Anda di halaman 1dari 15

Organizational Behavior PPT1 The Human Relations Movement:

Harvard Business School and the Hawthorne Experiments (1924-1933) Introduction

In the 1920s Elton Mayo, a professor of Industrial Management at Harvard Business School, and his protg Fritz J. Roethlisberger led a landmark study of worker behavior at Western Electric, the manufacturing arm of AT&T. Unprecedented in scale and scope, the nine-year study took place at the massive Hawthorne Works plant outside of Chicago and generated a mountain of documents, from hourly performance charts to interviews with thousands of employees. Harvard Business Schools role in the experiments represented a milestone in the dawn of the human relations movement and a shift in the study of management from a scientific to a multi-disciplinary approach. Baker Librarys exhaustive archival record of the experiments reveals the art and science of this seminal behavioral studyand the questions and theories it generated about the relationship of productivity to the needs and motivations of the industrial worker.

Employee Welfare
In the early 1900s labor unions, social reformers, journalists, and photographers brought to national attention poor working conditions experienced by industrial workers. In the ensuing economic climate of the late 1920s and 1930s, many executives came to believe that the foundation of business and of a democratic society itself rested in part in affirming the role of the worker. To inspire company loyalty, discourage high employee turnover and unionization, and present a good face to the public, corporate managers began to focus on the well-being of the employee through the practice of welfare capitalism. In addition to pensions, sick pay, disability benefits, and stock purchase plans, Western Electric workers could participate in a range of recreational and educational programs from running meets, tennis games, and baseball leagues to lunchtime concerts, beauty pageants, and evening classes. The companys accident prevention programs included the introduction of safety shoes, eye goggles, and guards for heavy machinery. To better understand worker productivity and job satisfaction, Western Electric became increasingly interested in studies from the social, behavioral, and medical sciences.

Illumination Studies and Relay Assembly Test Room

Study 1
A sequence of illumination tests from 1924 to 1927, set out to determine the effects of lighting on worker efficiency in three separate manufacturing departments. Accounts of the study revealed no significant correlation between productivity and light levels. The results prompted researchers to investigate other factors affecting worker output.

Study 2A
The next experiments beginning in 1927 focused on the relay assembly department, where the electromagnetic switches that made telephone connections possible were produced. As the speed of individual workers determined overall production levels, the effects of factors like rest periods and work hours in this department were of particular interest to the company.

Study 2B
In a separate test room, an operator prepared parts for five women to assemble. The women dropped the completed relays into a chute where a recording device punched a hole in a continuously moving paper tape. The number of holes revealed the production rate for each worker. Researchers were unsure if productivity increased in this experiment because of the introduction of rest periods, shorter working hours, wage incentives, the dynamics of a smaller group, or the special attention the women received.

The Hawthorne Effect

Instead of treating the workers as an appendage to the machine, the Hawthorne experiments brought to light ideas concerning motivational influences, job satisfaction, resistance to change, group norms, worker participation, and effective leadership. These were groundbreaking concepts in the 1930s. From the leadership point of view today, organizations that do not pay sufficient attention to people and cultural variables are consistently less successful than those that do. From the leadership point of view today, organizations that do not pay sufficient attention to people and the deep sentiments and relationships connecting them are consistently less successful than those that do. The change which you and your associates are working to effect will not be mechanical but humane.

Dysfunctional leadership symptoms and warning signs:

Dictatorial Leadership: Management that does not allow disagreements out of insecurity or arrogance. No 360 Degrees Feedback: There is limited or no leadership performance feedback. Personal Agendas: Recruitments, selections and promotions are based on internal political agenda, for example hiring friends to guarantee personal loyalty at the expense of other highly performing and more-qualified employees. Political Compensation: Stock options, bonuses and perks are not fairly linked to performance. Inefficient Use of Resources: Budgets are allocated between business units or departments based on favoritism and power centers rather than actual business needs. Empire-building Practices: Managers believe that the more people they manage and the bigger the budget, the higher the chance that they will be promoted. This results in raging battles around budgets, strategies and operations. Unequal Workload Distribution: You'll find some departments are underutilized while other departments are overloaded. Too Much Management: There are many management layers in the organization, thus, hindering communication and resulting in slower execution. Fragmented Organization Efforts: Interdepartmental competition and turf wars between rival managers lead to the emergence of silos, which results in communication gaps. Management silos almost always result in fragmented and duplicated budgets and projects, thus wasting valuable company investments. Too Much Talk: Plans are heavy on talk but light on action. In a political corporate culture, image management becomes far more important than actions. Ineffective Meetings: Argumentative and heated cross-divisions meetings with discussion and language focusing on point scoring and buck-passing rather than sharing responsibility and collaborating to solve the problem Lack of Collaboration: Every person for himself/herself. Low sense of unity and camaraderie in the team. The key criterion for decision-making is what is in it for me? Low Productivity: Management wastes more time and energy on internal attack and defense strategies instead of executing the work, innovating and overcoming challenges. Critical projects fall behind on deadlines, budgets and performance targets (e.g. sales, market share, quality and other operational targets). Constant Crisis Mode: Management team spends most of their time on fire fighting instead of proactive planning for next-generation products and services.

Morale Deterioration: Muted level of commitment and enthusiasm by other teams. Even successful results cannot be shared and celebrated due to animosity and internal negative competition. Backstabbing: Backbiting among the executives and managers becomes common and public. Highly Stressful Workplace: There is a high rate of absenteeism and a high employee turnover rate.

Dysfunctional behaviors resulting from faulty reward systems

Refer last two slides from first PPT

PPT 2 & 3 What is Personality

Psychological Definitions a. The sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual. b. The organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual. Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to his environment.

How a Personality is formed???

1. Heredity : The Part Played by Nature Tall, Short, Fat, Thin, Fair, Dark etc. 2. Environment: The Role Played by Environment People belonging to different environments have different personalities Eskimos are different than the people living in equatorial countries 3. Culture Religion, Dressing Styles, Eating Habits, Communication Pattern 4. Family: The Role Played by Nurture Values, Mannerisms 5. Group Membership: Impact of Peers Socializing 6. Life Experiences: Based on Experiences in Life Wars, Recessions, Illnesses, Deaths of close ones, Natural Calamities also impact a persons personality to a great extent

Different Personality Theories

Type and Trait Theories of Personality Type Theory
Type A and Type B personality theory (also known as the "Jacob Goldsmith theory) The theory describes a Type A individual as ambitious, aggressive, business-like, controlling, highly competitive, impatient, preoccupied with his or her status, time-conscious, and tightly-wound. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics" who multi-task, push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence. Type A behaviour is expressed in three major

symptoms: free-floating hostility, which can be triggered by even minor incidents; time urgency and impatience, which causes irritation and exasperation; and a competitive drive, which causes stress and an achievement-driven mentality. The first of these symptoms is believed to be covert and therefore less observable, while the other two are more overt The theory describes Type B individuals as perfect contrast to those with Type A personalities. People with Type B personalities are generally patient, relaxed, easy-going, and at times lacking an overriding sense of urgency.

Trait Theory
The trait theory suggests that individual personalities are composed broad dispositions. Consider how you would describe the personality of a close friend. Chances are that you would list a number of traits, such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. Unlike many other theories of personality, such as psychoanalytic or humanistic theories, the trait approach to personality is focused on differences between individuals. The combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality that is unique to each individual. Trait theory is focused on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics.

Hippocrate s Type Theory A Greek Physician

The sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking. Sanguine people were also considered fairly sociable and emotional. They tend to enjoy social gatherings, making new friends and tend to be boisterous. They are usually quite creative and often daydream. However, some alone time is crucial for those of this temperament. Sanguine can also mean very sensitive, compassionate and thoughtful. Sanguine personalities generally struggle with following tasks all the way through, are chronically late, and tend to be forgetful and sometimes a little sarcastic. Often, when pursuing a new

hobby, interest is lost quickly when it ceases to be engaging or fun. They are very much people persons. They are talkative and not shy. People of sanguine temperament can often be emotional. Some famous examples are Bill Clinton, Robin Williams, Kelly Ripa and Richard Simmons.

The choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. They can dominate people of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic military and political figures were choleric. They like to be in charge of everything. Some famous examples are Oprah Winfrey, Dr. Phil, Phil Donahue, Donald Trump, Bill Gates and Bill O'Reilly.

The melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Melancholics can be highly creative in activities such as poetry and art - and can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world. A melancholic is also often a perfectionist. They are often self-reliant and independent; one negative part of being a melancholic is sometimes they can get so involved in what they are doing they forget to think of others. Some famous examples are Hillary Clinton, Ernest Hemingway, Vincent Van Gogh and Beethoven.

The phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatics tend to be content with themselves and very kind. They can be very accepting and affectionate. They may be very receptive and shy and often prefer stability to uncertainty and change. They are very consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, and observant, making them good administrators. They can also be very passive-aggressive. Some famous examples are Calvin Coolidge, Tim Duncan, Sandy Koufax, and Keanu Reeves. To summarize a Choleric likes it "my way", a Melancholy likes it "the right way", a Sanguine likes it "the fun way", and a Phlegmatic likes it "any way".

The Big Five Personality Model

1. Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. 2. Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other pro social behaviors. 3. Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. 4. Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness. 5. Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic Theory

According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts: The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious. The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality known as the id, the ego and the superego work together to create complex human behaviors.

The Id
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant's needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she

will cry until the demands of the id are met. However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.

The Ego
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place. The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process.

The Superego
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five. There are two parts of the superego: The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse. The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.

Carl Jungs Analytical Psychology

Personal Unconscious
The personal unconscious is a personal reservoir of experience unique to each individual.

Collective Unconscious
Collective unconscious collects and organizes those personal experiences in a similar way with each member of a particular species. It is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race.

Archetypes are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. Archetypes are unlearned and function to organize how we experience certain things. Jung identified four major archetypes, but also believed that there was no limit to the number that may exist.

The Self
The self is an archetype that represents the unification of the unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual. The creation of the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated. Jung often represented the self as a circle, square or mandala.

The Shadow
The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts. The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts and shortcomings. This archetype is often described as the darker side of the psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown. These latent dispositions are present in all of us, Jung believed, although people sometimes deny this element of their own psyche and instead project it onto others.

The Anima or Animus

The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche and the animus is a male image in the female psyche. The anima/animus represents the "true self" rather than the image we present to others and serves as the primary source of communication with the collective unconscious. The combination of the anima and animus is known as the syzygy, or the divine couple. The syzygy represents completion, unification and wholeness.

The Persona
The persona is how we present ourselves to the world. The word "persona" is derived from a Latin word that literally means "mask." It is not a literal mask, however. The persona represents all of the different social masks that we wear among different groups and situations. It acts to shield the ego from negative images. According to Jung, the persona may appear in dreams and take a number of different forms.

Other Archetypes
Jung suggested that the number of existing archetypes is not static or fixed. Instead, many different archetypes may overlap or combine at any given time. The following are just a few of the various archetypes that Jung described: The father: Authority figure; stern; powerful. The mother: Nurturing; comforting. The child: Longing for innocence; rebirth; salvation. The wise old man: Guidance; knowledge; wisdom. The hero: Champion; defender; rescuer. The maiden: Innocence; desire; purity. The trickster: Deceiver; liar; trouble-maker.

Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

In 1940s Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs-Myers developed about 100 item personality test. They asked participants how they feel or act in particular situations. Where do you get your energy? Extraversion (E): Outgoing, Interacting, Speaks then thinks, Gregarious Introversion (I): Quiet, Concentrating, Thinks then Speaks, Reflective What do you pay attention to and collect your information on? Sensing (S): Practical, Details, Concrete, Specific Intuiting (N): General, Possibilities, Theoretical, Abstract

How do you evaluate and make decisions? Thinking (T): Analytical, Rules, Head, Justice Feeling (F): Subjective, Heart, Circumstance, Mercy How do you orient yourself to the outside world? Judging (J): Structured, Time Oriented, Decisive, Organized Perceiving (P): Flexible, Open Ended, Exploring, Spontaneous

Defense Mechanisms People Use to Protect Themselves from Painful Emotions

Repressions involve keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in unconscious. A traumatized soldier has no recollection of the details of a close brush with death. Projection involves attributing ones own thoughts feelings or motives to another person. A woman who dislikes her boss thinks she likes her boss but feels the boss does not like her. Displacement involves diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to substitute target. After parental scolding, a young girl takes her anger out on her little brother. Reaction Formation- involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of ones true feelings. A parent who unconsciously resents a child spoils the child with outlandish gifts. Regression- involves a reversion to immature patterns of behavior. An adult has a temper tantrum when he does not get his way Rationalization involves the creation of false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior. A student watches TV instead of studying, saying that additional study would not do any good anyway? Identification involves bolstering self-image by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. An insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his self esteem.

The Personality Types- By Prof Manfred Kets de Vries

Narcissistic Disposition
A grandiose sense of self importance Lack of empathy Requires excessive admiration Believes he or she is special Exploits others

The Dramatic Disposition

Keenly alive to other's desires and moods. Unable to concentrate or focus on events Very gullible and can be easily taken advantage of Constantly is search of support, reassurance, and protection. Easily hurt with a fragile sense of self esteem. Exploitative of their personal attractiveness Involved in superficial, short term relationships

The Controlling Disposition

Rigid, inflexible, and lacking in spontaneity. Stubborn Excessively judgmental, and moralistic. Grim, tense, joyless, angry, frustrated, irritated Uncomfortable with emotions Fearful of making mistakes, easily lost in detail. Excessively devoted to work, workaholics. Loyal to superiors. Indecisive.

They tend to become mediocre performers in situation that demand more than careful planning or attention to detail.

The Dependent Disposition

Feel helpless, inadequate, powerless and ineffectual Can function only when supported by others Are extremely insecure Dont feel much joy in living Non competitive, self effacing, compliant See themselves as ineffective, incompetent. If they find someone who can, who is willing to feed their craving for approval they can perform in organizations.

The Self-Defeating Disposition

Enjoy self imposed suffering Put themselves in inferior positions Willingly accept blame for things for which they are not responsible Are self sacrificing Reject opportunities for pleasure Good followers Generally very helpful and considerate in their dealings with people

The Depressive Disposition

A sense of helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness. Loss of energy and chronic fatigue Irritability, sense of guilt At work they which they see as unpleasant drudgery, they create a very demotivating atmosphere

The Abrasive Disposition

Strongly opinionated, narrow minded, unbending and obstinate Authoritarian, intolerant, prejudiced Energetic, competitive, power oriented Rigidly self disciplined Harsh, cruel domineering Prone to outbursts of rage Given to humiliating others They can find a home in neurotic organizations This does not make for long term success They pride themselves in getting the job done Totally dedicated to work they refuse to be distracted by family considerations, health concerns or the need for relaxation

The Paranoid Disposition

Hypersensitive Reluctant to confide in others Quarrelsome and quick to anger and lash out Lacking a sense of humor Unforgiving of insults, injuries and slights Making mountains out of molehills