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# WEIRS

## Classification of Weirs: Design of Weirs:

Hydraulic Design Structural Design Floor Design Detailed Drawings Solved Example

## Objectives of Weirs in Irrigation Canals

Proper distribution of water carried by a main canal among the branch canals depending upon it

Reducing the hydraulic slope (gradient) in a canal (if canal water slope is greater than the allowable water slope)

## Weirs for reducing water slope in steep lands

Distance between weirs

## a) Free- Overfall Weir (Clear-Overfall)

Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 H1.5 DSWL is lower than crest level Q is independent of DSWL QH

b) Submerged Weir

Q H, h1, h2

## Classification According to Crest Length (B)

Design of Weirs
Design of Weirs is divided to 3 parts:
I. Hydraulic Design (determination of crest level and weir length according to head) II. Structural Design (Empirical Dimensioning check of stability)

## For proper Design of Water Structures:

Velocity of Flow: Must cause minimum Loss in Head Or minimum Heading Up

## Flow of Water in a Channel is controlled either by:

A Weir or A Regulator

Weirs: Regulators:

For lands having steep slopes For lands having mild slopes or flat lands

## 1- Clear Over fall Weir

Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 H 1.5

2 Submerged Weir

## Q = 2/3 Cd B (2g) 0.5 h21.5 + Cd B h1 (2*g*h2) 0.5

Q = 1.71 Cd B H 1.5

Q = 1.65 B H 1.5

## 5 Standing Wave Weir

Q = 2.05 B H 1.5

II Structural Design

## Scour Length of Weir Floor

Scour may be defined as deepening and widening of water channel under the influence of the flowing water with high velocities.

The scour continues until the energy of the flowing water reaches the normal channel energy.

## Floor of Heading Up Structures

A weir on solid rock (impervious foundation) does not need long apron (Floor), but needs sufficient width b to resist soil stresses.

## a) Cover percolation length, b) Resist scour from falling water

Definitions Percolation is the flow of water under the ground surface due to an applied differential

Percolation length (creep length) is the length to dissipate the total hydraulic pressure
on the structure

Undermining (Piping) is to carry away (wash) soil particles with flowing water below

## To determine the critical head: (after which undermining occurs)

1- Measure Q for different heads 2- H1 ----- Q1, v1= Q1 / A H2 ------Q2, v2. (k determined) 3- H..Hn varies until Hcritical (soil particles begin to move)

Vcritical = Qcritical / A

vcr

L = K Hcr / vcr

k = vcr L / Hcr

= Qcr L / A Hcr

## Permeability : (hydr. Conductivity)

Ability of fluid to move in the soil under certain head (dimensions of velocity)

## Seepage or percolation below weirs on previous soils:

a weir may be subject to failure from under seepage water head will force (push) the water to percolate through the soil voids if water velocity at D.S. end is not safe (> v critical) then undermining occurs, i.e. water at exit will carry away soil particles

v = k I (Darcy,s law) = k dP / dl = k H / L

is unknown

## e = voids ratio e = vv/ vs

e = (1 vs) / vs = (1 / vs) 1

Or 1+e = 1 / vs

or

vs = 1 / (1+e)

Upward force = H * A Downward force = (net weight) = sp. Gr. Wt. Of soil under water

=(

## for stability: H. A. = ( H / L = icr = (

- 1) / (1 + e) L = H / icr

## Values of icr & F.S.

Soil Fine gravel Coarse sand Fine sand Silt & clay

## icr 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.14 0.12

F.S. 4 5 56 67 78

## If I > icr undermining (piping)

i.e. water has v >> to carry away soil particles

## Bligh Creep Theory

The length of the seepage path transversed by the water is known as the length of creep

(percolation length).

Bligh supposed that the dissipation of head per unit length of creep is constant throughout the seepage path. CB = Bligh coefficient of percolation C B = V/K

Percolation length is the path length from (a) to (b) LBligh = CBligh . H

L` = 2 t + L If L` > LB (Design is safe, no possibility of undermining) If L` < LB (Design is unsafe, undermining occurs, leads to failure)

L` = L + 2 t + 2 S1 + 2 S2

L`

## Lanes Weighted Creep Theory

Lane suggested that a weight of three should be given to vertical creep and a weight of one to horizontal creep. LL = CL H Lane percolation length L` = 1/3 L (horizontal) + L (vertical)

L` = 1/3 L + 2 t + 2 S1 + 2 S2

d1 + d2

## Distance between sheet piles a-a & b-b < d1 + d2;

Water percolation length takes a short cut from a to b; Actual percolation length is smaller than designed unsafe

## Design Head for Percolation

H = USHWL DSHWL H = USLWL DSLWL H = Crest level DSBL (1) (2) (3)

## assumed t2 = 0.8 (H)0.5

and l1 is assumed (1-2) H L2 = is determined according to weir type LScour = Cs (Hs) 0.5 Or LScour = 0.6 CB (Hs) 0.5 (3-8) m

&

q=Q/B

## L` = l1 + l2 + ls + 2 t2 LB = CB . H if L` LB no need for sheet pile

If L` < LB unsafe; use sheet pile Depth of sheet piles = (LB L`) / 2 Sheet pile depth m

## Determination of the uplift diagram

HD h2 = H t1/CB l1 / CB t2 = t / (m) * Factor of safety t2 = F.S. [ h2 / (m)] m.; m = 2.2 t/m3 t2 = 1.3. [ h2 / (m)] then t3 = t2/2 1 m. then the head h3 which corresponds to floor then get distance x

## Precautions Against Percolation

The aprons are of plain concrete blocks of about 1.5 * 1 * 0.75 m deep For small structure blocks of about 1 * 0.75 * 0.5 m deep may be used The blocks are placed in rows with (70 100) mm open joints filled with broken stone. An inverted filter of well graded gravel and sand is placed under the blocks in order to prevent the loss of soil through the joints

EXAMPLE
A canal (A) is divided into two branches (i & ii).The discharge of branch (i)=2Q of branch (ii) at all times. Two weirs have to be constructed at the entrance of each canal .

Data :- Bed width of canals (i & ii ) - Flood discharge of canal (A) = ( 23.0 & 8.0 ) m . = 105 cum/sec . 45 cum/sec .

## - Summer discharge of canal (A) =

- DSHWL in the two canals = ( 11.00 ) - minimum water depth in the two canal branches = 4.0 m . - Difference between H.W.L & L.W.L in canal(A) = .7 m . - Submergence in canal (i) = 1/3

## - Bligh coeff. of percolation

= 16

- Bed level is constant in canal (A) and its branches . - Q = 2 B H1.5 If a Board crested weir is constructed at the entrance of the two branches (i&ii) it is required to :-

1- Crest level of weirs ( i & ii ) . 2- Length of each weir . 3- HWL in canals (A) . 4- LWL in canal (A) & (i) . 5- Design of weir floor for canal (i) by applying Bligh method..

solution
QA = Qi + Qii QA = 2 Qii + Qii At flood QA = 105 = 3 Qii Qii = 35 m3/s At summer QA = 45 = 3 Qii & Qi = 70 m3/s & Qi = 2 Qii

& Qi = 30 m3/s

Qmax /Qmin

= H12/H22

## H1/H2 = (Qmax /Qmin )2/3 H1/H2 = 1.527 & H1 - H2 = .7

H1 = 1.76 H2 (2)

(1)

From (1) & (2) 1.76 H2 - H2 = .7 H1 = 1.62 m h1/H1 = 1/3 h1 = 1.62/3 H2 = .92 m

1- Crest level of weirs ( i & ii ) = 11 - .54 = ( 10.46 ) 2- length of weir (i) Qmax = 70 = 2 B (1.62)1.5 Qmin = 30 = 2 B (.92)1.5 B = 17 m B = 17 m

## B = 17 m Length of weir (ii) Qmax = 35 = 2 B (1.62)1.5 B = 8.5 m

Qmin = 15 = 2 B (.92)1.5

B = 8.5 m

B = 8.5 m

## 4- LWL in canal (A) = 10.46 + .92 = (11.38)

h2/H2 = 1/3

& h2 = .92/3 = .3

## HD = 11.38 - 10.76 = .62 HD = 10.46 - 6.76 = 3.7

take

HD = 3.7 m

LB = CB * HD

= 16 * 3.7 = 59.2

Assume L1 = 6 m LS = CS (HS).5