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Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

DC Motor
Introduction There are 2 types of DC machines:- DC generator and DC motor At present its use as a generator is limited because of widespread use of AC power. The machine is therefore, extensively used as motor in industry.

Construction The machine consists of 2 parts:o Stator o Have poles The poles are excited by DC current to produce magnetic fields

Rotor Has a ring-shaped laminated iron-core with slots. Coils with several turns are placed in the slots.
Field Rotor

Brush

Stator with poles

DC Machine Construction

It has 2 types of windings:-

DC Machine Winding

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Armature winding Voltage is induced on it Placed on the rotor Winding arrangement depends on how the coils are connected to form a closed winding. 2 basic possibilities:-

The armature winding arrangements (a) Wave winding (b) Lap winding

a)

Wave connection 2 parallel paths regardless no of poles Suitable for high voltage, low current DC machine

b)

Lap connection

For a p pole machine, has p parallel path Suitable for high current, low voltage DC machine

Field winding Carry dc current to create magnetic field Mounted on the poles (stator) Subdivided into:a) Separately excited winding No direct connection between field & armature windings

b) Self-excited winding Has a direct connection between field & armature windings It can further be subdivided into: shunt, series, compound excitation

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Principle of Operation DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy Its operation can be described as follows: o The armature winding is connected to a dc power supply o o o o o o Current flows through the armature winding At the same time, the field winding is also connected to a dc power supply. (Hence, the stator becomes an electromagnet). Since armature is within a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the windings. This force causes the rotor to rotate. As the rotor rotates, its winding will cut the flux causing emf to be generated on the armature winding. The induced voltage is called counter emf because its polarity always acts against the source voltage.

EMF Generated The emf generated on DC motor is given by the following equation:-

EMFgen
Where Z p c

Zp N k g 60c

= No of conductors in the armature circuit = No of poles = No of parallel path @ no of current path (c = 2 for wave-winding, c = p for lap-winding)

= Speed of armature rotation (rpm) = Useful flux per pole (Wb) =

2N rad / s 60

Example 1 A 12-pole dc generator has a wound armature containing of 2880 conductors. Its flux per pole is 0.05 Wb. The armature is turning at a speed of 200 rpm. a) How many current paths are there in this machine? b) What is the generated armature voltage of this machine? c) What is the generated voltage if the machine now has lap winding?

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Types of DC Motor The type of dc machines is classified according to the way in which their fields are excited: separately excited and self-excited.

Separately Excited Winding When the dc field current is supplied by an external source, the machine is said to be separately excited. There is no direct connection between field & armature circuits Equivalent circuit for a separately excited dc motor is given as below:

Stator

Rotor

Separately excited dc motor

E A VT I A R A
Self-Excited Winding There is a direct connection between the armature and the field winding. The armature winding will provide the current to create the magnetic field. It may be classified as: a) Series excitation - Field winding is connected in series with the armature winding b) Shunt excitation - Field winding is connected in parallel with the armature winding c) Compound excitation - Field winding is connected in series & parallel with the armature winding

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

The equivalent circuits for self-excited DC motors are given as follows:

E A VT I A ( R A R f )
Series DC motor

E A VT I A R A
Shunt DC motor

E A VT I A ( R A R f 2 )
Compound DC motor

Example 2 Find the armature current and the counter emf for a shunt motor running at 1500 rpm at 51A with a 120 V source, 120 field winding and 0.1 armature resistance.

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Power Flow Diagram Illustrates power flow from input to output Represented as a fishbone. The branches indicate losses In general, Pin = Pout + losses and the losses are given as follows:

Losses in DC machine

The power flow diagram

Power flow diagram of series motor

Power flow diagram of shunt motor

Power flow diagram of compound motor

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Power equation for DC motor:-

Pin Pout losses

Total losses = Pca + Pcf + P Pin = VTIL Pconv = EAIA input power taken from dc supply developed mechanical power

Pconv = P + Pout

Motor Torque The general equation for torque is defined as

P 60 P 2N
2N rad / s 60

Where T- Torque (Nm), N- Speed (rpm), P- Power (W), -

For load torque (or shaft/net/load torque):

Tout

60 Pout 2N

For loss torque:

TL

60 P 2N
Tm 60 Pm 2N

For mechanical torque (or induced torque):

Efficiency It is given by:

Pout Pm P Pin VT I L

Speed Regulation Speed regulation in a motor is good if the speed of the motor is relatively constant over its normal range. It is usually expressed as a percentage of full-load speed given by:

SR

N nl N fl N fl

x100%

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Example 3 A 150V shunt motor has the following parameters:Ra = 0.50 Rf = 150 rotational loss = 250 W

On full-load, the line current is 19.5A and the motor runs at 1400 rpm. Determine: a) The developed power b) The output power c) The output torque d) The efficiency at full-load

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Starting of DC Motor At the instant of start-up, counter emf is zero because the armature is not rotating. So, full voltage is applied at this moment. The armature current could then be very high which can blow fuses & disconnecting itself from the supply. It is therefore necessary to insert some resistance in series with armature circuit to limit this current. This practical arrangement is known as starter. There are several types of starter, such as manual starter and automatic starter.

Manual starter for shunt motor

Automatic starter connected to a shunt motor

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

DC Motor Speed Control There are three basic methods of controlling the speed of a DC motor: 1. Armature resistance control Adding a resistor in series with the armature effectively increases the armature circuit resistance. This results in a reduction of the steady-state speed. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive. However, there are some drawbacks. By adding a resistance means increase losses; I2R and reduce the motors speed. Therefore, the speed of the motor that has resistance in the armature circuit is always lower comparing to the motor that do not have resistance in the armature circuit.

2. Field control This method of speed control is by changing the flux. To do so we connect a resistance in series with the field winding. The field current is decreased and the speed increases with a reduction in flux. This method also has some disadvantages. One of that is; we can only raise the speed at which the motor normally runs at a particular load. Another disadvantage is that the speed is increased without a corresponding reduction in shaft load, so we will be overloading the motor.

3. Terminal voltage control This method of speed control is by changing the terminal voltage of the motor. The most frequent method at least for shunt motors where the field winding is separately excited. The voltage control method lowers the speed in a similar fashion as the armature circuit resistance speed control method. However it does not have its drawbacks. The no-load speed and full-load speed can be reduced all the way down to zero if desired. There are various ways to obtain a variable DC voltage: a) Ward-Leonard System In this system, the armature voltage is controlled by varying the field current of DC generator. By using this system, the speed of DC motor can be smoothly varied. Other advantage of the system is it allows the DC motor to run in either direction by reversing the field current.

b) Solid-state Speed Control In recent years, solid-state converters have been used as a replacement for Ward-Leonard system. The converters used are controlled rectifier or choppers.

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

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