-Plates', 19741 'FIP Recommendations for the Design of FlatSlabs in Post-tensioned Concrete', 19802 Concrete Society Technical Report n"25 'Posttensioned Flat-Slab Design Handbook', 19843 ACI Committee 318 'Building Code Requirements For Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89)', 19894

floors - 40 to 45 or 48 * roofs - 45 to 48 or 52 *

light .loading

40 to 48

* - li the calculated deflections and vibration performance are acceptable. of the deflection occurring after the construction of these elements need be considered. According to these principIes and taking into consideration the values proposed in several concrete standards, the foIlowing limits were adopted: . Maximum deflection under quasi-permanent loads, //250; Maximum deflection after the installation of partitions, for frequent loads, 1/500or 15mm, whichever is the lesser. A square interior panel, with spans between 7.5 and 20.0 m was considered. Solid, waffle and banded flat slab systems were analysed. Permanent loads include the self weight of the slab and an additional dead load of 2.0 kN/m2. Live load values between 3.0 and 20.0 kN/m2 were considered. For the definition of the quasipermanent and the frequent combination of actions, respectively 40% and 60% of the fulllive load were adopted. Prestressing degree values between 0.6 and 1.0 were considered. This parameter was defined as the ratio between maximum deflections due to prestressing and quasi-permanent loads. A coefficient 'P = 2.5, allowing for time dependent effects, was adopted. Each one of the systems considered (structural solution and span) was analysed by the finite element method, using four node isoparametric elements. The equations which express the slab deflection limits presented in the previous section, are non-linear functions of the depth of the slab, h, the applied loads, g and q and the degree of prestress, k. Live load and prestressing degree values were imposed and the slab depth was obtained by solving the equations using the Newton-Raphson method.

These limits follow closely the values proposed in other codes or technical documents2,4,S,6, being presently adopted in the final draft of the future 'FIP Recommendations for the design of posttensioned slabs and foundation rafts'7. Since a significant part of the permanent loads is balanced by the prestress, the deflections can, in general, be calculated elastically. li cracking oecurs, it will be very local only over the columns, and the reduction of the global rigidity wiIl be negligible. In this case, time dependent effects can be estimated by considering a multiplier factor, 'Pfor additionallong-time deflection. Parametric study Introduction The study was addressed to flat slab systems currently adopted in building designo

/y

15

- ~ ---

--

--

70

Figs. 6 and 7 summarize the results obtained for solid slabs. 'l'he curves obtained by limiting the average prestress to 3.0 MPa are represented if relevant. Concerning the more wide objective of establishing simplified rules for deflection control without calculation it seems appropriate to consider a degree of prestress of about k = 0.7. In fact, in this case the average prestress obtained varies between 1.2 to 2.0 MPa. In addition, it was observed that the ordinary reinforcing ratio, p, in the positive region of the column strips was limited to about 0.5%. The main results obtained for waffle slabs are illustratedin Fig 9. Taking into account the systems more generally used for waffle slabs, an average value of 2 was considered for the ratio between the self-weight of the solid and ribbed zones. In using the curves for waffle slabs, permanent loads should refer to the ribbed zone ofthe slab. For the span range common to solid and waffle solutions, differences are reduced when comparing the curves (l/h) particularly for banded waffle slabs with a rigid solid band, b", ~ 1/4, connecting the columns. Fig 11shows both curves for I = 10.0 m and k = 0.7. On the other hand, for greater spans the influence of low rigid solid bands between columns is relatively unimportant. The curves obtained for a span of 15.0 m are shown in Fig 12, comparing a solution with a solid zone to another with a solid zone and solid bands with b.. = 1/8.

60

50

40

~

a (~)

=770

qp

30

~

I

(~)qp=920 a

~ frequentloads: a $ 1/500. 15.mm

20

g+q

Results

Fig 3 shows the curves I/h obtained for a solid slab with I

= 12.5

and k = 0.6, to each one of the maximum deflection conditions presented before. The maximum deflection limit related to damageon non-structural elements is obviously critical when this problem is relevant. The difference between the curves would be greater for higher prestressing degrees. It can be observed that deflection values of about 1/800under quasi-permanent loads are obtained when using (I/h) values corresponding to the second condition. The prestressing degree has a relevant influence on the maximum (I/h) values. It should be pointed out that the curves indicate the maxinlum (l/h) values for the assumed deflection limits. For high values of prestressing degree, in particular for k = 1.0, deflection criteria can lead to slendemess values too high from a practical point of view. In this case, the slab depth should be conditioned by other criteria, e.g. safety against ultimate limit states, control of vibrations or economical considerations. In order to control these situations, a check was performed on the average concrete stresses due to effective prestress. Practical applications, as well as some technical documents2.3.4 recommend the adoption of an average prestress of about 1.0 to 3.0 MPa for solid slabs. Values outside such limits lead, in general, to uneconomical solutions and, for the upper limit, the problems related to the restrained shortening of the slab can be important.

70

7 l/h

C7cp

= 5.0

Mpa

40

30

~1=750m; C7Cp Mpa =3.0 1= 10.oom;Gcp= 3.0 Mpa -1=1250m 1= 1250m; Gcp= 3.0 Mpa

20 I

= 1.0

IIh

60

l/h

Waffle k=0.8

slabs

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20 I

-g

= 0.8

g+q

10 o

-g

g+q

16 -----

50

lIh

1=10.0m k=O.7

40 .Ql (2)

D _

1=15.0m k=O.7

88~

..

t

30

20 O

---r1.0 2.0 45 41 35

g+q

7.5

10,0 42 34 29

15.0 33 26 22

L..ii..';..ii i

20.0 27 20 16

Fig 11. 1 = 10.0 m, k = 0.7. (l/h) valuesfor solid slabs and waffle

slabs with b., = 1/4

_.J L J i..JL

3.0

J i..-I i...:.J i J i.

40

lIh

.1

,DO

r-,,-.,,. 00 L LJLJ~ ODO[][JOO[JG OOL"J[][J[J[]OC ~"~r., "-H.-"r-"'!r r~.,,. LJLJL

lni"1 JL_J,-..J ,~ ,.-., :JULJLJ

rlnr 1..."''''_.1 L

30

20

~c

~

o

. ~. . . "

:"':0

EmgT

DO (;

~~].

11I

~

J[J[JO ,r-,,.,:",,.-,

O[]ll[ g~~JC

8:;;;

~_Solidzone

-~

~".....

10.0

15.0 29 22 18

8 ,-,,-,,,4

-+-+

20.0 24 17 14

10

-g

g+q

37 30 25

Fig 12. Waffle slab, 1 = 15.0 m, k = 0.7. lnfluence of low rigid solid bands, b., = 1/8 Note The results shown in the various Figures are typical. Other Figures for different values of k and 1 are available and can be obtained from the Librarian at the Institution of Structural Engineers. The Figures available are: Fig 4. Solid slabs, 1 = 12.5m. Influence of degree of prestress Fig 5.. Solid slabs (l/h) limits for k = 0.6 Fig 8. Waffle slabs (l/h) limits for k = 0.6

considering

that prestress

is designed to balance approximately 70% of the quosi-permanent actions. More slenderslabs may be possible using higherprestressing degrees; ii). For branded waffle slabs, permanent loads values to be used should referto the ribbedzone. Fig 13. Span to thickness ratiosfor post-tensioned slabs7 future 'FIP Recommendations for the design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts'7. References 1. ACI-ASCE Committee 423, 'Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrete Flat Plates', Joumal of the American Concrete lnstitute, v. 71, No. 2, February 1974. 2. 'FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat .Slabs in Posttensioned Concrete (using unbonded and bonded tendons)', Cement and Concrete Association, Wexham Springs, 1980, 21pp. 3. Concrete Society Technical Report No 25, 'Post-tensioned Flat-Slab Design Handbook', Concrete Society, London, 1984, 43pp. 4. ACI Committee 318, 'Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-89)', American Concrete lnstitute, Detroit, 1989,353 pp. 5. ENV 1992-1-1,Eurocode 2, 'Design of Concrete StructuresPart 1- General Rules and Rules for Buildings', CEN, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, 1991,253 pp. 6. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, 'Design Code', Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1993,437 pp. 7. FIP Commissin 3, Design, 'Post-tensioned Slabs and Foundation Rafts, final draft', FIP Commission3, February 1994, (to be published).

Conclusions In post-tensioned fIat slabs an important part of the permanent loads is in general balanced by the prestress (k ~ 0.6), which increases the sensitivity to defIections. Aesthetic or functional requirements, in general related to the total defIection for permanent loads, are never critical when compared to criteria established to avoid damage in non structural elements. For high values of the prestressing degree (k values about 1.0), the slendemess of the slab is not conditioned by the control of defIections. It will be by other criteria, e.g. safety and serviceability, economical considerations or, in particular cases, by the control of vibrations. The slendemess of the slab, the ratio between live and dead loads and the degree of prestress significantly influence the defIections in post-tensioned slabs. A prestressing degree of about 0.7 seems appropriate to establish recommendations for control of defIection without calculations. The results obtained can be summarized in the tables presented in Fig 13. These tables allow very easy application, having been adopted as specifications for indirect control of deflections in the

17

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