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A Complete Course in Mathematics (Calculus)

Rajat Kalia

August 25, 2010

Syllabus
IIT JEE
Algebra

Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Parametric equations of a circle, iRajat Kaliantersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

Quadratic equations with real coecients, relations between roots and coecients, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Locus Problems.

Three dimensions

Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of nite arithmetic and geometric progressions, innite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the rst n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties. Permutations and combinations, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coecients. Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Dierential calculus

Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and oneto-one functions, sum, dierence, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions, absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, dierence, product and quotient of two functions, L'Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate value property of continuous functions.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.

Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum, dierence, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Trigonometry

Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and minimum values of a function, Rolle's Theorem and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

Integral calculus

Integration as the inverse process of dierentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions, denite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus.

Analytical geometry Two dimensions



Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin. Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line; Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid, orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, application of denite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary dierential equations, solution of homogeneous dierential equations, separation of variables method, linear rst order dierential equations.

Vectors

Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord. 3

AIEEE
SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one, into and onto functions, composition of functions. Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system aRajat Kaliand their solutions. Relation between roots and co-ecients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots.

Properties of denite integrals. Evaluation of denite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form.

Dierential Equations

Ordinary dierential equations, their

order and degree. Formation of dierential equations. Solution of dierential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear dierential equations of the type:

dy dx

+ p (x) y = q (x) dx

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS


der two and three.

Matrices, algebra

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

Cartesian system of rect-

of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of orProperties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices.

angular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Straight lines Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Circles, conic sections Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency.

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS


simple applications.

Funda-

mental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r),

MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

Principle

of

Mathe-

matical Induction and its simple applications.

general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coecients and simple applications.

BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, Three Dimensional Geometry

Coordinates of a point in

space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in dierent forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines.

SEQUENCES AND SERIES

Arithmetic and Geometric

progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: Sn, Sn2, Sn3. Arithmetico - Geometric progression.

Vector Algebra
uct.

Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, com-

ponents of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple prod-

LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


Real - valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and dierentiability. Dierentiation of the sum, dierence, product and quotient of two functions. Dierentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

Measures of Disper-

sion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data. Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution.

Trigonometry

Trigonometrical

identities

and

equations.

Trigonometrical functions. Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties. Heights and Distances.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Integral as an anti - derivative.

Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type

MATHEMATICAL REASONING
tive.

Statements,

logical Under-

operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if.

standing of tautology, contradiction, converse and contraposi-

Contents
1 Preliminaries
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute value of a real number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Greatest Integer Function Exponents and Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inverse Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
7 10 12 17 17 19

2 Functions
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Domain of Denition and Range Denition of a function Graphs of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21
21 22 22 22 23 23 24 25 25

Even and odd Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injectivity, Surjectivity and Bijectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inverse of a function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition of Functions

End Chapter Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Limits 4 Continuity & Direntiability 5 Applications of Derivatives


5.1 5.2 5.3 Rate of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tangents and Normals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29 31 33
33 34 36

6 Indenite Integrals 7 Denite Integrals 8 Applications of Integrals


8.1 8.2 Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curved Surface Area and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37 39 41
41 41

9 Dirential Equations 10 Parametric Curves

45 47

CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Preliminaries
1.1 Relations
In everyday language , we come across many terms like  is a sister of  ,  is a classmate of  ,  is a mentor of  ,  is a student of ,  is not known to etc. tions. All these terms are relaIn mathematics, we have been using relations like less

1.1.2.2 Universal and Empty Relations


Let A be any set. Then

AA

and

are subsets of

AA

and hence are relations on A called the Universal Relation and

Empty Relation , respectively. These are two extreme kind of


relations.

than ,  is parallel to ,  is a subset of  ,and so on. So, these relations cosider the existance of connections between pairs of objects taken in denite order. Formally , we dene relations in terms of these 'ordered pairs'. There are three kinds of relations which we will be studying in our theory i) Equivalence Relations ii) Partial order Relations iii) Functions

1.1.2.3 Equality Relation


An important relation on set A is that of equality , that is , the relation

{(a, a) : a A}

which is usually denoted by =. This

relation is also called Identity Relation or Diagonal Relation on A, and may sometimes be denoted by

A or simply

1.1.2.4 Inverse Relation


Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B. The inverse of R, denoted by

1.1.1

Product Sets

R1 ,

is the relation from B to A which consists of

the ordered pairs which , when reversed , belong to R; that is , pairs

The Product Set or Cartesian Product of A and B, written as

A B , is the set of all ordered b B . i.e A B = {(a, b) : a A, b B}


{Note:

(a, b)

such that

a A

and

R1 = {(b, a) : (a, b) R} e.g. if R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2) , (1, 2)} {(1, 1) , (2, 2) , (2, 1)}
Properties of Inverse Relation
1

then

R1

R R is the set of ordered pairs of real numbers. It is often called the Cartesian Plane }

If R is any relation, then The domain of

R1

=R R

For nite sets A and B,

n (A B) = n (A) .n (B) [ n(A)

denotes

R1

is the range of

, and vice-versa.

the number of elements in set A]

Q:

Let

A = {a, b, c}

and

B = {d, e}.

Find

AB

and

BA

1.1.3

Types of Relations in A

A relation R in a set A is called i) reexive , if

1.1.2

Relations

ii) symmetric, if

(a, a) R , for every a A. (a1 , a2 ) R implies that (a2 , a1 ) R (a1 , a2 ) R


and

for all , we that

Let A and B be two sets. A relation from A to B is dened as a subset of

a1 , a2 A
iii) anti-symmetric, if for all have iv)

AB

and is denoted by R. If

(a, b) R

, we say  a is

(a2 , a1 ) R
implies

related to b , written as

aRb.

a1 = a2
transitive, , for all if

Domain: The domain of a relation R from A to B is the set of all rst elements of the ordered pairs which belong to R, and so is a subset of A. i.e. Domain =

(a1 , a3 ) R
1.1.4

(a1 , a2 ) R and (a2 , a3 ) R a1 , a2 , a3 A .

{a : (a, b) R}
Co-domain: The set B is called the co-domain of R. i.e.
co-domain =

Equivalence Relation

{b : b B}

A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation if R is reexive, symmetric and transitive.

Range: The range of R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs which belong to R, and so is a subset of B. i.e. Range = {b : (a, b) R} It may be noted that the total number of relations from set A to B is the total number of subsets from of

1.1.5

Partial Order Relation

A relation R in a set A is said to be a partial order relation if R is reexive, anti-symmetric and transitive. Examples: a) The relation b) The relation ordering. c) The relation  a divides b is a partial ordering of the set

A B.

If

n(A) = p

n(B) = q , pq relations is 2 .
and

then

n(A B) = pq

and the total number of

of set inclusion is a partial ordering. on the set R of real numbers is a partial

1.1.2.1 Relation on A
Sometimes R is a relation from set A to itself , that is , R is a subset of

of Natural numbers. However  a divides b is not a parital

A A.

In such a case, we say , R is a relation on A. 7

ordering of the set Z of integers.

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
Equivalence Classes
Q: Let A = {1,2,3,4} , B = {a,b,c,d} , C = {x,y,z}

1.1.6

Given an arbitrary equivalence relation R in an arbitrary set X, R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets or subdivisions of X satisfying : i) all elements of iii) ii) no elements of

Ai

called partitions

R = {(1, a) , (2, d) , (3, a) , (3, b) , (3, d)} and S = {(b, x) , (b, z) , (c, y) , (d, z)} . Find S R using disk
and let method and matrix product.

Ai are related to each other, for all i. Ai is related to any element of Aj , i = j . Ai = X and Ai Aj = , i = j .
Pictorial Representations of Relations
Let S be a relation on the set

1.1.9
Let

Closure Properties
denote a property of relations on a set A such as being A relation on A with property

symmetric or transitive.

is

1.1.7

called a

-relation.

Relations on R

of real num-

The reexive, symmetric and transitive closures of a relation R will be denoted respectively by : reexive(R), symmetric(R) and transitive(R). i) Reexive Closure : Let R be a relation on set A . Then ,

bers i.e S is a subset of

R2 = RR .

Since

R2

can be represented

by the set of points in the plane, we can picture S by emphasizing those points in the plane which belong to S. This pictorial representation of S is called the graph of S. Q : Consider the relation S dened by the equation

A is Reexive(R).

ii) Symmetric Clusure: iii) Transitive Closure :

R R1 is Symmetric(R). RR2 .......Rn is Transitive(R). Here A =


Find

x + y 50 = 0

. Draw the graph of S.

n is the number of elements in set A. Q: Consider the following relation R on the set

Representation of Relations on Finite Sets


relation R from A to B.

Suppose A

{1, 2, 3, 4}

and B are nite sets. The following are two ways of picturing a

R = {(1, 1) , (1, 3) , (2, 4) , (3, 1) , (3, 3) , (4, 3)}.


Reexive(R) and Symmetric(R).

1. Matrix Method
according as

Form a rectangular array whose rows

Q: Consider the following relation R on A = {1,2,3} :

are labeled by the elements of A and whose columns are labeled by the elements of B. Put a 1 or 0 in each position of the array

R = {(1, 2) , (2, 3) , (3, 3)}.Find


of R.

the Transitive Closure

a A is or is not related to b B

. This array is called

the matrix of the relation.

1.1.10
Write down the elements of A and

Problems for PracticeRajat Kalia

2. Disk Method :
from

1.1.10.1 Single Answer MCQ's


Q1: Let

the elements of B in two disjoint disks, and then draw an arrow

be a relation on

a A

to

b B

whenever

aRb

. This diagram is called the disk

given by

a b

where the sign Then the

has its usual meaning. a) Equivalence Relation

Let

diagram or arrow diagram of the relation.


Q: Let

a, b, c R

be arbitrary.

relation is Conb) Partial Order Relation c) Function d) None of these

A = {1, 2, 3}

and

B = {x, y, z}.

sider the relation R from A to B given by

R =

{(1, y) , (1, z) , (3, y)}.


methods.

Represent it using the above two

Directed graphs of Relations on Sets


element

First we write down is related to

the elements of the set A, and then we draw an arrow from each

to each element

whenever

y.
the

1.1.10.2 Subjective Problems Q1: Prove that (A B) (A C) = A (B C) Q2: Q3: Q4:


Let R be a relation in the set N. Let

This

diagram is called the directed graph of the relation R. Q: set Consider the relation R on

{(x, y) N N : x + 2y = 10} 1 R and R .


Let R be a relation in sentence  graph.

. Find domain and range of

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} given by R {(1, 2) , (2, 2) , (2, 4) , (3, 2) , (3, 4) , (4, 1) , (4, 3)}.
resent R using a directed Graph.

=
Rep-

B = {2, 3, 4, 5}

dened by the open

xy

is divisible by 3. Express R as a directed

Given A = {1,2,3,4} and B = {x,y,z} . Let R be the following relation from A to B:

R = {(1, y) , (1, z) , (3, y) , (4, x) , (4, z)}


a) Determine the matrix of the relation. b) Draw the disk diagram of R. Y c) Find the inverse relation

R1

of R.

d) Determine the domain and Range of R.

1.1.8

Composition of Relations

Let A, B , C be sets , and let R be a relation from A to B and let S be a relation from B to C. Then R and S give rise to a relation from A to C denoted by

Q5:

Let A = {1,2,3,4,6}, and let R be the relation on A dened by  x divides

y

, written

x|y

SR

and dened as follows :

S R ={(a, c) : (b, c) S}
i.e.

there exists

b B

for which

(a, b) R

and

a) Write R as a set of ordered pairs. b) Draw its directed graph. c) Find the inverse relation

R1

of R. Describe

R1

in

a (S R) c

whenever there exists

b B

such that

aRb

and

bSc

words.

1.1. RELATIONS
Q6:
Let A = {1,2,3} , B = {a,b,c} , C = {x,y,z} . Consider the following relation R from A to B and relation S from B to C: a) Find the equivalence classes determined by R. b) Find a system B of equivalence class representatives which are multiples of 3. and

R = {(1, b) , (2, a) , (2, c)}


Find the composition i) Matrix Method ii) Disk Method.

S = {(a, y) , (b, x) , (c, y) , (c, z)}

SR

Q17:

Let A be a set of nonzero integers and let

be a relation

using

on

AA

dened as follows : whenever

(a, b) (c, d)
Prove that

ad = bc

Q7: Q8:

Find out a possible set A in which every relation is symmetric. Let R and R' be two relations in a set A. Prove the following: i) R and R' both are symmetric are symmetric . ii) R and R' both are transitive but

is an equivalence relation. Let be the equivalence (a, b) (c, d) if ab = bc . Find .

Q18: Q19: Q20:

Let A = {1,2,3,.......,14,15}.

relation on

AA

dened by

the equivalence class of

(3, 2)

RR RR

RR

both

Consider the set Z of integers. Dene

ab

if

b = ar

for

is transitive

some positive integer r. Show that of Z.

is a partial ordering

RR

needs not be transitive.

iii) R and R' both are reexive are reexive . iv) R is symmetric v) R is reexive

RR

RR

both

Each of the following expressions denes a relation on

R1
1

is symmetric and

R1 = R
. .

a) b) c) d) e)

y x2 y <3x y > x3 x2 + y 2 < 16 x2 4y 2 9 x2 + 4y 2 16 R2 .

R R

=
1

,given

R=

vi) R is symmetric

R R

, given

R=

Q9:

Give examples of relations R on A = {1,2,3} having the stated property. a) R is both symmetric and antisymmetric. b) R is neither symmetric nor antisymmetric. c) R is transitive but

f)

R R1

is not transitive.

Sketch each relation in the plane

Q10: Q11:
i)

Show that the relation R in the set of real numbers de-

Q21:

Let

ned as

R = {(a, b) :

a+3

b}

is neither reexive nor

by

be the relation on the set R of real numbers dened a b if b a Z , i.e b-a is an integer.
is an equivalence relation

symmetric nor transitive. a) Show that If R and R' be two equivalence relations on a set A. Prove

that

b) Show that the half-open interval

A = [0, 1) =

{x : 0 x < 1}
is an equivalence relation in A. needs not be an equivalence relation in A. sentatives.

is a system of equivalence class repre-

RR RR

ii)

Q12: Q13:

Q22:
:

For each of the following pairs of relations

and

on R,

If R is an equivalence relation in a set A , then show that is also an equivalence Relation.

sketch

S S

in the plane

R2

and nd its domain and range

R1

A relation R is dened on the set

set of natural numbers , by setting if

N N , where N is the (a, b) R (c, d) if and only (2, 3) N N

a)

=
2

(x, y) : x2 + y 2 25

a+d = b+c

. Show that the relation is an equivalence

4x (x, y) : y 9
b)

relation. Describe the equivalence class of

Q14:

(x, y) : x2 + y 2 < 25

Let A = {a,b,c} and let R be dened by . Find

R = {(a, a) , (a, b) , (b, c) , (c, c)}


a) reexive(R) b) symmetric(R) c) transitive(R)

3x (x, y) : y < 4

Q23:

Let

R5

be the relation on the set Z of integers dened by

x y (mod 5) which reads 


by 5.

x is congurent to y modulo Find

5 and which means that the dierence x-y is divisible Prove that this is a equivalence relation.

Q15:

Let R be the following equivalence relation on the set

A=

the equivalence classes and choose a system of class representatives.

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}:

R = {(1, 1) , (1, 5) , (2, 2) , (2, 3) , (2, 6) , (3, 2) , (3, 3) , (3, 6) , (4, 4) , (5, 1) , (5, 5) , (6, 2) , (6, 3) , (6, 6)} . Find the partition of A
induced by R.

1.1.10.3 Matrix match type problems Matrix


1: Under column-I properties of relations are mentioned. Match the stated property with the relations listed under column-II , that satises it

Q16:

Let A = {1,2,3,........,14,15} .

Let R be the equivalence

relation on A dened by congurence modulo 4.

10

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
Column II (A) The relation R in the set of natural numbers N, dened as

Column I (P) Equivalence

1.2 Real Numbers


When we talk of functions, we talk of only real valued functions. So, it is important that we brush up our theory of real numbers done in junior classes.

R = (a, b) : a > b2
(Q) Reexive (B) Relation R dened in the

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5} dened by R = (a, b) : a2 + ab 2b2 = 0


set (R) Symmetric (C) Relation R dened on the set of real numbers

Denition Any decimal fraction, terminating or nonterminating, is called a real number. The set of real numbers is represented by the symbol

R = {(a, b) :
(S) Transitive

R , dened a + 5 < b}

by

(D) Relation R in the set

A = {x Z; 0 x 9},given by 4 R={(a, b) : (a b) is divisible

R.

by 3}

Matrix
it

1.2.1

Rational Numbers

II: Under column-I properties of relations are menMatch the stated property with the relations on

tioned.

Every rational number can be written in the form

p q

where p and

the set of Real numbe listed under column-II , that satises

q are integers. The set of rational numbers is reqresented by the symbol

Q.

i.e.

={ |

p q

q = 0, p

&

Z}

where

is the

Column I (P) Equivalence (Q) Partial Order (R) Function

Column II (A) (B) (C)

set of Integers. The decimal representation of a rational number can be either terminating or non-terminating reccuring. e.g. 3.24 is a terminating decimal represenation. 5.3 is a non-terminating recurring decimal representation.

aRb if |a| = |b| aRb if |a| |b| aRb if a b 0

1.1.10.4 Hints and Solutions Subjective Problems


Q1:

Properties

and The set of rational numbers is and

(A B) (A C)={(x, y) : (x, y) A B (x, y) A C} {(x, y) : x A, y B (B C) R1 R1 = {2, 4, 6, 8} . ={1, 2, 3, 4} y


and

closed with respect to the


i.e. If p p + q , p q and pq provided q = 0.[Closure

operations of addition, subtraction and product.

are two rational numbers, then Also

x A, y C}

are rational.

={(x, y) =A

: x A, y B C}
Range

Property]
rational numbers.[

p q

is rational

Between any two rational numbers

Q2: Domain of R = Range of of R = Domain of Q5: c)

Property of Denseness]
x

p & q , there exist innite

is a multiple of

Q8: (ii) Let A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(1, 1) , (1, 2)} and R = {(2, 2) , (2, 3)}, R R = {(1, 1) , (1, 2) , (2, 2) , (2, 3)} . Here both R and R' are transitive, but R R is not transitive. Q9: a) c)

Q. Find all the rational values of x2 + x + 5 is a rational number.


Sol. Suppose sum in

for which
express

y =

x and y are rational numbers . x + y = q is a rational number.We now terms of q . y+x= x2 + x + 5 + x = q

Then the

R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2)} b) R = {(1, 2) , (2, 1) , (2, 3)} R = {(1, 2)}


(ii) Let

A = {1, 2, 3}and R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2) , (3, 3) , (1, 2) , (2, 1)} and R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2) , (3, 3) , (2, 3) , (3, 2)} , then R R = {(1, 1) , (2, 2) , (3, 3) , (1, 2) , (2, 1) , (2, 3) , (3, 2)}. Now , (1, 2) R
Q11: Q18:

x2 + x + 5 = q x x2 + x + 5 = q 2 2qx + x2 q2 5 1 ,q = 1 + 2q 2 x2 + x + 5 To prove the reverse i.e. y = 2 q 5 1 number if x = ,q = 1 + 2q 2 x=


Its easy to check

[(3, 2)] = {(3, 2) , (6, 4) , (9, 6) , (12, 8) , (15, 10)}

Matrix Match Type Problems


Matrix 1

is a rational

Matrix 2

y=

x2 + x + 5 =

q2 5 1 + 2q

q2 5 1 + 2q

+5

q 4 + 2q 3 + 11q 2 + 10q + 25 (1 + 2q)


2

q2 + q + 5 1 + 2q

1.2. REAL NUMBERS


It may be observed that values of

11

q2 + q + 5

is positive for all

q .Hence q2 + q + 5 |1 + 2q| 1 . 2

1.2.3.2 Multiple Answer MCQ's Q1. Which of the following are rational numbers.
a)

y=

which is rational for

q=

b) c) d)

Note : The sole purpose of adding x to y was to eliminate the square term of x . The same goal can be achieved by subtracting x from y.
1.2.2 Irrational Numbers

3 2+ 3 2 6 52 11 7

5+2

1.2.3.3 Write the Answer Type Questions Q1:


The solution set of

Non-terminating non-repeating decimal fractions are called Irrational numbers . In fact, all real numbers which are not rational are Irrational numbers. The set of Irrational numbers can be represented by the symbol

7 5 x2

is

RQ

1.2.3.4 Assertion-Reason Type Questions


Each question in this section has ve choices (a),(b),(c) ,(d) and (e) out of which only one is correct. Mark your choices as follows: (a) STATEMENT-1 is True, STATEMENT-2 is

Properties

The sum,dierence,product and quotient of two Irrational numbers may be rational or irrational.ie. The set of Irrational numbers is not closed with respect to the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

True, STATEMENT-2 is the correct explaination of STATEMENT-1. (b) STATEMENT-1 is True, STATEMENT-2 is True, STATEMENT-2 is STATEMENT-1.

Property]

[Closure

NOT

the correct explaination of

The sum, dierence,product and quotient of a rational number and an Irrational number is Irrational. There exist innite rational and irrational numbers between two real numbers.

(c) STATEMENT-1 is True, STATEMENT-2 is False. (d) STATEMENT-1 is False, STATEMENT-2 is True

[Property of Denseness]

(e) STATEMENT-1 is False, STATEMENT-2 is False

Q1:

STATEMENT-1: For every rational number

r sat-

Q. Prove that for every rational number r satisfying r2 < 3 one can always nd a larger rational number r + k(k > 2 0)for which (r + k) < 3.
Sol. We know, there exist innite rational numbers between a rational number and an irrational number. So, there will be innite rational numbers between and

r2 < 2 one can always nd a larger 2 number r + k(k > 0)for which (r + k) < 2.
isfying between any two rational numbers.

rational

STATEMENT-2: There exist innite rational numbers

. So, there exist innite values of

satisfying

1.2.3.5 Hints and Solutions Subjective Problems


5 3 q2 , q Q & q = {Hint: Put y 7x = q to 14q 5 14 get the answer. Also, equivalently if we had put y + 7x = q we q 2 3 5 would have got , x = 14q+5 , q = 14 }
Q1

the condition.Let us take the case when close to

is suciently

3.In

that case, we can chose a

k 0.

This implies

It is sucient to

k such that 2 k 2 < k . i.e. (r + k) < r2 +2rk+k . 2 put r + 2rk + k = 3.i.e. 3 r2 1 + 2r

x=

{Hint: Let us take s2 2sk = 5 which would imply s2 2 5 2sk + k2 > 5 . ie k = s 2s }


Q2 Q3 No , it is not a rational number. {Hint. 2n1 ves between nth and (n + 1)th unity. The pattern is denite but non periodic.} n can be drawn by the following method of conQ4 {Hint. struction. Draw an arc from the origin of length n1 intersecting 2 the y-axis . From the point where it cuts the y axis, draw an arc n+1 of length 2 intersecting the x-axis at P. The distance OP is n .}

k=

It may be observed that any rational number smaller than tion.

3 r2 1 + 2r

in magnitude will also satisfy the condi-

1.2.3

Problems for practice

Multiple Answer MCQ's


Q1 B,C,D

1.2.3.1 Subjective Problems Q1. Find all the rational values


49x2 + 5x + 3

of

for

which

Write the Answer Type Questions


Q1 the half open interval (2,17/5]

is a rational number.

Q2. Q3. Q4.

Prove that for every rational number can always nd a smaller rational which

s satisfying s2 > 5 one number s k(k > 0)for

Assertion Reason Type Questions


Q1 B

(s k) > 5.

Does 219.15155155551555555551. . . . . . . . . represent a rational number?. Give reason. Represent

31 3

and

52

on the number line.

can be of the following kinds 1. Open Interval i.e of the kind (a,b) 2. Closed Interval i.e. of the kind [a,b] 3. Semi-Closed Interval(or Semi-open/Half-open) ie. of the kind (a,b] or [a,b)

1 Intervals

12

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
1.3.2 The Wavey-Curve Technique
Let us consider, that we have an expression of the form

1.3 Absolute value of a real number


The magnitude of a number is called the Absolute value of the number.Also,it is the distance of the point representing the number from origin on the number line . e.g.

|2

5|

5 2.

e=

(x + 1) (x 1) (x 3) x2 x
for which this expression is

Mathematical Denition |x|


=

and we have to nd the values of

x x

>0

<0

or

=0

. To nd the sign of the expression, we rst

,x < 0 ,x 0

of all mark these points on the number line . Then we draw a curve like the one shown in the gure

Some alternate denitions of |x| are


x2 |x| = max{x, x} x.sgn(x)
1.3.1
1. 2. 3. 4. We start from the right hand side , draw a positive section of curve between

and the right most point.

Then, at the

rightmost point( 3 in this case) , we switch the sign of the curve

Properties of Absolute value

to negative and take it below the axis.

Like this , we change

sign of the curve at every Critical point( ie. at 3,2,1,-1 in this case). Now from this curve, we try to nd out the sign of the expression

|x| = ( > 0) x = |x| |x| ( > 0) ( > 0) x x or x

e= |x + y|
same

(x + 1) (x 1) (x 3) x2

|x| + |y| {Equality occurs when x and y are sign. i.e. xy 0 e.g.| (5) + (2) | = | 5| + | 2|

e>0
of as

whenever + sign appears in the wavey-curve( i.e. when

wavey-curve is above the axis)

(-5).(-2) is positive }[

The Triangle Inequality]2


{Equality occurs when

e > 0 for x (, 1) (1, 2) (3, )3 e < 0 whenever - sign appears in the wavey-curve( e < 0 for x (1, 1) (2, 3) e = 0 for all the critical points

i.e. when

|x y| |x + y| |x + y| |x y| |x y|

|x| + |y| ||x| |y|| |x| |y|

x x x x x

and

y y y y y

are

wavey-curve is below the axis) in the numerator( if and only

of opposite sign. i.e.

xy xy xy

0}
and are

{Equality occurs when

if they don't appear in the denominator too)

of opposite sign. i.e.

0}
and are

{Equality occurs when

of opposite sign i.e.

and

|x|

|y|}
and are

of same sign. i.e.

||x| |y|| {Equality xy 0} |x| |y| xy 0

occurs when

{Equality occurs when and

and

are

of same sign . i.e. 5.

|x|

|y|}

e = 0 for x {1, 1, 3} e =Not dened for all the critical points in the denominator. e =Not dened for x {2} {Note: It may be noted, that if we have to nd x such that e 0 , then we will take the union of the values of x found out for e > 0 and e = 0 i.e. e 0 for x ((, 1) (1, 2) (3, )) {1, 1, 3} . The same expression can be written by using a closed interval at the points where e = 0 i.e. e 0 for x (, 1] [1, 2) [3, ) In a similar way, we can nd the values of x for which e 0. The solution is x [1, 1] (2, 3]. }

|xy| = |x||y| |x| x = ,y = 0 y |y| |a + b| |a| + |b|

Example
We have to nd the sign of

6.

E=

(x + 2) (3x + 1) (1 x)

Q: Prove the Triangle Inequality Sol. We have

To nd the sign of such an expression, we rst of all make the coecients of

a |a| , b |b|
, -b

as 1 in all terms. This gives

a + b |a| + |b|
Also,

27 (x + 2) |b| E=

x+

1 3

a |a|

x1 x= 1 2, , 1 . 3 at as there

(a + b) |a| + |b|
Now, Thus

The critical points of this expression are

|a + b| = max {(a + b) , (a + b)} |a + b| |a| + |b| |a b| ||a| |b||

The wavey-curve will start with a negative sign is a - sign in front of

E.

The curve will then change sign at the

rst critical point -1. Thereafter , the curve will change sign 3 times at the point

Q: Prove the Inequality Sol. We have ,

x =

|a| = |(a b) + b| |a b| + |b|

changes sign an odd number of times, it is equivalent to change of sign just one time) . Then the curve changes sign 6 times at

1 . 3

(It may be noted that if a curve

|a| |b| |a b|
Similarly,

x = 2.(change

of sign an even number of times means the sign

|b| |a| |a b|

is retained).Things will be more clear from the adjoining gure.

||a| |b|| = max {|a| |b| , |b| |a|} |a b|


|x + y|2 = (x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y 2 x2 + 2 |x| |y| + y 2 = |x|2 + 2 |x| |y| + |y|2 = (|x| + |y|)2 = |x + y| |x|+|y|
2A

proof of the Triangle Inequality

3 The actual reason for the positive sign of e in the interval (3, ) is that in this interval the expressions x 3 > 0 , x 2>0 , x 1 > 0 and also x + 1 > 0. Due to this reason, the expression e which is obtained by multiplying 3 positive quatities and dividing the resultant with a positive quantity is positive. Similarly, in the interval (2, 3) the quantities x2>0, x1 > 0 & x+1 > 0 while the quantity x 3 < 0 . Hence the expression e is negative in this interval. In this way we can investigate for other intervals also.

1.3. ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A REAL NUMBER


{Note: It can be observed that |y| is strictly greater than y if y < 0}

13

x2 5x + 6 < 0 E>0
Similarly, Also, for

1 ,1 3
for

(x 2) (x 3) < 0 1 3 2<x<3 (1, ). x {1}


e) i.e.

x (2, 3) |x| = x x.
Hence , no

E<0
for

x (, 2) 2, 1 2, 3
and

Case I: x 0
which is not true for any

E=0

is not dened for

This assumption would imply that

x = x+7

Q Solve for x a) |2x + 5| = 6 b) |5x + 7| = |7x 9 | c) |3x 5| < 1 d) |x2 5x + 6| > x2 5x + 6 e) |x| = x + 7 f) |x| = x 5 g)
(x 5)
2 3

solution exists.

Case II: x < 0


x = x + 7 2x = 7 x < 0)
f) or

x=

7 2

(which satises the condition

Case I: x 0
which is not true for any

x = x5

x.

Hence , no

solution exists for

x 0.

Case II: x < 0


3

(x + 2) (x 3)

>

(x 5)
2

x = x 5 2x = 5
or

(x + 2) (x 3)

x= x
3

5 2 x < 0
3
. Hence , no

h) | cos x| = cos x + 1 i) |(x2 + 2x + 5) + (3 5x)| = |x2 + 2x + 5| + |3 5x| j) x8 4 x4 + 2 = x8 4 x4 + 2 k) x2 |x| 2 = 0 l) |x + 2| = |x 2| + 2 |x| m)


3x + 5 7x + 9 =1 5x + 7 5x + 7

This value of

does not satisfy

solution exists for g)

x<0 >

also.

(x 5)
2

(x 5)
2

(x + 2) (x 3)

(x + 2) (x 3) |y| > y
is only possible when

It may be observed that

y<0 <0 2 (x + 2) (x 3) x (3, 5) [Note:The solution to such equations can be found out with the help of Wavey-Curve Technique as discussed in the Lectures]
h)

(x 5)

n)2|x+1| |2x 1| = 2x + 1
Sol. a)

2x + 5 = 6

| cos x| = cos x + 1

2x = 1 or 2x = 11 1 11 x = or 2 2 b) |5x + 7| = |7x 9 | (5x + 7) = (7x 9) 5x + 7 = 7x 9 2x = 16 x=8


c) or or or

Case I: cos x 0
cos x = cos x + 1
which is not possible for any exists for

x.

Hence , no solution

cos x 0.

Case II:cos x < 0


cos x = cos x + 1 2 cos x = 1 1 cos x = (which satisies our assumption that 2 cos x < 0) 2 x = 2n , n Z. 3 2 2 i) |(x + 2x + 5) + (3 5x)| = |x + 2x + 5| + |3 5x| |x + y| = |x| + |y| xy 0(equality
Property 4) i.e condition in

5x + 7 = (7x 9) 1 8, 6

12x = 2 1 x = i.e. x 6

Method 1:

|3x 5| < 1
(Property 2)

1 < 3x 5 < 1 4 < 3x < 6 4 < x < 2 i.e x 3

4 ,2 3

Method 2:
2

|3x 5| < 1

&

are of the same sign

Squaring both sides, we get

Now

x2 + 2x + 5 = (x + 1) + 4 > 0

(3x 5) < 1 9x2 30x + 25 < 1 9x2 30x + 24 < 0 3x2 10x + 8 < 0 (3x 4) (x 2) < 0 x
d)

3 5x 0 3 3 i.e x or x (-, ) 5 5 8 4 j) x 4 x + 2 = x8 4 x4 + 2
We know,

|x y| = |x| |y|

if

xy 0

&

|x|

|y|

4 ,2 3

Also , it may be noted that

x + 4 > 0x x8 4 x4 + 2

Our

conditions reduce to

|x2 5x + 6| > x2 5x + 6

x4 2 1

14

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
x4 3 x 4 3
k)x or

x 3

i.e.

, 3

3,

|x| 2 = 0
2

|x| |x| 2 = 0 (|x| 2) (|x| + 1) = 0 |x| = 2 x = 2


l)|x or i.e

|x| = 1(Rejected) x {|x + 2| = |x 2| + 2 |x| 2, 2}


We rst of all nd the critical points.

+ 2| = |x 2| + 2 |x|
gives the point

Method 1:
|x + 2| = 0

2.

Similarly, the points

2,0 are obtained by euating the other modulus terms to zero. So, there are 3 critical points ie at

x = {2, 0, 2}.

We plot these points on the number line and divide the whole number line at these critical points.

Case I : x < 2
The equation becomes

(x + 2) = (x 2) 2x 2x = 4 x = 2 (which is rejected interval (, 2))


as it does not belong to the

Case II: 2 x < 0


The equation becomes

x + 2 = (x 2) 2x x = 0 (Which is rejected as it does not belong to the interval [2, 0))

Case III : 0 x < 2


The equation becomes

5 3 (3x + 5) + (7x + 9) = (5x + 7) 9x = 11 11 x= ( Rejected because it does not lie in the interval 9 5 dened by x < ) 3 5 7 Case II: x < 3 5 (3x + 5) + (7x + 9) = (5x + 7) 15x = 21 7 x = (which is rejected because in the beginning we 5 7 7 . Also the point does not lie in the interval xed x = 5 5 5 7 x< ) 3 5 7 9 Case III : x < 5 7 (3x + 5) + (7x + 9) = + (5x + 7) 5x = 7 7 x = (which is rejected because in the beginning we 5 7 xed x = due to domain restrictions.) 5 9 Case IV: x 7 (3x + 5) (7x + 9) = (5x + 7) 9x = 11 11 11 x= (Accepted because belongs to the interval 9 9 9 x ) 7 11 Hence, the only solution is x = . 9 |x+1| x x n)2 |2 1| = 2 + 1 x The critical points lie at |x + 1| = 0 and |2 1| = 0 . i.e at x = 1 and x = 0 respectively. So , dividing the number line as

Case I: x <

x + 2 = (x 2) + 2x
which is true for all

done previously

, but our interval is

[0, 2)

x [0, 2)

is a solution

Case IV : x 2
The equation in this case becomes

x + 2 = (x 2) + 2x x = 2
chosen i.e. Hence (which is accepted as it lies in the interval

[2, ))
is a solution )

x=2

Case I: x < 1 2(x+1) + (2x 1) = 2x + 1 2(x+1) = 2 (x + 1) = 1 x = 2 (Accepted ) Case II: 1 x < 0 2x+1 + 2x 1 = 2x + 1 2x+1 = 2 x+1=1 x = 0 (Rejected as it does not lie in the interval 1 x < 0 Case III: x 0

Now we combine all the solutions obtained from dierent intervals. So, the nal solution is the union of all the cases i.e.

x [0, 2) {2} x [0, 2] |x + 2| = |x 2| + 2 |x|

The

complete solution set is

Method 2:

|2x (x 2)| = |2x| + |x 2| (2x) (x 2) 0 x [0, 2] 3x + 5 7x + 9 m) =1 5x + 7 5x + 7 5x + 7 = 0 7 i.e. x = 5 |3x + 5| |7x + 9| = |5x + 7|


First thing to be noted is that Now in this case, the critical points are

2x+1 (2x 1) = 2x + 1 2x+1 = 2.2x ( which is true for all x belonging to the interval x 0) The solution to Case III is x [0, ) Hence, the general solution to this problem is x {2}[0, ).
1.3.3 Problems for Practice

1.3.3.1 Subjective Problems Q1: Solve for x a) | sin x| = sin x + 2 b)


5 7 , 3 5
and

(x + 3) (x 3) (x + 1) (x 1)

<

(x + 3) (x 3) (x + 1) (x 1)

9 . 7

Plotting them on the number line, we get the

intervals as shown below

c) x2 + 3x + 2 = x2 + 3x + 2 d) ||x2 5x + 4| |2x 3|| = |x2 3x + 1| e) |x 1| + 2|x + 1| + |x 2| 8 f) 4|x2 1| + |x2 4| 6.

1.3. ABSOLUTE VALUE OF A REAL NUMBER


1.3.3.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1:
The complete solution set of

15

1 <3 4 10 x

is

1.3.3.5 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: Consider the equation


y
questions based on this information and answer

The = x4 9 x2 3 x4 9 + x2 3 . sign of y depends on the value of x. Read the following them carefully.

a)

x R x

12 12 , 31 29 2 5

b)

12 12 , 31 29

Q1:

The value(s) of a)x b)x c)x

for which

y>0

is/are :

c)

12 12 x R {0} , 31 29

3, 3 4 3, 3

d) None of these

d)None of these

Q2:

The point in the co-ordinate plane satisfying

|7x + 5| =

Q2:

The value(s) of a)x b)x c)x

for which

y0

is/are :

|3 3y|
a)(2, 3) b) c)

is

5 ,1 7 (5, 3) | cot x| = cot x + 2 3

3, 3 4 3, 3

d)None of these

Comprehension
is

2:

The

rst

terms

of

an

A.P.

are

d) None of these

|3x| , |3x 1|and |3x + 1|.


The value of a) 1 b) 2 c) -1 d) None of these

Based on this information, give

Q3:

the answers to the questions below

The complete solution set of

a){x : x = n + , n Z} 3 , n Z} b){x : x = n 3 c){x : x = n + , n Z} 6 d){x : x = n , n Z} 6

Q1:

is

Q2:
|x| + |2y| = 2
is

The 10th term of the A.P. is a)

Q4:

The area bounded by the curves given by a) 2 units b) 4 units c) 6 units d) 8 units

1 4 5 b) 4 19 c) 4
d) None of these The sum of rst 15 terms of the series is

1.3.3.3 Multiple answer MCQ's Q1: The solution set of 2| tan x| = tan x + 3 contains
, n Z} 3 b){x : x = n , n Z} 3 c){x : x = n + , n Z} 6 d){x : x = n , n Z} 6
a){x

Q3:

: x = n +

225 4 359 b) 4 433 c) 4


a) d) None of these

Comprehension

1.3.3.4 Matrix Match Type Problems Matrix 1: Under Column I , some equations are given .

Under

Column II, some solutions satisfying some of the equations are given. Match the entry in Column I with the solution satisfying it in Column II.{Note: [ ] is the Greatest Integer Function}

3: A function fn (x) is dened for all n N and fn+m (x) is dened as fn+m (x) = fn (fm (x)) where f1 (x) = 2x 1 for x R {1}. Using this denition , f2 (x) = x+1 x1 f1 (f1 (x)) = for x R {1, 0}. Similarly f3 (x) = x 2x 1 f1 (f2 (x)) = for x R 1, 0, and so on. Based 1 2x 2 on the information, answer the questions below.

Q1:

The domain of denition of

g(x) = |ln(f34 (x))|

is

Column I (P) sin1 x = sin1 x + 6 (Q)ln |x| = |ln x| (R)|[x]| = [|x|] (S) x2 3x + 2 > x2 3x + 2

Column II 1 (A)2 (B)1 3 (C) 2 (D)2

1 2 1 b) (, 1] 1, 0, 2 c) (1, ) {2}
a)

(, 1) 1, 0,

d) None of these

16

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
The complete solution set of

Q2:

|f71 (x)| >

1 f73 (x)

is

Multiple Answer MCQ's


Q1) A,D

a) b) c)

(1, 1) R {2} [1, 1] R {1, 1, 2}

Matrix Match Type Problems


Matrix 1:

d) None of these

Q3:

The values of interval a) b) c)

for which

|f56 (x)| > f56 (x)

belong to the

1 ,2 2 (2, ) (0, 1)

d) None of these

Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: Q1) D Q2)A


{Hint:a) y > 0
x4 9 x2 3 x4 9 x2 3 x4 9 + x2 3 > 0 > x4 9 x2 3

1.3.3.6 Hints and Solutions Subjective Questions

Q1 a)x = 2n + , n Z 2 {Hint: The solution of the equation is all values of x which satisfy the equation , sin x = 1}
b) No Solution i.e

Now we know that |x y| |x| |y| {Equality occurs when x and y are of same sign . i.e. xy 0 and |x| |y|} x4 9 x2 3 = x4 9 x2 3 when x4 9 x2 3 0 and x4 9 x2 3 i.e when x2 3
2 2

x2 + 3

x {Hint: It may be observed that |y| < y is never true . Even |y| < y also gives no solution.}
c)

and x2 3 x2 + 3

x2 3 0

x [2, 1] {Hint: |y| = y y 0 } 7 9 e)x , 4 4


f)

i.e when x2 3 x2 + 3 0 and x2 3 x2 + 2 is true for all x. i.e x R , y is identically equal to zero. Hence y > 0 has no solution and y 0 is true for all x R. i.e (b)A}

which

Comprehension 2:
2 , 5 2 5 2,

Q1) D Q2)C Q3)A

x , 2

{Hint: a)|3x| , |3x 1|and |3x + 1|are in A.P.


2 |3x 1| = |3x| + |3x + 1|

Single Answer MCQ's


Q1) C

The critical points in this case are , 0,

1 3

1 3

{Hint:

1 < 3Problems for Practice 4 10 x

Case I

:x

1 3

1.3.3.7 Subjective Problems


4 1 10 > x 3 4 1 Case I : 10 > x 3 4 31 > x 3 1 31 > x 12 12 0<x< 31 4 1 Case II: 10 < x 3 4 29 < x 3 1 29 < x 12 1 1 29 < 0 or 0 < < x x 12 12 x < 0 or x > 29

In this case equation becomes


2 (3x 1) = 3x (3x + 1) 6x + 2 = 6x 1
Case II:

which gives no solution

1 ,0 3

In this case , the equation becomes


2 (3x 1) = 3x (3x + 1) 6x 2 = 6x 1 x= 1 12 1 12 1 ,0 3

( which is accepted as : x 0,
1 3

Case III

In this case , the equation becomes


2 (3x 1) = 3x (3x + 1) 6x 2 = 1 x= 1 6 1 1 0, / 6 3

(which is rejected as :x
1 , 3

Case IV

Combining all cases, we get x (, 0) 0,


x R {0}
Q2) B Q3) D Q4) B

12 31

12 , 29

i.e.

In this case, the equation becomes


2 (3x 1) = 3x + (3x + 1)

12 12 , 31 29

i.e 6x 2 = 6x + 1 . Hence no solution in this case also. Combining all the cases, we get x = b) Substituting the value of
1 3 5 , , , 4 4 4 1 12 x ,

the series becomes

1.4. THE GREATEST INTEGER FUNCTION


Hence, the series has rst term a =
d= T10 1 . 2 1 4

17

and common dierence

1.4 The Greatest Integer Function


1.4.1 Problems
\left|b\right|

for

Practice\left|a\right|-

1 1 19 = a + (10 1) d = + 9 = 4 2 4 15 n (2a + (n 1) d) = 2 2 1 1 +9 4 2 15 15 = 2 2

c) The sum of rst 15 terms of the series is


S15 = 225 } 4 2 =

1.4.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1 (a). Solve the equation x3 [x] = 5,


integral part of the number x.

where

[.]denotes

the

Comprehension 3:
{Hint: f1 (x) =
2x 1 x+1 f2 (x) = f1 (f1 (x)) = f3 (x) = f1 (f2 (x)) =

Q1) A Q2)B Q3)C

3x2 8 [x] + 1 = 0, where [.]denotes the greatest integer func(b). Find all the real solutions of the equation tion.

for x R {1} for x R {1, 0} for x R 1, 0,


1 2 1 1x

x1 x

Q2:

Prove that

[x] =

x+1 x + 2 2

where

[.]denote

greatest

2x 1 2x

integer function and n be any positive integer then show that

On simlar lines, we can nd f4 (x) = f1 (f3 (x)) =


1 1, 0, , 1 2 f5 (x) = f1 (f4 (x)) = 1+x 2x

for x R

n+1 n+2 n+4 n+8 + + + + ... = n 2 4 8 16 [x] + [5x] + [10x] + [20x] = 36k + 35 , k Z
does

Q3:

Prove that

not have any real solution.

for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2
1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2

1 2

1.5 Inverse Trigonometry


1.5.1 Problems for Practice

f6 (x) = f1 (f5 (x)) = x

for x R

It may be noted that this function repeats itself after a gap of 6 .i.e f6n+r (x) = f6 (f6 ...ntimes(fr (x)))) = fr (x) for x R
1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2

1.5.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: Find the values of k , for which x2 kx+sin1 (sin 4) > 0,
real

Q1: f34 (x) = f4 (x) for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2


1 f34 (x) = 1x

1 2

x. sin 2 cos1 cot 2 tan1 x 1 = tan1 3 b =0 (a, b)


for which

for x R

1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2

Q2: Q3: Q4:

Solve

Find all the positive integral values of

g(x) = |ln(f34 (x))| 1 >0 1x

has domain given by


1 2

tan

a + tan

for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2
1 2

Write the solution set of the equation

2 tan1 (cos x) =

i.e x < 1 and x R 1, 0, , 1, 2 i.e x


(, 1) 1, 0, 1 2

tan

(2cosecx)

1.5.1.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1: The number of solutions of the


2 sin1 (x) = 2
a) One b) Two c) Three d) None of these is/are

equation

sin1 (1 x)

Q2: |f71 (x)| >

1 f73 (x) 1 f1 (x)

i.e we have to solve |f5 (x)| > i.e


1 1+x > 2x 1 2x x+1
2

for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2
1 2

1 2

for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2
2

(b). Solve the

equation

||x 5x + 4| |2x 3|| = |x 3x + 1|


1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2 1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2

i.e |2x 1| > |2 x| for x R Squaring both sides we get


4x2 4x + 1 > 4 + x2 4x

Q2:

If

1 <x<1 2

, the number of solutions of the equations

for x R
1 2

1 1 x tan1 (3x) is tan1


A) 0 B) 3 C) 4

+ tan1

1 x

+ tan1

1 +1 x

i.e. 3x2 > 3 for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2


x (R {2} [1, 1])

Q3: |f56 (x)| > f56 (x)


|f2 (x)| > f2 (x) f2 (x) < 0 x1 <0 x

D) None of these

for x R

1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2

Q3:

The equation

cos1 x = 3 cos1 a a a
satisfying

has a solution for

for x R

1 1, 0, , 1, 2 2 1 2

A) all real values of B) all real values of

for x R 1, 0, , 1, 2
1 2

(0, 1)

These values are a substet of (0, 1).}

a1 1 C) all real values of a satisfying a1 2 1 3 D) all real values of a satisfying a 2 2

18

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES
The solution of A) B) C) D)

Q4:

sec1 x > cosec1 x

is

Q11:

Value

cos tan , 2 2, (, 1] 2, (, 1] [1, ) 4 cot1 x2 3x 4 >


is

of 1

x
is

that

satises

sin cot1 (1 + x)

A)

B)

Q5:

The solution set of

C)

1 2 1 2 1 2

A) B) C)

(, 1) (1, 4) (, 1) (4, )

D) 0

D) None of these

1.5.1.3 Multiple Answer Type Questions 1.5.1.4 Linked Comprehension Type Problems
Find the value

Q6:

If of

3 cosec1 x + cosec1 y + cosec1 z = . 2 xy + yz + zx

Comprehension
dened by

1:

A function

f :

5 7 , 2 2

(1, 1)

is

f (x) = sin x.

Its inverse is denoted by

f 1 (x) =

A) 3 B) 6 C) can't be found out D) None of these

x . Another function g : (2, 3) (1, 1) is dened g (x) = cos x . Its inverse is denoted by g 1 (x) = cos1 x . An onto function h : (1, 0) Rh is given by h (x) = f 1 (x) g 1 (x) . Now answer the following questions. sin
by

Q1:
tan1 x2 x3 + tan1 x x+1 =

g 1 (x)
a) b) c)

is given by

Q7:

The value of

, when

g 1 (x) 5 g 1 (x) 5 g 1 (x) 2

can be

A) 1 B)

C) D)

2 2 2 1 2 tan1 1 + 2x + 1

1 2

d) None of these

Q2:

Set 'Rh ' is

a)

Q8:

b)

The number of solutions of the equation

tan1
A) 1

1 2 = tan1 2 4x + 1 x 1 2

is

c)

2 5 , 3 2 0, 2

d) None of these

B) 2A) B)

Q3:

If a function

v : (, 0] 3,
, then

7 2

is dened by

v (x) =

C)

1 2 1 2

f 1

2x 2x 2x + 2x

v(x)

is

a) Injective Only b) Surjective Only c) Bijective d) None of these.

D) 0 C) 3 D) 4

Q9:

The number of solutions of A) 026 B) 1 C) 2 D) None of these

cos1 x = |x|

are

1.5.1.5 Hints and Solutions Single Answer MCQ's


Q4: C Q5: B Q6: A Q7: C Q8: A Q9: B Q10: D

Q10:

sin1 (sin x) > x2 4x holds if A) x < 2 9 2 B) x = 2 + 9 2 C) x > 2 + 9 2 D) x 2 9 2, 2 + 9 2

1.6. EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS

19

1.6 Exponents and Logarithms


Q: Simplify the following expressions a) b) c)

2log2

2 15

(5.8) 8

log5.8 10+1

log2 3 121+ 1 3

d)

1 4 log9 36 81 log5 3 + 27 + 3 log7 9 log 13 1 27


2 5

e)

2log5 9 1 1 1 + +......... + 3 32 33

log2.5
Q: i) Prove that

=4

(0.16)

ii) The value of

(0.2)

log5

1 1 1 + + +......... 4 8 16

is 4.

iii) The sum of the series is

log4 2 log8 2 + log16 2............

e2 b) loge 2 + 1 c) loge 3 2 d) 1 loge 2


a)

1.6.1

Problems for Practice

1.6.1.1 Single Answer MCQ's Q1: The solution of log3 (3x 4) = log1/3 x is
A) B) C)

2 2+

7 2 7

D) None of these

Q2:
B) C)

1 2
A)

3x + 4 1x

>

1 2

2
, then

lies in

(1, ) (, 6) (, 6) (1, )

D) None of these

1.6.1.2 Hints and Solutions Single Answer MCQ's


Q1: D Q2: C

20

CHAPTER 1. PRELIMINARIES

Chapter 2

Functions
2.0.2 Problems for Practice
m)

1 |x| x 1 [x] 3 [x] + 2


2

2.0.2.1 Single Answer MCQ's


Functions are one of the most important areas of mathematics because they lie at the heart of much of mathematical analysis. n)

2.1 Domain of Denition and Range


Q:
x , nd f (x + 3) , f (3x) ,3f (x) For the function f (x) = x+2 3 3 , 3f (3x + 3) , f x , (f (x)) with their respective domains
of denition.
Sol:

Q:

Find the range of the following functions:

i) ii)

1 [x]

f (x + 3) = 3x 3x + 2

x+3 x+5
where

where

x+5=0

i.e

Df (x+3) = R {5} 2 3

max{[|cos x|] , |[cos x]|} 1 iii) 2 + sin 3x + cos 3x ax+ xb , a>b>0 iv)
2.1.1 Problems for Practice

f (3x) =

3x + 2 = 0

i.e.

Df (3x) = R

3x 3f (x) = x+2 3f (3x + 3) = f x3 =

where

x+2=0

i.e.

D3f (x) = R {2}


i.e.

2.1.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: (i) Prove that for the logarithmic function y = ln |x| , if the
5 3
argument takes values in a G.P. , then the corresponding values of the function

9x + 9 3x + 5

where

3x + 5 = 0

D3f (3x+3) = R

are in A.P.

x3 3 +2 x

where

x3 + 2 = 0

i.e.

Df (x3 ) = R 3 2
i.e.

(ii)Prove that for the exponential function sponding values of the function

y = ex

, if

the argument takes values in a A.P. , then the corre-

are in G.P.

(f (x))3 =

x x+2

3
where

x+2=0

D(f (x))3 = R {2}

Q2:

Find the domain of the following functions, where the greatest integer function.

[.]denotes

Q: Q:

If

f (x) =

x1 x+1

, then prove that

.f (2x)

is

3f (x) + 1 . f (x) + 3

Find the domains of denition of the following functions: a) b) c) d) e) f)

2x 3x+ 42+x x2 + x 2 x2 3x + 2 4 x2 tan x sin x 1 2


2

3 (2x + 1)! 1 2 f (x) = x 5cos x + x+1 2 1 (ii) f (x) = [|x 1|] + [|12 x|] 11
(i)

Q3:

(a)

Find

the

domain ,

and

range the

of

f (x)

log

1 [cos x] [sin x]

[.]denotes

greatest

integer

function. (b). Find domain and range of function

f (x) =

log1/2 log2

[x2

+ 4x + 5]where [.]denotes

the greatest

1 cosecx x x 4 (x2 1) (x + 3)
3

integer function.

g)

log

Q4: Q5:
the greatest integer

If a function is dened as

f (x) =

log(x) g (x),
,

where .

h) i)

log x

g(x) = | sin x| + sin .x, (x) = sin x + cos x Then nd the domain of f (x).
(a). Find the range of the

0 x f (x)

logx (2 x) x 1 x j) cos 2 log 2 2 2 k) [x] x where [ ] represents


function l)

function

sin ln

x2 + e x2 + 1

cos ln

x2 + e x2 + 1
dened by

(b). Find the range of function

f :RR

sin

[x] 2
21

f (x) = tan

2 + 1 + x2

22

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS
x1 range of f (x) = does not a x2 + 1 1 longing to the interval 1, . 3
(i). Find the domain of the Find all possible values of real parameter 'a' so that the contain any value be-

Q6:

2.2 Denition of a function


A relation If

from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if

every element of set A has one and only one image in set B.

is a function from A to B and

Q7:

1 log1/2 (x2 7x + 13)


.

, where

is called the image of

under

(a, b) f , then f (a) = b f and a is called the

preimage of

under

(ii). Find the range of

log3 log1/2 x2 + 4x + 4

2.2.1

Problems for Practice

2.1.1.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1: The range of the function f (x) = x 1 + 2 3 x is
(a) (b) (c) (d)

2.2.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: (a). A function f (x) is dened for all x R and satises,

2,2 2 2, 10 2 2, 10 [1, 3]

f (x + y) = f (x) + 2y 2 + kxy x, y R, where k is a given constant. If f (1) = 2and f (2) = 8,nd f (x)and show that 1 f (x + y) .f = k , x + y = 0. x+y
Find all the relation

f (x)satisfying 2 4f (x) .f (x) + {f (x)} = 0 .


(b).

{f (x)} +

Q2:

The domain of the function

f (x) = cos1 sec cos1 x


(a) (b) (c) (d)

+ sin1 cos ec sin1 x

is

2.3 Graphs of Functions


2.3.1 Problems for Practice

xR x = 1, 1 1 x 1 x

2.3.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: Draw the graph of y = sin x sin 4x.

Q3:

Which of the following functions have their range equal to R (the set of real numbers)? (a) (b)

2.4 Even and odd Functions


2.4.1 Problems for Practice

x sin x [x] .x tan 2x 44 {0}


,

2.4.1.1 Subjective Problems


[.]denotes
the greatest

integer function (c) (d)

Q1:

Prove that

f (x) =

x sin x [x] + {x}, [.]and {.}respectively denote the greatx 1 2

2x (sin x + tan x) is x + 2 2 3

an odd functin.

[.]dentoes

greatest integer function.

est integer function and fractional part function.

Q2:
+

A function dened for all real numbers is dened for follows:

x 0as

Q4:

Find

the

domain

of

f (x) = 2x + cos1

f (x) =
How is

loge
A)

x [x]

x|x| , 0 x < 1 2x , x 1 f dened for x 0 if

B)

C)

1 2 1 2 1 2

(i)f is even ? (ii)f is odd?

Q3:

If f is an even function dened on the interval then nd four values of x satisfying the equation

(5, 5) , f (x) =

D) 0

x+1 x+2 f (x) = (1)


[x]
, is even,

2.1.1.3 Hints and Solutions Subjective Problems


{Hint: (i) Let the arguments be dened by the general term xn = arn1 . Then the value of the function corresponding to it will be yn = ln arn1 = ln |a| + (n 1) ln |r|. This means that two consecutive terms yn and yn1 dier by a constant .i.e. yn yn1 = ln |r|. Hence , these terms are in A.P. (ii)Proceeding in a similar manner , if we take the argument as a general term of an A.P. then the corresponding values of the function will have a constant common dierence.}
Q1 :

Q4: Q5:

Determine whether the function odd or neither of the two.

Let

x 2 f (x) = sin x + cos x ln x + 1 + x2

, 2 x 2 , 2<x , < x 10

Find

the even extension of the function. Is it possible to nd the odd extension of the function. Justify your answer.

Single Answer MCQ's


Q4: C

Q6:

If f : R R such that f (x + y) + f (x y) = 2f (x) f (y) x, y R and f (0) = 0. Prove that f (x)is an even function. What can be said about f (x)if f (0) = 0?

2.6. INJECTIVITY, SURJECTIVITY AND BIJECTIVITY


2.4.1.2 Hints and Solutions Subjective Problems
Q3:

23

2.5.1.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1:


The period of

sin

1 1 1 5 , 3 5 2 2

[x]represents
is (a) 12 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 24

[x] [x] [x] + cos + tan , 12 4 3

where

the greatest integer less than or equal to x

2.5 Periodicity
2.5.1 Problems for practice

2.5.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1:


Find the range of the function dened on

R given by

Q2:

If the fundamental period of function

cos
(a)

f (x) = sin x +

4 a2 x

is

4 then

the value of a is/are

f (x) =

exn sin 3 x 2

;n x n + 2 3 ;n + 2 < x < n + 1 3

aveexactlythesameelements,namely,none. where

n Z.

(b)

Q2:

Find period of the functions (i)

(c)

f (x) = ex[x]+| sin x|+| sin 2x|+....+| sin nx| , [.]denotes f (x) = 1 | sin x| + | cos x|

(d)

the greatest integer. (ii)

15 2 15 2 7 2 7 2

Q3:

2.5.1.3 Hints and Solutions Subjective Problems


Q4:

f (x, y)be a periodic function, satisfying the condition f (x, y) = f (2x + 2y, 2y 2x) x, y R and let g(x) be a x function dened as g(x) = f (2 , 0) . Prove that g(x) is
Let periodic function and nd its period.

22n aveexactlythesameelements,namely,none.

Q4:

Find the period of the function

2.6 Injectivity, Surjectivity and Bijectivity


2.6.1 Injectivity
A function for every

f (x) = cos

x x x x x x + cot + cos + cot + .... + cos 2n1 + cot 2n . 2 4 8 16 2 2


is a periodic function. Show that a is

f :X Y
,

is dened to be one-one (or injective ) ,

Q5: Q6:

f (x) = sin x + cos ax


a rational number.

if the images of distinct elements of

under

x1 , x2 X

f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

implies

f are distinct, x1 = x2 .

i.e.

If the real valued function f which satises

x+

3 2

2.6.2

Surjectivity

f (x) = f (x + 1) + f

x+

1 2

A function every

f :XY

is said to be onto (or surjective ) , if every

and

|f (x) | 2, x R,

then

element of Y is the image of some element of X under

prove that f is periodic.

y Y

, there exists an element

in

such that

f , i.e. for f (x) = y.

Q7:

Find the period of the follwing, if exists:

2.6.3

Bijectivity

(i) (ii)

f (x) = sin x + {x}

where

{x}is 1 2

fractional part of

x.

A function

bijective ) , if

f : X Y is said to be one-one f is both one-one and onto.

and onto ( or

f (x) = tan 3x + sin (x/3)A) 1 2 1 2

2.6.4

Problems for Practice

B)

C)

2.6.4.1 Subjective Problems Q1: Check whether the function


1 ,0 4 f (x) =
that

(, 3)

aveexactlythesameelements,namely,none.

given by

D) 0 (iii)

f (x) = cos (cos x) + cos (sin x)

x+1 x2 + 2x + 5

is bijective in its domain or not. Given

Q8:

f (x)

Find the period of the following function

is strictly decreasing in the doA)

1 2

1 2 (a) [x] + x + + x+ 3x + 10 3 3 (b) sin [x] 4 (c) x + a [x + b]where a, b R, [.]denotes


integer function.

B)

C)

1 2 1 2

the greatest

D) 0

main.

24

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS
Q2:
given by

2.6.4.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1: A function f : R [1, 2]


log3 (9 6 |cos x|)
is a) One-one only b) Onto only c) One-one and onto d) None of these

f :RR f (x)is

and

f (x) =

f (x)

x x4 + 1 (x + 1) + x4 + 2 x2 + x + 1

, then

(a) one-one into (b) many-one onto (c) one-one onto (d) many-one into

Q2:

Let

f : [0, ) S

dened as

f (x) = 2x(1x)

be oaveex-

Q3:

of a for which

f : R Rand f (x) = 2ax + sin 2x, then f (x)is one-one and onto is a 1 1 , 2 2

the set of values

actlythesameelements,namely,none.nto, then the set S is a) b) c) d)

[0, ) [1, ) 2
1 4
1

(a) (b) (c)

a (-1,1)

,1

2 4 , f :RR
dened by

1 1 aR , 2 2 (d) a R-(1, 1) f (x) = ex ex ,then ex2 + ex2


2 2

Q3:

Let (a) (b) (c) (d)

f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)

is one-one but not onto is neither one-one nor onto is many one but onto is one-one and onto by

2.6.4.4 Hints and Solutions Single Answer MCQ's


Q1: B Q2: D Q6: A

Q4:

If

f : X Y dened [1, 4] [2, 5] [2, 6]

f (x) =

3 sin x + cos x + 4

is

one-one and onto, then Y is (a) (b)

2.7 Inverse of a function


2.7.1 Problems for practice

(c )[1, 5] (d)

2.7.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: Check whether the function f : (, 0) (0, ) given by
f (x) =
2
Then possible.

Q5:

|x| x

is one-one and onto. Find it's inverse if

Let (a) (b) (c)

f (x) = [x] + [x + 1] 3,where [x] x.


a many-one and into function

f (x)is

Q2:

A function by

f : R {2, 2} 1 |x| 2

f (x) = 0 f (x) = 0

for innite number of values of x for only two real values

5 (3, ) 2

given

f (x) = 3 +

. Divide the domain into minimum

(d) none of the above

number of suitable subsets so that the function becomes

Q6:

The function

f : (4, 5]
2
is

sec

, 2

invertible on each individual domain. Also nd the inverse given by

f (x) =

on each of these domains.

log0.1 7x x

Q3: Q4:

f : R R f (x) =
and onto. Find

a) Injective only b) Surjective only c) Bijective d) None of these

ex ex 2 f 1 (x)also.

. Show that

f (x)

is one-one

Solve the equation:

2loga x +
.

x2 + 1 + ax ax = 0 ,

where

a=

2+1

2.6.4.3 Linked Comprehension type questions 2.7.1.2 Single Answer MCQ's Comprehension-1: If f : R Rand f (x) = g (x)+h (x)where Q1: A function on f : [2, 4) (, 0]
g (x) is a polynomial and h (x) is a continuous and dierentiable bounded function on both sides, then we need to dierentiate

is given by

f (x) =

f (x)is

one-one

f (x)if f (x).

changes sign in do-

main of f, then f if many-one else one-one.

Q1:

f : R Rand
where

2 + log2 x2 + 4x a) 2 2 1 2x b) 2 2 1 2x c)2 + 2 4 2x
d) None of these

. Then

f 1 (x)

is given by

f (x) = a1 x + a3 x3 + a5 x5 + ... + a2n+1 x2n+1 cot1 x 0 < a1 < a3 < ... < a2n+1 ,then the function f (x)is
(a) one-one into (b) many-one onto (c) one-one onto (d) many-one into

Q2:

1 2 5 x2 x+ 4 . f (x) = cosec1 5
A function

f :

0, cosec1 5
Its inverse

is given by

f 1 (x)is

given

by

2.9. END CHAPTER PROBLEMS


a) b) c) d)

25

1 + log5 cosecx 1 2 1 log5 cosecx + 1 2 1 log0.2 sin x 1 2 1 1 log0.2 sin x 2

Q3: Q4:. Q5:

If

f (x) = sin ln

4 x2 1x

, then the domain of

f (x)

is

There are exactly two distinct linear functions, ..., and ...

which map If

[1, 1]

onto

[0, 2]. x
satisfying the equation

is an even function dened on the interval

then four real values of

(5, 5), f (x) =

2.7.1.3 Hints and Solutions


Single Answer MCQ's Q1: D Q2: C

x+1 x+2 f (x)

are ...... and .......... .

Q6:

If

= andg 3 5 4

sin2 x = 1,

+
then

sin2 x +

cos x cos x +

(gof ) (x) =...

2.8 Composition of Functions


2.8.1 Problems for practice

2.9.2

True/ False type Problems


1/n
and n is a positive

Q1: Q2: Q3:

2.8.1.1 Subjective Problems


1x , 0 x 1 Q1: Let f : [0, 1] [0, 1]dened by f (x) = 1+x and let g : [0, 1] [0, 1] dened by g (x) = 4x (1 x) , 0 x 1. Determine the composition f og and gof .

f (x) = (a xn ) whereas a > 0 integer, then f [f (x)] = x.


If The functions 3. If

f (x) =

x2 + 4x + 30 x2 8x + 18

is not one-to-one.

f1 (x)

and

respectively, then

f2 (x) are dened on domains D1 and D2 f1 (x) + f2 (x)is dened on D1 D2 .

Q2:

Find where

the

domain

and

range

f (x) =

[x] |x| + 1
,

h (x) = g (f (x)), , 2 x 1 and g (x) = , 1 < x 2


of

2.9.3

Single Answer MCQ's

Q1:

Let (a) (b) (c)

f (x) = |x 1|.Then:
2

[x] sin x
function.

, x 0 , 0x

[.]denotes

the greatest integer

f x2 = (f (x)) f (|x|) = |f (x) |

f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y)

Q3:

f , g , h are dened from the set of numreal 2 x2 + 1 , bers R R such that f (x) = x 1 , g (x) = 0 , x 0 h (x) = then nd the composite funcx , x 0 tion hof og and determine whether the function f og is invertible and function h is identity function.
If the functions If the function f and g are dened from the set of real numbers R to R such that then nd function

(d) none of these

Q2:

2.

If

f (x) = cos (ln x),


has the value :

then

f (x) f (y)

1 f 2

x y

f (xy)
(a) -1

Q4:

(f og)

and (gof )

f og
.

and

f (x) = ex , g (x) = 3x 2 , gof . Also nd the domain of

(b)

1 2

(c) -2 (d) none of these

Q5:
f (x)

Two functions are dened as under,

x+1 2x + 1
. Find

, ,

x1 , g (x) 1<x2
and

Q3:
=

The domain of denition of the function

y=

1 + log10 (1 x)

x+2

is : - 2.5

x x+2

, 1 x < 2 , 2x3

f og

gof .

(a) (b) (c)

(3, 2)excluding [0, 1]excluding (2, 1)


0.5 excluding 0

2.8.1.2 Hints and Solutions


Subjective Problems Q2: Domain

(d) none of these , Range

[, ]

[4, 1]

Q4:

Which of the following function is periodic?

2.9 End Chapter Problems


2.9.1 Fill in the Blank type Problems

Q1: Q2:

The values of

f (x) = 3 sin

2 x2 16

f (x) = x[x] where [x] denotes the greatest integer x. 1 (b) f (x) = sin for x = 0 , f (0) = 0 x (c) f (x) = x cos x
(a) less than or equal to the real number (d) none of these

lie in the interval

The domain of the function by

f (x) = sin1 log2

x2 2

is given

Q5:

For real

x,

the function

(x a) (x b) (x c)

will assume all real

values provided :

26

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS
(a) (b) (c) (d)

a>b>c a<b<c a>c<b acb f (g (x)) = (sin f (x) = sin2 x, g (x) = x


and

Q13:

Let

g(x) = 1 + x [x] x, f [g (x)]is

and

1 f (x) = 0 1

, x<0 , x=0 , , x>0

then for all

equal to :

Q6:

If

g (f (x)) = |sin x|

x)

, then :

(a)

x f (x) g(x) f : [1, ) [2, )MCQ's


with more than one correct , then

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(b) 1 (c) (d)

f (x) = sin x, g (x) = |x| f (x) = x2 g (x) = sin x f


and

can not be determined. then

Q14.

If

Q7:

Iff (x)

= 3x 5,

f 1 (x) :

optionsis given by

1 f (x) = x + x

f 1 (x)equals

(a) is given by

(b) is given by

1 3x 5 x+5 3 f f
is not one-one is not onto. is dened by

(a) (b)

x+

x2 4 2

(c) does not exist because (d) does not exist because

(c)

Q8:

If the function

x(x1)

,then f

f : [1, ] [1, ] (x) is :

f (x) =

(d)

x 1 + x2 x x2 4 2 1 + x2 4 f (x) = log2 (x + 3) is x2 + 3x + 2
:

(a)

1 2

x(x1)

Q15:

The domain of denition of

(b) (c)

1 1 + 1 + 4log2 x 2 1 1 + 1 + 4log2 x 2 f () = (sin + sin 3).


only when for all real all real when Then

(a) (b) (c) (d)

R/ {1, 2} (2, ) R {1, 2, 3} (3, ) {1, 2}

(d) not dened

Q9:

Let (a) (b) (c) (d)

f ()

Q16.
:

f (x) = 1 + b2 x2 + 2bx + 1 and let m(b) be the minimum value of f (x). As b varies, the range of m(b) is:
Let (a) (b)

0 0

0 0 y(x)
is given by is :

[0, 1] 0, 1 2

0for

0only

Q10.

(c) (d)

The domain of denition of the function

the equation (a) (b) (c) (d)

2x + 2y = 2

1 ,1 2 (0, 1] E = {1, 2, 3, 4}and F = {1, 2} .Then E to F is:


the number of

0<x1 0x1 < x 0 < x < 1 x (0, 1):

Q17.

Let

onto functions from

(a) 14MCQ's with more than one correct options (b) 16 (c) 12 (d) 8

Q11:

For all

(a) (b) (c) (d)

ex < 1 + x loge x < x sin x < x loge x < x x


o

Q18:

Let

f (x) =

x x+1

x = 1

. Then, for what value of a is

Q12:

f : (0, ) R and F (x) = x2 (1 + x), then f (4) equals:


Let

f (t)dt.

If

F x2 =

f [f (x)] = x (a) 2 (b) 2


(c) (d)

? :

1 1 f (x) = (x + 1) y = x,
2
for

(a) 5/4 (b) 7 (c) 4(a) (b)

integer function

x sin x [x] .x tan 2x

Q19:
44 {0}, [.]denotes
the greatest

Suppose

x 1

If

function whose graph is reection of the graph of respect to the line (a) then

g(x) is the f (x) with

g(x)

equals:

x sin x (d) [x] +


(c) (d) 2

{x}, [.]and {.}respectively denote the great-

est integer function and fractional part function.

x1 , x0 1 (b) 2 , x > 1 (x + 1) (c) x + 1 , x 1 (d) x1 , x0

2.9. END CHAPTER PROBLEMS


Q20:
Let function for

27

x R.

Then

f :RR f is:

be dened by

f (x) = 2x + sin x

2.9.4

Multiple answer MCQ's

(a) one-to-one and onto (b) one-to-one but not onto (c) onto but not one-to-one (d) neither one-to-one nor onto

Q1:

If

y = f (x) = x = f (y) f (1) = 3 y f

x+2 x1

then :

(a) (b)

Q21.

If

f : [0, ) [0, )

and

f (x) =

x 1+x

(c) , then

increases with

for

x<1 x
.

is:

(d)

is a rational function of

(a) one-one and onto (b) one-one but not onto (c) onto but not one-one (d) neither one-one nor onto

Q2:

If S is the set of all real tive, then S contains:

such that

2x3

2x 1 + 3x2 + x

is posi-

Q22.

Range of the function

f (x) =

x +x+2 x2 + x + 1

(a) ;

xR

3 2

is : (b)

(1, ) 11 (b) 1, 7 7 (c) 1, 3 7 (d) 1, 5


(a)

3 1 , 2 4 1 1 , 4 2 1 ,3 2

(c)

(d)

(e) none of these

Q23.

Domain

of

denition

of

the

function

f (x)

Q3:

Let

g(x)

be a function dened on

[1, 1].
is:

If the area of

sin1 (2x) +
(a)

the equilateral triangle with two of its vertices at

for real valued

x,

is:

(b)

(c)

(d)

1 1 , 4 2 1 1 , 2 2 1 1 , 2 9 1 1 , 4 4 f (x) = sin x + cos x 2 , 4 4 , 2 2 [0, ] 0, x , if 0 , if x x is is x x is is rational irrational


. Then ,

3 [x, g (x)] is , then the 4 (a) g (x) = 1 x2 1 x2 (b) g (x) = (c) g (x) = 1 x2 1 + x2 (d) g (x) =

(0, 0)

and

function

g(x)

Q4:
g(x) = x2 1
then

If

f (x) = cos 2 x + cos 2 x, = 1 2 f () = 1

where

[x]

stands for the

greatest integer function, then:

Q24.

If

g (f (x))

is

invertible in the domain: (a) (b) (c) (d)

(a) (b) (c)

f () = 0 (d) f =1 4

Q5:

For a positive integer

, let

Q25.

f (x) =

fn () =

(1 + sec ) (1 + sec 2) 2 (1 + sec 4) ... (1 + sec 2n ) then : tan


(a) (b) (c) (d)

g (x) =

0 , if x , if

rational irrational

f g

is:

f2 f3 f4 f5

(a) one-one and into (b) neither one-one nor onto (c) many one and onto (d) one-one and onto

Q26.

If

and

are two non-empty sets where

f :X Y

=1 16 =1 32 =1 64 =1 128

is

function is dened such that

2.9.5
for any

Subjective Questions

f (c) = {f (x) : x C}for C X 1 and f (D) = {x : f (x) D}for D Y , B Y then: 1 (a) f (f (A)) = A 1 (b) f (f (A)) = Aonly if f (X) = Y 1 (c) f f (B) = B only if B f (x) 1 (d) f f (B) = B

AY

and

Q1: Q2:

Let

y=

(x + 1) (x 3) . (x 2) x 6 3

Find all the real values of x for

which y takes real values. Given nd

A= x:

and

f (x) = cos x x (1 + x);

f (A).

28

CHAPTER 2. FUNCTIONS
Let f be a one-one function with domain {x, y, z} and range {1, 2, 3} . It is given that exactly one of the following statements is true and the remaining two are false

Q3:

2.9.7

Matrix Match type Problems


Let

Matrix1:
ments in

f (x) =

x2 6x + 5 . x2 5x + 6

f (x) = 1 , f (y) = 1 , f (z) = 2

determine

f 1 (1) f (x) =
which

Q4: Q5:

Match the conditions / expressions in

Let

f (x)be
for all the

a function satisfying the condition

f (x)
Find

x.

If

f (0)exists,
natural

nd its value:

Column II. Column I


(A) If

Column I
(P)

with state-

Column II
0 < f (x) < 1 f (x) < 0 (R) f (x) < 0 (S) f (x) < 1
(Q)

number

a
the

for

n f (a + k) = 16 (2n ) 1. k = 1.
satises the relation numbers x, y and further where function

1 < x < 1, then f (x) satises (B) If 1 < x < 2 , then f (x) satises (C) If 3 < x < 5, then f (x) satises (D) If x > 5, then f (x) satises

f (x + y) = f (x) f (y)for f (1) = 2 .

all natural

Q6: Q7:

Let

(x + y) 2
exists and

f (0)

{f (x) + f (y)} for all real x and y , 2 equals 1 and f (0) = 1, nd f (2). = IR, is the ax2 + 6x 8 f (x) = a + 6x 8x2
where

If

A function

f : IR IR,

set of real . Find the

numbers, is den1.ed by

interval of values of a for which is onto. one-to one for a = 3 ? Justify your answer

Is the functions

Q8:

Find the range of values of

for which

2 sin t =
2.9.6

1 2x + 5x 3x2 2x 1

t , 2 2

Assertion and Reason type Questions

Q1.

Let

F (x) x.

be an indenite integral of

sin2 x. F (x + ) = F (x)

Statement-I :
for all real (a)

The function F (x) satises

Statement-II : sin2 (x + ) = sin2 x for all real x.


Statement-I is True, Statement-II is True; Statement-II is a correct explanation for Statement-I. (b) Statement-I is is True, a Statement-II correct is True; for

because

Statement-II Statement-I.

NOT

explanation

(c) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is False. (d) Statement-I is False, Statement-II is True.

Q2.

Let

f (x) = 2 + cos x

for all real

x.

Statement-I :
[t, t + ]such

For each real t,

there exists a point c in for each real t.

Statement-II

that

f (c) = 0 because : f (t) = f (t + 2)

(a) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is True; Statement-II is a correct explanation for Statement-I (b) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is True; Statement-II is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-I (c) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is False (d) Statement-I is False, Statement-II is True

Q3. Statement-I: The curve y =

respect to the line x = 1. because

x2 +x+1is symmetric with 2

Statement-II : A parabola is symmetric about its axis.


(a) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is True; Statement-II is a correct explanation for Statement-I (b) Statement-I is is True, a Statement-II correct is true; for

Statement-II Statement-I

NOT

explanation

(c) Statement-I is True, Statement-II is False (d) Statement-I is False, Statement-II is True.

Chapter 3

Limits
Q:
Evaluate the limits a)

lim cos( n2 + n)

Sol.

a) Case I :

29

30

CHAPTER 3. LIMITS

Chapter 4

Continuity & Direntiability


4.0.8 Problems for Practice

4.0.8.1 Multiple answer MCQ's Q1:


If

x=

atan1 t , y =

acot1 t

, then

dy = dx

y x a/6 b) x2 1 c) x2 a d) x2
a)

31

32

CHAPTER 4. CONTINUITY & DIFFRENTIABILITY

Chapter 5

Applications of Derivatives
5.1 Rate of Change
5.1.1 Problems for practice

Subjective Problems Q1:


A ladder on the is pulled upwards at a rate of

13m long is leaning against a wall. Its upper edge 12cm/s. Its lower edge slides ground. What is the rate of change of the angle 12m
away from the wall.

Q4:

The pressure of the gas inside the cavity varies as

PV =

k (a

constant) , then the rate of change of Pressure of the time is { at the instant when

gas inside the cavity w.r.t.

,which the ladder makes with the ground, w.rt. time , when the foot of the ladder is

dr = 2 dt
a)

units/sec ,

= 3 units }

5.1.1.1 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: A Scientist at CERN labs recently

[(3+5

2k 1 +1 . 32 2)] 2)]

de-

b) c)

signed a gadget to measure the variations of pressure of Helium gas with change in its volume. The gadget consists of a hollow frustrum(of a cone) with constant base angle

7 [(5+ 2

6k

1 32+1

(3+5

2k 1 1 . 2+1 3 2)

45o r

and variable dimensions. The frustrum is closed at bot-

d) None of these

tom and open at top. A spherical ball with variable radius is dropped inside the frustrum from the open face. The ball expands to t the frustrum and touches it at the top edge and the centre of the base{as shown in the Figure}. Helium gas is then put in the cavity between the ball and frustrum. The ball now contracts and the frustrum also contracts maintaining a constant angle

5.1.1.2 Hints and Solutions Linked Comprehension Type Questions Comprehension 1


Answers: Q1) C , Q2) A ,Q3) B ,Q4) B.

45o

and touching the

ball only at the top edge and the centre of the base.{Note: The area of the portion of sphere outside the frustrum is

2r2 1

1 2

{Hint: Q1) Let r1 be the radius of the top opening, r2 be the radius of the base and h be the height of the frustrum. From adjoining diagram, it is clear that r 1 r1 = , r2 = r( 2 + 1) & h = r 1 +
2 2

Q1:

Express the volume of the frustrum in terms of a) b) c)

r.

1 3 3 r 1 3 3 r 1 3 3 r

2+ 2 7+

1 2 1 2 19 4

d) None of these

Q2:

The volume of the portion of sphere outside the frustrum is

2 2 We know that the volume of a frustrum is V = h(r1 + r2 + r1 r2 )


V = 1 r 3 1 1+ 2 r 2 2 + r 2+1 2 r + .r( 2 + 1) 2

1 3

1 3 a) r 3 1 3 b) r 3
c)

2 2

5 4

1 3 3 r

2 2 2

Q2: To nd the volume of the portion of sphere outside the frustrum, we rst nd the volume of 3Dimensional Portion of the sphere shown in gure

V = 1 r3 7 + 3

19 4

d) None of these

Q3:

What is the rate of change of the volume of the cavity w.r.t.

r
a) b) c)

r2

5 2

r2 5 +

7 2 2 7 2 2

r2 3 + 5 2

d) None of these. 33

Let it's volume be v and the upper Curved Surface Area be a v a Using the concept of Solid Angle, = {= } (where V is the V A 4 Volume of the Complete Sphere , A is the Surface Area of the Sphere and is the solid angle)

34

CHAPTER 5. APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES


2r2 1 v = 4 3 4r2 r 3 2 3 1 v = r 1 2 3
1 2

What was the maximum distance between the trajectories of the two missiles? a) 4 units b) 8 units c) 12 units d) 16 units

Alternatively, this Volume can be found out by generating dirential cones of base area dA and slant height r.These dirential cones are generated by joining the boundaries of the dirential area with the centre of the sphere . The volume of one such cone will be
1 dV = rdA 3

as

Adding these dirential cones, we get the volume of the portion of sphere
v = 1 1 ra = r.2r2 1 3 3
1 2

found above. Now we need to subtract the volume of the cone from this volume to get the required volume of the portion of sphere outside the frustrum.

= r3 1

2 3

1 2

which is the same as

5.2.1.3 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: A circular sheet of radius R is taken and a
sector of angle

is cut out of it. A cone is made of this cutThe volume of the cone

out sector(Curved Surface only). depends on the angle

of the sector.

Vcone = Vportion

1 r 2 r . 3 2 2 = v Vcone

Q1:
r 2
2

The angle

for which the volume of the cone generated is

the maximum is

Vportion =

{The student may note that the concept of Solid angle can be developed intuitively without any prior knowledge of the concept} Q3: From the gure , it is clear that
Vcavity = VF rustrum + VP ortion VSphere 4 VCavity= 1 r3 7 + 19 2 + 1 r3 2 5 2 - r3 3 4 3 4 3 1 7 2 VCavity = r3 5 + 3 2 dVCavity 7 = r2 5 + 2 dr 2 =k Q4:P V k P = V k P = 1 3 7 r 2 5+ 3 2 dP k 3 dr 6k 1 = = . 2+1 } 7 . 3+1 . 1 7 dt r dt [(5+ 2 2)] 3 5+ 2 3 2

2 3 1 1 r 1 2 3 3 1 Vportion = 3 r3 2 5 2 4

r . 2

A)

B)

1 .2 2 2 .2 3 3 .2 4

C)

D)None of these

Q2:

The Volume of the cone with the maximum volume is

3 3 R 4 1 3 B) R 6 2 2 3 C) R 9 3
A) D)None of these

Q3:

The semi-vertical angle of the cone with maximum volume is A)

5.2 Maxima and Minima


5.2.1 Problems for Practice

5.2.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1: A thin rectangular sheet is inscribed in a sphere of radius
R
. What can be its maximum area.

6 B) 4 C) 3
2: S is an ellipse in the Cartesian plane with

D)None of these

Q2:

h is inscribed in a right circular cone having base radius R and semi verticlal angle . What is the rate of change of volume of cylinder w.r.t. at the instant when = 4.
A cylinder of height

Comprehension
eccentricity

its major axis parallel to x-axis, having centre at

1 ,1 2

1 2

and passing through the intersection of Further

y=

5.2.1.2 Single Answer MCQ's Q1: From a military base located at


at (8,0) along the path

f (x) and the line 2x + y = 1 .


the origin, a Surface-toSometime later, a

satisfying the property relation

x, y

and

f (1) = c

, where

f (x) is a polynomial f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) 0 c 32

Surface Missile(STSM) was red onto a target city located

y = 8x x2 .

Q1:

The minimum possible area of the ellipse is a)

Radar located in the target city detected the missile and an Anti-Ballistic Interceptor Missile(ABIM) was red from the city along the path

y =

8x x2

1 to intercept the

missile. Ironically, the ABIM made substantial damage to the military base and the target city was also destroyed.

b)

guided missile may move along a non-parabolic path as it is propelled by rockets or jet engines

1A

c)

2 11 2 2 11 2 9

d) None of these

5.2. MAXIMA AND MINIMA


Q2:
The equation of auxillary circle for the ellipse of maximum area, is

35

V =

1 3

R 2

R2 2 .2 3

R 2

a)

1 x 2 x x 1 2 1 2

1 + (y 1) = 4
2

Substituting =
2 V = R3 units 9 3

b)

+ (y 1) = 2
2

Q3: It can be observed from the gure that for the semi-vertical angle ,
sin = r R R 2 R = 2 2 } 3 2 3

c)

+ (y 1) =

17 9

d) None of these

sin =
f (x)
for

Q3:

c0+
a) 1 b) 0 c) 17

lim

f 1 + f / (x)

x>0

, is

sin =

= sin1

Comprehension 2:
Answers: Q1) C Q2)B Q3)A

d) None of these

5.2.1.4 Hints and Solutions


Q1) C

{ Hint: Q1: It can be easily veried that f (x) = cx Solving it with 2x + y = 1 gives
x= 1 c+2

,y=

c c+2

Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1:


Answers: Q1) B Q2)C Q3)D

The equation of ellipse will be


x a 1 2 2 + y1 b
2

=1 1 a2 2

{Hints:Q1) The area of the sector is A =

.R2 = R2 2 2

Now, since the eccentricity is , b2 = a2 (1 e2 ) i.e. b2 =


2

Hence the equation of ellipse becomes


x (y 1)2 =1 a2 2 c 1 ,y= x= c+2 c+2 +
2

1 2

a2

Now,

lies on it
2

1 1 c+2 2 a2

When the cone is generated from the sector, its Curved Surface Area will be equal to the area of the sector.
rR = R2 2 r= R 2

c 1 c+2 2 a 2

=1

a2 =

c2 + 32 4 (c + 2)2 a2 2 =0 =0

Area of ellipse =ab =


R 2
2

Also h = R2 r2 = R2
V (Volume V = 1 3

d Area min dc

a2 2

of the Cone)
R 2
2

1 = r2 h 3 R 2
2

i.e.

d dc

c2 + 32 4 2 (c + 2)2

R2 (2)
2

(c 16) =0 2 (c + 2)3

1 R3 2 V= 3 (2)3 dV d R3

2 2 2 (2)

This gives c = 16 . Also it may be noted that the derivative is negative in the left neighbourhood of c = 16 and positive on the right neighbourhood of c = 16 . Hence, c = 16 is a point of minima.
a2 2 Amin = = 9 2

1 = 2 3 (2)3 R3

(2)

(2)2 2

1 3 (2)3

2 (2)2 2 + 3 (2)
2

Q2: It is easy to observe that maxima of A can occur at c = 0 or c = 32 At c = 0 , a2 = 2 At c = 32 , a2 =


32 33 4 (34)2 < 1 4

As is clear, the points = 0 & = 2 will yield a minima each. There will be an intermediate maxima between these two points. The point of maxima will lie at corresponding to
2 (2)2 2 2 = 0 2 (2) =
2

Hence, the maximum occurs at c = 0 The equation of auxillary circle is


x 1 2 x
2

+ (y 1)2 = a2 1 2
2

32

=0

2 .2 3

i.e.

+ (y 1)2 = 2
f (x)

Q2: Volume of the cone is given by

Q3: lim+ f 1 + f / (x)


c0

for x > 0 , is

36

CHAPTER 5. APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES


= lim (c (1 + c))cx
c0+

Q3:

A curve of the family represents A) Parabola B) Ellipse C) Hyperbola D) a pair of straight lines

= ec0+

lim ln(c(1+c)).cx

ln (c (1 + c)) lim .x 1 c0+ c =e

Applying L'Hospital Rule


lim

c0+

=e

2c + 1 (c (1 + c)) .x 1 2 c

5.3.1.4 Answers
3.3.1.1(Multiple Answer MCQ's) Q1: A,B 3.3.1.2(Matrix Match Type Problems) Matrix 1: (P)B,C,E (Q)A,C,E (R)A,B,C,D,E (S)B,C,D,E

= e0 = 1 }

5.3 Tangents and Normals


5.3.1 Problems for Practice

5.3.1.1 Multiple Answer MCQ's Q1: The point(s) on the curve y2 + 4 = 8x , where the tangent
makes equal intercepts with the axes , is/are a)

5 ,4 2 5 , 4 2 5 ,4 4 5 ,2 4

b)

c)

d)

5.3.1.2 Matrix Match Type Problems Matrix 1: Under Column I, equations of some curves are listed.
Under Column II, equations of some lines are listed. An entry in Column I is linked to an entry in column II , if the entry in Column II is either a tangent or a normal to the curve given in the entry in Column I.

Column I P)y2 6y 4x + 21 = 0 Q)x2 4x + 4y 4 = 0 R)x2 + y2 4x 6y + 5 = 0 S)x2 + y2 6y + 7 = 0

Column II A)x = 2 B)y = 3 C)y = x + 1 D)y = x + 5 E)y + x = 5

5.3.1.3 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: The tangent at a point P of a curve meets
the axis of

in .

N O

. The parallel through

to the axis of

in

. The parallel through

to the axis of

meet the

axis of

at

is the origin. If the area of the triangle

M ON

is constant , then answer the following questions

Q1:

The dierential equation of the curve is given by A) B) C)

x2 y xy = c xyy y 2 = c xyy x2 = c

D) None of these

Q2:

The equation of the family of curve is A) B) C)

ky 2 xy = c kx2 xy = c kxy y 2 = c

D) None of these

Chapter 6

Indenite Integrals
Q1:
Evaluate the following Integrals a)

x2 ex (x + 2)

2 dx

6.0.1.7 Hints and Solutions Single Answer MCQ's


Q1: Answer : A

Sol:

a)

x2 ex (x + 2)

{Hint:
2 dx

dx sin (x a) cos (x b) cos ((x b) (x a)) 1 dx cos (a b) sin (x a) cos (x b)


1 cos (x a) cos (x b) + sin (x a) sin (x b) sin (x a) cos (x b) dx = cos (a b)

= =

x2 4 + 4 (x + 2)
2

e dx ex dx x2 x+2 x2 x+2
, then

x2 4 + x + 2 (x + 2)2 f (x) =
2 dx =

Now we know, if

f / (x) =

4 (x + 2)
2

sin (x b) cos (x a) 1 dx + dx cos (a b) sin (x a) cos (x b) 1 (ln |sin (x a)| ln |cos (x b)|) + cos (a b) 1 sin (x a) ln +C } cos (a b) cos (x b)
Q2:Answer : A

= C =

Hence,

x2 ex (x + 2)

{Hint:We rst of all make the partial fractions of . If we want to do it with the method of vedic mathematics, we must make the coecients of all the x equal in all the fractions. We make it equal to 2 for our convenience. i.e
2 4x2 + 2x + 1 2x (2x 1) (2x + 1) 2 (1) = 2 (1) (1) = a b c + + 2x 2x 1 2x + 1 2 (3) =3 (1) (2) 4x2 + 2x + 1 x (2x 1) (2x + 1)

e +C

6.0.1.5 Subjective Problems Q1: Evaluate the Integral


x4m + x2m + xm 3 3m x + 3xm + 6 2 1 m dx
for

a=

,b=

and c =

2 (1) =1 (1) (2) dx

x>0

Q2:

4x2 + 2x + 1 dx = x (2x 1) (2x + 1)

2 3 1 + + 2x 2x 1 2x + 1

Evaluate the Integral

= ln |x| +

cosec
1

9x2 + 12x + 29 3x + 2

dx

6.0.1.6 Single Answer MCQ's Q1:


The integral

1 3 ln |2x 1| + ln |2x + 1| +Integration Constant 2 2 Comparing this with the given equation A ln |x| + B ln |2x 1| + 3 1 C ln |2x + 1| + D , we get A = 1, B = and C = 2 2 3 1 A + B C = 1 + = 0} 2 2

dx sin (x a) cos (x b)

equals

a)

1 sin (x a) ln +C cos (a b) cos (x b) 1 cos (x a) ln +C sin (a b) cos (x b) 1 cos (x a) ln +C cos (a b) sin (x b)

b)

c)

d) None of these

Q2:

4x2 + 2x + 1 dx = A ln |x| + B ln |2x 1| + x (2x 1) (2x + 1) C ln |2x + 1| + D . Then, A + B C equals


If a) b) c)

0 1 3

d) None of these

37

38

CHAPTER 6. INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

Chapter 7

Denite Integrals
7.0.2 Problems for Practice

7.0.2.3 Matrix Match type Problems Matrix


1: In Column I, some expressions containing Integrals are given.In Column II, some values are given . Match the

7.0.2.1 Single Answer MCQ's Q1:


2
0

tan1

4x 4 4 + 2x x2

dx

equals

expression in Column I with the values in Column II.

a) 0 b) 1 c) d)

Column I
45
5 5

C II
3

4 t2
0

(P) 35 (Q) 16
x f (x) dx = 2t5 .
3 2

ln x 2 dx x ln (x2 ) dx
1 2

(A)0
2

x dx
3

72

Q2:

t > 0 , the denite Then f 2 equals 2 2


If for a)

integral

where [ ] is the greatest integer function. 3 (C)2 (R) 5 e(5x2) dx + 2 e(t+2) dt (S) 2 3
2
3 5 2 5 3

x+ 2 16

dx

(B)1

cos2 1

(x + 1)5 243

dx + 4

1 2

sin2 32x5 dx

(D)3

Q3:

e2 log |x| dx e2 x
a) 2 b) -2 c) 4 d) -4

equals

7.0.2.4 Hints and Solutions Single Answer MCQ's


Q1 a) A { Hint : a)Let

I=

2
0

tan1

Q4:

tan x 1 dt x0 x t3 lim
a) 0 b) c)

equals

1 2 1 3 log x
1

d) None of these

Q5:

If

t5 f (t) dt = log (x) 1

, then

f (2)equals

a) 0 b) 1 c) d)

1 2 1 32

7.0.2.2 Multiple Answer MCQ's Q1: f (x) is a twice direntiable function on (, ) such that
f (x) = f (2 x)
A) B ) and

x1 dx x x2 1+ 2 4 x x 1 2 2 dx I = 0 tan1 2 x x 1+ 1 2 2 x x Now , we know that x (0, 2), both and 1 2 2 in the interval (0, 1). 2 x x tan1 1 dx I = 0 tan1 2 2 2 2 x x I = 0 tan1 dx 0 tan1 1 dx 2 2 b Now, applying the property, f (x) dx a b f (a + b x) dx on the second integral, we get a I=
0

4x 4 4 + 2x x2

dx

tan1

lie

I= I=

2
0

tan1 tan1

f/

2 7

=0

, then

2
0

2 x (2 x) dx 0 tan1 1 2 2 2 x x dx 0 tan1 dx = 0 2 2

dx

f / (1) = 0
/

Multiple Answer MCQ's


Q1: A, B, C ,D

f (x) vanishes at least thrice in [0, 2]. 1 C) f (x + 1) tan xdx = 0 1 1 2 D) f (t) esin 2 t dt = 1 f (2 t) esin 2 t dt 0
39

Matrix Match type Problems


Matrix 1:

40

CHAPTER 7. DEFINITE INTEGRALS

Chapter 8

Applications of Integrals
8.1 Areas
8.1.1 Problems for Practice

8.1.1.1 Subjective Problems Q1:


For

x0

, the curve

y = x2 sin x

forms alternate humps

and ditches with respect to the x axis. Find the ratios of the areas of the second hump and the rst ditch.

8.1.2

Hints and Solutions

Also,

r = R sin (Radius

of the dirential cylinder)

Subjective Problems
Q1:

8.2 Curved Surface Area and Volume


Q:
A cork ball of radius at a distance

is taken and it is cut with a knife Note that

smaller of the cut portions.

R 2

from the centre . Find the volume of the

d is so small that the curve on the edges will vanish

and the gure will be a cylinder. Hence we can nd the volume of the dirential cylinder

dV = r2 dh = (R sin ) (R sin d) dV = R3 sin3 d 0 V = R3 sin3 d 3 V = R3 03 sin3 d V = R3 03 sin 1 cos2 d V = R3 03 sin d 03 sin cos2 d V = R
3

cos3 [ cos ]0 3
3

V = R3 V = 5 R3 24

1 1 1 + 2 3

1 1 8

Sol:

To calculate the volume of the portion of ball, we divide it into dirential cylinders. Let us keep a single parameter

8.2.1

Problems for Practice

to exress the radius and height of the dirential cylinders. The parameter

varies from

to

as the distance of the

8.2.1.1 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension


1: An unnamed space project, by a major space organization is in the form of a cone with a paraboloid cavity at the bottom. The parabolic cavity has its focus at the centre of the base of the cone and it touches the the outer curved surface of the cone at the base edge. The height of the cavity is

cylinder from the centre varies from varies from

cylinder from the centre is given by

R 3 2

to

R 2

and the radius

to 0.

The distance

of the dirential

a.

The body of the project is made of solid

h = R cos dh = R sin d(
The height of the dirential cylinder) 41

Lead and a coating of carbon of thickness cavity). clear.

2m

is made on

both the curved surfaces(CSA of cone and the paraboloid A diagram is given to make the situation more

42

CHAPTER 8. APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS


Q3:
The volume of the portion which recieves signals from both the towers is

92 105 m3 3 5 3 b)92 10 m 92 c) 105 m3 5


a) d)None of these

Q1:

The height of the space project is

a) b) c)

3 a 2 2a 4a

8.2.1.2 Hints and Solutions Linked Comprehension type problems


Comprehension 1: Answers Q1) B Q2) A Q3) C

{Hint: Let us choose a coordinate axis as shown in the gure.

d) None of these.

Q2:

The volume of lead in the project is

a) b) c)

2 3 a 3 a3 4 3 a 3

d) None of these

Q3:

The total amount of Carbon used in the project is

8 2 a 3 2 2 106 m3 3 8 2 b) a 5 2 2 106 m3 3 8 2 c) a 7 2 2 106 m3 3


a) d) None of these

a) The parabola is a downward facing parabola with with vertex at (0, a) and focus at O(0, 0). Its equation is given by x2 = 4a (y a).[ We are working in the cross-sectional plane only.] . We know that the latus rectum of the parabola is of length 4a. This means the points where the parabola touches the cone have co-ordinates (2a, 0) and (2a, 0). The slope of tangent at these two points can be found out by direntiating the curve
dy dx dy x = dx 2a dy = 1 dx (2a,0) 2x = 4a

Comprehension

2: Two adjacent BSNL towers have the fol-

Hence the cone has a base angle of 45o .i.e the height of the project is 2a. b) The volume of the cone is equal to VCone =
1 8 (2a)2 (2a) = a3 3 3 1 2 r h = 3 base

lowing specications. One is located in Sector-36, Chandigarh and forms a Hemi-Spherical cell of radius 300m . Second one is located in Village Attawa and forms a hemispherical cell of radius 400m. Both the towers are at a distance of half a kilometer.[It may be assumed that the Transmitters are at ground level.]

Now our concern is to nd the volume of the cavity. To do this, we devide the cavity into dirential cylinders of radius x and height dy.

Q1:

The angle of intersection of the cells is a) b) c)

6 3 2

The volume of a dirential cylinder is


dV = x2 dy VCavity = x2 dy a VCavity = 0 (4a (y a)) dy the parabola as x2 = 4a (y a)]
0

[ We know the equation of


y2 ay 2
a

d) None of these

VCavity 4a a2 2

= 4a = 2a3

a
0

(y a) dy = 4a

=
0

Q2:

The maximum height at which a person carrying a mobile phone can stand to recieve signals from both the towers is a)90m b)160m c)240m d) None of these

Hence, VLead = VCone VCavity = a3 2a3 = a3 c) The curved surface area of the cone is rcone lcone =
(2a) 2 2a = 4 2a2

8 3

2 3

The curved surface area of the cavity can be found out by taking dirential elements as shown in the gure.

8.2. CURVED SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME


We know cos =
Vreqd = 3 5

43

. On similar lines , we can nd cos =

4 5

[ where Vlef t is the volume of the portion of right cell subtending an angle 2 at the center of the right cell. Similar is the case with Vright . From the cork ball example done earlier, we know that Vlef t =

0 3 3 Rright sin3 d = Rright

1 Vlef t + Vright 2

It may be noted that x co-ordinate is decreasing, i.e. dx is negative. Dirential


2x dx2 +

[ cos ] 0

3 Rright

surface
dy 2 1+ x 2a

area
=
2

4 1 5

1 3

64 1 125 =

2x 2x |dx|

(dx)2 + (dy)2 1+ dy dx
2

= =

On similar grounds Vright


3 Rlef t 3 Rlef t

cos3 3 0 14 3 = (400) 375 3 3 0 Rlef t sin d

= =

[ cos ] 0

2x (dx)

2x 4a2 + x2 dx 2a

cos3 3 0 1 27 3 1 + 1 5 3 125 =

= (300)3

52 375 =

Integrating this dirential area, we get the Curved Surface Area of the Parabolic Cavity as C.S.Area
= 0 2a 2x 4a2 + x2 dx 0 2a 2a 4a2 + x2 3 2 3 2a 0 2 2 16 2 8 a 3
2a

1 2

Vreqd (100) 375


3

2x 4a2 + x2 dx 2a 2a 2 2x 4a + x2 dx 2a 0 3a 8a2
3 2

= =

1 Vlef t + Vright 2 92 105 m3 } 43 14 + 33 52 = 3

4a2

3 2

Hence, the total C.S.A is 4 2a2 + a2


a2 28 2 8 3 = 4 2 a 7 2 2 3

16 2 8 3

The amount of carbon used is C.S.A 2m3 = 8 4 2 a 7 2 2 2 106 m3 = a2 7 2 2 106 m3 } 3 3


Comprehension 2 : Answers : Q1)C Q2)C Q3) A

{Hint: The adjoining gure clearly explains all the parameters required for nding the angle between the cells

a)It may be noted that (300)2 + (400)2 = (500)2 . Hence, the intervening angle is 90o b) We may redraw the gure as shown below

cos =

300 3 = 500 5 4 = 240m 5

h = 300 sin = 300

c) If we complete the spheres , the required volume will be half of the intersecting portions of the spheres.
Vreqd = 1 Common 2

portion of the complete spheres

44

CHAPTER 8. APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRALS

Chapter 9

Dirential Equations
9.0.1.3 Matrix Match type Problems Matrix 1: Under Column I, some families of curves are mentioned. Under Column II, the dirential equations reprsenting them are given. under Column II. Match the curves in Coloumn I with the dirential equations which can possibly represent them

Column I (P) A circle of arbitrary radius 'a' in the second quadrant touching both the coordinate axes. (Q) A circle of arbitrary radius 'b' in the fourth quadrant touching both the coordinate axes. (R) A circle of arbitrary radius 'c' , touching the lines x = 2c and y = 2c (S) A circle of arbitrary radius 'd' touching the lines x = 2d and y = 2d

Column II (A) (x y)2


= x + yy /
2

1 + y/

(B) (x + y)2
= x + yy /
2

1 + y/

(C) (x + y)2
= 1 x + yy / 9

1 + y/
2

(D) (3x + y)2


= x + yy /
2

1 + y/

(E) (x + 3y)2
= x + yy /
2

1 + y/

9.0.1.4 Hints and Solutions Matrix Match type Problems


Matrix 1:

45

46

CHAPTER 9. DIFFRENTIAL EQUATIONS

Chapter 10

Parametric Curves
10.0.2 Problems for Practice

10.0.2.1 Linked Comprehension Type Problems Comprehension 1: A curve is given by the parametric equation

x=

uous for

t2 t (6 t) + 3, y = (6 t) + 1.The curve is contin3 8 the entire range < t < . It intersects with
Now

itself in the rst quadrant and hence forms a loop.

based on the above information, answer the question below

Q1:

The point of self intersection of the curve has the coordinates A) B) C)

(3, 1) 6, 35 8

(8, 16)

D) None of these

Q2:

The value of

d2 y dx2

for

t=0

is

A) B) C)

1 4 3 5 3 8

D) None of these

Q3:

The area enclosed by the loop is

A) B) C)

8 3 27 5 37 3

D) None of these

47

Index
Absolute value of the number, 12 Closure Property of Irrational Numbers, 11 Closure Property of Rational Numbers, 10 Critical Points in a Wavey-Curve, 12 Critical Points in an Absolute value expression, 14 Functions, 21 Non terminiating Non-recurring decimal Expansion, 11 Non-Terminating Recurring Decimal Expansion, 10 Property of Denseness, 11 Rational numbers, 10 Real Numbers, 10 Terminating Decimal Expansion, 10 The Triangle Inequality, 12 The Wavey-Curve Technique, 12

48