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University Department of Geography Geography 247 - Introduction to Quantitative Methods in Geography, Fall 2011

Assignment Number 4: Parametric Testing The purpose of this assignment is to introduce students to the problems in statistical inference that will be the principal source of exam questions on the final exam. The assignment will be made available in parts. This handout includes questions in Part B. Students must complete all questions in this section. PART B Answer these questions using the written format illustrated in lectures. 1. The City of Kingston is interested in instituting traffic calming procedures in residential areas, particularly on collector streets. In order to help their design team, planners ran several experiments testing the impacts of several procedures (stop signs, speed bumps, turn prohibitions) in typical environments. Using a hidden radar detector, vehicle speeds were estimated before and after the traffic abatement devices were installed. The following table summarizes the results: Before After Sample size 1252 1330 Average km/hr 61.7 45.7 Standard deviation of km/hr 12.3 15.1 What is the PROB-VALUE associated with the hypotheses that speeds have decreased significantly over the course of the experiment? What is the PROB-VALUE that they have declined by 10km/hr? 2. A random survey undertaken by telephone for a reputable nationwide daily newspaper (this leaves out the Post and the Globe) revealed that 140 of the 250 people called supported the death penalty. Test a relevant hypothesis. 3. In a randomized controlled experiment undertaken in Kenya, insecticide treated mosquito nets were tested as a way to control malaria among infants. Among 343 infants whose parents used mosquito nets, 15 developed malaria; 27 infants from among 294 infants not using mosquito nets contracted malaria. Do mosquito nets appear to be effective? a) Test an appropriate hypothesis. Report the PROB-Value. b) If you were reviewing this study, what questions would you ask about the research design used in this study?

4. How much extra is having a waterfront property worth? A student took a random sample of 170 recently sold properties in upstate New York and constructed the following table: Non-waterfront Properties Waterfront Properties n 100 n 70 x x $ 219,896 $ 319,906 s $94,627 s $153,304 a) Is there evidence that waterfront properties are worth more? How much more would you guess? b) Barber recently gave this student a serious lecture about how to properly conduct a statistical test that was meaningful. Why? 5. A research organization specializing in health care is interested in comparing the self- reported heights of males 12 to 16 with their actual measured heights. Consider the evidence from the following sample: Reported: 68 71 63 70 71 60 65 64 54 63 66 72 Measured: 67.9 69.9 64.9 68.3 60.3 60.6 64.5 67.0 55.6 74.2 65.0 70.8 a) Test the hypothesis that reported heights differ from actual heights. b) Test the hypothesis that reported heights are greater than actual heights. 6. When 40 people used the Weight Watchers diet for one year, their mean weight loss was 3.0 lbs. and the standard deviation was 4.9 lbs. a) Test the hypothesis that there was an actual loss in weight at the 1% level of significance. b) Is the diet effective? Comment upon the practical significance of these results.