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Readings

Wainwright&Tucker(2006).TheOxfordHistoryofChristianWorship. Chapters9,14,22(pp.351394;473483;586632) Webber(1994).Worship:OldandNew.Chapters11(pp.121134) White(1993).ABriefHistoryofChristianWorship.Chapters5(pp. 142177)

DevelopmentalHistoryofChristian Worship:PostReformationto 20 th Century


Objectives:
1. SketchahistoricaltimelinefromthepostReformationtothe20thCentury 2. Identifykeyhistoricaloccurrencesandfigures 3. Brieflydiscusssignificanttheologicaldevelopments

Outcomes:
Attheendofthesessionthestudentwillbeexpectedtoknowsomeofthekeyhistoricaloccurrences and the people who helped to shape them. Broadly, the student should understand the manner in whichthisperiodofdevelopmentalhistoryhasinfluencedtodaysChristianworship.

1. Post Reformation: AD 1750 1900


TheReformation,despiteitsnecessarydevelopments,washighlydivisive.Discordantviewsconcerning liturgicaldesign,theEucharist,Baptismandtheuseofmusicplaguedthepostreformationalchurch.
ChurchestodaystilldebatetheissuesdefinedduringtheAgeofReasonandRevolutionsComparedto theprivilegeddefinitionsofthepatristicera,thelabyrinthsynthesesoftheMiddleAges,ortheschisms during the Renaissance and Reformation, the intellectual and affective as well as the industrial and political revolutions of the modern world may seem merely temporal matters. Actually, they are often applicationsofattitudestaughtthroughChristianreligiouspractices.(Donakowski,2006,p.351)

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WiththeProtestantReformationthenotionofasingularinfallibledogmawithinCatholic
traditionwasreplacedbythousandsofinfallibledogmawithinthestatementsoffaithof the many ecclesial bodies that make up Protestantism. That is to say, the Protestant Reformationcombatedthenotionofthepapacybyreplacingonepopewiththousandsof popesahighlyquestionableimprovement(Greer,2003,p.66).

TheEnlightenment(AD16501750)
TheEnlightenment,alsoknownastheAgeofReason,spanstheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturys (AD16501750). The observant reader will note that this chronology positions the period during the closing stages of the Reformation. Indeed, as with every stage in history, and perhaps more easily observed in recent times, eras are graduated so that the commencement of a new period is often observedtostartduringthecompletionofitspredecessor. Given the tumultuous time of the Reformation it is interesting to observe that the factual and proof drivenrequirementsoftheEnlightenmentcausedtheRomanCatholicsandtheProtestantstobecome uneasy bedfellows. Seeking to combat (in theirown way) the Enlightenments suggestion that human reasonisthelocusofauthorityandthatthenatureofsalvationisfoundinhumaningenuityandmoral resolve,RomanCatholicsandProtestantsagreedthatauthoritywasnotwithin,butoutsidemankind. Theformerinvestedinreligiousknowledgemediatedbythechurch;thelatterintheBibleexplainedby pastors(Hannah,2004,p.41).
ApproachestoAuthorityandtheEnlightenment (Hannah,2004,p.41)

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The following graphic shows the three main contributors/thinkers to the development of knowledge duringtheEnlightenment:
TheEnlightenmentandKnowledge(Hannah,2004,p.43)

Hannah(2004)qualifieshisillustrativerepresentation(above)oftheEnlightenmentwhenhewrites:
Descartes believed that human knowledge begins with doubt of everything except our ability to think, and that only through our reasoning can we know the existence of God. John Locke argued that knowledgecomesfromreflectiononsenseexperience.KantrefinedDescartesandLockesviews,saying thatknowledgefallsintotwocategories:spiritualandphysical.Wecannotreallyknowthespiritual,but through knowledge derived from the physical realm we order and understand our inherent spiritual morality.(Hannah,2004,p.43)

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Modernity(AD17501900)
The second stage of the Post Reformational era is known as the age of Modernity. Secular historians often refer to this era as the Romantic period (18th and 19th centuries). Sweetman (2012a) writes, Romanticismglorifiedthepast,revellinginpicturesqueandexaltedfeeling.Itproducedthreefurther worship traditions: Methodism (heart religion, enthusiasm), the Frontier church (camp meetings, conversion)andPentecostalism(experiencingGodinworship)(p.13). Thefollowingeventsandpeopleareofparticularnotetothisstudy: FirstGreatAwakening(AD17261742):BeginningamongtheDutchReformedChurchesin NewJersey,thefirstGreatAwakeningisawaveofevangelisticrevivalsthatsweepthrough the American colonies. The lasting trademark of this revival is the need for New Birth or beingBornAgain. Jonathan Edwards (AD 17031758): Jonathan Edwards preached in Americaandrevivalbegan to spread. In 1739 Edwards was joined by George Whitefield who travelledbetweenEngland and America, preaching the gospel and reaching JonathanEdwards:America'sGreatestTheologian about 80% of Americans. (Galli&Olsen,2000,p.43) The Awakening centered on reviving the spirituality of established Protestant congregations, but was resisted by some denominations. Perhaps is most famous sermon is Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God(AD1741). John Wesley (AD 1738): Originally an Anglican minister, John Wesley has his conversion moment famously known as his Aldersgate Experience.OccurringataMoravianmeetinginLondon,Wesleydescribesitas notonlybelievingthatChristishissalvationbutcomingtofeelitandtrustit. WhilstWesleysmannerofpreachingwasultimatelyrejectedbytheestablished churchandhereluctantlyformedtheMethodistSocieties(AD1739)withinthe AnglicanChurchtoprovideguidancefortheconvertsdrawntothechurchbyhis evangelistic efforts; later these societies would become known simply as the Methodists.

JohnWesley (AD17031791)

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Calvinism vs. Arminianism (AD 1741): John Wesley (Armenian; believing that anyone who wanted to could be saved) and George Whitefield (Calvinist; believing that only those chosen by God could be saved) split over their theology of conversion. Despite remaining close friends, the theological dispute between Calvinism and Arminianism continued to producemajortensioninrevivalistcircles(Sweetman,2012a,p.14). SecondGreatAwakening(AD18001870):Centeredonthedebateoverslavery,thesecond GreatAwakeningisindigenoustoAmericaanditsunprecedentedmulticulturalismaswellas itsincreasingsectarianism.Theologically,thisrevivalofAmericanchurchesfocusedonthe questionthatasked,Isconversionapunctiliareventaccompaniedbymanifestationsofthe outpouring of the Holy Spirit? Revivalists said yes while New England Theology, Catholicism, High Church Anglicanism said no. Often propagated through earthy, evangelistic rallies (camp meetings), the second Great Awakening brought millions of new ChristiansintotheAmericanchurch(mostlyBaptist). CharlesFinney(AD1821):OneofthegreatevangelistsduringthesecondGreatAwakening, Charles Finney, is converted. An innovative revivalist, Finney uses women to pray in meetings, encourages mixed race attendance to meetings andpreachesextemporaneously (a style of preaching requiring extensive preparation without the exact wording). Finney is also renowned for his employment of New Measures; a revivalist technique used to justify the use of direct public pressure to secure convictions CharlesFinney:FatherofAmericanRevivalism inrevivalmeetings. (Galli&Olsen,2000,p.67) The Oxford Movement (AD 1833): A HighChurch Anglican group, the Oxford Movement (alsoknownasTractarianisminitsearlieststages)attacksthesecularisationandliberalism oftheChurchofEngland;attemptingtobringitclosertoCatholicism.Itsimpactonworship can be seen in the Eucharist becoming more central to worship and vestments becoming morecommon. Liberalism(AD18501900):AlsoknownasModernism,Liberalism(anditstheology)seeks to preserve Christianity by adapting it to the intellectual and social climate of the time; including evolutionary theory, biblical criticism, psychology, sociology, Kantian philosophy etc.).WithanemphasisonGodinhistory,Christianexperience,goodnessofhumanity,and ethics,LiberalismviewsthebibleasabookwrittenbyGodbelievingpeoplethatcouldbe examined in the same way as other books. It sought to remove the superstition and
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supernaturalfromChristianitysothatitsprinciplesofloveandjustice,epitomizedbyJesus teaching,couldbeembracedbyeveryone(Sweetman,2012a,p.14). In order to summarise this period of time historically, The Roots of Modernity and Postmodernity (Hannah,2004,p.44;below)qualifiestheeraashavinganemphasisontheauthorityofreasonandthe virtues of education, a deep seated optimism and commitment to an upward spiral of human improvability,andanattempttodefinereligionasimprovedmorals(p.44).Hannahgoesontosuggest thatWhentheassumptionsthatundergirdedthelateModernEracollapsedinthetwentiethcentury, therewaslittletoreplaceitexceptanevenmoreradicalemphasisonindividualism,whichhasleadto societaldespair,meaninglessness,andrelativity(p.44).

The RootsofModernityandPostmodernity (Hannah,2004,p.44)

Whensomethingnewcomesalongthechurchusuallyrejectsit;thentheytolerateit;then itbecomesacceptable;and,finally,itbecomestraditional(Romanowski,1990a,p.1).

In what ways can you see the influence of historical developments from the Post Reformationalperiodintodaysworshipcontexts?Canyouthinkofanyspecificexamples thatdisplaythesecularseedsofModernityasacceptedChristianexpressiontoday?

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KeyDevelopmentsinWorship(AD17501900)
ForthemostpartProtestantworshipremainedunchangedduringthisperiod.Havingbeenthroughthe turbulentchangesoftheReformation,Protestantworshipwasinatimeofconsolidation.Thegreatest levelofinfluencecanbeobservedinthetheologicaldevelopments;thatisPostReformationalworship startedtoemphasiseemotionallyderivedworship(observedmostlyintherevivalistsettings),whereas theproceedingeraoftheReformationplaceditsemphasisontheintellect. TheRomanCatholicChurchresistedsignificantchangetoitsliturgicaldesignsuntilVaticanII(AD1960s), butsubstantialdevelopmentcanbeobservedintheFreeChurchmovement.Intakingadvantageofthe revival settings of the Great Awakenings the free churches were greatly influenced by the Enlightenments emphasis on reason and knowledge and its rejection of tradition and superstition (Sweetman, 2012a, p. 15). While rejecting Liberalism outright their worship services were rational, personal and free from tradition (p. 15). Sweetman identifies four characteristics of Free Church worship(p.15):
1. PersonalHeartExperience:Godmoveddirectlyintheheartsofworshippers,notthroughsignsorsymbols or body postures or gestures or ceremonies. In fact these were seen as distractions to true worship; takingtheworshippersheartawayfromGod. 2. Spontaneous Prayer: Set prayers were seen to inhibit the movement of God in worship and limit the prayer.Prayersweretobefromtheheart. 3. Preaching and Scripture: Already subservient to the Word, communion became optional. The sermon (often lengthy) was absolutely essential. Pulpits became the central piece of furniture in the church. The emphasis was on the mind worshippers needed to understand what they believed.

4. Communion as remembrance: With


communion being optional, the mystical element of the communion service was removed and communion became purely a time to remember whatChristdidonthecross.
Spurgeonwasknownas"thepreachingsensationofLondon" (Galli&Olsen,2000,pp.101102)

Perhapsthemostnoteworthyaspectoftheabovefourpointsisthechangeinpreaching.Bythecloseof the19thcenturypreachingwaspersuasive(anthropocentric)asopposedtoproclamation(theocentric) andnarrativemorethanbiblical.Thepreachersviewofthecongregationhadalsoshifted,movingfrom they should have faithbut cant (inability) to, they can have faithbut wont (stubbornness) (Hannah,2004,p.11).
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TheEmergingProminenceofMusic(AD17501900)
It is true to say that music has always held a place of prominence in Christian worshipbutitisthemannerinwhichmusicisutilisedduringthePostReformational era that sees its significance heightened; paving the way for its 20th century and moderndaytreatment.InhisbookTeDeum1,PaulWestermeyer(1998)writes,
Until prone and Low Mass in the medieval West and parts of especially Zwinglian ProtestantismorQuakerworshipthereafter,worshipwasalwayssung.Eventoday Jewish synagogues, Eastern Orthodox churches, and many more other worshiping communitiestreatmusicasintrinsictotheirworship.(p.27)

Thescopeofoursurveyislimitedtoreviewingaselectnumberofhistoricalevents,importantpersons andtheircontributionsduringthisperiod:
Early Hymnody (AD 1637): A Particular Baptists minister, Benjamin Keach, caused controversy verging onschismbyemployingasunghymnattheendofCommunion. Isaac Watts (AD 16741748): Often referred to as the father of English hymnody,IsaacWattsiscreditedwith the authorship of over 600 hymns. His hymns were strong and triumphant statements of the Christianfaith,yetnoneeverequalled the colourful imagery and genuine devotion of this emotionally stirring and magnificent hymn text (Osbeck, 1996, p. 106): When I Survey the WondrousCross(AD1707).

IsaacWatts:TheFatherofEnglishHymnody (Galli&Olsen,2000,p.154)

The Moravians (AD 1722 ): Originally the Bohemian Brethren, the Moravians held to a strong pietistic sense of community. Moravians have always emphasized fellowship and service rather than creedal statements[and] their worship hymns, from many sources, play an important part in their liturgy (Cross&Livingstone,2005,p.119).TheMoraviansareperhapsbestknownfortheirinteractionwiththe Wesleybrothers:JohnandCharles. AftertheMoravianPeterBhlerhadconvincedhim[JohnWesley]thathelackedsavingfaith,he underwent a conversion experience when his heart was strangely warmed on 24 May 1738 duringthereadingofMartinLuthersPrefacetoRomansatthemeetingofareligioussocietyin AldersgateStreet,London.(Cross&Livingstone,2005,p.1739)

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1

ChristianWorshipPC315/515 Johann Sebastian Bach (AD 16851750): Described as the greatest composer that Western culture has produced (WilsonDickson, 1992, p. 93),J.S.BachwasknownfortheexpressionofhisChristianfaiththrough hiscountless(over300)cantatas(theprincipalmusicalconstituteofthe Lutheran service (Sadie, 1994, p. 137)). Bach is thought to be the last musician of renowned earning his living solely from the church. Indeed Lutheranchurchmusicsufferedaparticularlyrapidandpainfulcollapseat theendoftheeighteenthcentury(WilsonDickson,1992,p.100). CharlesWesley(AD17071788):Knownasthegreatesthymnwriterofall time(Galli&Olsen,2000,p.157),CharlesWesleyproduced56volumesof hymns over a 53 year period. Writing specifically for the Methodist denomination Charles was renowned for his ability to write emotive lyric whichinvokedhighspiritedsinging.

InterestingFact:
Bachwashiredat Leipzigonlyafter GeorgFriedrich Telemannand another(now practicallyforgotten) composerrefused thepost.

HisbrotherJohnisconsideredtheorganizationalgeniusbehindthefoundingofMethodism.But without the hymns of Charles, the Methodist movement may have gone nowhere. As one historianputit,TheearlyMethodistsweretaughtandledasmuchthrough[Charless]hymnsas throughsermonsand[John]Wesleyspamphlets.(pp.157158) Cult of the Artist and the New Middle Class (c. 1800s):Itisduringthenineteenthcenturythatthecultof the artist started to develop. The romantic period (19th century) expected individuality and the arts became for manypeopleameansofspiritualenlightenment,eventhe source of revelation. Painters, poets and musicians came to be revered as vessels for these revelations, the supreme discerners of transcendent truth (Wilson Dickson, 1992, p. 122). Writing about the impact of the emerging middle class WilsonDickson has stated that the middleclasswaslargeenoughandrichenoughtocreatea new market for cultural entertainment. In the world of music, public concerts had been popular from the 1720s (p.122).

JosefDanhauser'spainting,'LisztatthePiano',with itsbustofBeethovenandadoringaudienceshows thenineteenthcentury'sworshipofcomposersand performersatitspeak.

TheMassasPerformance(c.1800s):Withagrowingnumberofviablealternativestocommissionsfrom church or statethe most talented composers were able to decide on more personal grounds whether theywishedtowritemusicforliturgy.Manydecidedagainstit(p.126). Thestrikingoriginalityofsomuchmusicofthenineteenthcenturymakesitsrelationshipwiththe liturgy one of controversy, the most flamboyant musical personalities creating the greatest tensions. Berlioz Grande Messe des Morts (1837) and Te Deum (1849) are works of arresting individuality, of which their vast scale is only one aspect (the Te Deum was intended for a thousand performers). But they reflect the nature of the state occasions for which they were intendedratherthanadesiretowritemusicsympathetictoliturgicalneeds.(p.128)
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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 Dwight L. Moody (AD 18371899) & Ira D. Sankey (AD 18401908): Perhaps the first prominent Preacher/SongLeaderteam,Moody(Preacher)andSankey(SongLeader)presentedpersonal,emotional communicationofcommonhumanexperienceintheircampaignsacrossEnglandandAmerica.Sankey led the congregational hymns and sang his solos while seated at a little reed organ (Hustad, 1994, p. 232). The Salvation Army (AD 1878 ): Founded by William Booth (AD 1829 1912), the Salvation Army employed the same pattern of presentation as exemplified by Moody and Sankey. In so keeping, solo voice was preferred overchoirsforfearthatchoirsconfine the singing to the few, instead of making it the servant of the many (WilsonDickson, 1992, p. 140). Furthermore, the frank emotionalism of [their] songs and their imitation or borrowing of secular pop music for their purposes was offensive to more aestheticallyminded observers (p. 140).

WilliamBoothwasoftenreferredtoas'TheProphetofthePoor' (Galli&Olsen,2000,p.300)

2. The 20th Century


AccordingtoWebber(1994a),the20thCenturybeganwithtwofirmlyestablishedcampsofapproach and enactment in Christian Worship: Catholic and Protestant. Worship changes of the twentieth century began with the rise of the holinessPentecostal movement, which, in its rediscovery of the supernatural,isregardedbymanyasthefirstpostEnlightenment approachtoworship(Webber,1994a,p.121).Commencingwith Revivalist worship, we will survey five main worship styles that developedduringthe20thCentury: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. RevivalistWorship PentecostalWorship RomanCatholicWorship:postVaticanII CharismaticWorship SeekerSensitiveServices

ItisimportanttonoteherethatworshipexpressionssuchasLiturgicalandTraditionalhavecontinued to undergo change since their Reformation and Post Reformational inceptions (respectively). We will addresstheseworshipstyles(alongwithContemporary,Blended&Emerging)inthenextmodule.
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RevivalistWorship
Revivalist worship traces its beginnings back into the nineteenthcentury.Developedaroundaggressivepreaching which focused on the conversion of sinners and the sanctificationofbelieversfordailyliving,theRevivalservice bore little relationship to anything biblical or historical. It was designed to move people to God and any appropriate means that impacted hearts could be used (Sweetman, 2012b,p.8).

A1930sTentRevivalMeeting

ObservedatitsheightduringthesecondGreatAwakening(AD18001870),itbecamecommonform for the evening service in evangelical churches in Australia in the 1900s (p. 8). Following the biblical exampleofPeterspreachingatPentecost(Acts2),thepreachingisgenerallyevangelisticwithitsclimax realisedinacalltoChrist. Billy Sunday (AD 18621935) exemplified the exuberant preaching of the Revivalists. Originally a professionalbaseballplayer,Sundayslegendaryroughandearthyvocabulary(e.g.Idontbelieveyour ownbastardtheoryofevolution,either;Ibelieveitspurejackassnonsense)wasnohindrancetohis evangelistic success. Until Billy Graham, no American evangelist preached to so many millions, or saw as many conversionsan estimated 300,000 (Galli & Olsen, 2000, p. 73). Sweetman(2012b,pp.89)hasidentifiedsix characteristicsthatdefineRevivalistworship and their meetings. Each of the characteristics where not only expanded upon in the preaching; they were also themes expressed in the lyrical content of AmongSundaysfamousquotesisthewellworn"Goingtochurchdoesnt the songs used during the service. The six makeyouaChristiananymorethangoingtoagaragemakesyouan automobile(Galli&Olsen,2000,p.73) revivalist themes are: revival, conversion, commitment,closenesstoGod,passion,and thesecondcomingofChrist. RevivalistWorshipcanstillbeobservedtoday;albeitinamodernisedfashion.Expressedintwoforms (Charleston and Shady Creek) Southern Baptist worship bears the influence of its revivalist worship roots.
Charleston influence can be seen in the set order of worship, formality and dignity, hymns focusing on God,andsermonscharacterizedbylearningandpiety,headandheart.SandyCreekinfluencemanifests
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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 itself in gospel hymns and songs focusing on the spiritual state of the worshiper, extemporaneous prayers, folksy informality, and fiery evangelistic sermons that leave ample room, even if carefully prepared,forspontaneousimprovisationpromptedbytheHolySpirit.(Shoemaker,1993,p.75)

As Shoemaker has suggested above, Revivalists valued (and continue to do so) spontaneity and opennessintheirliturgicaldesign;allowingtheordertofollowtheHolySpiritsleading.Thereforethe followingorderofservice,typicalofaSouthernBaptistservice in the mid/late twentieth century(Shoemaker, 1993, p. 76), shouldonlybeprescribedloosely:
Prelude CalltoWorship(choralorspoken) HymnofPraise Invocation WelcomeandAnnouncements Scripture PastoralPrayer Offering AnthemorSolo(instrumentalorvocal) Sermon HymnofInvitation PresentationofDecisions Benedictions Postlude

The undisputable strength of this style of worship is its clear evangelisticthrust,withGodusingitasavehicletobringmany into his kingdom. Contrasted against the more reserved and conservative Liturgical and Traditional worship styles, the emotivedriveoftheRevivalists(andthatofthePentecostals) madeitanengagingexperience.Simply,itsmainappealwasto theuneducated;requiringnointellectualresponse.Indeedthe onlyresponserequiredwasthatoftheheart.

DanvilleFirstChurchofGod:thisministry beganwithatentmeetingonJuly7,1936.The revivallasted15weeksandover300people weresaved!

Arguably, the weaknesses of this style are outlined in its strengths. Biblical worship is not merely evangelism,andattimesthestylehasbeenaccusedoftheologicalimbalanceandunethicalbehaviour. Theemotiveexperienceisalsosusceptibletomanipulation.Whenfeelingsbecomethemajormeasure of worship and conversion the most desired result, methods that achieve these goals become sacrosanctTheendsareseentojustifythemeans(Sweetman,2012b,p.10).
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PentecostalWorship
The roots of Pentecostal worship are found in the HolinessmovementwhichoriginatedintheworkofJohn Wesley and Methodism. Methodists were wellknown forpursuingintensereligiousexperiencesandforraising the shout when they broke through and experienced grace (Blumhofer, 1994, p. 105). While Pentecostal worshipappropriatedmanyofthehymnsoftheHoliness movement, using lyric which was intended to express Godssanctifyinggrace;thecontextualoutworkingofthe theologywasoftenquitedifferent.

Pentecostalismoriginatedinthe1906AzusaStreet MissionRevival,LosAngeles(picturedabove)

[However]liketheHolinessmovement,Pentecostalismthrivedincontextsthatencouragedspontaneity andindividualexpression.Whatwasperceivedascorporateworshipmightalternativelybedescribedas simultaneous individual worship. Pentecostals perhaps met together as much to pursue individual experiencesastoexpresscorporatesolidarityasthepeopleofGod.Theircorporateunitytended,then, tobemoreapparentthanreal,exceptduringsporadicopposition.Referringtooneanotherasbrother and sister on the surface seemed to cultivate a sense of family unity, but that was not generally reflectedinworshipstyle.(p.106)

Sweetman (2012b, pp. 67) outlines five ways in which Pentecostal worship differs from evangelical worship2: Unstructured: Structure was seen as inhibiting spontaneity and was thought to quench the Spirit.TherewasanexpectationthattheHolySpiritwouldleadtheservice. Participatory: Early Pentecostals placed a high emphasis on congregational participation. Everyone was encouraged to initiate a song, speak in tongues, bring a prophecy or pray for a healing. Energetic: Pentecostal worship places high emphasis on physical worship with lots of actions includingclapping,waving,dancing,shouting,raisinghands,marchingandfalling(intheSpirit). Thecongregationwereevenexpectedtoengagewiththepreachingbycallingoutresponsesand affirmations. Experiential:ThegoaloftheworshipperswastoexperienceGodintheworship.Thismightcome intheformofaheightenedsenseofGodspresenceoraphysicalmanifestationofGodspower. Emotional:Theworshippersgavepublicexpressiontotheiremotionsinworship.Whetherwith tears,shoutsofjoyordeepsilence,theexpressionoffeelingswasencouraged.

During the 20th Century it became common vernacular, when discussing church and worship matters, to differentiate between Evangelical (mainline protestant: Baptist, Church of Christ, Methodist etc.) and Pentecostal (Assemblies of God, Christian Outreach Centre etc.). With the advent of the Charismatic renewal (1970s) the hybrid expression Charismatic EvangelicalbecamecommonindescribingEvangelicalchurcheswithaCharismaticexpressionofworship. Page13 DevelopmentalHistoryofChristianWorship:PostReformationto20thCentury 2012DrDanielK.Robinson

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Despite the aim and claim of unstructured worship, the pattern (structure)ofPentecostalworshipisrelativelycommonamongstthe worship styles adherents. Calvin Johansson (1993) outlines a basic patternofPentecostalworshipthatcentresaroundthegospeland takesintoaccountthePentecostalhistoricheritage(p.177):
Preparation for Worship: The means of preparing for worship might include a Saturday (or midweek) intercessory prayer meeting for the impending church service. Additionally, individual fasting,confessionandpenitentialactionsareencouraged.

TheAltarCallattheendofa PentecostalService

OpeningAcclamation:Thisisanopportunitytoaffirmthesacrednatureandpurposeofthemeeting.The acclamationmaytakevariousforms: Abriefscripturalstatement(e.g.Ps.41:13or72:1819) Calltoworship(Ps.95:1,99:5or100:4) Asongbythecongregationand/orchoir Invocation:Agatheringprayerwhichsetsthestageforwhatistotakeplace. Songs of Praise: A period of congregational singing with clapping, dancing and raising of hands. This section can take up to an hour to complete, but is more commonly conducted as a twenty to thirty minuteset(2030mins). PrayersoftheAssembly:Prayingasacommunityofbelieverswithfervourandintensityonawiderange oftopics;oftendirectedbythepeoplesspontaneouspetitions. PastoralGreeting:Aninformalwelcometoall,especiallynewcomers. Congregational Witness: Shared praises, admonitions, and words of edification and encouragement by membersoftheassemblygiveasenseoffamilycommunity.Personsmaybeaskedinadvanceorinvited toshareextemporaneously. GivingofTithesandOfferings:Oftenaccompaniedbyacongregationalsongor apresentationalpiecebyasoloistorchoir. Communion: Many Pentecostal churches observe the Lords Supper weekly. Thepeoplemaycometothealtartoreceivethebreadandcup,ortheushers may distribute them at the appropriate time. Silence is often observed during thedistributionandpartakingoftheLordsSupper. Sermon: The sermon, most often delivered by the senior pastor, may or may notbeinlinewithanypredefinedthemefortheservice. Invitation/Altar Call: Often in response to the sermon, a call for response is given. Here individuals are invited to respond to an invitation for salvation, anointing with oil (healing) or other general needs requiring prayer. Respondentsareofteninvitedtothefront(altar)toreceiveprayer. ClosingSong:Thesubjectmatterofthissongwilldependoncircumstances.It mightbeoneofinvitation,praise,orbenediction.
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Critique: Whatarethe strengthsof Pentecostal Worship?What arethepossible weaknesses?

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RomanCatholicWorship
While seeking to grapple with the impact of modernism the Roman Catholic Church chose to face the challenge of theological reform under the leadership and direction of PopeJohnXXIII(AD 19581963),whoconvenedtheSecond Vatican Council; the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy formulated by Vatican II set the stage for worship renewal not only within the Roman Catholic sphere but within other Christiancommunionsaswell(Webber,1994b,p.317). Our focus for this study is predominantly the lineage of Protestant worship; nonetheless there are a number of noteworthy points that we will consider here given their far reaching impact on Roman CatholicandProtestantliturgyalike.Webber(1994a),inhistextWorship:OldandNew,hasremarked theimpactofworshiprenewal[has]affectedthemainlineProtestantchurch.Mainlinershavedrawn from the Catholic worship renewal and have expressed a hope for a unified worship among all Christians(pp.121122). ConsiderthefollowingpointsandtheirimpactonbothRomanCatholicworshipandthewiderChristian community3:
Ecumenicalism:VaticanIIencourageddialoguewithProtestantdenominationsandtheEasternOrthodox Church. The ecumenical orientation of Vatican II opened Catholics to learning from, and cooperating with,biblicalscholarsoutsidetheCatholicChurch(Vanhoozer,Bartholomew,Treier,&Wright,2005,p. 103). ReformsinTradition:ThepracticalitiesofVaticanIIareobservedmostlyinthereformsoftraditions.The councilmadeoptionalsometraditionalexpressionsofCatholicismLatinintheliturgy,meatlessFridays, Lentenfastsandabstinence,thecultofthesaints,andtheregularpracticeofconfessiontothepriests (Eckman,2002,p.99).Manyhavearguedthatthesechangeshaveremovedthedistinctivecharacteristics ofRomanCatholicism. CongregationalSinging:Withtheliturgypermittedinthevernacularcongregationalsingingwasrenewed with greater opportunity for participation by the laity. Parishes have therefore been permitted by the Vatican to independently choose particular missalette, hymnal, or songbook[s] which that parish [chooses, applying] the liturgical style and interest of the clergy and musicians. In addition, it is not uncommon today for a parish to supplement published music with unpublished compositions by musicianswithintheparish(Haugen,1994,p.368)

TheliturgicalreformoftheSecondVaticanCouncilhasbeenthesinglemostconcreteanddynamicchangewithinmodern Roman Catholicism. The Magna Carta of this reform is the Constitution on the Liturgy, Sacrosanctum concilium, issued on December4,1963ThisdocumentwasnotonlythefirstfruitofVaticanII,butalsowasoneofitsmajorcontributionstothe internal renewal of Christianity. Such importance, at least for the Catholic church, was stressed by Pope Paul VI when he promulgated the constitution: Treated before others, in a sense it has priority over all others for its intrinsic dignity and importancetothelifeoftheChurch(Address,December4,1963)(Martinez,1994,p.108) Page15 DevelopmentalHistoryofChristianWorship:PostReformationto20thCentury 2012DrDanielK.Robinson
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CharismaticWorship
It has been said that the Charismatic movement has impacted nearly everymoderndenomination(Riss,1994,p.121).TheCharismaticRenewal developed during the mid twentieth century within the mainline denominations. Sometimes referred to as NeoPentecostalism (due to its similar worship expressions raising of hands and speaking in tongues etc.) the Charismatic movement often commenced within churches as a prayer service. The central purpose of the charismatic prayer meeting was considered to be worship. One of its distinctive features was spontaneity; there was no prescribed agenda, and anyone could contribute(Riss,1994,p.122).

CharismaticWorship:Massat the'CathedraloftheKing'in Manila

Sweetman(2012b)furthersthedescriptionofCharismaticworshipwhenhewrites,
Their worship was a mixture of traditional worship liturgies and orders of service with a more physical style of worship (raising hands, dancing) and the opportunity to use spiritual gifts (praying for healing, exercising prophecy, speaking in tongues, etc.). The worship styles in the charismatic movement varied greatlyaccordingtotheirworshiptradition,buttheyheldstronglytothesecommonalities.(p.13)

Specifically,thesurgingtwodecadesofthecharismaticmovement,the1960sand70s,areidentifiedby thefollowingsevencharacteristics(Burgess&McGee,1988,pp.693694):
1. EmphasisuponsingingofpsalmsandScripturesongs 2. Relianceuponmusicforpraiseandworshipinchurch,atconferencesandfestivals,insmallgroups, andinprivate 3. Useofmusicalinstruments 4. Emphasisuponcongregationalsingingwiththeuseofpraiseleaders 5. Useofdanceandpageantry,bothspontaneousandchoreographed 6. Useofdramaandpantomime 7. Emphasisuponthepropheticroleof,oranointingupon,themusicians.

The1980splayedhosttotheThirdWavemovement.Heraldedbyindividuals like John Wimber (AD19311997) and Fuller Seminary professor C. Peter Wagner(b.1930),thethirdwavemovementidentifiedthesignsandwonders of the New Testament book of Acts as legitimate demonstrations of Gods powertoday(Eckman,2002,p.98).

JohnWimber (AD19311997)

One significant developmental spinoff of the third wave movement was the music. Known as the Praiseand Worship movement, the ideology central to the composition of the Chorus (Praise and Worship Music) was not dissimilar to Wesleys approach to the evangelical hymn. The ultimate aim [was] to heighten accessibility and therefore participation through the emotional engagement of congregationalmembers(Robinson,2011,p.29).
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ThegenesisofthemodernworshipsongcanbetracedbacktoblackgospelaswellasIraD.Sankeyuse ofthegospelmusicidiomduringthe19thcentury.Gospelmusic,anditsuseamongrevivalevangelists andPentecostals,wasstandarduntilthemidtwentiethcentury.HoraceClarenceBoyer(2000)states,


Gospel music was selected as the illuminating force behind this theology and developed over all other typesofsacredmusic.Whenhymns weresungbythesecongregationstheyweregospelized.Services were nothing less than ecstatic with forceful and jubilant singing, dramatic testimonies, hand clapping, foot stamping, and beating of drums tambourines, and trianglesIt was not uncommon for a shouting sessiontolastforthirtyorfortyfiveminutes.(p.19)

Developedasadirectresponsetothefolkmusicidiomsofthe1960sand70s,theWorshipChorushad its beginnings among the countercultural charismatic movement known as the Jesuspeople. The lastingimpactoftheworshipchorusasanidiomisundeniablewithitsinclusionalmostuniversalamong RomanCatholicandProtestantchurchesalike.Whencommentingonthemusicalgenresimpact,Dan Wilt(2009)writes,
Modernworshipsongshaveemergedasaprimarydiscipleship vehicle, guiding contemporarychurches ontheircoursesoverthepastfiftyyears.Thesesongs,andthechurchesthatenlistthem,havegrownin influenceandnumber,radicallyimpactingthegrassrootsofChristianfaithinourgeneration.(p.144)

Formanychurchestheuseofthemodernchorushasnotalteredtheirliturgicaldesign;thatis,choruses havebeenassimilatedintotheexistingliturgyreplacinghymns.Infactrecentresearchhasfoundthat churchesusedbothworshipchorusesandhymnswithonly18%(n15/83)usingonlyworshipchoruses (Robinson,2011,p.115). OnedenominationthathashistoricallyusedonlyworshipchorusesisTheVineyardmovement.


Eddie Espinosa and John Wimber, pastor of The Vineyard, developed a fivephase pattern for their worshipset.Intheirworshipservices,thechoruseswereshort,andtheirworshipsetwaslong.Rather thansingingsongsinrandomorder,theyrecognizedtheneedtosmoothlylinkthemanychorusesand provideasenseofprogression.(Liesch,1995,p.245)

The Five Phase Worship Pattern has (as the name suggests) five distinct periods of worship. The scriptural support of the design is found in Psalm95(pp.245246): TheFivePhaseWorshipPattern(Liesch,1988,p.92) Invitation:Letussingforjoyshoutaloud. Engagement:Letuscomebeforehimwiththanksgiving. Exaltation:FortheLordisthegreatGodthemountainpeaksbelongtohim. Adoration:Come,letusbowdownletuskneel. Intimacy:Forwearethepeopleofhispasture,theflockunderhiscare.
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SeekerSensitiveServices
It may be apparent by now, having worked through the developmental history of Christian worship that new forms and liturgical designs have almost always emerged as a reaction or modification to existing models; in this, the SeekerSensitivemodelisnodifferent. With the consolidation of the American middle class during the mid to late 20th century came the decline in church attendance.RecognisingthatmiddleclassAmericansseemedtobedisenchantedwiththechurch,Bill Hybelsconductedasurveyofhislocalcommunity.Heaskedpeoplewhytheydidntcurrentlyattenda church.Theresponsesfellintofourmaincategories(Vassallo,1998,p.279): 1. 2. 3. 4. Thepeoplefeltchurcheswerealwaysaskingformoney. Thepeoplesaidthatsermonswereboringandtheservicesroutine. Thepeoplesawnorelevancybetweenchurchandreallife. Thepeoplerespondedthatpastorsmadethemfeelignorantandguilty.

Withtheseresponsesasaguidingcharter,Hybelsfounded(AD1975)WillowCreekCommunityChurch (SouthBarrington,Illinois)andtheseekersensitiveservicewasborn.Vassallo(1998)offersthefollowing definingcharacteristicsofthemodelnotingthatseekersensitiveservicesmayvaryinform(p.280): Religious terms or buzz words, that regular attenders are familiar with but that leave the unchurchedscratchingtheirheads,areeliminated. Music with a contemporary sound is used with words being projected on a screen or at least handedout.Assumethatseekershaveneverheardthesongsyoureaskingthemtosing. Atopicthatrelatestoeverydaylivingischosen.Thecatchytitleispublicizedinadvance. Dramaandfilmclipsareoftenusedtosetupthetopicasalaunching padforthesermon. The sermon is informal and is delivered more in the style of a chat ratherthanasafieryoration. Littleissaidaboutgivingmoney.Infact,visitorsareoftentoldnotto contributetotheoffering. Visitorsaregivenanopportunitytofilloutacard(iftheywishto)but arenotputonthespotbybeingaskedtowearavisitorstag. Seekersaredirectedtoanareaafterwardwheretheycanmeetwith someonetoaskquestionsanddiscusstheservice.

FounderandSeniorPastor, WillowCreekCommunity Church

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Thedesignoftheseekersensitiveserviceisovertlyfocusedontheunbeliever(seeker,unchurched).The size of many churches employing the seeker sensitive service attests to its strengths, but many have criticizedthemodelclaimingthatitisnotworshipinthetraditionalsense.White(2000)suggeststhe seekersensitiveservice
maynotbeconsideredworshipatallbutaformofevangelism.Itbeginswithamusicalperformancein a familiar style which often alternates with a skit or monologue to present and resolve an issue with which seekers may be wrestling. The talk that follows pursues this issue further, sometimes using a scripturalbasis,sometimesnot.(p.165)

Recognisingtheshortcomingsofthemodel,WillowCreekopenedmidweekserviceswhichtheycalled new community. These believer focused services employed a more intense worshipset. Mostrecently,WillowCreekhasabandoneditsseekersensitivefocusedservices; gearing the weekend services toward mature believers seeking to grow in their faithandreplac[ing]itsmidweekserviceswithclassesontheologyandtheBible (Branaugh,2008). PerhapsthelastingpositiveeffectoftheWillowCreekmodelonmodernchurch constructs(acrossdenominations)isitsheightenedawarenessofunbelieversthat might attend corporate worship. John Frame has recognised that many modern churchesseek to make worship intelligible to any unbelievers who may be present (1 Cor. 14:2425) through friendliness and informality and through contemporary music and language. These churches sometimes describe themselves, in the context of the Willow Creek discussion, as seekersensitive, butnotseekerdriven(Frame,1994,p.62). Having explored the developmental histories of Christian worship, identify and write down at least one aspect of worship design from each 20th century worship style (Pentecostal,Revivalist,RomanCatholic,Charismatic,SeekerSensitive)thatinfluences yourcurrentapproachtocorporateworship.

Critique: Whydidn'tthe 'SeekerService' gaintractionin Australia?

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