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CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

CONCRETE COVER FOR FIRE RESISTANCE


REF: BS EN 1992-1-2 : 2004

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

ECS318

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DESIGN APPENDIX

DESIGN FORMULA FOR RECTANGULAR SECTIONS


REF: BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004
Valid only for fck 50 MPa.
=

Limiting value, Kbal = 0.167


If K Kbal, compression reinforcement is not required, and
= 0.5 + 0.25

0.87

1.134

If K > Kbal, compression reinforcement is required, and


= 0.5 + 0.25
=

1.134

( ) 2
0.87 ( )

Check d/d
If d/d 0.171
=

2
+
0.87

+
0.87
0.87

If d/d > 0.171

where fsc

sc = 0.00217

= Es x sc
= 200 x 103 sc

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

DESIGN FORMULA FOR FLANGED SECTIONS


Ultimate moment of resistance in flange, Mf
= 0.567 (

)
2

If M Mf, the neutral axis lies in flange


Therefore, design as a rectangular section.
If M > Mf, the neutral axis lies below flange
= 0.167

+ 0.567
1
1

= 2

If M Muf , compression reinforcement is not required.


=

+ 0.1 (0.36 )

0.87 2

If M > Muf , compression reinforcement is required.


=
=

( )
0.87 ( )

0.2 + 0.567 ( )
+
0.87

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

DESIGN FOR SHEAR


REF. SECTION 6.2: BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004
Maximum shear resistance, VRd,max

, =

250
( + )

0.36 1

Shear resistance of the concrete, VRd,c


1

, = 0.12(100 )3

Shear links

Minimum links

CRACK CONTROL
=

( + 0.3 )
1.15 (1.35 + 1.5 )

1.0 2.5

(22 45)

= 0.035 3/2 1/2

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

MOMENT AND SHEAR COEFFICIENT FOR A CONTINUOUS BEAM


REF BS 8110: Part 1: 1997

Note:
a) Characteristic variable action, Qk may not exceed characteristic permanent action, Gk.
b) Loads should be substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans.
c) Variations in span length should not exceed 15% of the longest.
MOMENT AND SHEAR COEFFICIENT FOR SOLID SLABS
CONTINUOUS ONE WAYSLAB

SIMPLY SUPPORTED TWO WAY SLAB

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

TWO WAY RESTRAINED SLAB (MOMENTS)

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

TWO WAY RESTRAINED SLAB (SHEARS)

DESIGN APPENDIX

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

COLUMN DESIGN
Effective length, l0

with 1 = 2 =

Slenderness ratio limit, lim

(2/

SIMPLIFIED METHOD OF COLUMN DESIGN


Increased moment, Ma

= + 2
2

= 0.167 2 + 0.87 ( )
0.87 = 0.204 + 0.87

The area of As is reduced by the amount of NEd/0.87fyk.

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

BIAXIAL BENDING
If

= +
If

<

= +

Equation for coefficient,


=1

0.3

DESIGN CHARTS

DESIGN APPENDIX

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

PAD FOOTING DESIGN

Maximum shear

2.0 d

1.0 d

Area within perimeter = (c + 4d)2 (4 - ) ( 2d)2

Punching shear perimeter


= column perimeter + 4d

ECS318

CONFIDENTIAL

DESIGN APPENDIX

ECS318

TABLE OF REINFORCEMENTS
Sectional Areas of Group of Bars (mm2)
Bar Size
(mm)
8
10
12
16
20
25
32
40

Number of Bars
1
50.3
78.5
113
201
314
491
804
1260

2
101
157
226
402
628
982
1610
2510

3
151
236
339
603
943
1470
2410
3770

4
201
314
452
804
1260
1960
3220
5030

5
252
393
566
1010
1570
2450
4020
6280

6
302
471
679
1210
1890
2950
4830
7540

7
352
550
792
1410
2200
3440
5630
8800

8
402
628
905
1610
2510
3930
6430
10100

9
453
707
1020
1810
2830
4420
7240
11300

200
252
393
566
1010
1570
2450
4020
6280

250
201
314
452
804
1260
1960
3220
5030

300
168
262
377
670
1050
1640
2680
4190

10
503
785
1130
2010
3140
4910
8040
12600

Sectional Areas Per meter Width for Various Bar Spacing (mm2/m)
Bar Size
(mm)
8
10
12
16
20
25
32
40

50
1010
1570
2260
4020
3280
9820
16100
25100

75
671
1050
1510
2680
4190
6550
10700
16800

100
503
785
1130
2010
3140
4910
8040
12600

125
402
628
905
1610
2510
3930
6430
10100

Spacing of Bars
150
175
335
287
523
449
754
646
1340
1150
2090
1800
3270
2810
5360
4600
8380
7180

Asw/s for varying stirrup diameter and spacing (mm)


Stirrup Spacing (mm)

Bar
Size
(mm)

85

90

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

1.183

1.118

1.006

0.805

0.671

0.575

0.503

0.447

0.402

0.366

0.335

10
12
16

1.847
2.659
4.729

1.744
2.511
4.467

1.57
2.26
4.02

1.256
1.808
3.216

1.047
1.507
2.68

0.897
1.291
2.297

0.785
1.13
2.01

0.698
1.004
1.787

0.628
0.904
1.608

0.571
0.822
1.462

0.523
0.753
1.34

Note: Asw is based on the cross sectional area of two legs of the stirrup

275

300