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PRE TREATMENT PROCESS Before the Pre-treatment Process , all bodies are fitted with specially designed load

d bars to enable the body to get loaded in Overhead conveyor and Slave tools which avoids contact damage of panels during the Paint process and enables operators to open and close panels. Pretreatment provides the basis of corrosion and adhesion of Primer coat. It is a 11 stage automatic immersion dip/spray process, gives full protection to all box sections. Various stages in Pre-treatment Process : Stage 1 : Pre wash spray rinse in which a chemical (surface active agent loosen oil over in and wash of contaminants on the body in white . the Pre wash stage and pre-heat the car body for further processes . surfactant) is used to

Cleaner spray rinse 1 where Pressurized hot water (45C) spray loosens the oil left Stage 2 : Cleaner spray 2 containing a Pressurized hot solution(52C) of Factory water and Degreasing chemical further cleans the car body . Stage 3 : Cleaner dip containing a hot solution (50C) of Factory water and Degreasing chemical cleans all the interior portions and box sections of the car body thoroughly. Stage 4 : Dip rinse 1 in which factory water is used for removing the Degreasing chemicals used in the previous two stages. Stage 5 : Activation dip containing Gardolene ZM solution prepares the surface of the car body for refined phosphate coating. Stage 6 : Phosphate dip where the car body is coated with a layer of Zinc phosphate at 49C bath temperature for 3 min. Phosphate coating prepares the basis for corrosion protection and better adhesion for Electro coat. Stage 7 : Dip rinse 2 cleans the excess phosphate solution using fresh DI water. Stage 8 :Spray rinse further cleans the car body using DI water recycled from Stage 10. Stage 9 : Passivation rinse uses a chrome free Passivation chemical for filling the gaps between the phosphate crystals and provides a smooth , uniform phosphate coating finish. Stage 10 : DI water dip cleans the car body after passivation. Stage 11 : DI water spray rinse cleans the car finally before E-coat using new DI water. ELECTRO - COAT PROCESS

Electro-coating provides comprehensive water based paint coating by Electro deposition. Electro-coating is a fully automatic total immersion process for maximum coverage and performance and allows uniform, run free coating for optimum quality. Electro-coating provides good basis for all subsequent processes. Electro-coat bath contains 82% DI water , 17% EC solids and 1% Solvent. The process time is 4 to 5 min for a car body. Electro-coat is the first layer of paint in a car body . The Dry Film thickness of Electro-coat thickness ranges from 16 to 23 microns. How the car body is Electro-coated? In the ED-system the electrically conductive car body is coated by applying DC-Voltage. The product acts as cathode on which the paint is deposited. The residual acid migrates to the anodic cells kept inside the sides of the tank through the ED solution which acts as anolyte system. The coated product passes through the subsequent ultra-filtrate and DI water rinse zones, in which the loosely adhering paint is rinsed off. Why Electro-coat ? 1. The formation of protective films in highly recessed areas such as flanges and box sections provides critical corrosion protection. 2. Use of water as practically the only carrier virtually eliminates fire hazard, materially reduces water and air pollution, and markedly reduces the cost of facilities for controlling these conditions. 3. Unlike spray coating, electrodeposited paint will not sag during baking. 4. Unlike dip coating, electrodeposited paint is not washed off in enclosed areas by hot vapors during curing. 5. Freshly deposited paint is insoluble in water, permitting complete rinsing and recovery of dragged-out material. 6. Since the process is automated, direct labor costs are markedly reduced. 7. Transfer efficiencies of better than 95% result in reduced paint waste, especially when compared with spray-applied coatings. Electro-coat curing : The very last stage of Electro-coat process is to cure the paint in the Electro-coat oven at a temperature of 171C for 15 minutes. This gives a smooth and resilient finish. SEALER PROCESS

Purpose of Sealers and Insulators: Sealers and insulators are used to eliminate water, block out fumes, reduce wind and road noise, reduce the vibration and to improve the aesthetics on clinches. Types of Sealers and Insulators : 1. Thumbable Sealer : Thumbable sealer is a vinyl product which is very malleable. It is used to fill the gaps where panels are joined. 2. Flow able Sealer or Duplex sealer : Duplex Sealer is used to seal hem flanges and other similar joints. Its made of very soft vinyl. It is applied with a Sealer gun to seal various joints in Clinches, Car body interiors etc. and is applied to the undersides of body using sealer spray gun to protect them from stone chipping and water spray. 3. Plugs and tapes: Plugs and tapes are used to seal the holes which were needed during body construction and for drainage in the Phosphate and Electro-coat processes. 4. Deadner Pads : Deadner pads are used to stiffen panels and therefore reduce vibration and to act as insulators and absorb noise. 5. Roof Ditch Sealer : Roof Ditch Sealer is used to seal joints between body sides the Roof panel. It increases the aesthetic effect of the car body. It is applied with a Special Roof Ditch Sealer gun and the excess sealer is taken off by using a vacuum machine which absorbs the excess sealer. Note : Plugs and Deadner pads comes in different shapes and sizes depending on the type of the unit and where in the unit they are to be fitted. Sealer curing : Once the Plugs and Pads are fitted and all the sealers are applied, the units leave the sealer deck and pass through the Sealer Gel Oven at 90 Deg C for in subsequent operations. SPRAY BOOTH PROCESS 7 minutes. This fuses the pads into place and partially hardens the sealers so they are less prone to damage

Purpose of Spray Booths : All industrial products have to be protected in some way or another against corrosion. The most common protection against corrosion is the application of paint materials. The paint can be applied onto the work piece by dipping or spraying. The spray procedure has to take place in specially designed paint spray enclosures (paint spray booths). The requirements have to be met according to the paint systems (Solvent-borne paints, Water-borne paints, 2-components paints) which are very different from each other.In order to make the object resistant to corrosion, and to minimize the paint spread, Gloss, etc. a certain minimum paint coat thickness is required. This coat thickness is achieved by application in 2 or 3 steps. For best results some basic application techniques has to be followed as per specifications for different paint types and colours. Description of Spray Booth : The Spray booth is designed for Primer, Basecoat and Clearcoat application on car bodies. Processing of Topcoat paint is only allowed after prior thorough cleaning of the spray booth. There are some important aspects in Spray booth to achieve product quality. They are : Filtered supply and re-circulated air Air conditions - Temperature - Humidity Regular air distribution Constant air balance Regular downdraft velocity No dust or dirt in spray booth Optimum lighting Suitable clothing for workers and visitors No materials containing silicone shall be used Keep doors of spray booth and clean room closed

Regular cleaning of plant equipments (Flooding trays, Flooding plates, Floor grids, Spray guns, Booth walls)

Critical Parameters for spray booth : 1. Downdraft : The air supplied from the air supply units through filters in the spray booth with a specified velocity in a downward motion is Downdraft. It controls paint over spray raised out of spray painting , increases fresh air circulation inside the spray booth and prevents accumulation of paint on the operators and structures. 2. Humidity : The amount of water content in air is humidity. The spray booth should be maintained in a specified humidity (71% +/- 6%) for preventing the solvent from drying fast. 3. Temperature : Maintaining of temperature is vital in spray booth since the evaporation of solvent rate also depends on the temperature. Temperature is maintained at 27+/-3 deg C inside spray booth. Temperature and Humidity is measured twice a day using a Digital Temperature Guage. Paint curing : After Primer application and topcoat application , the car body is sent inside the Topcoat oven 1 or 2 for curing at 140C for 10 minutes. PAINTING PROCESS Paint Application Techniques Primer and Topcoat may be applied in two ways. Some plants are partly automated, while others are completely manual. Automated Spraying : The automated booth is equipped with electrostatic or ESTA bells , which spin at between 20,000 and 40,000 revolutions per minute. The paint is fed under pressure to the bell and along the conical face to the outside edge where it is broken up into very fine particles, or atomized, by the centrifugal force. The automated paint emerges as a flat, saucer-like spray. The paint is given a negative electrical charge, and the units a positive charge, which causes the fine spray to be attracted to the unit. The bells are located on reciprocators that are arranged to cover both the sides and the tops of the units.

Manual Spraying : Not all the spraying is suited for automation, so manual spraying is carried out for all the openings, pillars, interiors, engine compartment and luggage compartment. For manual spraying, following of some parameters are very important. They are : 1. Control of the spray while moving , starting and stopping . 2. Gun distance from the car body . 3. Ensuring the air and paint are established in the correct fan pattern before spraying . 4. Gun Position (The gun should be held at right angles and it should be moved parallel to the surface being painted) . 5. For uniform finish, each preceding stroke is overlapped. 6. Pre-triggering should be done before beginning to spray the surface. The first thing to do before to spray manually is to ensure that the correct colour is used. This is done by selecting the paint hose with the same colour as the code on the front of the car body . first the operators spray the exterior of the unit. then they paint the interior. then they repeat the exterior again so that it receives two coats. Working in pairs ensures the whole unit is sprayed before any areas have a chance to Flash-off. It also avoids either the operators or the hoses having to cross over to the other side of the unit. Primer and Topcoat Primer : Primer coat is applied between the E-coat and Topcoat to minimize the surface roughness problems and adhesion problems. Types of Primer : 1. 2. Basecoat : Basecoat gives the colouring to a car body. It is also called as color coat. Basecoat is applied after Primer coat and before Clearcoat. Types of Basecoat : Colour compatible Primer Colour matched Primer

1. 2. 3.

Solid Metallic Pearlescent

Surface Preparation Surface Preparation is a vital function of Paint shop in getting the units ready for both Primer and Topcoat. All traces of contaminations such as oil, dirt etc. must be removed since they will affect the final Paint finish. Sanding : Sanding is done for finding as well as identifying the defects. It is necessary to sand the paint surface after application of each layer. Sanding can only be done after the unit has been cured in the ovens when the paint is hardened. There are 3 types of sanding used in Paint shop. 1. Scuff Sanding 2. Detail Sanding 3. Orbital Sanding Scuff Sanding : Scuff sanding is done on E-coat bodies for highlighting the defects. All the horizontal and upper vertical surfaces are lightly sanded in a front-to-back motion. Detail Sanding : Defects found by scuff sanding are removed by detail sanding. Light, Circular motion should be used for removing the defects. Note : Detail sanding, if done in Front-to-Back motion creates defect called sanding patch. Orbital sanding : Orbital sanding should only be used where absolutely necessary. The Orbital sander uses self-adhesive paper discs and is powered by compressed air. Defects which cannot be removed / difficult to remove by Detail sanding are removed by Orbital sanding. Note : After all sanding operations , the sanded area must be blown off and then cleaned with a Tack-off cloth or wet scotch brite. Cleaning Methods

Cleaning is one of the most important ways of keeping defects to a minimum as the units progress through the Paint shop. It plays a vital part of the preparation for corrosion protection, primer and topcoat. There are 3 process in cleaning. 1. Tack-off Tack-off : Tack-off takes place before the car enters into the spray booth for Primer and Topcoat. Tack-off is a special cloth that has a slightly sticky surface. When it is used to wipe the unit, it picks up loose dirt and dust, and because it is lint-free it doesnt leave any contamination behind. 2. Blow-off 3.Solvent wipe

Blow-off : Blow-off takes place after sanding operations. It is a process for removing loose dirt or dust with compressed air. Automatic blowers are fixed at the exit of Primer sanding and entry of spray booth. Solvent wipe : In some plants a process called solvent wipe is carried out. It also takes place after the sanding. Solvent wipe is used to remove Contaminations on the unit before painting. A small amount of polishing compound is put onto the sanded area and spread around with the pad before it is started. The pad is used flat against the surface. A little pressure is applied for few seconds to remove the sanding scratches,Finally the Polished area is wiped with a wet scotch brite. Defects which cannot be removed at Polish Deck are sent to Spot repair or Major repair according to the severity. Spot Repair: Spot Repair is a repair area where defects are leveled by sanding, painted, baked and polished. Major Repair: Major Repair is a repair area where the full body is repainted for any major paint defect.In major repair, the car body will be fully sanded and the topcoat layer will be removed. Then it is cleaned, blown off, tack-wiped and sent for re-painting. WAX OPERATIONS Air dry Blackout:

Air dry Blackout is a cosmetic treatment thats applied to the rear wheel housings and certain other areas of a body. Its a black colored paint that dries in atmospheric heat. It is usually applied after the final paint application with an airless spray gun to control overspray. After the blackout the wheel arch is finally visually checked to make sure there is no overspray on the exterior paint surfaces. If there is, it is removed by the approved solvent. Cavity Wax: Cavity wax, which is a paraffin wax, is applied to add further corrosion protection. The wax is injected into cross members and box sections of the A Pillars , Rocker panel , Hood interiors , Deck lid interiors , Floor panel. It is also sprayed into the lower parts of the door using Wax spray gun. Different nozzles are used for different applications and different models. The long lance model is used to reach right to the ends of the box sections. With this type of nozzle, the trigger is pulled continuously while the lance is drawn out smoothly and evenly. The trigger is released just before the end of the lance reaches the opening. An airless spray gun with a long, slightly bent nozzle to reach the corners is used to spray paint in the door interior sections.

Coating thickness is an important variable that plays a role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Measurement of film thickness can be done with many different instruments. The issues that determine what method is best for a given coating measurement include the type of coating, the substrate material, the thickness range of the coating, the size and shape of the part, and the cost of the equipment. Commonly used measuring techniques for cured organic films include nondestructive dry film methods such as magnetic, eddy current, ultrasonic, or micrometer measurement and also destructive dry film methods such as cross-sectioning or gravimetric (mass) measurement. Methods are also available for powder and liquid coatings to measure the film before it is cured Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, is a material becoming "passive" in relation to being less affected by environmental factors such as air or water. It means a shielding outer layer of corrosion which can be demonstrated with a micro-coating or found occurring

spontaneously in nature. Passivation is useful in strengthening, and preserving the appearance of, metallics. As a technique, passivating is using a light coat of material such as metal oxide to create a shell against corrosion. Passivation can only occur in certain conditions, and is used in microelectronics to enhance silicon.[1] electrostatic transfer application In air, almost all metals[clarification needed] form a hard inert surface naturally. The reduction of the corrosive rate will vary individually in various shells, but is most notably pronounced in aluminium, zinc, titanium, and silicon (a metalloid). The shell inhibits deeper corrosion, and that is the key factor. The layer is usually an oxide or nitride with a thickness of[clarification nanometers.