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WEIRS

Classification of Weirs: Design of Weirs:


Hydraulic Design Structural Design Floor Design Detailed Drawings Solved Example

Objectives of Weirs in Irrigation Canals

Proper distribution of water carried by a main canal among the branch canals depending upon it

Reducing the hydraulic slope (gradient) in a canal (if canal water slope is greater than the allowable water slope)

Reducing head on existing structures

Collecting sediments at US of structures (sand strap)

Weirs for reducing water slope in steep lands


Distance between weirs

ac = L * Slope (before) ab = L * Slope (after)

rise (R) = ac ab = L {Slope (before) slope (after)}

L = distance between weirs L = R / (natural slope required slope)

Classification of Weirs According to Geometrical Shape

Classification According to Position in Plan

Classification According to Dimensions of Cross Section

Classification According to Position of Down-Stream Water Level

a) Free- Overfall Weir (Clear-Overfall)

Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 H1.5 DSWL is lower than crest level Q is independent of DSWL QH

b) Submerged Weir

Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 H1.5 + Cd B h1 (2gh2)0.5

DSWL is higher than weir crest

Q H, h1, h2

Classification According to Crest Length (B)

Design of Weirs
Design of Weirs is divided to 3 parts:
I. Hydraulic Design (determination of crest level and weir length according to head) II. Structural Design (Empirical Dimensioning check of stability)

III Detailed Drawings

For proper Design of Water Structures:


Velocity of Flow: Must cause minimum Loss in Head Or minimum Heading Up

Flow of Water in a Channel is controlled either by:

A Weir or A Regulator

Weirs: Regulators:

For lands having steep slopes For lands having mild slopes or flat lands

I- Hydraulic Design of Weirs

1- Clear Over fall Weir


Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 H 1.5

2 Submerged Weir

Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 h21.5 + Cd B h1 (2*g*h2) 0.5

3 BroadCrested Weir

Q = 1.71 Cd B H 1.5

4 Fayum Type Weir


Q = 1.65 B H 1.5

5 Standing Wave Weir

Q = 2.05 B H 1.5

II Structural Design

1 The super structure

Theoretical Weir Profile

Scour Length of Weir Floor

Scour may be defined as deepening and widening of water channel under the influence of the flowing water with high velocities.

The scour continues until the energy of the flowing water reaches the normal channel energy.

Velocity distribution through scour hole

Precautions against scour

Floor of Heading Up Structures


A weir on solid rock (impervious foundation) does not need long apron (Floor), but needs sufficient width b to resist soil stresses.

A weir on pervious soil needs length L to:

a) Cover percolation length, b) Resist scour from falling water

Definitions Percolation is the flow of water under the ground surface due to an applied differential
head

Percolation length (creep length) is the length to dissipate the total hydraulic pressure
on the structure

Undermining (Piping) is to carry away (wash) soil particles with flowing water below

the ground surface causing collapse or failure of the above structure

Determination of Percolation Length

To determine the critical head: (after which undermining occurs)

1- Measure Q for different heads 2- H1 ----- Q1, v1= Q1 / A H2 ------Q2, v2. (k determined) 3- H..Hn varies until Hcritical (soil particles begin to move)

Vcritical = Qcritical / A

vcr

vcr = k Hcr / L = K icr

L = K Hcr / vcr

k = vcr L / Hcr

= Qcr L / A Hcr

Soil Clean gravel Clean sand Fine sand + silt Clay

K (cm / min) 5000 50 50 0.05 0.05 0.00005 < 0.00005

Type of flow Turbulent Turbulent or laminar Laminar Always laminar

Permeability : (hydr. Conductivity)

Ability of fluid to move in the soil under certain head (dimensions of velocity)

v=ki i=H/L v porosity + arrangement of grains

Seepage or percolation below weirs on previous soils:

a weir may be subject to failure from under seepage water head will force (push) the water to percolate through the soil voids if water velocity at D.S. end is not safe (> v critical) then undermining occurs, i.e. water at exit will carry away soil particles

v = k I (Darcy,s law) = k dP / dl = k H / L

In practice: icr = vcr / k

is unknown

Therefore we carry the 2nd experiment

e = voids ratio e = vv/ vs

e = (1 vs) / vs = (1 / vs) 1

Or 1+e = 1 / vs

or

vs = 1 / (1+e)

Upward force = H * A Downward force = (net weight) = sp. Gr. Wt. Of soil under water

=(

-1) A L / (1+e) -1) A L / (1 + e) can be determined

for stability: H. A. = ( H / L = icr = (

- 1) / (1 + e) L = H / icr

Safe percolation length Or L = H / icr (F.S.)

Values of icr & F.S.

Soil Fine gravel Coarse sand Fine sand Silt & clay

icr 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.14 0.12

F.S. 4 5 56 67 78

If I > icr undermining (piping)


i.e. water has v >> to carry away soil particles

Bligh Creep Theory


The length of the seepage path transversed by the water is known as the length of creep

(percolation length).

Bligh supposed that the dissipation of head per unit length of creep is constant throughout the seepage path. CB = Bligh coefficient of percolation C B = V/K

Percolation length is the path length from (a) to (b) LBligh = CBligh . H

L` = 2 t + L If L` > LB (Design is safe, no possibility of undermining) If L` < LB (Design is unsafe, undermining occurs, leads to failure)

L` = L + 2 t + 2 S1 + 2 S2

L`

LB (design is safe, no possibility of undermining)

L` < LB (design is unsafe, undermining occurs, leads to failure)

Lanes Weighted Creep Theory


Lane suggested that a weight of three should be given to vertical creep and a weight of one to horizontal creep. LL = CL H Lane percolation length L` = 1/3 L (horizontal) + L (vertical)

L` = 1/3 L + 2 t + 2 S1 + 2 S2

Distance between successive sheet piles

Distance between sheet piles a-a and b-b

d1 + d2

Water percolation length takes the right path -----safe

Distance between sheet piles a-a & b-b < d1 + d2;

Water percolation length takes a short cut from a to b; Actual percolation length is smaller than designed unsafe

Design Head for Percolation


H = USHWL DSHWL H = USLWL DSLWL H = Crest level DSBL (1) (2) (3)

Design head H is the biggest of (1), (2), and (3)

Determination of Floor Dimensions

t1 = 0.5 1.0 m t2 is taken 2.0 m t3 = t 2 / 2 1m or

assumed t2 = 0.8 (H)0.5

and l1 is assumed (1-2) H L2 = is determined according to weir type LScour = Cs (Hs) 0.5 Or LScour = 0.6 CB (Hs) 0.5 (3-8) m

Hs = USHWL DSBL Yc = Scour head; Yc = critical depth

&

q=Q/B

where B is the weir length; q is the discharge per unit length

L` = l1 + l2 + ls + 2 t2 LB = CB . H if L` LB no need for sheet pile

If L` < LB unsafe; use sheet pile Depth of sheet piles = (LB L`) / 2 Sheet pile depth m

Determination of the uplift diagram

HD h2 = H t1/CB l1 / CB t2 = t / (m) * Factor of safety t2 = F.S. [ h2 / (m)] m.; m = 2.2 t/m3 t2 = 1.3. [ h2 / (m)] then t3 = t2/2 1 m. then the head h3 which corresponds to floor then get distance x

t3 = F.S. [ h3 / (m)] m thickness t3 L3 = CB * h3 = x + t3

Precautions Against Percolation

The aprons are of plain concrete blocks of about 1.5 * 1 * 0.75 m deep For small structure blocks of about 1 * 0.75 * 0.5 m deep may be used The blocks are placed in rows with (70 100) mm open joints filled with broken stone. An inverted filter of well graded gravel and sand is placed under the blocks in order to prevent the loss of soil through the joints

EXAMPLE
A canal (A) is divided into two branches (i & ii).The discharge of branch (i)=2Q of branch (ii) at all times. Two weirs have to be constructed at the entrance of each canal .

Data :- Bed width of canals (i & ii ) - Flood discharge of canal (A) = ( 23.0 & 8.0 ) m . = 105 cum/sec . 45 cum/sec .

- Summer discharge of canal (A) =

- DSHWL in the two canals = ( 11.00 ) - minimum water depth in the two canal branches = 4.0 m . - Difference between H.W.L & L.W.L in canal(A) = .7 m . - Submergence in canal (i) = 1/3

- Bligh coeff. of percolation

= 16

- Bed level is constant in canal (A) and its branches . - Q = 2 B H1.5 If a Board crested weir is constructed at the entrance of the two branches (i&ii) it is required to :-

1- Crest level of weirs ( i & ii ) . 2- Length of each weir . 3- HWL in canals (A) . 4- LWL in canal (A) & (i) . 5- Design of weir floor for canal (i) by applying Bligh method..

solution
QA = Qi + Qii QA = 2 Qii + Qii At flood QA = 105 = 3 Qii Qii = 35 m3/s At summer QA = 45 = 3 Qii & Qi = 70 m3/s & Qi = 2 Qii

Qii = 15 m3/s For branch ( i )

& Qi = 30 m3/s

Qmax /Qmin

= (2 B H11.5) / (2 B H21.5) = (70/30)2/3

= H12/H22

H1/H2 = (Qmax /Qmin )2/3 H1/H2 = 1.527 & H1 - H2 = .7

H1 = 1.76 H2 (2)

(1)

From (1) & (2) 1.76 H2 - H2 = .7 H1 = 1.62 m h1/H1 = 1/3 h1 = 1.62/3 H2 = .92 m

1- Crest level of weirs ( i & ii ) = 11 - .54 = ( 10.46 ) 2- length of weir (i) Qmax = 70 = 2 B (1.62)1.5 Qmin = 30 = 2 B (.92)1.5 B = 17 m B = 17 m

B = 17 m Length of weir (ii) Qmax = 35 = 2 B (1.62)1.5 B = 8.5 m

Qmin = 15 = 2 B (.92)1.5

B = 8.5 m

B = 8.5 m

3- HWL in canals (A) = 10.46 + 1.62 = (12.08)

4- LWL in canal (A) = 10.46 + .92 = (11.38)

h2/H2 = 1/3

& h2 = .92/3 = .3

LWL in canal (i) = 10.46 + .3 = ( 10.76 )

Design of weir floor for canal (i) by applying Bligh method

BED LEVEL = 10.76 4 = 6.76 HD = 12.08 - 11 = 1.08

HD = 11.38 - 10.76 = .62 HD = 10.46 - 6.76 = 3.7

take

HD = 3.7 m

LB = CB * HD

= 16 * 3.7 = 59.2

Assume L1 = 6 m LS = CS (HS).5

L2 = 6 m CS = .6 CB & HS = 4.37 & LS = 20 m

HS = 12.08 - 6.76 - Ycr Assume t2 = 2 m L\ = 6 + 6 + 20 + 2 * 2 = 36 L\ < LB

unsafe use sheet pile d = (59.2 36) / 2 = 11.6

Use two sheet pile d =7 m & d = 5 m

h2 = 3.7 - .5/16 6/16- (2*7)/16 = 2.9 t2 = 2.9 * (1.3/1.2) = 3.1 m

t3 = t2/2 = 1.6 m 1.6 = 1.3 * h3/1.2

> 1 h3 = 1.47 & X = 11.92 m

L3 = 16 * 1.47 = X + 2*5 + 1.6