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MINIREVIEW CONTRACTS RealEstateContract o 4materialterms areasonabledescriptionoftherealproperty dontneedastreetaddressorametesandbounds thesaleprice theamountofthedeposit(ifany) theremustbeaclosingdate o Canthaveacontractunlesstheoffercontainsthe4materialterms Judgewillnotfillinthesematerialterms EmploymentContract o 3MaterialTerms Title/dutiesoftheemployee Atitleissufficient

ssufficient o Ex)youwillbethepresident Compensationoftheemployee Termsmustbedefiniteandcertain,andmustnotbe vagueorambiguousorindefiniteoruncertain o handsomesalaryandfairbonusisnotgood enough CommencementDate o Ifmissingamaterialterm,thereisnocontract o Note:evenifthereisnocontract,employeecouldstillrecoverin quasicontract,allowinghimtorecoverforthefairand reasonablevalueoftheservicesrendered ContractforSaleofGoods o OnlyoneMaterialTerm Thequantityofthegoods(iftheyintendtocontract) o Whatdoyoudowiththemissingterms? Thegapfillers Openpriceterm=marketpriceondateofdelivery Openpaymentterm=collectondelivery Opendeliverydate=withinareasonabletime Openplaceofdelivery=sellersplaceofbusiness o Exception Requirementscontract Twopartiesdonthavetoagreeonaspecificquantity, justtheonepartysactualgoodfaithrequirements Offer o Cantherebeanoraloffertosellrealproperty? Yes TheSOFonlyappliestocontracts o Theoffercanbeoralaslongasthecontractisin writing

Aslongasthematerialtermsareinawrittencontract itsfine o Isanofferassignable? NO o Whathappenswhentheofferordies? Thedeathoftheofferorortheoffereerevokesorterminates thatoffer(eventhoughtheotherpartydidnthavenoticeofthe death) TerminationofanOffer o Byexpiration Ifnotimeisstated,thenitexpiresafterareasonabletime Whatisareasonabletime? Factorstoconsider o Perishability(e.g.bananas) o Pricefluctuation o Knownneedsoftheofferor o ByRevocation Revocationisacceptedwhenreceived NOTE:eveniftheoffereedoesntreaditthen Byanymethodofcommunication (oral,written,orbyconduct) Revocationanbecommunicateddirectlyorindirectly o ByRejection Acounterofferisarejection AninquiryisNOTarejection Arejectioniseffectiveuponreceipt ItdoesNOThavetobereadtobeeffective o Bydeathofofferorordeathofoffereebeforeacceptance NoteonMailboxRuleforwhenAcceptanceIsEffective o Iftheoffereeusesthesamemethodofcommunicationthattheofferor uses,theacceptanceiseffectiveupondispatch o Iftheoffereeusesadifferentmethodofcommunicationthanthe offerorused,theacceptanceisonlyeffectiveonreceipt(noton mailing) o UndertheUCC Anoffermadetosellgoodscanbeacceptedinanymannerand byanymediumreasonableinthecircumstances Reasonable=asfastorfasterthanthemeansusedby theofferor Thentheacceptanceiseffectiveupondispatch Butiftheoffereeusesaslowermeansof communication,acceptanceisnoteffectiveuntilreceipt OptionContracts o CommonLaw

Underthecommonlaw,anoptioncontractisunenforceableif itisNOTsupportedbyconsiderationeventhoughitisin writingandsignedbythepartytobecharged o NYDistinction UndertheNYGOL,anirrevocableofferinasignedwritingis enforceabledespitetheabsenceofconsiderationforthe timestated(orifnotimeisstated,forareasonabletime). NOTE:thereisnomaximumperiodofirrevocability ExamTip:alwaysmentionthattheoffereedidnotgive considerationforthecontract o UCCArticle2 FirmOffer UnderArticle2oftheUCC,afirmofferisanofferwhich byitstermsgivesASSURANCETHATITWILLBEHELD OPEN UnderArticle2oftheUCC,afirmoffermadebyamerchantto sellgoodsinasignedwritingisenforceable,despitethe absenceofconsideration,forthetimestated,orifnotimeis stated,forareasonabletime.However,themaximumperiod ofirrevocabilityis3months. Note:thefirst3monthsareirrevocable,buttheofferis stillonthetableafterthefirst3months o Afterthefirst3months,theofferisstillonthe table,BUTitisrevocable o Theofferremainsonthetableuntilitisrevoked LanguageofFirmOffer Thisofferisfirmfor10days Thisofferisirrevocablefor3weeks Iwillnotcountermandmyofferfor10days Take10daystodecidewhethertoacceptmyofferis NOTafirmoffer YouhaveafullweektoacceptmyofferisNOTafirm offer BattleoftheForms o UnderArticle2oftheUCC,adefiniteandtimelyexpressionof acceptanceoperatesasanacceptanceandformsacontracteven thoughtheacceptancecontainsadditionaltermsordifferentterms thantheofferorstated NOTE:itdoesNOThavetobeinwriting NOTE:itcanbebyconduct(e.g.ahandshake) o Between2merchants,theadditionaltermsordifferenttermsbecome partofthecontractUNLESS: Theymateriallyaltertheoffer;OR Ex)arbitrationclausesmateriallyaltertheoffer

o Thearbitratordoesnothavetobealawyer,but inajudicialproceedingthejudgehastobea lawyer o Anarbitratordoesnothavetofollowtherulesof evidence,butajudgemust o Verylimitedgroundstoappealanarbitrators decision Onlyforbias,misconduct,orfraud Ex)awaiveroftrialbyjury Ex)aforumselectionclause Ex)anexclusionofallwarranties Ex)limitedliabilityclauses Ex)asubstantialreductionintheSOLrule Ex)SellersayswedeliveronlyonFriday,buyersayswe acceptanddeliveronThursday Ex)withallfaults Ex)wesellyouthesegoodsasisandthenbuyeradds warranties Theofferorexpresslylimitsacceptancetohisterms;OR Theofferorgivesnotice(oralorwritten)ofobjectiontothe additionaltermsordifferenttermswithinareasonabletime StatuteofFrauds o UndertheNYGOL,acontractto..mustbeinwritingandsignedby thepartytobecharged(orhislawfulagent)inordertobe enforceable o WhatfallsundertheSOF: MYLEGS MarriageContracts Hardlyevertested YearContracts 4Commonlytestedversions o Acontractwhichcannotbeperformedwithin oneyearofthedateitwasMADEmustbein writingandsignedbythepartytobecharged(or hislawfulagent)inordertobeenforceable o UndertheNYGOL,aleaseofrealpropertyfora termlongerthanoneyearmustbeinwritingand signedbythepartytobecharged(orhislawful agent)inordertobeenforceable Note:itdoesNOTmatterwhenthelease wasmade,justhowlongtheleasetermis Anoralleaseforexactlyoneyear isenforceable o Alifetimecontract MBERule:Orallifetimecontractsare enforceable

NYDistinction:Orallifetimecontractsare unenforceable. UndertheNYGOL,acontractthat cannotbeperformedbeforethe endofalifetimemustbeinwriting o IfaservicecontractcanPOSSIBLYbeperformed withinoneyearfromthedateitwasMADE,itis enforceableeventhoughitisoral LandContracts UndertheNYGOL,acontracttobuyorsellorexchange realpropertymustbeinwritingandsignedbytheparty tobecharged(orhislawfulagent)inordertobe enforced o REGARDLESSofdollaramount Exception o Abuyerwillhavetosatisfy2ofthefollowing3 requirementstoenforceanoralcontract: Buyermustgiveselleradeposit Apennyissufficient Buyermusttakepossessionofsellers property(withsellersconsent) Buyermustmakesubstantial improvementtotherealproperty Amountofmoneyspent,amountof squarefootageadded,etc ExecutorContracts Hardlyevertested GoodsContracts UnderArticle2oftheUCC,acontractforthesaleof goodsforapriceof$500ormoremustbeinwriting andsignedbythepartytobecharged(orhisauthorized agentorbroker)inordertobeenforced Exceptionsforwhenoralcontractisenforced o MAPS o Merchantmemorule UnderArticle2oftheUCCmerchant memorule,whenonemerchantsendsthe secondmerchantasigned,written confirmationofanoralcontractwhichis receivedwithinareasonableamountof timeaftertheoralcontractwasmadeand themerchanthadreasontoknowits contentsanddidnotobjectinwriting within10daysafterreceipt,thentheoral contractisenforceable o Admission

o Partperformance UnderArticle2oftheUCC,anoral contractforthesaleofgoodswhichdoes notsatisfytheSOFisenforceableONLY forthequantityofgoodsforwhich paymenthasbeenmadeandaccepted,or deliveredandaccepted Example:Sellersayshellsell10 widgetsfor10K.Buyergiveshima checkfor2K.Sellerdeposits check.Thensellerwantstogetout ofthecontract.Sellermustdeliver 2widgets o Theselleracceptedthe buyersdepositbecausehe depositedthecheckinthe bank o Speciallymanufacturedgoods SuretyshipContracts UndertheNYGOL,acontracttoguaranteethedebtof anothermustbeinwritingandsignedbythepartytobe charged(orhislawfulagent)inordertobeenforced Aguarantee o 1)MUSTbesupportedbyconsideration o 2)MUSTsatisfythestatuteoffrauds Exception o MBErule Underthemainpurposeruleexception, anoralguaranteeisenforceabledespite theabsenceofconsiderationifthe guarantorderivedsomedirecteconomic benefitasaresultofgivinghisoral guarantee o NYDistinction NYdoesNOTrecognizethemainpurpose ruleexception.Therefore,anoral guaranteeisNEVERenforceableinNew York,eventhough(1)thecreditorrelied ontheoralguarantee,or(2)thecreditor materiallychangedhispositionin reliance,or(3)thecreditorknewthe guarantorwasawealthypurpose Consideration o Apartygivesconsiderationwhenheincursalegaldetrimentor confersabenefit o Theconsiderationmustbeactuallybargainedforandexchanged

o Theconsiderationcanbeeither Apromise; Arequestedact;or Refrainingfromperformingaspecifiedact o TheconsiderationexchangeddoesNOThavetobeequalinvalue o PastconsiderationisNOTvalidconsideration NYDISTINCTION UndertheNYGOL,apromiseisenforceablewhenbased uponpastconsiderationifitisinwritingandsignedby thepartytobecharged(orhislawfulagent)provided: o Thepastconsiderationisrecitedinthesigned writing; o Thepastconsiderationwasperformedbythe promise;AND o Thepromiseewasnotunderapreexistingduty Testedin: o goodSamaritancasesandfaithfulemployee cases o PreexistingDutyRule Apartydoesnotgiveconsiderationwhenheperformsa contractwhichhewasunderapreexistingdutytoperform ModificationofContracts o MBERule Modificationsofcontractsrequireconsiderationforthe modification o NewYorkDistinction UndertheNYGOL,apromiseoragreementtomodifyor changeordischarge... Anycontract(realestate,employment,service, contractstobuild,andsaleofgoods) Anobligation Amortgage Alease Asecurityagreement ...isenforceabledespitetheabsenceofconsiderationifitisin writingandsignedbythepartytobecharged(orhislawful agent) ExamTip: ALWAYSMENTION:Thepartyprocuringthe modificationdidnotgiveconsiderationbecausehewas underapreexistingdutytoperform ALWAYSMENTION:Thefactthatthebuyerdidnotalso signthemodificationletterislegallyirrelevantbecause heisnotthepartytobecharged ModificationofSaleofGoodsContracts

CRIMINALLAW Homicide o Murder1 Intentionalmurder,plusoneof13specialcircumstances Victimisapoliceofficer o Thevictimisapoliceofficerwhoatthetimeof hiskillingwasengagedintheperformanceofhis officialdutiesandthedefendantknewor reasonablyshouldhaveknownthathewasa policeofficer o ALWAYSMENTION Killingapoliceofficerunderthose circumstancesisaggravatedmurderin thefirstdegree Murderforhire o UndertheNYPenalLaw,apersonisguiltyof murderinthefirstdegreewhenwithintentto causethedeathofanotherperson,sheprocured thecommissionorcommittedthekilling pursuanttoanagreementfortheexpectationof anythingofpecuniaryvalue Note:TheDmustbeatleast18yearsoldatthedateofkilling tobeconvictedofmurder1 Exam UndertheNYPenalLaw,apersonisguiltyofmurderin thefirstdegreewhenwithintenttocausethedeathof anotherperson,hecausesthedeathofthatpersonorof anotherperson(codifiesthecommonlawdoctrineof transferredintent)andoneofthe13special circumstancesapply Noteonvoluntaryintoxication: UndertheNYPenalLaw,aDmayintroduceevidenceof voluntaryintoxicationtonegatethespecificintent requiredtoconvicthim o Murder1woulddropdowntoManslaughter2 o Murder2

o UnderArticle2oftheUCC,amodificationofasaleofgoodscontract needsnoconsiderationtobebinding o But,inordertobeenforceable: Thepartyprocuringthemodificationmustbeactingingood faith,havealegitimatecommercialreason,andnotbeguiltyof commercialextortion o Themodificationagreementmustsatisfythestatuteoffrauds

IntentionalMurder Withoutthespecialcircumstances FelonyMurder UndertheNYPenalLawapersonisguiltyoffelony murderwhenheoranotherparticipantcausesthe deathofanonparticipantduringthecommissionor attemptedcommissionofanenumeratedfelonyor whileinimmediateflighttherefrom o Whataretheenumeratedfelonies? BRAKES Thedeathofthenonparticipantmustbeanaturaland probableconsequenceofthefelonyandmustbe foreseeable DepravedIndifferencetohumanlife Note: Alsoanymurderthatwouldbemurder1wheretheDis under18 Note: FelonymurderandDepravedIndifferencearemalice crimes o IfDisvoluntaryintoxicated,heisstillguiltyof thefelonymurderandthedepravedindifference murderevenifforfelonymurderitmeansthat henolongerhadthespecificintentforthe underlyingcrime o Manslaughter1 UndertheNYPenalLaw,apersonisguiltyofmanslaughterin thefirstdegreewhenwithintenttocauseseriousphysical injuryhecausesthedeathofthatperson(orofanotherperson [codifyingthecommonlawdoctrineoftransferredintent]) ExtremeEmotionalDisturbance(heatofpassion) UndertheNYPenalLawapersonchargedwithmurder inthe2nddegree(intentionalmurder)hasan affirmativedefensethatheactedundertheinfluenceof extremeemotionaldisturbanceforwhichtherewasa reasonableexplanationorexcuse. WhenthisDprovestothesatisfactionofthejurythathe actedundertheinfluenceofEED,theDcanonlybe convictedofmanslaughterinthefirstdegree WHENDISCUSSINGANAFFIRMATIVEDEFENSE ALWAYSMENTION: o TheDmustestablishhisaffirmativedefensebya preponderanceoftheevidenceandthe prosecutionmustdisprovehisaffirmative defensebeyondareasonabledoubt o Manslaughter2

UndertheNYPenalLawapersonisguiltyofmanslaughterin theseconddegree,whenherecklesslycausesthedeathof anotherperson Ex)Murder1wheretheDisvoluntarilyintoxicated Recklessapersonactsrecklesslywhenheisawareofand consciouslydisregardsasubstantialandunjustifiableriskthat aparticularresult(inthiscase,death)willoccur UndertheNYPenallaw,avoluntarilyintoxicatedpersonacts recklesslywhen,byhisconduct,hecreatesasubstantialand unjustifiableriskthatdeathwilloccurEVENTHOUGHHEWAS UNAWAREBECAUSEHEWASVOLUNTARILYINTOXICATED ReadtheDegrees o Burglary 3degreesallfelonies o Robbery 3degreesallfelonies o Arson 5degrees4degreesarefelonies,1isamisdemeanor LookatGrandLarceny o Thedollaramountthatthethiefstealsandwhetheritisgrandlarceny inthe1st,2nd,3rd,or4thdegree 1stdegree mustexceed$1million 2nddegree mustexceed$50,000 3rddegree mustexceed$3,000 4thdegree mustexceed$1,000 Itisgrandlarcenyinthefourthdegreeregardlessofthe valueandnatureofthestolenpropertyifitisacredit card,adebitcard,agun,amotorvehicleexceeding $100,propertyobtainedbyextortion,oranyproperty stolenfromtheperson(evenifthereisnothinginthe wallet)

NEWYORKPRACTICE StatuteofLimitations o UndertheCPLR,theSOLfora..is..yearsfromthedatethecause ofactionaccrued. o Breachofemploymentcontract 6years

o Breachofrealestatecontract 6years o Breachofsaleofgoodscontract UnderArticle2oftheUCC,theSOLforabreachofasaleof goodscontractis4yearsfromthedatethecauseofaction accrued(thedateofthebreach) NOTE: Sellerandbuyermayreducethe4yearSOLintheir originalcontract,buttheycannotreduceittolessthan 1year o Breachofwarrantyinasaleofgoodscontract UnderArticle2oftheUCC,theSOLforabreachofwarranty claimis4yearsfromthedatetheparticulardefendant deliveredthegoodstohisimmediatetransferee o Claimforcontributionorindemnification UndertheCPLR,theSOLforaclaimforcontributionor indemnificationis6yearsfromthedateofpayment o Replevinaction UndertheCPLR,theSOLforalegalactionforreplevinis3 yearsfromthedatethecauseofactionaccrued Whereisthistested? Venuequestions o VenueisproperineitherthecountythePorD residesinorthecountywherethepersonal propertyislocatedonthedatetheactionis commenced Bailmentquestions o Bailmentatransferofpossession,butnottitle, topersonalproperty Article2salesquestions o Carriercasewitharailroad Thisisamutualbenefitbailment o Saleonapproval Readthisinbarbri o Replevinisabuyersremedyforabreachof contractbytheseller o Conversionaction 3yearsfromthedatethecauseofactionaccrues o Personalinjuryaction 3yearsfromthedatethecauseofactionaccrues(dateof injury) o Propertydamageactions 3yearsfromthedateofthepropertydamage(notwhentheP discoversthedamage) o Nonmedicalprofessionalmalpractice WhowillbetheD?

Architect,attorney,CPA,professionalengineer,land surveyor WhatistheSOL? 3yearsfromthedatethecauseofactionaccrues o MedicalMalpractice 2.5years UndertheCPLR,theSOLformedicalmalpracticeis2.5years fromthedatethecauseofactionaccrues Continuoustreatmentdoctrine UndertheCPLRcontinuoustreatmentdoctrine,theSOL willbegintorunfromthedateofthelasttreatmentfor thesamemedicalcondition ForeignObjectdoctrine UndertheCPLRforeignobjectdoctrine,thePwillhave eithertheapplicableSOL(2.5years)oroneyearfrom thedatehediscoveredtheforeignobjectorshouldhave discovereditbytheexerciseofduediligence,whichever islater ForeignObjectanyobjectleftinthepatientsbody unintentionallyandwhichdoesnotserveanymedical purpose o Tortactionagainstamunicipaldefendant UndertheNYGeneralMunicipalLaw,theSOLforatortaction againstamunicipaldefendantis1yearand90daysfromthe datethecauseofactionaccrued ThePmustserveaSWORNNOTICEOFCLAIMuponthe municipaldefendant(butnotthemunicipalemployee)within 90daysafterthecauseofactionaccrued Underthisstatute,themunicipaldefendantmustindemnify themunicipalemployeewhocommitsthetortwhileacting withinthescopeofhisemployment,EVENTHOUGHthe municipalemployeewasnegligentorgrosslynegligent ThemunicipalDcanbe: Acity,acounty,avillage,atown,aschooldistrict,afire district,thesubwaysystem,thebuscompany o SurvivalClaims Asurvivalclaimisanyclaimthedecedenthadathisdeath whichisnottimebarredasofthedateofhisdeath UndertheCPLRtheSOLforasurvivalclaimiseitherthe applicableSOLor1yearfromthedateofdeath,whicheveris later Note: Inasurvivalclaimtortaction,youwillbeaskedwhat canberecovered: o Decedentspainandsuffering Thiscanberecovered

o Decedentslostwagesuptodateofdeath Thatcanberecovered o Decedentsmedicalexpensesuptodateofdeath Thatcanberecovered o Decedentspropertydamage Thiscanberecovered Assumedecedentleftwill o 50%towife o 0toonlychild o 50%tobestfriend Assume$1millionsurvivalclaimaward o Whogetsthemoney? Whenmakingadistributionofasurvival claimaward,youFOLLOWTHEWILL(not thelawofintestacy) Wifegets$500K Onlychildgetsnothingbecauseunderthe EPTLatestatorcandisinherithischildren Friendgets$500K o WrongfulDeathAction UndertheEPTL,theSOLforawrongfuldeathactionis2years fromthedateofdeathprovidedthattheSOLhasnotexpired ontheunderlyingsurvivalclaimasofthedateofhisdeath Note:ifsurvivalclaimistimebarred,thenthewrongful deathactionisalsotimebarred o Ifthesurvivalclaimisnottimebarred,thenthe wrongfuldeathactionisalsonottimebarred Whocanbringawrongfuldeathaction? UndertheEPTLonlythedistributeesofthedecedent cancommenceawrongfuldeathaction DistributeeUndertheEPTLadistributeeisaperson entitledtoinheritfromthedecedentunderthelawof intestacy Whatcanberecovered? UndertheEPTL,thedistributeescanrecoverONLY theirpecuniaryloss o Notforthedecedentspainandsuffering o Notforthedistributeesemotionalpainand suffering Assumedecedentleftawill o 50%towife o 0todaughter o 50%tofriend Assume$1millionwrongfuldeathactionrecovery. Whogetsthemoney?

o Whendistributingawrongfuldeathawardyou IGNOREthewillandfollowthelawofintestacy o Thewifegetsthefirst50Kplusonehalfofthe remainder $525,000 o Thedaughterreceivestheotherhalfofthe remainder $475,000 BonusPoints: Interestaccruesonthewrongfuldeathawardatthe rateof9%perannumfromthedateofdeath Punitivedamagescanberecoveredinawrongfuldeath act Wrongfuldeathactionsarecreatedbystatute o Intentionaltorts UndertheCPLR,theSOLforanintentionaltortis1yearfrom thedatethatthecauseofactionaccrued Whatarethey? Assault Defamation Falseimprisonment Maliciousprosecution IntentionalInflictionofEmotionalDistress Invasionofprivacy TollingoftheStatuteofLimitations o Children/Minors UndertheCPLR,theSOListolledduringPsinfancyuntilhe reachestheageofmajority,whichis18inNewYork WhentheapplicableSOLis3yearsorlonger,theinfant plaintiffwillhaveeither:(1)3yearsfromhis18thbirthday;or (2)theapplicableSOLwhichbeginstorunonthedatehis causeofactionaccrued,WHICHEVERislater UndertheCPLR,whentheapplicableSOLislessthan3yearsit beginstorunontheminors18thbirthday 3211MotiontoDismiss o DOWNFALL Documentaryevidence Otheractionpending Wantoflegalcapacity Nonjoinderofanecessaryparty Failuretostateacauseofaction AffirmativeDefenses Lackofpersonaljurisdiction Lackofsubjectmatterjurisdiction o Thereare3groundsthatareneverwaivedbyDeventhoughtheDdid notraisethosethreegroundsinhis3211motionorinhisanswer

NFL Nonjoinderofanecessaryparty Failuretostateacauseofaction Lackofsubjectmatterjurisdiction Notetheycanraiseitonappeal o SPARERIBS(theaffirmativedefenses) Statuteoflimitations Frequentlytested Payment ArbitrationAward Resjudicata Estoppel Release Infancyofthemovingparty Bankruptcy StatuteofFrauds Frequentlytested o TheDcanonlymakeone3211motion InthatmotionhecanputdownasmanyoftheDOWNFALLor SPARERIBSgroundsashewants o Thedeadlinetomakea3211motionisthelastdaytheanswerisdue o ItisoptionalfortheDtomakea3211motiontodismisswhenhehas groundstodoso o Note: IftheDmakesaCPLR3211motionanddoesnotraiselackof personaljurisdiction,heCANNOTthereafterraiselackof personaljurisdictioninhisanswer o Note: Alwayssaywhetheritisdismissedwithprejudiceorwithout prejudice Article16oftheCPLR o UnderArticle16oftheCPLR,atortfeasorwhois50%orlessliablefor PsinjurieswillhavelimitedliabilityforPsnoneconomicdamages baseduponhisequitableshare,BUThewillbeliablefor100%of plaintiffseconomicdamages o ExceptionswhenArticle16isnotavailable: Tortfeasorissuedforwrongfuldeath Tortfeasorcommitsanintentionaltort Tortfeasoractedwithrecklessdisregardforthesafetyof others(grosslynegligent) Tortfeasorreleasesahazardoussubstanceintothe environment Tortfeasorcommitstortwhileoperatingamotorvehicle Thisishighlytested Exceptiontotheexception

OrderofAttachment o UnderwhatcircumstancescanaPobtainanorderofattachment? UndertheCPLRanorderofattachmentmaybeproperly obtainedinanyactionexceptamatrimonialactionwherethe judgmentdemandsmoneydamagesINWHOLEORINPART wherethePcansatisfyanyofthefollowingrequirements: 1)theDisanondomiciliaryofNYoranunlicensed foreigncorporation o 95%ofthetimeitwillbethis 2)theDisaNYdomiciliarywhocannotbeservedwith processdespitediligentefforttodoso 3)theDisaNYdomiciliarywhohasremovedor concealedhisassetsorisabouttodosowithintentto defraudhiscreditorsorfrustratetheenforcementofa judgment Note: IfPisjustseekingspecificperformance,cantgetan orderofattachment o ProceduralRequirements PmaymakeanexpartemotionoramotiononnoticetotheD atanytimeuptothedateofjudgmentbutnotafterjudgment Pmustdemonstrateprobabilityofsuccessbyfactfilled affidavits Pmustpostabondinanamountsetbythecourttoindemnify theDforhiscostsanddamages,includingreasonable attorneysfees,intheeventtheorderofattachmentisvacated ortheDprevailsonthemerits IfthePobtainsanorderofattachmentbeforeserviceof processismadeuponD,thenPmustserveprocesswithin60 daysfromthedatetheorderofattachmentwasgranted IfPobtainsanorderofattachmentbyexpartemotion,hemust makeasecondmotion(amotiontoconfirmtheorderof attachment) Within5daysiftheDisaNYdomiciliary Within10daysiftheDisanondomiciliaryor unlicensedforeigncorporation Theorderofattachmentmustbeserveduponthegarnishees whoareindebtedtotheD Whatdoestheorderofattachmentapplyto? o Thebankaccount o Stocksandbonds o Royalties

o Whenapoliceofficerorfirefighteroperatesa motorvehiclewhileactingwithinthescopeof hisemploymentwhenheis50%orlessliablefor thePsinjuries

o Land Theorderofattachmentappliestoanypersonalproperty, tangibleorintangible,orrealpropertysituatedinNY Thegarnisheeswhoareservedwiththeorderof attachmentfreezestheassets NoticeofPendency o UndertheCPLR,anoticeofpendencymaybeproperlyfiledinany actionwherethejudgmentdemandedwillaffecttheUSE, POSSESSION,ENJOYMENT,ORTITLEtorealpropertyinNYstate UPET o DoesthePneedleaveofthecourttofileanoticeofpendency? NO o DoesthePhavetodemonstrateprobabilityofsuccessonthemerits byfactfilledaffidavits? NO o DoesthePhavetopostabond? NO o WhenthePfilesannoticeofpendency,whatisthedeadlinetodoso? Hemayfilethenoticeofpendencyatanytimeuptothedateof judgment,butnotafter o IfthePfilesthenoticeofpendencyonJanuary1st,buthehasnotyet servedtheDwiththesummonsandcomplaint,whatisthedeadline forservingprocessontheD? UndertheCPLR,wherethePfiledthenoticeofpendency beforeserviceofprocessontheD,hemustdosowithin30 daysafterthePfiledthenoticeofpendency o DoestheNoticeofPendencycreatealienontherealproperty? NO,butitdoesrendertitleunmarketable o ItisoptionaltofiletheNoticeofPendencywhenthePisseeking UPET Exceptionswhereitismandatory: Amortgageforeclosureaction Apartitionaction o HowlongisaproperlyfiledNoticeofPendencyeffectivefor? UndertheCPLR,aproperlyfiledNoticeofPendencyiseffective for3yearsfromthedateoffilingandmaybeextendedfor another3yearsuponmotionmadebeforetheexpirationofthe 3yearperiod Forgoodcauseshowing o CanyougetaNoticeofPendencyinasuitrelatedtothesaleofstock? NO LooktoNewYorkPracticeNotes

Corporations Preincorporationcontracts o ApromoterisALWAYSpersonallyliableoneachpreincorporation contractwhetherornotthecorporationadoptsorrejectsthepre incorporationcontract o Thecorporationcanadoptorrejectthepreincorporationcontract eventhoughitisfairandreasonabletothecorporation o Thecorporationcanadoptapreincorporationcontracteither expresslyorimpliedly Expressadoptionofcorporationboardofdirectorsauthorizes thepreincorporationcontract Impliedadoptioniftheboardofdirectorsengagesinconduct thatshowsthecorporationisacceptingthebenefits o Thepromoterandthecorporationwhichadoptsthepre incorporationcontract,expresslyorimpliedly,arejointlyand severallyliableonthepreincorporationcontract Bothareliableforthefullamount,andeachisliableforthefull amount o Alwaysmentionthatthepromoterispersonallyliableoneachpre incorporationcontractbecauseheimpliedlywarrantstothethird partythathehasactualauthoritytoexecutethepreincorporation contract UltraVires o Ultraviresbeyondthepowersofthecorporationasthosepowers aredefinedintheBCL,thecertificateofincorporation,thebylaws,or anyotherapplicablestatute o UndertheBCL,acorporationcannotsellitssharesbelowparvalue Itisultravirestosellthestockbelowparvalue o Whatarethecorporations(othershareholders)remedies? Thecorporationcanrecovertheunpaidbalancefrom cheapskate(whoonlypaid80%ofparvalue)eventhoughthe stockcertificatewasstampedpaidinfull UndertheBCL,thecorporationcancancelanypartofthe shareswhichhavenotbeenfullypaidforwhilethoseshares areinthepossessionofcheapskate Thecorporationcannotcancelanysharessubsequently soldtoagoodfaithpurchaserforvalue Note:Parvaluemustbeobtainedonlyintheoriginalsaleby thecorporation,notwhencheapskateresellsit Cheapskatecansellitforanypriceeitheraboveor belowparvalue o Note Alwaysmentionthatthenewyorkattorneygeneralcanobtain atemporaryrestrainingordertoenjoinanultravires transaction

Orhecancommenceanactiontoannulthecertificateof incorporationordissolvethecorporationbecauseit engagedinanultravirestransactionalcontract o Itisalsoultravireswhen: Thecertificationofincorporationliststhebusinesspurposeas onethingandthecorporationseekstodosomethingelse UndertheBCL,neitherpartytoanultravirescontract canrescindit Whataretheunhappyshareholdersremedies? AnyshareholdercanobtainaTROtoenjoinanultra virescontractfrombeingclosed o Note:thenewyorkattorneygeneralcanalsodo so Whatiftheultravirescontracthasalreadyclosed? Whataretheunhappyshareholdersrights? o Iftheultravirescontracthasalreadybeen executedandperformedandthecorporation losesmoney,thenunhappycancommencea shareholdersderivativesuitagainsttheofficers anddirectorswhoparticipatedintheultravires transaction ShareholdersDerivativeSuit o Noleaveofthecourtrequiredtocommenceaderivativesuit o Shareholderhastomakeawrittendemandontheboard,unlesssuch ademandwouldbeuselessorfutile o Tobringaderivativesuit,theshareholdermustownatleastone shareonthedateoftheallegedwrongdoingandonthedatehe commencestheshareholderderivativesuit o WhatistheSOLforaderivativesuit? UndertheCPLR,theSOLforashareholderderivativesuitis6 yearsfromthedateoftheallegedwrongdoing(notthedateof discovery),BUTthecourtmaybarthederivativesuitifPis guiltyoflachesbecauseashareholderderivativesuitis equitableinnature. o Istheshareholderentitledtoatrialbyjury? No,becauseashareholderderivativesuitisequitableinnature o Isitnecessaryfortheshareholdertonameandservethecorporation asanominaldefendant? Yes,thecorporationisanecessarypartytoashareholder derivativesuitandmustbenamedasanominaldefendantand servedwithprocess o CanthePdiscontinuethederivativesuitoncehestarteditwithout leaveofthecourt? No Hecantdiscontinue,compromise,orsettlethe derivativesuitwithoutleaveofthecourt

o UndertheBCL,thePmayberequiredtogivesecuritytoindemnify thedefendantsfortheircostsanddamages,includingreasonable attorneysfees,UNLESSthePeitherownsatleast5%ofanyclass ofoutstandingsharesorthefairvalueofhissharesEXCEEDS $50,000. o Whogetsthemoneyrecovered? Theshareholdermustturnoveranyrecoveryobtainedfrom theDstothecorporationbecausethecauseofactionbelongs tothecorporation,andnottotheshareholder. Pcangetattorneyfeesoutoftherecoverythough QuorumandVotingRequirements o Attheboardofdirectorsmeeting UndertheBCLaquorumataboardofdirectorsmeetingisa majorityofENTIREboardofdirectorsintheabsenceofany contraryprovisioninthecertificateincorporationonly requiringasupermajorityoranycontraryprovisionineither thecertificateofincorporationorbylawsrequiringlessthana majority,butnotlessthan1/3 Canthebylawsprovidethataquorumrequiresa supermajority? o NO,onlyacertificateofincorporationcan requireasupermajority o Thatbylawisultravires VotingRequirements OrdinaryMatters o Electionofanewpresident Extraordinarymatters o Mergerorconsolidation(mostcommonlytested) o Saleofallorsubstantiallyallofthecorporate assets,NOTintheregularcourseofbusiness o Acorporateguaranteenotinfurtheranceof corporatepurposes Rule(sameforordinarymattersandextraordinary matters) o UndertheBCL,allordinarymattersandall extraordinarymattersmustbeapprovedbya majorityofthedirectorspresentataboardof directorsmeetingintheabsenceofanycontrary provisioninthecertificateofincorporationonly requiringasupermajorityvote,assuminga quorumispresent SpecialRule o Noquorumisrequiredatboardordirectors meetingtoelectreplacementdirectorswhenany directorsresignordieduringtheirtermofoffice.

o However,ifnoquorumispresent,the replacementdirectorsmustbeelectedbya majorityofthedirectorstheninoffice o Attheshareholdersmeeting UndertheBCL,aquorumatashareholdersmeetingisa majorityofalloftheissuedandoutstandingsharesentitledto vote,intheabsenceofanycontraryprovisioninthecertificate ofincorporationonlyrequiringasupermajorityorany contraryprovisionineitherthecertificationorincorporation orbylawsrequiringlessthanamajoritybutnotlessthan1/3 Ifthebylawssaythatthequorumshallconsistof300 outof1000shares,thatisanultraviresbylaw VotingRequirements OrdinaryMatters o Electionofpresident ExtraordinaryMatters o Mergerorconsolidation o Saleofallorsubstantiallyallofthecorporate assets,NOTintheregularcourseofbusiness o Acorporateguaranteenotinfurtheranceof corporatepurposes Ruleforordinarymatters o Forordinarymatters,undertheBCLamajority ofallthesharespresentandvotingata shareholdersmeetingisrequiredtoapproveall ordinarymatters,intheabsenceofanycontrary provisioninthecertificateofincorporationonly requiringasupermajorityvote Assumingduenoticeoftheshareholders meetingwasgivenandaquorumwas present Whatconstitutesduenotice? o Notlessthan10daysand nomorethan60days Ruleforextraordinarymatters o Oldlaw UndertheBCL,ifthecorporationwas formedbeforeFeb22nd1998,theholders of2/3ofalltheissuedandoutstanding sharesentitledtovotemustapprove these3extraordinarymattersinthe absenceofanycontraryprovisioninthe certificateofincorporationonlyrequiring agreatervote

Assuming:duenoticeofthe shareholdersmeetingwasgiven andaquorumwaspresent

o Newlaw UndertheBCL,ifthecorporationwas organizedafterFeb22nd1998,the majorityofalltheissuedandoutstanding sharesentitledtovotemustapprove these3extraordinarymattersinthe absenceofanycontraryprovisioninthe certificateofincorporationonlyrequiring agreatervote Assuming:duenoticeofthe shareholdersmeetingwasgiven andaquorumwaspresent IMPORTANTNOTE:thismajorityrule appliesonlytothefirsttwoextraordinary matters,nottothethirdone Thethirdextraordinarymatter(a corporateguaranteeforanon corporatepurpose)stillrequires 2/3ofthetotalshares Wills Whataretherequirementsfortheproperexecutionofawill? o UndertheEPTL,thetestatormustbeatleast18yearsoldandof soundmindandmemory o Thewillmustbeinwriting o ThewillmustbesignedbytheTestatorattheendthereof OrTmaydirectanotherpersontosignTsname,inTs presence,whichmustbewitnessedby2otherpersons 4mustbeintheroom o Theremustbeatleasttwoattestingwitnesseswhomustalsosignat theendandstatetheirresidenceaddress UndertheEPTL,theomissionoftheresidenceaddressofthe twoattestingwitnessesdoesNOTaffectthevalidityofTswill. o Thetwoattestingwitnessesmustsignwithin30daysofeachother IfTandtheattestingwitnessesdontsignatthesametime,T mustacknowledgehissignaturetoeachattestingwitness beforetheysignit o Testatormustpublishhiswill,whichmeanshemustdeclaretoeach attestingwitnessthattheinstrumentwhichThassignedishiswill. InterestedWitnesses o UndertheEPTL,aninterestedwitnessisawitnesswhoreceivesa dispositionunderTswill

o UndertheEPTL,thedispositionmadetoaninterestedwitnessis VOID,butthewillisVALID Whenadispositionisvoiditlapsesintotheresiduaryinthe absenceofanycontraryprovisioninTswill Whenadispositionisvoidandthereisnoresiduaryclausethe dispositionlapsesintointestacy,inabsenceofacontrary provisioninthewill o Exceptions UndertheEPTL,theattestingwitnesswhoisaninterested witnesswillreceivethedispositionmadetohimifthereareat leasttwootherdisinterestedattestingwitnessesandthe testimonyoftheinterestedwitnessisnotnecessarytoprobate Tswill UndertheEPTL,iftheinterestedwitnessifadistributeeofT, hewilltakeeitherthevoiddispositionunderTswillORhis intestateshare,whicheverisless UndertheEPTL,adistributeeisapersonentitledto inheritfromthedecedentunderthelawofintestacy o BonusPoint Aninterestedwitnessis(1)acompetentwitnessand(2) compellabletotestifyconcerningtheexecutionofTswill Advancements o UndertheEPTL,anintervivosirrevocablegiftmadebythetestator (donor)tothedoneewhichisintendedtobeananticipatory distributiontothedoneeofherinterestinthedonorsestate,either underthewillorunderthelawofintestacy,mustbeprovenbya writingcontemporaneouslymadewiththegiftandsignedbyeither thedonororthedonee. Contemporaneousmeanswithin24hours Onthebarexam,itisusuallynotacontemporaneous writing PretermittedChildStatutes o UndertheEPTLpretermittedchildstatute,anafterbornchildwhois notmentionedinTswillandforwhomThasnotmadeanylifetime settlement: WhereTmadeabequesttohisexistingchildren,thegiftsmade tothechildrenwillbetreatedasaclassgiftinwhichafterborn childCwillshare AandBget150Keach.Cisafterborn,andwilldoesnt mentionC.A,B,andCget100Keach. IfAgets200andBgets100.Cisafterbornandwill doesntmentionC. o Amustcontributed2/3ofthe100KthatCwill receive o Bmustcontribute1/3ofthe100KthatCwill receive

o Proratadistribution WhereTmadealimiteddisposition(e.g.$15each)toeach existingchild,undertheEPTL,theafterbornchildwilltakehis intestateshare WhereTdisinheritsAandB,afterbornchildCtakesnothing. WhereThasnochildrenandleaves60%tohiswifeand40% tohismother.AfterbornonlychildCtakeshisintestateshare. Tdiesandissurvivedbywife,mother,andafterborn child.Tdieswith$1millionestate.Afterbornchild takesintestateshare$475K.This475Kcomesfrom themotherandthewife.Themotherhastocontribute 40%ofthe475Kandthewifehastocontribute60%of the475K. o Whoisthechild? Anadoptedchild Aposthumouschild(conceivedduringlifetime) Anonmaritalchildwhosepaternityhasbeenproven DoesNOTincludegrandchildren o Whatifthefathermakesalifetimesettlement(e.g.lifeinsurance policynamingC,savingsaccountopenedforchildC,stocksandbonds forthebenefitofC)? Hetakesnothingfromthewillifheisnotmentioned. Ifthefathermadealifetimesettlement,thenthatafterborn childcannottakefromthewillunderthepretermittedchild statute Revocationofawill o Physicalactsofrevocation UndertheEPTL,atestatormayrevokeonlyhisentirewillby physicalactwhendonewiththeintentiontodoso. Cantrevokejustpartofhiswillbyphysicalact Note:Thimselfdoesnthavetodothephysicalactof destroyingthewill UndertheEPTL,Tmayrevokehisentirewillordirectanother persontorevokehiswillinhispresence,whichmustbe witnessedbytwootherpersons,ifdonewiththeintentto revokehisentirewill,bythephysicalactof Burning o Youhavetoburnittoacrisp Ifstillreadable,thennotrevoked Tearing Cutting Cancellation Obliteration Mutilation Orotherdestruction

Thecontentsofanaccidentallydestroyedwillcanbeproven by: Anunsignedcopyofthewill Thedraftingattorneystestimony Thetestimonyofthetypistwhotypedthewill UndertheEPTL,atestatorcannotrevokeoralterpartofhis willbyaphysicalact Disqualificationofasurvivingspouse o DISMAL o Afinaldecreeofdivorceorannulmentorajudicialdecreeof separationhasbeenenteredthesewilldisqualifyasurviving spouse o Invaliddivorceprocuredbythesurvivingspousewhichisnot recognizedinNY ThehusbandrunsdowntoHaitiandgetsaHaitidivorce.NY doesntrecognizethatdivorce.Wifethendiesintestate. Husbandwontbeallowedtorecoverunderintestacy o Thedeceasedspousehasprocuredaseparationdecreeagainstthe survivingspouse,whichisvalidinNYsurvivingspousewillnot takeunderthelawsofintestacy o Marriageisvoid(bigamyandincest)survivingspousewillnottake underthelawsofintestacy o Abandonmentthesurvivingspouseabandonsthedeceasedspouse andtheabandonmentcontinuesuntilthedateofdeath o Lackofsupport Survivingspouseneglectsorrefusestosupporthisspouse Nonmaritalchildren o Thedecedentdiedandhehadanonmaritalchild.Thedecedentthen diesintestate o UndertheEPTL,anonmaritalchildwhocanestablishhispaternityis entitledtohisintestatesharefromhisdeceasedfather 5waystoestablishpaternity thefathermarriesthemotheratANYtime anorderoffiliationisenteredbythecourtduringthe lifetimeofthefather thefathersignsaninstrumentacknowledgingpaternity o instrumentmustbesignedbythefather, notarized,witnessedbyoneotherperson,and thatwitnessssignaturemustbenotarized o itmustbefiledintheputativeregistryfile byclearandconvincingevidenceconsistingofagenetic markertest(DNA)orotherevidenceinwhichthefather OPENLYandNOTORIOUSLYacknowledgedthenon maritalchildashisownchild

DomesticRelations Whatarethepropergroundsforaseparation? o 5grounds Cruelandinhumantreatment Dsmisconductendangerstheemotionalorphysicalor mentalwellbeingofthePastorenderitimpracticalor unsafetoremaininthemaritalrelationship o Asingleactofdomesticviolenceisenough Abandonment 3elementsthataPmustprove: o voluntarydeparture o withoutlegaljustification legaljustificationexample:adultery o withoutanintentiontoreturn Onedayofabandonmentissufficientforseparation Adultery 3yearsofconsecutiveimprisonmentduringmarriage TheDfails,neglects,orrefusestosupporttheotherspouse whenhehastheopportunityormeanstodoso Whatarethepropergroundsforadivorce? o 6grounds Cruelandinhumantreatment Sameasforseparation Abandonment Theabandonmentmustlastforatleastoneyeartogeta divorce Abandonmentisacontinuingoffense,sotheabandoned spousecanalwaysobtainadivorce(even50years later) o Thereisnostatuteoflimitationsissueor deadline Theabandoningspouseisdisqualifiedfromtakinghis intestateshare Adultery Whenbothspouseshavecommittedadultery,neither spousecangetadivorcebasedonadultery Affirmativedefenses o Recrimination Palsocommittedadultery o Condonation Forgiveness HcommittedadulteryandWfoundout. HbegsforforgivenessandWtakeshim back.Theseresumecohabitationand theirmaritalrelations o Connivance

PsetupDtocommitadultery o The5yearSOLfromthedateofdiscoveryof adulteryhasexpired Whendiscussingtheseaffirmativedefenses,always mentionthattheDmustestablishhisaffirmative defensebyapreponderanceoftheevidence,andPmust disprovetheaffirmativedefensebyapreponderanceof theevidence 3yearsofconsecutiveimprisonmentduringmarriage Thespousesarelivingseparateandapartforaperiodofat leastoneyearpursuanttoaseparationdecreeoraseparation agreement,andtheplaintiffhassubstantiallyperformedthe termsoftheseparationdecreeoragreement ThePcanonlyseekaconversiondivorceifhe/shehas substantiallyperformedthetermsoftheseparation decree/agreement o IfPhasnt,heisadelinquentspouseandcantget theconversiondivorce NoFaultDivorce UndertheNYDRL,eitherspousemayobtainanofault divorceiftworequirementsaresatisfied: o 1)themarriageisirretrievablybrokenforat least6months;AND o 2)allfinancialissuesandallcustodialissues (withregardstothechildren)havebeen resolvedbythespousesBEFORE commencementofthenofaultdivorceaction TheSeparationAgreement o Requirements Mustbeinwritingandsignedbybothspouses,andtheir signaturesmustbeacknowledgedbeforeanotarypublic Mustbefiledatanytimebeforethecommencementofthe matrimonialaction Courtwillapplycommonlawrulesofcontractlawto determinethevalidityandenforceabilityoftheseparation agreement Ifitwassignedunderduressorundueinfluence,the separationagreementisvoid o Canbereformed,orrevised ifthereisamutualmistakeoffact,thentheseparation agreementisvoidable o Note:ifaseparationagreementrequiresmaintenanceorchild supportandthespouseisdelinquent,thereceivingspousehastwo options: 1)recovertheamountunpaidbythedelinquentspouse;OR

2)treatthehusbandsbreachoftheseparationagreementasa repudiation thetermscanthenbechangedandwifecouldgetmore moneypermonthifhusbandisnowmakingmore money o Canaseparationagreementberescinded? Note:aseparationagreementcanberescindedonlywhenthe spousesresumetheirmaritalrelationship(cohabit) Onenightofcohabitationisnotenough But,oncethespouseshaveresumedtheirmarital relationship(theytrytoworkthingsout,butitdoesnt workafteramonth),theseparationagreementhas beenrescinded o Thepartieswouldhavetoreexecutethe separationagreementinordertogeta conversiondivorce Equitabledistribution o Separatepropertynotsubjecttoequitabledistribution AnypropertyownedbyHorWbeforemarriage Anygiftordeviseorbequestorinheritanceunderthelawof intestacyreceivedbyonespouseduringmarriageisseparate property Example:Wgetsabequestfromhermother Compensationforpersonalinjuries Thisincludessettlements Atottentrust InthenameofH,intrustforhisnewwifeW o ThisistheseparatepropertyofH CanHchangethenameofthebeneficiarywithoutWs consentandwithoutnoticetoW? o Yes CanHclosetheaccount? o Yes CanHwithdrawmoneyfromtheaccount? o Yes Wifesinterestinthetottentrusthasanexpectancy o Thatsallshehas o Shedoesnthavealegalinterestinthataccount untilHdies ANYpassiveappreciationinthevalueofseparateproperty Example:theincreaseinvalueofthestockfrom $100,000to$1,000,000ispassiveappreciation,because theincreaseinvalueisduetoexternalmarketforces. o Thewhole$1,000,000wouldbeseparate property

AnymaritalpropertythatthespousesagreeinaSIGNED WRITING(notoral)tobeseparateproperty o Maritalpropertysubjecttoequitabledistribution UndertheEPTL,anypropertyacquiredbyeitherspouse duringthemarriagewhichisbydefinitionnotseparate propertyismaritalpropertyREGARDLESSoftheformoftitle inwhichthepropertyisowned StatutoryFactorsConsideredbyCourtinMakingEquitable DistributionofMaritalProperty: Thedurationofthemarriage o Alongtermmarriageof15yearsorlonger usuallywindsupina50/50split o Ashorttermmarriagewontbe50/50 Theageandhealthofthespouses o Ex)Ifwifehasbeenstayathomespousefor manyyears,thenweconsiderherageandhealth Theamountofmaintenanceonespousegivestheother spouse Thefinancialcircumstancesofthespousesbefore marriage,duringmarriage,andaspredictedinthe future Thetaxconsequencestotheparties Thelossofpensionandinheritancerights o Ex)letssayHsjobhasa30yearpension.First 5beforemarriage,15duringthemarriage,last tenafterthemarriage.Youfactorthe15years outof30intothecalculationoftheequitable distribution Wastefuldissipationofseparatepropertyormarital propertybytransferringitwithoutfairconsideration o Ex)Isellblackacretomybrotherfor$1before thedivorcetotryandlookpoor NOTE:UndertheNYDRL,thecourtmayexpressly consideranyotherfactorwhichthecourt EXPRESSLYconsidersjustandequitable RULE Thecourtwillnotconsiderthemisconductofa spouseinmakingequitabledistributionofmarital property o EXCEPTION Unlessthemisconducthasbeenso egregiousastoshocktheconscienceof thecourt REALPROPERTY ConcurrentEstates

o TenancyinCommon o JointTenancy o TenancybytheEntirety Thisistheonemostlikelytobetested WhentwopeopleacquiretitletoBlackacrewhiletheyare married,theyownBlackacreastenantsbytheentirety? IftwopeoplearelivingtogetherinsininNY,NYwillnot recognizethecommonlawmarriagenottenantsby theentirety o Butiftheycamefromanotherstateandcommon lawmarriagewasvalidinthatotherstate,NY willrecognizethatcommonlawmarriage theywillbetenantsbytheentirety IftheybuyBlackacrewhiletheyareengaged,theyarenot tenantsbytheentiretyaftertheygetmarried Howtorevokeatenancybytheentirety? Divorce,annulment,orjudicialdecreeofseparation o Whenrevoked,theynowownBlackacreas tenantsincommon Whatiftheyseparate,butthereisnoseparationdecree oragreement? o Theystillownitastenantsbytheentirety Canaspousemortgagehishalfinterest? MBE o Aspousecannotmortgagehishalfinterestin realpropertyownedastenantsbytheentirety NY o Aspousecanmortgagehishalfinterest,BUTthe mortgageebankmustforeclosethemortgage beforethemortgagordies Ifmortgageedoesnotdoso,then survivingspouseownsblackacrefreeand clearofthemortgage Canthehusbandaloneexecuteadeedtoconveyblackacretoa thirdproperty? NO Thedeedisvoidandthebuyergetsnothing Canatenantbytheentiretycommenceapartitionaction seekingacourtordertosellBlackacreanddividetheprofits? Neitherspousecancommenceapartitionaction. ThereforeDsmotiontodismissmustbegranted,and thegroundisforfailuretostateacauseofaction UndertheEPTL,whenaninstrumentdescribesthemas husbandandwifeeventhoughtheyarenotmarriedatthe time,buttheygetmarriedafterwards,theythenownblackacre asjointtenantswithrightsofsurvivorship

Whatiftheynevergetmarriedafter? o UndertheEPTL,whentwoormorepersons acquireproperty,theyholdtitleastenantsin commonunlesstheinstrumentexpressly declaresthemtobejointtenants AdversePossession o COAH Continuous Mustbecontinuousforthestatutoryperiod10years Open Actual Hostile Withoutpermissionofthelawfulowner o Mustbehostileforthewhole10years o Onessays,listall4elementsanddiscusswhethereachelementis present Dontjustzeroinonthemissingelement o Example Whenhusbandandwifeadverselypossesspropertytogether andthentakepossession,theythenownthenewlandas tenantsincommon RISKOFLOSS o CommonLawMBERule Underthecommonlawdoctrineofequitableconversion,the buyerhasequitabletitleonthedatethesellersignsthe contractofsale.Withequitabletitle,thebuyerhastheriskof lossintheabsenceofanycontraryprovisionoragreement. o NYDistinction UndertheUniformVendorandPurchaserRiskAct,theseller hastheriskoflossbetweenthecontractdateandclosingdate iftherealpropertyismateriallydamagedordestroyed WITHOUTFAULTofthebuyer(ortakenawaybyeminent domain)unlessthebuyerhastitleorpossessiononthedateof thelossintheabsenceofanycontraryagreement Ex)Here,thebuyerwasnotatfaultwhentheproperty wasdestroyedbytheactofgod/fire/floodetc. WhatarethebuyersrightsundertheNYStatute? Underthestatutethebuyerhastherighttorescindthe contractandrecoverhisentiredeposit o Rescissionisanequitableremedy. o Forallequitableremedies(rescission,specific performance,constructivetrust,etc.): Pmustnotbeguiltyoflaches (unreasonableandprejudicialdelay) ThePmustreturnanyconsideration receivedfromtheD

RaceNotice o UndertheNYRPL,thesecondbuyerwillprevailoverthefirstbuyerif hesatisfies3requirements: Hemustbeagoodfaithpurchaseronthedatehesignsthe contractofsaleorreceivesthedeedormortgage HedoesnothaveactualnoticeofB1scontract,or constructivenoticeofB1scontract,orinquirynoticeof B1scontract Hemustgivevalue Loveandaffectionisnotvalue B2mustrecordfirst o WhathappenswhenneitherB1norB2records? B1gotequitabletitle Equitabletitlecanonlybegivenonce B2didnotgetequitabletitle WhenneitherB1norB2records,thenB1willprevailunder thecommonlawdoctrineofequitableconversionbecauseB1 hasequitabletitlewhensellersignedthecontractwithB1.B2 doesnthaveequitabletitlebecausesellerhadalreadybeen givenequitabletitletoB1.

ThePmustallegethatthereisno adequatelegalremedyavailable Thebuyeralsohasthecommonlawrighttopurchase thelandwithoutthehousewithanabatementofthe purchasepriceequaltothevalueofthedestroyed property(orthevalueofthepropertytakenbyeminent domain) Whatifthepropertyisnotmateriallydamaged?Whatifitis onlyalittledamagedoralittletakenawaybyeminentdomain? Buyerhastobuytheproperty,butheisentitledtoan abatementofthepurchasepriceequaltothevalueof thedestroyedproperty