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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (English).....................................................................................................a - l 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background...................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Rationality for Conducting EIA.......................................................................................................1 1.3 Objectives of EIA Study................................................................................................................1 1.4 The Project Proponent .................................................................................................................2 1.5 Organization Responsible for Carrying out the Study....................................................................2 2 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................................................1 2.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................1 2.2 Study Team..................................................................................................................................1 2.3 Project Area Delineation ..............................................................................................................1 2.4 Methods........................................................................................................................................4 2.4.1 Desk Study............................................................................................................................4 2.4.2 Field Study ........................................................................................................................4 2.4.3 Data Processing....................................................................................................................5 2.4.4 Impact Assessment Method..................................................................................................6 2.4.5 Public Consultation...............................................................................................................7 2.4.6 Interim Report.......................................................................................................................7 2.4.7 Draft Report Preparation.......................................................................................................7 2.4.8 Public Hearing ......................................................................................................................7 2.4.9 Finalization of EIA Report......................................................................................................8 3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................1 3.1 Project Location............................................................................................................................1 3.2 Policy for the Development of the Land Fill Site............................................................................1 3.2.1 Semi-aerobic System............................................................................................................1 3.2.2 Phase-wise Site Development Plan.......................................................................................1 3.2.3 Surrounding Environment......................................................................................................1 3.2.4 Types of Waste and Beneficiaries.........................................................................................1 3.2.5 Environmental Pollution Controls ..........................................................................................3 3.2.6 Environmental Monitoring......................................................................................................3 3.3 Wastes Generation Quantity.........................................................................................................4 3.4 Disposal System...........................................................................................................................4 3.5 Leachate Quantity and Quality......................................................................................................5 3.5.1 Leachate Quantity.................................................................................................................5 3.5.2 Leachate Quality...................................................................................................................6 3.5.3 Effluent Standard..................................................................................................................6 3.6 Leachate Treatment......................................................................................................................7 3.7 General Concept of the Project and Component Descriptions.......................................................8 3.7.1 General Concept of the Proposed Landfill Site......................................................................8 3.7.2 Solid Wastes Disposal System............................................................................................10 3.7.3 Description of the Components...........................................................................................10 3.7.4 Buffer Zone........................................................................................................................16 3.7.5 Storage and Quarry of Covering Soil...................................................................................16 3.7.6 Access Road.......................................................................................................................16 3.7.7 Construction Planning.........................................................................................................16 3.7.8 Cost Estimates....................................................................................................................19 4 REVIEW OF POLICIES, PLANS, LAWS AND GUIDELINES............................................................1 4.1 The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 (2007)..............................................................................1 4.2 Relevant Policies and Plans..........................................................................................................1 4.2.1 Three Years Interim Plan, 2008.............................................................................................1 4.2.2 Environmental Policy and Plan..............................................................................................1 4.2.3 Other Policies........................................................................................................................2 4.3 Relevant Laws..............................................................................................................................2 4.3.1 Environmental Law................................................................................................................2 4.3.2 Solid Wastes Management and Resources Mobilization Law................................................4 4.3.3 Local Development Law........................................................................................................6 4.3.4 Forest Law............................................................................................................................6
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4.3.5 Land Acquisition Law............................................................................................................6 4.3.6 Town Development Law........................................................................................................7 4.3.7 Other Laws...........................................................................................................................7 4.4 Related Guidelines and Manuals...................................................................................................7 4.4.1 Environmental Assessment Guidelines and Manuals............................................................7 4.5 Relevant Institutions......................................................................................................................8 4.5.1 Local Institutions...................................................................................................................8 4.5.2 National Institutions...............................................................................................................9 4.6 National Environmental Guidelines..............................................................................................10 4.7 International Instruments.............................................................................................................10 4.7.1 Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992.............................................................................10 4.7.2 Other International Legal Instruments..................................................................................10 4.8 Conclusions................................................................................................................................11 5 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION .....................................................................................1 5.1 Physical Environment ...................................................................................................................1 5.1.1.2 Manahara river basin......................................................................................................1 5.1.1.3 Fluvial geomorphology....................................................................................................1 5.1.1.4 Degree of Pollution .........................................................................................................3 5.1.2 Air Quality.............................................................................................................................4 5.1.3 Noise Level...........................................................................................................................4 5.1.4 Odour Level..........................................................................................................................4 5.2 Biological Environment..................................................................................................................5 5.2.1 Sensitive Areas.....................................................................................................................5 5.3 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment....................................................................................5 5.3.1 District Profile........................................................................................................................6 3.2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................6 3.2.2 Social Services..................................................................................................................6 3.2.3 Economic Activities............................................................................................................7 5.3.2 Project Area Profile...............................................................................................................7 5.3.2.1 Population and Demographic Pattern .............................................................................7 5.3.2.2 Ethnicity .........................................................................................................................8 5.3.2.3 Settlement Patterns ........................................................................................................8 5.3.2.4 Cultural and Religious Activities .....................................................................................8 5.3.2.5 Status of Women ...........................................................................................................8 5.3.2.6 Social Services ..............................................................................................................8 5.3.2.7 Economic Activities.........................................................................................................9 5.3.3 Socio-economic Status of Project Affected Families (PAFs)................................................10 5.3.3.1 Demographic Structure ................................................................................................10 5.3.3.2 Ethnic Composition ......................................................................................................10 5.3.3.3 Settlement Pattern........................................................................................................11 5.3.3.4 PAFs with Different Equipments...................................................................................12 5.3.3.5 Education .....................................................................................................................12 5.3.3.6 Occupation ...................................................................................................................12 5.3.3.7 Land Holding.................................................................................................................13 5.3.3.8 Crop Area and Production ............................................................................................13 5.3.3.9 Food Sufficiency .........................................................................................................13 5.3.3.10 Livestock Holdings .....................................................................................................14 5.3.3.11 Income of PAFs..........................................................................................................14 5.3.3.12 Expenditures of PAFs .................................................................................................15 5.3.3.13 Energy Use ................................................................................................................16 5.3.3.14 Source of Drinking Water of PAFs...............................................................................17 5.3.3.15 Status of Women ........................................................................................................17 5.3.3.16 Participation of PAFs in Committees, Groups and Clubs.............................................17 5.3.3.17 Expectations of PAFs for Compensation.....................................................................18 5.3.3.18 Use of Compensation ................................................................................................18 5.3.3.19 PAF Members Who Want to Work in the Project ........................................................18 5.3.3.20 Expectation of PAFs from the Project .........................................................................18 5.3.4 Status of SPAFs .................................................................................................................19 6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES...........................................................1 6.1 Beneficial Impacts.........................................................................................................................1 6.1.1 Construction Stage................................................................................................................1 6.1.2 Operation Stage....................................................................................................................2
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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

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6.2 Adverse Impacts...........................................................................................................................3 6.2.1 Physical Environment ..........................................................................................................3 6.2.1.1 Construction Stage.........................................................................................................3 6.2.1.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage..................................................................................5 6.2.1 Biological Environment..........................................................................................................5 6.2.2.1 Construction Stage.........................................................................................................5 (i) Disturbance on protected plant and wildlife species................................................................5 6.2.2.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage..................................................................................6 6.2.2 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment............................................................................6 6.2.3.1 Construction Stage.........................................................................................................6 6.2.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage..................................................................................8 6.3 Evaluation of the Impacts..............................................................................................................8 7 ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS...............................................................................................................1 7.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................1 7.2 Type of Landfill Systems...............................................................................................................1 7.2.1 Anaerobic Sanitary Landfill Systems.....................................................................................1 7.2.2 Semi-aerobic Landfill Site......................................................................................................1 7.2.3 Comparison of Anaerobic and Semi aerobic Landfill System ................................................1 7.2.4 Reason for Selection of Re-circulatory Semi-aerobic System................................................2 7.3 Wastes Storage Dam....................................................................................................................2 7.4 Liner System.................................................................................................................................3 7.4.1 Full Liner Application.............................................................................................................3 7.4.2 Vertical Liner.........................................................................................................................3 7.4.3 Partial Surface Liner..............................................................................................................3 7.4.4 Selection of Liner System......................................................................................................4 7.5 Treatment System.........................................................................................................................4 7.5.1 Treatment Option..................................................................................................................5 7.6 Gas Collection System..................................................................................................................6 7.7 Site Boundary...............................................................................................................................6 7.8 River Diversion.............................................................................................................................6 7.9 Do Nothing Alternative..................................................................................................................7 8 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN.......................................................................................1 8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................1 8.2 Planning........................................................................................................................................1 8.2.1 Stages for the Implementation of Environment Protection Measures.....................................1 8.2.2 Environmental Monitoring......................................................................................................5 8.2.2.1 Monitoring Parameters....................................................................................................6 8.2.2.2 Monitoring Locations, Schedules and Responsibilities.....................................................6 8.2.3 Environmental Auditing.........................................................................................................9 8.2.3.1 Auditing Parameters and Methods................................................................................10 8.2.3.2 Responsibility and Timing for Auditing ..........................................................................10 8.3 Organization and Staffing............................................................................................................11 8.4 Directives and Coordination........................................................................................................12 8.5 Reporting Requirements.............................................................................................................12 8.6 Budget for Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Implementation...........................................12 8.7 Budget for Benefit Augmentation and Mitigation Measures..........................................................12 8.7.1 Environmental Monitoring Cost............................................................................................13 8.7.2 Environmental Auditing Cost...............................................................................................14 8.8 Comparison with the Project Cost...............................................................................................15 9 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................................................1 9.1 Conclusions..................................................................................................................................1 9.2 Recommendations........................................................................................................................2

List of Figures, Tables and Annexes


List of Figures
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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

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Figure 2.1 : Location Map of the Proposed Site ................................................................................2 Figure 2.2 : A Map of the Project Area with the Buffer Zone ............................................................3 Figure 3.3 : The Proposed Landfill Site..............................................................................................2 Figure 3.4 : Semi-aerobic Landfill System..........................................................................................5 Figure 3.5: Quantity of Leachate Generation using Rainfall Data of past 30 year............................6 Figure 3.6 : A Conceptual Layout Plan of Proposed Landfill Site.....................................................9 Figure 3.7 : A Typical Section of Waste Storage Dam.....................................................................11 Figure 3.8 : A Layout Plan of Leachate Collection...........................................................................13 Figure 3.9 : Construction Planning in Concept Design...................................................................18 Figure 7.10 : Improved Anaerobic Sanitary Landfill...........................................................................1 Figure 7.11 : Semi-aerobic Landfill System........................................................................................1 Figure 7.12: Full Liner Application......................................................................................................3 Figure 7.13 : Vertical Line Facilities....................................................................................................3 Figure 7.14 : Partial Surface Liner.......................................................................................................4 Figure 8.15 : Organogram of the Environmental Management Unit for .........................................11 List of Tables Table 3.1 : Leachate Quality of Sisdol Landfill Site and Effluent Standard......................................7 Table 3.2 : Phase Wise Construction Features................................................................................16 Table 3.3 : Cost Estimates (Total).....................................................................................................19 Table 4.4 : Highlights of the Environment Protection Act, 1997 and Its Rule, 1997.........................3 Table 5.5 : Distribution of PAFs by Sex and Age Group..................................................................10 Table 5.6 : Distribution of Ethnic Groups among PAFs...................................................................11 Table 5.7 : PAFs with Different Number of Houses..........................................................................11 Table 5.8 : Houses with Different Number of Stories.......................................................................11 Table 5.9 : Houses by Type of Roof..................................................................................................11 Table 5.10 : Per Cent of PAFs with Different Types of Equipment..................................................12 Table 5.11 : Educational Level of PAFs ...........................................................................................12 Table 5.12 : Occupational Distribution of PAFs...............................................................................12 Table 5.13 : Agricultural Land Holdings of PAFs (in Ropani)..........................................................13 Table 5.14 : Area of Agricultural Land Under Different Crops and Production..............................13 Table 5.15 : Food Sufficiency of PAFs ...........................................................................................13 Table 5.16 : Livestock Population.....................................................................................................14 Table 5.17 : Annual Average Income of PAFs..................................................................................14 Table 5.18 : Annual Average Expenditure of PAFs..........................................................................15 Table 5.19 : Sources of Energy of PAFs for Lighting.......................................................................17 Table 5.20 : Sources of Energy of PAFs for Cooking.......................................................................17 Table 5.21 : Levels of Decision Making Power of Senior Female Member of Households............17 Table 5.22 : Participation in Users' Committees, Clubs and Groups .............................................18 Table 5.23 : Uses of Cash Compensation.........................................................................................18 Table 5.24 : Members of PAFs who Wants to Work in the Project..................................................18 Table 5.25 : Expectations of PAFs from the Project.........................................................................18 Table 6.26 : Evaluation of Beneficial Impacts.....................................................................................9 Table 6.27 : Evaluation of Adverse Impacts.....................................................................................10 Table 7.28 : Comparison of Anaerobic and Semi-aerobic Landfill Systems.....................................2 Table 7.29 : Comparison of Liner System...........................................................................................4 Table 7.30 : Comparative Study of Drop Channel..............................................................................7 Table 8.31 : Implementation Plan of Proposed Enhancement Measures..........................................2 Table 8.32 : Implementation Plan for Proposed Mitigation Measures...............................................2 Table 8.33 : Monitoring Parameters, Methods and Responsibilities.................................................7 Table 8.34 : Environmental Auditing Parameters, Indicators, Locations and Methods.................10 Table 8.35 : Implementation Cost for Environment Protection Measures......................................13 Table 8.36 : Estimated Cost for Environmental Unit........................................................................13 Table 8.37 : Indicative Cost for Environmental Auditing.................................................................15 List of Annexes Annex 1.1 :
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Data collection sheet on biological environment


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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

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Annex 1.2 Annex 1.3 Annex 3 Annex 4 Annex 5 Annex 6 Annex 7 Annex 8 Annex 9

: : : : : : : : :

Household level survey questionnaires Checklist for the focused group discussion Details Calculation of Leachate Surface Water Quality of Kolpu Khola Socio-economic Status of SPAFs List of SPAFs Proceedings of Public Hearing Approved Terms of Reference Recommendation Letters

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
With rapid growing population and urbanization, different activities like unplanned building and encroachment, clearing of riparian vegetation along the river banks, disposal of waste materials in river and unwise mining of construction materials from the rivers are commonly observed in rivers of the Kathmandu Valley. Human as well as natural phenomena are responsible for bringing disturbances in the river system. The Bishnumati River, one of the biggest tributaries of the Bagmati River, is suffering from these types of activities. The Manahara River as a whole has been in deteriorating condition from last one decade. Growing number of population and shelters, and building of structures and factories on the river banks are probably major causes for environmental deterioration (reduction of stream bank stability, cultural, ecological and recreational functions and surface water quality of rivers). Some of the major disturbances such as landuse change, bank erosion, scoring, encroachment, dilution of riparian vegetation, contamination by effluents and solid waste and shifting of the river channel are quite evident along the Manahara River. Due to lack of awareness among people and concerned authorities, such disturbances are unmanageable at present. If the disturbances in the river continue in the current trend, they will aggravate system instability and will bring unrecoverable deterioration to the river environment. Therefore, it is important to identify present environmental condition and major disturbances to rehabilitate the river in the future because many people depend on the water of the Manahara River. UNESCO world heritage site, Changunarayan Temple and several other places such as International Airport, Sali Nadi Temple and Nilbarahi Temple are located around this river. The major impacts like the submergence of the surrounding land due to flood during the times of high discharge in the river is chiefly seen along the banks of the river upto 4kilometers upstream from crossing at Arniko Highway, Jadibuti. The nearby surrounding is inundated totally during the times of monsoon. This has created a lot of havoc in the past decade. Inundation problems along the surrounding area, annually has caused substantial damage to the life and property of the people residing in these areas. Based on the study of this area, a project regarding the embankment construction in this area has been prepared. This EIA Study is based on this concept design of the project.

1.2 Rationality for Conducting EIA


The policies of Nepal encourage the proponent to minimise adverse impacts of the development proposal on the environment, and the legal regime on the environment obliges to prepare the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report before implementation. The Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1997 and the Environment Protection Rules (EPR) 1997 provide details on provisions to prepare and approve the EIA report of River Training works in flood prone and other dangerous area. As per the Schedule 2 of the EPR 1997, this project should undergo EIA process legally by carrying out scope exercise to determine issues and prepare the terms of reference for the EIA study. The scoping exercise has been completed and the terms of reference for the EIA study has been prepared and approved in accordance with EPR. This EIA study is being prepared in accordance with approved terms of reference.

1.3 Objectives of EIA Study


The main objectives of the EIA study are to: Identify, predict and evaluate the potential impacts of the hazards caused by high discharges in the Manahara river during rainy seasons. Calculate loss of different categories of land, property, farm land and other resources as a part of site clearance during construction and operation phase.

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

INTRODUCTION

Recommend benefits augmentation measures, and preventive, curative, and compensatory measures to minimize the adverse environmental impacts along with environmental management plan; Provide information for decision-makers about the environmental implications and benefits of the project and to gain a public acceptance.

1.4 The Project Proponent


Dr Subodh Sharma under the Ministry of Local Development, Government of Nepal is the proponent for this project.

1.5 Organization Responsible for Carrying out the Study


Young and enthusiastic environmentalist Alpha Thapa, Bishal Bhari, Prakash DC and Manish Khana,l currently studying Environmental Engineering are carrying out this EIA study as a part of their course work.

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction
In order to meet the objectives of this study and the requirements of the approved Scoping Document and the TOR, necessary information was collected and analyzed by employing the following methods: literature review and map implementation; preparation of checklists and questionnaire; field study to collect primary information and verify secondary information through interview and participatory discussion with the local people; preparation of Interim Report data processing/analysis; preparation of the draft report; conduction of public hearing at the Project site; and preparation and submission of the final report. Secondary information was collected through review of published and unpublished reports and interpretation of maps and photographs. Primary level of information was generated through questionnaire, surveys, use of checklist, measurement, and trekking. Local people were contacted and interviewed to solicit and update information. A number of focus group discussions were held in the Project area. The district level offices, VDCs, and community groups were also contacted to verify data and information and to solicit their concerns.

2.2 Study Team


The EIA Study team comprised of following members with following responsibilities:1. 2. 3. 4 Alpha Thapa Bishal Bhari Prakash DC Manish Khanal Team Leader/Physical Expert Socio-Economic Expert Cultural Expert Biological Expert

2.3 Project Area Delineation


The proposed River training site is located near the Jadibuti along the banks of Manahara River.

Manahara River originates from Manichaur Danda in the north east and flows towards the southwest. It is the longest tributary of the Bagmati, having the length of 23.4 km (Pradhan, B., 1996). Total catchment area of the Manahara River 285.35 sq. km. The major tributaries are Hanumante, Sali Nadi, Godawori Khola, Kodku Khola and Ghatte Khola. Manahara River meets Bagmati River at Chasal. Majority of the catchments land like Sankhu, Thali, Mulpani are covered by the agricultural land. Shrestha, P. (2007) reported that 7% of the forest land is reduced to 17% whereas 13% of the agricultural land expands to 77%. Diversion of water using pumps for agricultural are seen at different locations (Fig.2.26). Riparain vegetation is still intact in Sankhu but decreases downstream (Bajracharya, R. et. al., 2006). The ecological status and water quality of the Manahara has gradually deteriorated from upstream to downstream (Shrestha, G.K.C., 2008). E-Coli is highest in Sano Thimi and almost three times higher than Sankhu from sewer and solid waste (Barjacharya R., 2006). Sewerage connection into the river is not seen upstream from Mulpani but towards the downstream direct discharge of sewer is rampant. New sewer lines are connecting to discharge waste water directly into the rivers in newly urbanizing areas. A small collection chamber found constructed near Sano Thimi Bridge to collect waste water from the Pepsicola planning area for reducing the organic load in the river to some extent. Existing outlets of the 13 sewer along the river bank are in very poor condition. KAPRIMO (2007) has
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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

METHODOLOGY

recorded 30.09 mg/lit BOD at Balkumari. Solid waste dumping is comparatively less in Manahara River. No such dumping is present in the upstream from Sankhu to Mulpani, Such dumping can be observed at some locations at Ariniko highway at Jadibuti and pepsicola, town planning area. Squatter settlements are observed near the bridge at Jadibuti. Some sand mining activities observed from Mulpani to Koteshwor. Bank erosions are also seen in some locations along the river. Culturally and historically important sites such as Bajrayogini, Salinadi Tirtha and Changunarayan (Fig.2.32) are situated in the banks of this river and they are still in good ./ condition.
Figure 2.1 : Location Map of the Proposed Site

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

METHODOLOGY

Figure 2.2 : A Map of the Project Area with the Buffer Zone

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METHODOLOGY

2.4 Methods
2.4.1 Desk Study
(i) Literature Review

In order to collect the physical information and Project highlights, the Concept Design of Long Term Landfill Site at Bancharedanda, 2006 and the other relevant reports was thoroughly reviewed. The concept design provided number of information on physical environment such topography, meteorological data, geology, construction material etc (ii) Map Interpretation

The following maps were interpreted to extract necessary information, particularly on physical aspects. They were: a) 1:25,000 scale topographic map of the Project area, Department of Survey; b) 1:50,000 scale land use, land system and land capability map prepared by LRMP, Department of Survey c) 1:1,000 scale topographical maps of the project area; d) 1:1,000 scale engineering geological maps of the project area.

2.4.2 Field Study


Before commencing the detail field study, checklists were prepared to gather the information on the physical parameters, and on biological resources, particularly the terrestrial flora and fauna. Attention was given to accommodate issues as contained, inter alia, in the National EIA Guidelines (1993), EIA Guidelines for Forestry Sector (1995), National EIA Guidelines for Solid Wastes Management Projects in the Municipalities of Nepal, 2005, other issues as contained in the Schedule 6 of the EPR (1997) and the approved TOR. A checklist was used to collect information on the composition of plants and animals and their status in the direct impact area and immediate influence area. A data sheet was also prepared and used to record girth and height of each tree found at the project area site. A simple checklist was used to collect ethonobotanical information with particular focus on usage of plants including the parts used, method and purpose of use. Similar checklist was prepared for plants in trade, animals and their status. Information sheet was also used to collect necessary information on community forests. The check list for the collection on biological environment is presented in Annex 1.1. A structured household survey questionnaire was prepared to solicit the information on socio-economic and cultural environment (Annex-1.2). Furthermore, a checklist (Annex-1.3) was prepared for the Focus Group Discussion, which was used to crosscheck and verify the information. (i) Physical Environment

As mentioned above, most of the information on the physical environment was compiled from Concept Design of Long Term Landfill Site at Bancharedanda, 2006. The feasibility study team made extensive study through topographical survey, generated hydrological data through discharge measurements and sediment samplings, geological investigations and survey of construction materials and testing of their availability and quality. As these surveys were made in early 2007, the field observation and walkthrough method was adopted to verify information on geological condition, drainage system, slope stability, landslide-prone areas, work camp and labor camp, spoil disposal site and other constructionrelated environmental issues. Checklist was used to generate information on erosion problem and possible accumulation of construction wastes in the water bodies or the land system, whereas topographical map was used to locate landslides and areas of slope failure. Recent water samples from the Kolpu Khola was collected and analyzed. Noise level of the project area was measured (ii) Biological Environment

In order to generate information on biological environment, as required by the TOR, the field study was carried out in September 2007 to collect site-specific data on plants and animals. Standard ecological methodologies were adopted.
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METHODOLOGY

A checklist was developed and used to collect information on the composition of plants and animals and their status in the project buffer-zone area. Here the volume calculation is not done, since the area needs further protection and if necessary more forest species plantation would be recommended. This would help to minimize the spread of foul smell from the core area (landfill site). A data sheet was used to record girth and height of each tree species found in the core area (containing private woodlots in farm lands). The girth was measured by a measuring tape and height of trees and shrubs using ocular method. A simple checklist was also used to collect ethno-botanical information with particular focus on usage of plants including the parts used, method and purpose of use. In case of animals (mammals, birds and reptiles), field observation and information collection from the local people was used. Parameters such as common, fair, sparse and rare were used to know the status of both flora and fauna in both the core area and the adjoining community forest. Walkover survey was also done to see the pugmarks, hairs, and dung (or droplets) of the wild animals to know about their occurrence. However, no such indications were observed during the field study. The following baseline information, as specified in the TOR and letter from MoEST during the approval of scoping document, has been made available as follows. (iii) Forest areas including community forests and private woodlots in farm lands (core area). Types of animals and birds present in and around the area Aquatic life including different fish types population (in the up stream and down streams) in Kolpu Khola. Algae, lichens and bryophytes. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) Rare and endangered species, etc Socio-economic and Cultural Environment

The property owners (including land and asset) within the direct impact area (the area where the land use will be changed due to Project implementation) were identified and categorized as the Project affected families (PAFs). Household questionnaire was administered with each of the PAFs who were available in the Project area. The Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were held in the Tallo Seudeni in ward no 4 of Okharpauwa VDc and D Gaun of ward no 9 of Chatre Deurali VDC. In order to cross-check the information and collect addition data, the study team also made extensive discussion with the VDC officials and local people with the objectives of collecting and verifying the site-specific socio-economic data and information. Possible loss of land and property was calculated by using the maps prepared by the Concept Design of the study. Additional topographical survey was carried out to cover the proposed buffer zone area. (iv) Consultation Meeting

During the field study, the study team organized number of consultative meetings with the local people and local leaders in the project area site and SWMRC office at Pulchowk. Local people were contacted to offer their concerns and opinions on biological and socio-economic aspects and they have been duly documented in the report at appropriate places.

2.4.3 Data Processing


Primary and secondary information were analyzed and processed. Information on physical environment was processed based on secondary information and ground observation. Water quality analysis was carried out by using standard methods. Standing wood volume of trees was calculated using the following quarter-girth formula (HMG, 1995). Volume = (Girth2 / 16) x height Net Volume = Volume x 0.6008
Considering the quarter-girth volume is greater than actual volume and since the area does not have class 1 trees, the factor (0.6008) is used for calculating the net volume (Nepal Forestry Handbook, 2002).

Similarly, the biomass volume for fodder and firewood in the natural broadleaf forests with mixed species is calculated using the biomass table. (P.252. Nepal Forestry Handbook, 2002.)
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METHODOLOGY

Socio-economic and cultural information were cross-checked, analyzed and thoroughly edited. Standard conversion tables were used to convert local units into metric system. All data were processed and synthesized using Microsoft Excel Program. For simplicity, SPAFs and PAFs were defined. If the project will acquire about 50 percent or more of the total land and asset of the owner, s/he has been considered as SPAF. If the land and property acquisition will be less than 50 percent of the total land and property of the owner, s/he has been considered as PAF. Processed information are incorporated and illustrated adequately with tables and maps at appropriate places in the text.

2.4.4 Impact Assessment Method


Impacts were identified by employing the methods such as expert judgment, checklist, and map overlays. Matrix method was used to identify the possible beneficial and adverse impacts due to implementation of the proposed project. For easy understanding, direct impacts were identified through maps overlays. Because of the lack of comparable past data, extrapolative technique was found difficult for predicting the impacts. Hence, normative technique, and professional judgment were used to predict the impacts to the extent possible (IUCN, 1996; Lohani et al., 1997; and Uprety, 2003). Significance of the identified and predicted impacts was evaluated using the numerical values as proposed in the National EIA Guidelines 1993 (HMG, 1993), use of regulated list of species (HMG, 1973 and 2001), discussion amongst the study team members, consultation with the experts, and consideration of national policies, laws and local customs (Uprety, 2003). Impacts have been presented in the matrix form. The following criteria were arbitrarily considered in this study to evaluate the significance of the identified and predicted adverse impacts of the project activities on the environment: 1. If the total points of impact magnitude, extent and duration is greater than 75, 50 to 75, and less than 50 (using the National EIA Guidelines, 1993), the impact has been considered significant, moderately significant and insignificant respectively. 2. If the species protected under the legal system of Nepal and the species as included in the CITES appendix 1 and 2 are to be clear felled, the impact has been considered significant. 3. Any loss of rare, endangered and endemic species or critical or productive habitat will result to significant impact. 4. If the number of legally unprotected species over 15 is to be removed from the project site as a part of site clearance, the impact has been considered significant. If the number of legally unprotected species ranging from 5 to 14 will be removed from the project site as a part of site clearance, the impact has been considered moderately significant. The impact has been considered insignificant if the number of species (less than 5) will be removed from the project site. 5. Any impact(s) to SPAFs and PAFs have been considered significant. 6. Impact will be significant if any portion/parcel of the prime agricultural land will be lost (at sitespecific level) due to project activities. 7. Impacts resulted due to demolition of social service and infrastructure facilities including archaeological, historical and cultural sites have also been considered significant. In addition, an impact is assessed as long-term if it lasts for 20 years or more. An impact is assessed as medium term if it lasts for 4 to 20 years, and an impact is assessed as short-term if it lasts only for 4 years or the construction period. In classifying the extent, impact limited up to the project area is sitespecific, limited upto the affected VDCs (Okharpauwa and Chatre Deurali) is local and an impact extending beyond the affected VDCs area would be termed as regional impact. In case of beneficial impacts, the following criteria have been used in this study: a) Impacts that generate socio-economic benefits such as employment, local income, and poverty reduction without depleting the natural resource base have been considered significant. b) Also long-term beneficial impacts on natural resources, in particular the forests, have been considered significant. These criteria are not exhaustive but are 'forward looking approach' to develop a practice of impacts evaluation in the Nepalese EIA system. For significant impacts, environmental protection measures have been proposed to augment the beneficial impacts, and to mitigate the adverse impacts by grouping them into preventive, rehabilitative and compensatory measures based on professional judgment. The 2003 policy decision of the government on 1:25 (i.e., plantation of 25 plant species for each tree felled down as a part of site clearance in the project area) has been used while proposing
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compensatory measures for the lost trees. For other impacts, the compensation will follow the existing policies and legal provisions.

2.4.5 Public Consultation


The scoping report and the terms of reference for the EIA Study was already approved by MoEST Number of public consultation meetings were held during the study period with different group of people. There is a Main Coordination Committee for the Operation of the Sisdol Landfill Site. This committee was supposed to be the focal point for the Public Consultation at the different stages of EIA report preparation. First of all a 15-days public notice was published in a national daily newspaper for the scoping exercise. A reconnaissance site visit was made to prepare the scoping document for the EIA study. Suggestions from concerned VDCs were collected for preparing the terms of reference for the study. During the EIA study phase, numbers of interactions meeting were held with the local people through focused group discussions and household survey of Project affected families.

2.4.6 Interim Report


After the completion of the field survey, an Interim Report was submitted which was preliminary draft report comprising of structure of the EIA report and baseline information in physical, biological, socioeconomic and cultural environments.

2.4.7 Draft Report Preparation


Based on the processed data, the draft EIA report was prepared including impacts, which were identified and predicted taking into consideration the baseline environmental conditions. The draft report includes benefit augmentation measures and adverse impacts mitigation measures to enhance the beneficial impacts; and avoid, minimize and compensate adverse impacts respectively. The proposed compensatory and mitigation measures are based on the consultants earlier experience of EIA study of development projects and government decisions on the compensatory measures for the loss of forest area and tree due to the project implementation. An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been included as an integral part of the EIA report which focused on the implementation of the environment protection measures, environmental monitoring and auditing requirements along with implementation responsibilities, organization, staffing, reporting, budget, and co-ordination aspects.

2.4.8 Public Hearing


The date of public hearing was fixed in consultation with Bhancharedanda Landfill Site Coordination Committee and other local leaders. A formal meeting was held Magh 13, 2008 the preparation of the Public hearing meeting. The date was fixed for Magh 20, 2064 at the Kundule. A project information document was prepared in Nepali language for the public hearing. The document is the key features of the executive summary of the report. The proponent sent a formal invitation letter to Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Ministry of Local Development, Kathmandu Metropolitan City and district level office for participation in the public hearing meeting. A notice of the public hearing was prepared and sent to the local bodies like VDC office of the affected VDCs, DDC, local clubs, district based offices of Department of Forest, Department of Land Revenue, Department of Topography, Department of Forest.. The program was chaired by Senior most citizen of area Mr. Kamal Prashad Ghimire. The chief guest of the program was Mr. Batu Krishna Uprety, representative of Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology. The hearing was attended by Mr. Bijaya Raj Subedi, Section Officer, Environment Section Ministry of Local Development. The meeting was also attended by the representative of all the political parties of the area. People were requested to provide the concerns, comments and suggestions on the proposed mitigation measures in writing so that they can be documented. Received concerns, comments and suggestions were compiled and scrutinized for the relevancy of the project. The proceeding of the public hearing is prepared and presented in Annex 7. (i) Public Concerns

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In general people seemed to be very much concern from the operation of Sisdol Landfill Site, where the leachate is discharged into Kolpu Khola time and again which has polluted the river. The extent of the pollution carried to quite a distance as far as Jibanpur VDC. Similarly, non operation of aeration system and lack of proper treatment facilities has spread foul smell to quite far not only in Okharpauwa VDc and Chatredeurali VDC but also in Chauthe VDC, Kumari VDC. People suggested that all the four VDCs should be considered as the directly affected VDCs. The Sisdol Landfill Site is also meant for the municipal wastes only, but hospital and industrial wastes are also mixed with the incoming wastes in Sisdol Landfill Site. People expressed their concern and doubt that whether the landfill site will be constructed according to the design concept as presented in the public hearing. There was similar commitment before the construction of Sisdol Landfill Site also. But there are design defects as well as operation problem. Government is yet to fulfil number of demands which have been agreed earlier. People have made very clear that people will not take false commitment any more. Government should ensure the protection of health, education, their livelihood. People expressed their concern on non participation of KMC in the public hearing. However, both KMC and LSMC has officially endorsed this EIA Report. A copy of the letters is presented in Annex 9. (ii) Summary of Suggestions

Total 48 nos of written suggestions were received from the local people. Total 13 speakers representing different political parties expressed their views and concerns. Then the concerns from the general public were also heard. Mr. Dipendra Oli from SWMRMC responded to the issues and concern raised by the speakers and general people. He assured that concerns and issues raised in this meeting will be addressed in the final report within the existing laws and rules of the Government of Nepal. Summary of these issues and concerns is presented here below: There was maximum demand for connecting the affected area by all weather road and construction of hospital in the project area vicinity. This will be taken care from the proposed development budget that will be provided through the government or proposed tipping fee. Assurance of employment to at least one member of the project affected families. This provision has been already made in EIA Report. The landfill site must be operated scientifically. This provision has been already made in EIA Report. All the activities of the activities must be carried with the participation of the local people. This provision has been already made in EIA Report. The proposed compensation rates are not adequate. They should be increased. The proposed compensation rate is based on the compensation paid for the proposed landfill site in fiscal year 2063/64. This rate substantially high compare to the ongoing market price of the land in the near by area. People expected to receive skill development training to the project affected families. This provision has been already made in EIA Report. Women also expected specialized training on knitting and tailoring. This provision has been already made in EIA Report. Suggested to increase the extent of buffer zone to 2.5 km. Buffer zone of about 300 m all around the proposed landfill site would be adequate. Project affected area should not be limited to the area that would be occupied by the project infrastructures only. It should include Chauthe VDC, Kumari VDC and Jibanpur VDC also as the effect of foul smell of solid wastes and leachate go to these areas at present. With the provision of large aeration and sedimentation pond, the leachate will not be discharged in the river. Provision of buffer zone may check spreading the foul smell to some extent but could not be stopped. These VDCs could be considered as the project affected areas. The people of Chatredeurali VDC expressed their strong resentment in the name of proposed landfill site itself. The entire landfill site will be located at Kudule of Chatredeurali VDC. But the project has been named as Bancharedanda Landfill Site, Okharpauwa. Hence all the attentions are focused in Okharpauwa VDC. People suggested that to name the project as Kudule Landfill Site.

2.4.9 Finalization of EIA Report

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A Final Draft EIA report is prepared incorporating the issues raised during the public hearing meeting and comments of the client on the draft report which also comprised of the Proceedings of the Public Hearing. Final Draft Report is forwarded to MoEST through MoLD. The report will be reviewed by the EIA Review Committee formed by MoEST. A presentation of the EIA Report will be made in MoEST. Final EIA Report will be prepared incorporating the comments of the EIA Review Committee.

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1 Project Location


The Bancharedanda Landfill Site is about 20 km in the west from the Ring Road of Kathmandu, at Balaju by-pass road. The proposed landfill site is located at the boundary of ward 4 of Okharpauwa VDC of Nuwakot district and wards no 9 of Chatre Deurali VDC of Dhading district. The Kolpu Khola meanders towards east at this location. This khola is the political boundary between Nuwakot district and Dhading district. Western part of the khola is Dhading district whereas east part is Nuwakot district. The proposed landfill site is shown in Figure 3.1.

3.2 Policy for the Development of the Land Fill Site


The proposed long-term sanitary landfill at Bancharedanda has been designed and will be constructed and operated in accordance with some basic principles which are summarized as follows:

3.2.1 Semi-aerobic System


Decomposition of the disposed solid waste, and in particular organic content requires time. Organic matter may decompose under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. But in the case of sanitary landfills, decomposition under anaerobic condition is most common. Anaerobic decomposition is slow, produces more methane and water, and leachate of bad quality. On the other hand, under aerobic decomposition organic matter will decompose into carbon dioxide and water and decomposition will be rapid. Aerobic decomposition requires a supply of oxygen to be pumped into the landfill. This is a costly system both in terms of construction and maintenance. At the sanitary landfill, decomposition of the organic matters increases the temperature in the waste layers. Under semi-aerobic sanitary landfill system, as the main leachate collection pipes discharges the collected leachate into the leachate pond and air is sucked into the landfill through the gas removal pipes and the leachate collection pipes- consequently creating a semi-aerobic system. In a semi-aerobic system, specifically the following process is observed: Parts of the landfill in the vicinity of the pipes are under aerobic conditions. The differential temperature in the landfill will create natural ventilation and the supply of air to the landfill. The leachate quality will improve within a quick time.

3.2.2 Phase-wise Site Development Plan


The proposed landfill site at Bancharedanda will be developed in two phases. Phase-1 will be developed for a filling of ~15m. This phase is estimated to have a life span of ~2.5 years. Phase-2 will be developed for a filling of ~100m of waste. All required facilities will be completed before taking the site into operation in Phase-2. This phase will have a life span of ~16.5 years.

3.2.3 Surrounding Environment


Buffer zone around the land fill site will be maintained to restrict any human settlement and any form of infrastructures within the area. The plantation of broad leaves trees or maintenance of green belt will further improves not only the aesthetic of the area but also prevent to disperse the foul smell of wastes and leachate.

3.2.4 Types of Waste and Beneficiaries


The proposed Bancharedanda Landfill will accept all municipal solid wastes from the municipalities of KMC, LSMC, KRM and adjoining villages. The wastes of hazardous nature, e.g. chemical wastes, infectious wastes, radioactive wastes, liquid wastes and other wastes which are not considered as municipal wastes and which require some special treatment before final disposal will not be accepted at the site.

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Figure 3.3 : The Proposed Landfill Site

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In terms of regional development, the sanitary landfill and infrastructures associated with its development (e.g. approach road, electricity supply, water supply, telephone lines, etc.) are expected to benefit the regions development in general and Okharpauwa VDC and Chauthe VDC of Nuwakot District and Chhatredeurali VDC of Dhading District in particular. Besides, the landfill will also provide employment opportunities to the local people.

3.2.5 Environmental Pollution Controls


The proposed sanitary landfill will serve to reduce the potential environmental impacts being caused by the landfill operations. Essential countermeasures (environmental impact mitigation measures) against pollution of groundwater and surface water will be considered by applying proper liner system, leachate collection and appropriate treatment system (i.e. regular aeration and recirculation of the aerated leachate back to the landfill) etc. Soil cover will be applied at the end of each operating day to reduce the possible bad odor, attraction of vectors and waste scattering. Landfill gases will be collected through the vertical gas vent pipes which will be released in the environment.

3.2.6 Environmental Monitoring


There will be regular environmental monitoring to maintain the quality of the landfill operation. Environmental monitoring will be carried out as follows: a) Groundwater Monitoring

Several groundwater monitoring wells will be installed to detect any leachate seepage. The groundwater will be sampled and tested by a qualified water quality expert, and at a certified laboratory. Test parameters recommended for sampling and analysis of groundwater quality at the indicated frequencies will include standard physical/ physio-chemical, chemical, bio-chemical indicators, metals, volatile organics, pesticides and PCBs. The groundwater wells will be inspected on a regular basis for signs of damage. Damaged wells will be repaired or replaced as necessary. b) Surface Water Monitoring

Surface water will be monitored by taking samples from Kolpu Khola at several locations, upstream and downstream of the landfill site. The surface water samples will be tested by a qualified water quality expert, and at a certified laboratory. Test parameters recommended for sampling and analysis of surface water quality at the indicated frequencies will also include standard physical/physic-chemical, chemical, bio-chemical indicators, metals, volatile organics, pesticides and PCBs. c) Leachate Monitoring

The leachate ponds (both aeration and sedimentation) and the adjacent manhole will be monitored on a regular basis to obtain an understanding of leachate quantity and quantity, and decomposition conditions of the waste. The effect of the aeration on the leachate will be monitored to assess its performance. Samples will be obtained from the mouth of the outlet pipe and from within the ponds and tested under the frequencies and parameters as for the surface water. d) Landfill Gas Monitoring

Landfill gas vents will be monitored at regular frequencies using an appropriate gas analyzer unit. Records will be maintained regarding the time and date of monitoring and observed methane concentrations over the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Periodic monitoring of the landfill administration buildings will also be performed. e) Incoming Waste Monitoring

Incoming wastes shall be monitored for the presence of hazardous materials or liquid wastes. Monitoring shall be in general by visual inspection. However, in case of a serious problem, a sophisticated monitoring plan may need to be developed.

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f)

Public Complaints Analysis

The landfill staff member responsible for public relations will maintain a record of all complaints arriving to the site. In general, the following expected complaint will be recorded: Water contamination Foul smell Waste scattering Odor Vectors Noise Health problems Bird hazards

3.3 Wastes Generation Quantity


The Study on the Solid Waste Management for the Kathmandu Valley carried out in 2005 under Clean Kathmandu Valley (CKV) Project funded by Government of Japan is the basis for the estimation of the solid wastes generation in municipalities of Kathmandu Valley. According to the concept of CKV study, the proposed sanitary landfill at Bancharedanda is meant for the three municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley - namely Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan City (LSMC), and Kirtipur Municipality (KRM). Solid wastes will be collected from the designated collection points of these municipalities, transported with the collection vehicles to i) the existing transfer station located at Teku, and ii) the planned transfer station near by Balaju. Preliminary recycling of the waste will be carried and remaining waste will be transported to proposed landfill site at Bancharedanda for the final disposal through big secondary transport vehicles (roll-off tippers). Total municipal waste generated in three cities KMC, LSMC, KRM will be 535.2, 768.4 and 1521.1 tons/day, out of which 444.5, 632.2 and 1140.8 tons/day (after source reduction through home composting and source recycling) will have to be collected in 2008, 2015 and 2030 respectively. Based on these projected waste generation and collection figures, the total municipal waste to be disposed of at the Bancharedanda Landfill Site shall be 361.1, 387.3 and 564.8 (after waste reduction at community and municipal level, e.g. through community composting, waste processing plants etc.) in 2008, 2015 and 2030 respectively.

3.4 Disposal System


The solid wastes of Kathmandu valley mainly comprises of biodegradable wastes and the decomposition of biodegradable wastes can be accelerated by supplying the air. Semi-aerobic Landfill System is an appropriate system of sanitary land filling with the control of input (i.e. the incoming waste) and of outputs (i.e. leachate and the landfill gas) for the biodegradable wastes. This system is scientific and is expected to be appropriate in Nepalese context, as it is technically simple and cost-effective. In addition the required cover soil material for semi aerobic process is comparatively less than anaerobic process and the sub tropical climate like Kathmandu is best suited for the decomposition. The wellknown Fukuoka method of semi-aerobic landfill type, developed at the Fukuoka University of Japan in early 1970's has been very successfully practiced in the Asian countries like Malaysia and Republic of Iran. In a Semi-aerobic Sanitary Landfill leachate is collected in a leachate collection pond through properly sized perforated pipes embedded in graded gravels/ boulders. As the outlet of the main leachate collection pipe is always open to air, fresh air is drawn into the waste layers, thereby introducing an aerobic condition around the pipes. Since leachate is removed as quickly as it is formed, the internal waste layers have lower water content. A Semi-aerobic Sanitary Landfill System is presented in Figure 3.2.

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runoff collection duct

Leachate Collection Pipe Solid Waste

Pits for pumping

Leachate Collection System

Leachate

Figure 3.4 : Semi-aerobic Landfill System

3.5 Leachate Quantity and Quality


3.5.1 Leachate Quantity
The leachate is produced from the liquid of solid wastes that are disposed in the landfill site. The rain water percolates into the landfill site and generates more quantity of leachate. In addition if the surfacerun off water is allowed to flow into the landfill site, it will also increase the leachate quantity. Hence the quantity of leachate depends on the rainfall intensity of the area, area occupied by the landfill site, surface water run off into landfill site and source of water sources within the landfill site. The nearest stations were in Kakani (elevation 2,064m, distance 5km) and Dhunibeshi (elevation 1,085m, distance 6.5km). The elevation at the project site is 1,100m, which is similar to Dhunibeshi station, but it is closer to Kakani. Therefore average rainfall data from both stations were used in the estimation. The quantity of leachate has been calculated using the rational formula. The calculation period duration was fixed at 30 years (20 years for landfill operation and 10 years for operation and maintenance). The amount of evaporation resulting from re-circulation of the leachate back into the landfill site is estimated as 10% and 20% of the re-circulated leachate amounts in the wet season and dry season respectively. In order to reduce the amount of leachate generated a block embankment will be constructed in the site, and active waste disposal blocks will be separated from other parts of the site. In waste blocks where waste disposal is completed or inactive for a long period, intermediate cover will be installed and drainage system will be provided to drain the storm water away from the active waste disposal areas. Further, in order to prevent surface water run off entering into the proposed landfill site peripheral drains around the landfill site have been proposed at two levels. The existing water springs will be guided out of the landfill site. Since the leachate quantity is the major concern of the landfill site, the CKV Study has estimated the leachate quantity in daily basis. The detail of the estimation is presented in Annex 3. A quantity of leachate generation using 30 years rainfall data and evaporation loss is presented in Figure 3.3.

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200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Rainfall data 19752004years Kakani and Dunibesi Average Evaporation 3 Dry Seaon 300m / day 3 Rainy Season / day 100m

150,000 Rainfall Am ount of leachate 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 90,000 80,000 Am ount of leachate(m )
3

Rainfall(m / day) m

Leachate Regulation Pond Capacity 60,000m 3

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

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3.5.2 Leachate Quality


The anticipated leachate quality from the proposed landfill site would similar to that of from Sisdol Landfill Site which is presented in Table 3.1. Parameters like BOD, COD, TSS, ammonia nitrogen, phenol compound, lead, oil and grease exceeds the effluent standard. Among them parameters like BOD, COD, TSS and ammonia nitrogen would be resulting from the domestic wastes whereas other parameters phenol compound, lead, oil and grease are resulting from the industrial and hospital wastes. This indicates that the present municipal waste brought in Sisdol is mixed with industrial and hospital wastes. Though the quantity of industrial and hospital wastes are very small compare to municipal waste, removal of parameters like phenol compound, lead, oil and grease waste is an expensive process. Hence, it is strongly recommended that they must be separated at source it self so that the treatment process of the leachate is simple and cost effective.

3.5.3 Effluent Standard


The effluent standard for the leachate that can be discharge into the environment is presented in Table 3.1.

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19 05 /5 19 / 28 05 /5 19 / 29 05 /5 19 / 30 05 /5 / 19 31 05 /6 19 / 1 05 /6 19 / 2 05 /6 19 / 3 05 /6 19 / 4 05 /6 19 / 5 05 /6 19 / 6 05 /6 19 / 7 05 /6 19 / 8 05 / 19 6/ 9 05 /6 19 / 10 05 /6 19 / 11 05 /6 19 / 12 05 /6 19 / 13 05 /6 19 / 14 05 /6 19 / 15 05 /6 19 / 16 05 /6 19 / 17 05 /6 19 / 18 05 /6 19 / 19 05 /6 19 / 20 05 /6 19 / 21 05 /6 19 / 22 05 /6 19 / 23 05 /6 19 / 24 05 /6 19 / 25 05 /6 /2 6

Year

Figure 3.5: Quantity of Leachate Generation using Rainfall Data of past 30 year

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Table 3.1 : Leachate Quality of Sisdol Landfill Site and Effluent Standard.

Lechate from outlet pipe J une 09, 2005 une 28, 2005 uly 21, 2005J an. 24, 2006March 5, 2006 J J Weather _ Sunny P artiallly cloudy Cloudy o Air temperaure 30 31 28 12 20 C o lechate temperature 23 24 26 15 22 C Color/appearance _ Faint Brown light black Light Black Black Black Turbidity NTU 150 1000 1000 1500 1000 light pungent, faint Odor _ foul sewage smell leachate smellleachate smellleachate odor sewage Discharge L/Sec 0.25 pH _ 7.0 5.5 5.6 7.7 7.6 Electrical Conductivity (EC) uS/cm 680 6620 8330 Dissolve Oxygen (DO) mg/L 2.40 ND ND 0.00 0 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) mg/L 446 3360 3476 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) mg/L 62 870 13280 567 475 Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3-) mg/L 164 1232 2400 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg/L 333 7750 27000 3400 6400 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mg/L 525 11625 44500 4664 10857 Oxidizability with KMnO4 as O mg/L 496 8080 32000 Chloride ion (Cl-) mg/L 63 106 610 Calcium (Ca++) mg/L 80.2 36.0 986.0 Sodium (Na+) mg/L 39.2 360.9 385.6 Sulfate (SO4-) mg/L 7.0 4.1 7.0 Sulfite (SO3-) mg/L 34.0 26.0 55.0 Sulfide (as S) mg/L 3.2 <0.4 36.0 P henol compounds mg/L 5.89 14.62 Fluoride (as F) mg/L 0.06 0.30 Arsenic (as As) mg/L 0.012 0.017 Cadmium (as Cd) mg/L 0.009 0.012 Total Chromium (as Cr) mg/L 0.177 0.230 Hexavalent chromium (as Cr) mg/L 0.020 0.040 Copper (as Cu) mg/L 0.055 0.090 Lead (as P b) mg/L 0.126 0.550 Mercury (as Hg) mg/L ND (<0.01) ND (<0.005) Nickel (Ni) mg/L 0.178 0.304 Selenium (Se) mg/L ND (<0.005) ND (<0.005) Zinc (as Zn) mg/L 2.99 0.93 Iron (as Fe) mg/L 117.3 195.6 Manganese (as Mn) mg/L 10.29 12.03 Ammonia Nitrogen (NH4-N) mg/L 6.9 321.4 144.7 653.4 693.6 Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3-N) mg/L 2.8 21.2 8.6 Nitrite Nitrogen (NO2-N) mg/L 0.1 0.0 0.0 Total Nitrogen (T-N) mg/L 19.4 367.1 185.5 P hosphorous P hosphate (P O4-P ) mg/L 0.20 9.11 10.54 Oil and Grease mg/L 8.40 126.20 37.00 7 7 5 Fecal Coliform CFU/100 ml 163*10 58*10 4*10 Parameter Unit

Effluent standard

5.5 9.0

30 200 30 100 250

1 2 0.2 2 0.1 3 0.1 0.01 3 0.05 5 50

10

3.6 Leachate Treatment


There are different methods of leachate treatment such as physical, biological and chemical treatments. The type of treatment depends upon the quality of the leachate. Since the leachate produced from the Sisdol Landfill Site comprises of chemical compound like phenol, oil, grease and heavy metals, treatment options for such chemical compounds would require chemical treatment. In addition the available area for the treatment is very limited due the topographic condition of the proposed site. Hence the chemical treatment process would be the appropriate treatment option for the leachate standard that has been coming out from the Sisdol Landfill Site. Oil and grease can be treated in oil separating tank, BOD, COD and ammonia nitrogen can be treated by biological de-nitrification method, suspended solid could treated by sand filtration method, lead could be treated by coagulating sedimentation method and phenol compound could be treated by activated carbon absorption method. In the chemical treatment process, initial investment cost is quite high and its operation also is substantially high. As reported in the concept design of the proposed landfill site, different options of treatment were discussed in the concept design planning workshop on June 1, 2006 in Kathmandu. The
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Workshop was attended by all the stake holders of proposed land fill site area including the representative from the local people. The heavy metals and chemical compounds resulting from industrial and hospital wastes can only be treated by chemical process, but it is economically not viable because of the high cost in the operation of the system. Therefore it is necessary to make utmost efforts to separate industrial and hospital wastes from the waste entering the site by adopting separate collection system for these waste types and monitoring the waste at the transfer stations and as the waste arrives to the landfill. Hence physical and biological treatment has been proposed for Bhanchare Danda Landfill Site. In this system, the leachate is collected in the aeration and sedimentation ponds, and re-circulated to the land fill site. Leachate is treated in the aeration pond for the reduction of BOD, COD and ammonia nitrogen, and in the sedimentation pond for the reduction of the suspended solids. In this option the size of the aeration pond and sedimentation pond will big enough to accommodate the generated leachate until it evaporates. However this option of treatment does not remove or reduce the chemical compound like phenol and heavy metals.

3.7 General Concept of the Project and Component Descriptions


3.7.1 General Concept of the Proposed Landfill Site
The proposed project intends divert the flow of Kolpu Khola by opening the small distance of 75m and make use the valley of Kolpu Khola for the proposed landfill site. The concept design of the proposed landfill site has following components: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) Waste storage dam to retain the waste within the proposed site A network of leachate collection pipes have been provided for the collection of the leachate from the landfill site Lining facilities has been provided to prevent leachate contaminating the groundwater and surface water A net work of gas collection has been proposed for the removal of gas from the landfill site Peripheral rainwater drains at the different level all around the landfill site has been provided to prevent the surface run off entering into the landfill site Saddle dam has been proposed at the north west for increasing the capacity of the landfill site The two spring sources located within the landfill site has been guided outside of landfill site A large aeration pond and a sedimentation pond have been provided for the treatment of the leachate. A blower house has been proposed to re-circulate the leachate into the landfill site An administrative building comprising of weigh bridge, car wash, workshop, administrative building etc have been proposed. An access road to the site has been proposed for the transportation of the waste to the site. The location of the soil cover material has been identified.

A conceptual general layout plan of proposed landfill site is presented in Figure 3.4.

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Figure 3.6 : A Conceptual Layout Plan of Proposed Landfill Site

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3.7.2 Solid Wastes Disposal System


(i) Section Land Filling

When the scale of a landfill site is large and land filling duration is expected for a relatively long time, it is desirable to plan the section land filling and install block embankment - depending upon necessity. This has been considered in the concept design. Section land filling is necessary to achieve reduction of leachate, to ensure ease for operation and maintenance as well as to achieve early stabilization of landfill, prevention of deterioration of liner facility, as well as reduction of overall operation and maintenance cost of land filling. Block embankment by section land filling is important for separating storm water dropped onto non-land filled section from leachate, preventing storm water from flowing into on-going land filling section, storing leachate temporarily at non-land filled section at emergency time such as during extraordinary rainfall, etc. (ii) Cover Soil

The land filled waste will be sufficiently compacted so as to stabilize the landfill foundation and to prolong the lifespan of the landfill site. Layers of cover soil will be systematically placed after compaction of solid waste for each layer. Application of the cover material is one of the most important countermeasures to mitigate a number of environmental concerns, e.g. reducing rainwater penetration, bad smell, littering of waste etc. The disposal layers will be 2 3 m thick and a daily cover soil of minimum of 10 cm thickness will be applied. Intermediate cover will be placed over disposed waste in areas where further waste placement will not occur for at least 6 months. The intermediate cover, thickness of min. 50cm, will be spread and well compacted. The intermediate cover will be graded to allow for surface water run-off and reduce ponding and infiltration. The final cover will be placed once waste disposal operation is completed. The final cover will be ~ 1.5m which will include layers of soil to reduce infiltration, prevent erosion and support vegetation. The final landfill cover will be re-seeded with native vegetation to minimize the visual impact of the final landfill surface and to provide a natural habitat consistent with the surrounding environment. Total 169,500 m3 of soil cover will be required for the operation of the proposed landfill site. (iii) Operation Road and Temporary drainages

The operation roads for the incoming and outgoing vehicles will be all-weather roads that are usable without any problem during rainy season. For each phase of the proposed site development, operation roads will be constructed. Thereafter, the temporary operation roads (furnished with proper drainage and gas vents) will be constructed for accessing the active waste disposal areas (i.e. tipping areas). In order to reduce the generation of the leachate, temporary drainage will be installed along the slopes where the waste is not displaced.

3.7.3 Description of the Components


(i) Waste Storage Dam

The main objective of the Waste Storage Dam is to retain the waste materials safely regarding several forces coming on it for long time without any failure of the dam structure and its function is to create space for dumping waste materials and to retain the wastes within the land fill site area. A cement soil gravity dam of length 22m, top width 5.0 m bottom width 76.0m and 30.0m height has been proposed. The bed rock at the proposed site varied from 1.0 m to 3.5 m at the different location. For the stability of the dam and for preventing the seepage of leachate underneath the dam, the depth of foundation has been taken as 5.5 m below the existing bed level of the river. A typical section of the proposed waste storage dam is presented in Figure 3.5.
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Figure 3.7 : A Typical Section of Waste Storage Dam

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(ii)

Liner System

Main function of liner facility in a landfill site is to prevent pollution of water bodies or underground water by leachate discharged from the landfill site. In other words, it functions is to mitigate adverse impacts of such pollution to the surrounding areas, and also to prevent the increase of leachate volume caused by inflow of surrounding groundwater into the landfill site. As storm water drainage and leachate collection facilities complement the function of liner facility selected. The storm water drainage facility eliminates rainwater from entering the land fill site. Among the three liner systems considered in the alternative analysis, partial bottom liner along the bottom of landfill and to a height of 3 m up the slope has been the proposed for the landfill site. The selected liner system is equivalent to that of a single composite liner as usual in Japan, the US and West Europe. The structure of selected surface liner facility comprises of the following layers:

clay liner of 0.50m compacted thickness (2 x 25 cm layers, kf <10- m/sec) laid over compacted landfill basement/ compacted sub-soil , 1 layer protective mat (10mm thick), 1 layer standard HDPE sheet (1.5mm thick), 1 layer protective mat (10mm thick), and compacted cover soil (0.50m thick in 2 x 25cm layers, kf <10-8m/sec),

The proposed liner system covers an area of 3.3 ha at base. The total layout will be developed in two stages of phase-1 separated in eastern and western area by a 3m-high block embankment of earthen dam. Area covered by the liner system in stage-1 is ~1.65ha and that by stage-2 is ~1.67ha. Water tightness of the liner system at the foot of the surrounding hill is ensured by laying the HDPE sheet (together with the upper and lower protective mats) over the sloped surface of the earthen slope embankment. The horizontal liner sheet over the sloped surface (1:2) is fixed at the top by means of a fixing block of plain cement concrete. Fixing of horizontal liner sheet over the sloped surface of the block embankment is also done in the similar way. Water tightness at the foot of waste storage dam is ensured by means of an additional embankment of earthen dam similar to that of slope embankment, and laying the horizontal liner over the sloped surface and fixing it also in the same manner. There will be 10cm thick concrete spraying over the inner sloped surface of the waste storage dam. (iii) Leachate Collection System

Leachate collection system of a sanitary landfill is always aimed at collecting leachate generated from the landfill site, channelling it to a pre-determined facility for appropriate treatment before discharging it to the environment. It also serves to supply air into the land filled waste layers through the collection pipes for the semi aerobic sanitary landfill. In the case of semi aerobic landfill system, the leachate collection system will have two basic functions: to convey the leachate generated during the waste disposal activities to the leachate collection pond, and to allow continuous fresh air into the disposed waste layers to facilitate aerobic decomposition of the organic fractions for fast stabilization of the waste being decomposed.

Leachate collection facility, in general, consists of collection pipes, leachate retention ponds or pits, leachate control valves, etc. In the semi-aerobic system, following three types of collection pipes are to be considered: Bottom pipes Inclined Pipes Vertical Pipes

The bottom pipe will be laid over the landfill basement which is also known as the main leachate pipe and branch leachate pipe according to the designed layout plan. Ultimately the selected leachate collection pipe system would be able to collect and discharge leachate effectively. A layout plan of leachate collection system is presented in Figure 3.6.
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Figure 3.8 : A Layout Plan of Leachate Collection

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(a)

Bottom Pipes

For the proposed site, the system for proper and quick leachate collection at the landfill basement will consist of main leachate collection pipes and branch leachate collection pipes, which will be hydraulically big enough to allow the maximum leachate flow and structurally strong enough against maximum static and dynamic loads coming over from ultimate height of waste filling and equipment in operation. Besides, they will also be big enough to maintain permanent semi-aerobic condition within the waste layers for the proposed landfill system (Fukuoka method of semi-aerobic system). Inclined Pipes These pipes will placed along the embankment slopes of the landfill site and connected to the branch collection pipes at the bottom. Theoretically, inclined pipe is preferred to vertical drainage pipe. It also serves as effective gas vent. Slope gas vent/leachate collection pipes will be provided along the slope embankments connecting the branch leachate collection pipes to the vertical vent pipes. But for easy laying and bending over the slopes, these pipes will be of 315mm dia. HDPE pipe of strength 10kgf/cm2. (c) Vertical Pipes

These will be placed vertically in the landfill and the heights extended vertically during operation period as land filling continues. They will be connected with the bottom leachate collection pipes. (iv) Leachate Collection Ponds

The selected option for the leachate treatment is physical and biological. In this the leachate is collected in large pond through the collection pipes which are above the full supply level of the leachate pond so that there will be constant air supply in the wastes deposits making semi aerobic condition in the land fill site. There will be two large ponds for the treatment of leachate, an aeration pond and sedimentation pond. The capacity of these ponds is 60,000m3. Air is blown in the aeration pond by the 8 nos of blower pumps each with capacity of 9.4m3/min for the biological treatment. The leachate is pumped back into the disposed wastes for accelerating the decomposition process. After the biological treatment in the aeration pond, the leachate is pumped in the sedimentation pond for the physical treatment. The sizes of aeration pond and sedimentation pond have been design to hold the total generated leachate in 30 year duration. Within that period, the leachate is completely evaporated. Hence the leachate will not be discharged into the river. (v) Rain Water Drainage

Rain water drain will be provided at two levels mainly one at the periphery of Phase 1 and second is at periphery of Phase 2. The function of these drains is to collect the surface runoff water from the catchments and prevent them entering into the land fill site. The proposed drain along the periphery of Phase 1 will be earthen drain which will be covered during the operation of Phase 2 land fill where as the drain along the periphery of Phase 2 boundary will permanent nature constructed with stone masonry and service track for the maintenance purpose. It is to be noted that the drain along the periphery of Phase 2 boundary will be constructed during the Phase 1 construction. (vi) Administrative Blocks

Management of waste disposal requires staff, which will administer the operations and maintenance of land fill system. Administration Building includes office for the staff (administrative and mechanical), provision for the laboratory, workshop and storage for the vehicles, guard house, provision for the weighbridge operation and recording room, car washing facilities for cleaning the vehicles, toilets, water supply lines, electricity connection parking space and fencing for safety of the administrative compound. Weighbridges
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The weigh bridge is required to weigh the wastes for record purposes and for future planning. The weigh bridge set is manufactured to weigh up to (40) forty tons. The weigh bridge will be located in front of the guard house near the gate so that waste loaded vehicles could be checked by the guard and the weight recorded. Car Washing

The vehicles used for transportation of wastes, have to be cleaned off all dirt and smelly substances before they return come out of the land fill site. Hence they shall be washed properly. The car wash platform length will be sufficient for two vehicles to be washed at the same time. The construction material will be stone masonry in cement mortar. The height of the platform will be one meter above the ground for washing the vehicles from underneath. The car wash platform will be constructed near the gate in front of the weigh bridge. There will be sufficient gap in between the weigh bridge and the car wash platform for the vehicles to pass through. The ground level will have self drainage facility for the water flow. Gate and Fence

The gate will be required to control the entry of vehicles to the LF. Fencing around the administration compound and the LF will stop people and local grazing animals entering the LF. The gate will be of iron angles and pipes welded together .The width of the gate is 14 meters. Hence a sliding type gate would be preferable. The gate will slide towards the guard house on rails. The gate will be near the western end of the waste storage dam. The elevation of the gate rails will be the same as of the dam. Guard House

To safe guard, the land fill site and its infrastructure, vehicles and equipment 24 hours guards will be placed at the site. The guard house will have two rooms (one for the guard and another for the weight recorder) and will be situated near the gate in front of the weigh bridge for recording the weights of waste. This house will be constructed of stone masonry in cement mortar and will have a steel truss roof with CGI sheet covering. The guard house will be situated near the gate along side the weigh bridge in a manner to check the vehicles before entering the land fill site. This will accommodate the weight recorder and the guard. This guard house will be over looking the dam, the blower house and leachate storage ponds. Utilities (electricity, water, sewage, telephones)

Utilities like electricity, communication, water supply and waste disposal facilities are necessary for the operation of the land fill site. None of these utilities exist at present. Electricity is required for laboratory, weight recorder, mechanical repairs, and blower pump operation. The capacity of required electricity should be sufficient to run high pressure washing machine of 3.7KW and the compressor (blower) of 7.5 KW. Water for drinking and washing purposes is required The electricity line from Sisdol will be extended to the proposed landfill site by 11KV sub-transmission line. Water supply for drinking and washing purposes will have to be brought from the stream near the village on the North West side of the saddle dam by 50 mm diameter GI pipe. Distance to the source is about 1.5 km. The liquid wastes will be disposed off in the septic tank. Telephone connections will be made through CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).

(vii)

River Diversion

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Closing dike is constructed for a permanent structure to cut and turn present river flow into the diversion section. The alignment of closing dike follows the boundary line of sedimentation ponds in the southern direction and connects the southern end of sedimentation pond extending across the existing river width and central hill. The closing dike design considers a composite structure comprising of i) a central portion of plain concrete dike of 1m wide at top level of 106m with side slope of 1:0.6 and ii) reinforced concrete (RC) retaining wall at water colliding front side to withstand direct impact of flood, boulders and debris flow during rainy season. The overall closing dike design is predominant for the 10m water pressure from the leachate pond side, and therefore the hydraulic and structural stability design has been considered accordingly. (viii) River Training Works

For the River training and protection works, upstream protection works are provided of gabion wall section comprising gabion boxes of 2mx1mx1m with 4m in overall height having two layers of mattress section of 50cm thick with launching apron of 10m. The gabion mattress size is 3mx1mx0.5m. Similarly downstream protection are provided having launching apron throughout the river section (because apron length required is about 12m, which is more than existing low section river width). A geotextile filter layer will be placed behind all gabions and mattresses against washing out gravels and/or fine materials, except when laid against undisturbed gravel formation. In some cases the bank is formed of very fine sand, and thus there is a risk of erosion of this material without the geotextile filter layer.

3.7.4 Buffer Zone


A land fill site would require a buffer zone between the land fill site and the settlement areas. There has been many interaction with the local communities in maintaining the buffer zone for the proposed land fill site. The buffer zone is meant to minimize the impact on the nearby settlements and to prevent the encroachment of the local people in the land fill site. The proposed buffer zone for the land fill site is shown in Figure 2.2.

3.7.5 Storage and Quarry of Covering Soil


Large quantity of cover soil is required for the operation of land fill site main for the purpose of covering the waste after leveling and compacting. About 169,500m3 of cover soil will be required as the cover soil. This will not only prevent the foul smell but also control the waste surface and vehicles will be running over it. There are two possible sources for the covering soil. One is from the Sisdol landfill site where 287 ropanies of land has been acquired by the government. This site will have about 8 km of lead up and down. Another site is near the Ghatte Khola beside the access road under construction. This will have about 4 km of lead. But this land has not been acquired yet.

3.7.6 Access Road


The existing bituminous road from Sisdol Land Fill site has been extended up to the left bank of the proposed diversion by a gravel road. The extended road is earthen at present. This extended road will be a gravel road. From this point the road will have to be further extended for another 450 m along the left bank of the river so that the river crossing span will be minimum. A bridge will be required to cross the river. After crossing the river the road can be aligned to the administrative area in a gentle slope of 10%. Space for buildings can be made after excavating the hill side above the Dam. This will provide clear view of the landfill site and length of the road to the bottom of the valley will be short. All roads will be outside of the waste fill area. This will be economically beneficial.

3.7.7 Construction Planning


As per conceptual design, the construction planning has been in two phases. The phase 1 will comprised of two stages. First stage and second stage of phase 1 will be for the period of 9 months and 4 months whereas the second phase of construction will for the period of another 4 months. The proposed construction activities in each phase of construction is presented in Table 3.2. A Construction planning as suggested in concept design is presented in Figure 3.7. Table 3.2 : Phase Wise Construction Features
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S.No. 1 2 A B 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Item Ground Improvement Block Embankment Block Embankment Slope Embankment Waste Storage Dam Saddle Dam Liner System Facility Leachate Collection system Landfill Gas Vent System Leachate Recirculation System Aeration Pond with Aeration System Sedimentation Pond Blower House Operation Road 1 (to landfill site) Operation Road 2 (to Saddle Dam) Rain Water Drainage Administrative Building Weighbridge Vehicle Wash Pool Guard House Vertical Liner Plan (alternative) River Diversion Fencing Utilities (Water Supply System)

Phase I First Stage Second Stage Phase 2 (West Side) (West Side) 49.69% 50.31%

Remarks Earth works with retaining structures Central Embankment collect leachate to

100% 49.16% 51.48% 50.84% 16.55% 31.97% 100% 46.31% 75.24% 49.54% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 50.89% 100% 100% 100% 49.11% 53.69% 24.76% 50.46%

At the Foot of Hill Soil cement, 30m high Soil cement, Horizontal Through circuit of pipes to Aeration and Sedimentation Pond Through circuit of pipes to atmosphare Through circuit of pipes over the LF Semi-aerobic

permanent type. Stone masonry in cement mortar For Staff 40 MT capacity To clean dirt and odour from the vecles for guards (Chowkidars) Vertical Liner of injected concrete under the dam 2m below the impermeable rock Diversion of Kolpu Khola to reclaim Land for LF site

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Figure 3.9 : Construction Planning in Concept Design

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3.7.8 Cost Estimates


The total cost estimates for the project is estimated to be Rs. 1,666,268,518 Out of which the civil construction is estimated to be Rs. 1,148,616,265.93. The detail break down of the cost estimate is presented
in Table 3.3. But estimated cost for the mitigation measures is very low. The revised cost of the project including the proposed mitigation measures in this EIA report is presented in the same Table. The mitigation cost is about 11.7 % of the total civil cost.

Table 3.3 : Cost Estimates (Total)


Item No. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B 23 24 25 C 26 27 28 Description Civil Construction Cost GROUND IMPROVEMENT BLOCK EMBANKMENT WASTE STORAGE DAM SADDLE DAM LINER SYSTEM FACILITY LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE GAS VENT SYSTEM LEACHATE RECIRCULATION SYSTEM AERATION POND SEDIMENTATION POND BLOWER HOUSE OPERATION ROAD - 1 ( TO LANDFILL SITE) OPERATION ROAD - 2 ( TO SADDLE DAM) RAIN WATER DRAINAGE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND GARRAGE WEIGHBRIDGE VEHICLE WASH POOL GUARD HOUSE VERTICAL LINER PLAN (ALTERNATIVE) RIVER DIVERSION FENCING WORKS UTILITIES SUB TOTAL A (PART 1 TO PART 22) Environmental Mitigation Cost BUFFER ZONE PLANTATION TRAINING FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING UNIT SUB TOTAL B Impact Monitoring Requirement METEREOLOGICAL STATION GAS METER ODOUR METER SUB TOTAL C Environmental Auditing Engineering Cost (10 % of A) TOTAL CONTINGENCIES 15% Total VAT 13 % GRAND TOTAL Total Amount (NRs.) In Concept Design 76,175,632.28 3,209,828.45 753,091,785.21 12,873,816.56 71,846,964.89 19,144,941.23 3,842,929.26 157,140.46 59,601,718.13 47,546,227.36 8,345,660.32 2,987,184.72 3,609,514.87 9,361,393.85 4,311,380.22 2,428,078.80 458,428.79 469,225.03 Revised Total Amount (NRs.) with Environmental Cost

62,890,802.73 5,766,563.62 497,049.17 1,148,616,265.93 1,440,000.00 750,000.00 15,970,290.00 18,160,290.00 500,000.00 50,000.00 50,000.00 600,000.00 114,861,626.59 1,282,238,183 192,335,727 1,474,573,910 191,694,608 1,666,268,518

1,148,616,265.93

202,519,683.231

10,468,000.00 2 1,072,500.00 3 114,861,626.59

1,477,538,075.75 221,630,711.36 1,699,168,787.12 220,891,942.33 1,920,060,729.44

Note

1,2,3

Details of the cost breakdown is presented in Table 8.3, Table 8.4 and Table 8.5

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REVIEW OF POLICIES, PLANS, LAWS AND GUIDELINES

This chapter summarizes existing policies, plans, laws, guidelines and institutions in order to inform the decision-makers and stakeholders about their implications on the Project functioning. For easy reference, relevant provisions of constitution, policies and plans, laws, guidelines and institutional instruments to this Project have been summarised below:

4.1 The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 (2007)


Article 16 (1) of the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 (2007) as proclaims that every person shall have the right to live in a healthy environment. The Constitution also establishes the right of property as a fundamental right to citizens. Article 19(1) states that every citizen shall, subject to the laws in force, have the right to acquire, own, sell, dispose of and otherwise deal with property. Similarly, Article 19 (2) states that the state shall not, except in the public interest requisition or acquire, or otherwise create any encumbrance on the property of any person. Provided this clause shall not apply to any property earned in an illicit manner. Article 19(3) specifies that there shall be given compensation for any property requisitioned, acquired or encumbered by the state in the course of enforcing a scientific land reform program or in the public interest in accordance with law. The compensation, the basis thereof and the procedure therefore shall be as determined by law.

4.2 Relevant Policies and Plans


4.2.1 Three Years Interim Plan, 2008
Under the Environment and Waste Management Section of Local Development of this plan, It states that " Special effort will be made towards establishing a processing center for the management of biodegradable wastes in Kathmandu valley. Initiative will be made towards modifying and updating the National Policy, 1997 for waste management with the participation of concerned stakeholders. Hazardous wastes generated from the industries and hospitals, will be managed by the institutions concerned without health consequences resulting from management of such wastes. The municipalities and urbanizing VDCs, those geographically nearer and connected to transportation for easy accessibility, shall work jointly in community awareness building, management of landfill sites, organic fertilizer production and energy development. The Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Center will facilitate this initiative. Efforts shall be made towards increasing private sector participation and promotion of public-private partnership in tasks relating to waste management such as, collection, storage, transport, sorting, recycling and processing of wastes." The Concept Design of Banchare Danda Landfill Site has considered all the above aspects. But the application of these measures must be ensured by the government as well as municipalities who will have the responsibility of operation of the landfill site.

4.2.2 Environmental Policy and Plan


Government of Nepal, for the first time in the planning history of Nepal, integrated environmental aspects in the Sixth Plan (1980-'85) and urged to carry out EIA of development Projects and programmes (NPC, 1980). This commitment was re-enforced in the Seventh Plan (1985-90), the National Conservation Strategy, 1988, and the Master Plan for Forestry Sector (1989). The Eighth Plan (1992-'97) elaborated the need for institutionalizing EIA system to attain the goals of sustainable development by integrating environmental aspects into development activities (NPC, 1992). The Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan (1993) and Environmental Strategies and Polices for Industry, Forestry and Water Resource Sectors (1998) also recognized EIA as an essential planning and management tool to internalise environmental management activities into development Projects. The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) emphasised on participatory EIA, involvement of the stakeholders in natural resource management and internalisation of environmental management in sectoral development Projects and programs, with a view to attaining sustainable development objectives. The Environment and Natural Resource Management Policy, as included in the Ninth Plan, has re-emphasized the need for internalizing and institutionalising the EIA system right from the local level through coordinated effort (NPC, 1997).

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The Tenth Plan (2003-2007) has identified EIA as a priority area, and it emphasises on environmental monitoring of the Project that have undergone EIA process. The Plan focuses on the need for setting-up national environmental standards with the strategy of internalising environmental management into the development programmes. The Plan has also realised the need for carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to promote environmental administration and governance. The plan emphasizes on the participation of the local people for environment conservation, according to the Local Self Governance Act 2055 (1999), through the local bodies, by making them responsible and capable to manage natural resources at the local level. The Local Self Governance Act, 2055 also empowers the local bodies for the Conservation of soil, forest and other natural resources and implement environment conservation activities. During the last nearly two and half decades, Government of Nepal has endorsed and implemented several sectoral policies and conservation- friendly documents which also focus on conducting environmental assessment. To name a few, the National Conservation Strategy (1988) and Master Plan for Forestry Sector (1989), Nepal Environment Policy and Action Plan (NEPAP I and II) (1993 and 1998) and Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal (SDAN) (1993) provide a number of opportunities to internalize and institutionalize environmental assessment process in Nepal. SDAN emphasises on the conservation of forests, species, ecosystems, genetic resources or in other words biodiversity.

4.2.3 Other Policies


In view of the location of this area and its possible impacts on forests, the revised Forest Policy, 2000 is also attracted, which emphasizes the forest conservation, management and their sustainable use through people's participation. The long-term objectives of the forest policy are to meet people's basic needs for fuel-wood, timber, fodder and other forest products on sustained yield basis; to protect land against degradation; and to conserve the ecosystems and genetic resources. The Tenth Plan has the objective of continuing the supply of forest products through the conservation and management of forests, plants, soil and watersheds. It has a policy to maintain 40 percent of the total area of the country under forest cover (NPC, 2002). Activities related to forestry development, soil conservation and watershed management, and biodiversity conservation will be implemented continuously with people's participation. In August 2002, Government of Nepal has endorsed Nepal Biodiversity Strategy (NBS) and this Strategy has also emphasised on carrying out EIA. The focus of the NBS is on the conservation, management, and sustainable use of biodiversity including equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the usage of biological resources (MFSC, 2002)..

4.3 Relevant Laws


Existing regulatory instrument the law that includes Acts and Rules provides the proponent with an opportunity to identify and mitigate environmental problems associated with the Projects. The regulatory agency is also obliged to assist the proponent in achieving environmental management goals. Nepal has a wide range of regulatory frameworks towards the protection of the environment and promotion of development activities. Article 16 (1) of the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 (2007) as proclaims that every person shall have the right to live in a healthy environment. A separate parliamentary committee exists with the objective of integrating environmental concerns in the national legal system. The Environmental Protection Council under the chairmanship of Prime Minister has been formed together with representation of government, private sector, academic institutions and national experts in order to coordinate at the highest decision making level. A number of important measures have already been adopted with the objective of integrating the environmental concerns into development programmes since UNCED. The Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1996 and Environment Protection Regulations (EPR), 1997 set the legal framework for the integration of environmental aspects into development projects and industrial investments.

4.3.1 Environmental Law


The Environment Protection Act (EPA), 1996 and the Environment Protection Rules (EPR), 1997 are the principal regulatory frameworks to make the development programs and Projects environmentGroup-3 ENVE 8-15 FINAL REPORT

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friendly. The law entered into force since June 1997 contains several provisions to internalise environmental assessment system and to maintain a clean and healthy environment by minimising the adverse impacts on human beings and other life forms and physical objects. Section 3 to 6 of the EPA, 1996 and Rules 3 to 11 of the EPR, 1997 contain provisions on the approval process of the IEE/EIA report. Rule 12 of the EPR oblige the Proponent to comply with matters mentioned in the report and other conditions, if any prescribed by the approval agency. As per the environment law, the proponent is required to prepare EMAP for EIA study and should implement the environment enhancement and mitigation measures as per Environmental Management Action Plan (EMAP) proposed in IEE or EIA. The EPA, 1997 obliges the proponent not to implement the proposals without approving IEE or EIA reports for the prescribed Projects (Section 4). Section 6 empowers the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoEST) to approve the EIA report. Based on Schedule 2 of the EPR, 1997, this Project requires to complete the EIA process and to get the EIA report approved before its implementation. The EPR, 1997 provides detail provisions with regard to the approval of the EIA report and responsibilities of the institutions during the Project implementation stages. MoEST should approve the EIA report legally within 60 days of its receipt, in general, but no later than 90 days upon its receipt (MOPE, 1997). The environmental legislation is very clear with regard to environmental monitoring and auditing and EPR, 1997 empowers the concerned agency. In this case for environmental monitoring at all phases of the Project and MoEST for environmental auditing after two years of service start by the Project. Table 4.4 : Highlights of the Environment Protection Act, 1997 and Its Rule, 1997
Sections / Rules Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Major Highlights of Environment Protection Act, 1997 The Proponent should carry out IEE/EIA of the prescribed proposals. No one should implement the proposals requiring IEE or EIA without approval. The proponent should submit the IEE/EIA reports for approval by the concerned agency for approval process. Upon receipt of such proposal, the concerned agency should approve the IEE report and forward the EIA report to MOPE for approval process. MOPE should approve the EIA report after public notice is over. MOPE can form a committee to seek suggestions over EIA reports. If any person ask for compensation, the proponent is liable to compensate for the loss or effects as prescribed. In case the proposal requiring environmental assessments is implemented without necessary approval or violates the conditions of approval, the prescribed authority may close down such activity immediately and may punish up to Rs. 1,00,000/. A person who is not satisfied with the decision of the prescribed authority may appeal to the concerned Appellate Court within 35 days from the date of decision or order. Government may frame and implement necessary guidelines, including EIA guidelines. Government may frame necessary rules, including conduction of IEE or EIA, standards etc.

Section 17 Section 18

Section 19 Section 23 Section 24

Environment Protection Rules, 1997 (amendment 5 April 1999) Rule 3 Rule 4 The proponent is required to prepare IEE and EIA report as per Schedules 1 and 2 respectively. Before preparing an EIA report, the proponent should publish a 15-days public notice to provide the stakeholders to offer their opinions and concerns in writing on the proposal. The proponent should prepare and submit the scoping report to the concerned agency and forward to MOPE for approval and MOPE should determine the scope of the EIA study as submitted or amended. In case of IEE report, the proponent should prepare and submit the TOR and get approval of TOR from concerned agency while in case of EIA report, the proponent should prepare and submit the TOR to the concerned agency, which should forward to MOPE for necessary approval. In case, the approving agency of IEE report finds appropriate to carry out EIA, the proponent should fulfil all the formalities of the EIA process. The proponent should prepare IEE and EIA report in the format as indicated in Schedule 5 of the EPR, 1997. In case of IEE report, the proponent should notice the concerned VDC, municipality, DDC, school, health posts and hospital to offer their opinions and suggestions in writing before the finalization of the IEE report. However, the proponent should conduct a public hearing in the project site about the EIA report.
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Rules 8 and 9 have been repealed by the First Amendment (April 1999) Rule 5

Rule 6 Rule 7

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Rule 10 Rule 11

The proponent should submit 15 copies of the IEE/EIA report along with the recommendation of the concerned VDC or municipality to the concerned agency for approval. The concerned agency, after investigation, should approve the IEE report within 21 days from the date of its receipt, and forward the 10 copies of the EIA report with its suggestion to MOPE within 21 days from the date of receipt. Upon receipt of the EIA report, MOPE should issue a 30-days public notice in the daily newspaper to offer written comments of the stakeholders. MOPE also may seek the suggestions of the committee, if formed for this purpose, and should approve the EIA report within 60 days from the date of receipt or within 90 days in case of special reason. The proponent should implement EIA and other conditions given during the approval process. The concerned agency (ministry) is made responsible for environmental monitoring and evaluation activities, and issue necessary directives to the proponent to implement environmental protection measures. MOPE is responsible to prepare the environmental auditing report after two years of the commencement of the service by the proposal. Anyone wishing to receive compensation may file the application to the Chief District Officer (CDO) and should forward the file to the concerned agency in case the evaluation of effects/loss. Once the loss of evaluated, the CDO should determine the amount of compensation within 60 days of receipt of application. The proponent should pay the compensation amount within 30 days of decision. In case the proponent (individual, institution or proponent) fails to pay within the time limit, the victim may submit an application, and the CDO shall auction the property of the proponent and pay the amount of compensation as determined.

Rule 12 Rule 13

Rule 14 Rule 45-47

Ministry of Population and Environment (MOPE) published an additional notice in the Nepal Gazette, on 23 August 1999, stating that the proposals which are not listed in Schedules 1 and worth of investment of over Rs. 10 million to 100 million may require IEE study, and those which are not listed in Schedule 2 and worth of investment of over Rs. 100 million should undergo an EIA process.

4.3.2 Solid Wastes Management and Resources Mobilization Law


Solid Waste (Management and Resource Mobilization) Act, 1987 was enacted to manage solid waste, mobilize resources relating to solid waste and ensure the health convenience of the common people by controlling the adverse impact of pollution from solid waste. This act entered into force since 18 October 1987 (B.S.2044-7-1) in the Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur Municipality areas and in other areas it shall come into force on such date as may be prescribed by the Government of Nepal by notification in the Nepal Rajapatra. In exercise of the power conferred by Section 7.6 of Solid Waste (Management and Resource Mobilization) Act of 1987, Government of Nepal has framed Solid Waste (Management and Resource Mobilization) Rules, 1989 on 24 July 1989 (B.S. 2046-4-9). The first amendment of Solid Waste (Management and Resource Mobilization) Act was adopted on 22 October 1992 (B.S.2049-7-6). There are Seven Chapters and contains several provisions relating to establishment and Management of the Center, Functions, Duties and Powers of the Center, Management and Control of Solid Wastes, Prohibitions and Penalties, Fund to the Center and Miscellaneous to manage solid waste and controlling the adverse impact of pollution from solid waste. Section 2.1 of Solid Waste (Management and Resource Mobilization) Act, 1987 has established a Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Center for the purpose of the management of solid wastes and mobilization of resources relating to solid wastes. The Center is an autonomous and corporate body with perpetual succession. Major highlights of the Solid Waste (Management and Resource) Act, 1987 and Solid Waste (Management and Resource) Rule, 1989
Sections Section 2.1 Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Section 3.3 Section 3.4 Section 3.7 Major Highlights of Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Act, 1987 Establishment of the Center Functions and Duties of the Center Powers of the Center Formation of the Board of Directors. Meetings and Decisions of the Board The Center may appoint Inspector Officers of designate any Officer of the Center to work as an Inspector Officer according to need in order to effectively conduct the function of controlling solid wastes.
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Section 3.9

The Center may form different sub-committees for the purpose of undertaking functions relating to solid waste management and resources mobilization by conducting sanitation operations. In case the Center, or the Inspector Team, or the Inspection Officer receives information regarding the been thrown in any public place, road, or site where solid wastes are dumped, or in any container, following an accidental or natural death, the concerned center, team, responsible for undertaking actions according to current law in regard to such dead body or carcass. After receiving information in the at manner, the concerned officer shall take actions in regard to such dead body or carcass according to current law, and notify the Center, the Inspection Team or the Inspection Officer accordingly as early as possible. The Center, or the Inspection Officer with the approval of the Center, can issue orders prohibiting such actions as keeping, throwing, burning, burying, or otherwise storing, disposing of or destroying harmful solid wastes in any public place or any private-owned place keeping in view the welfare and convenience of the public. The Center has right to manage or use in any way the solid wastes thrown or kept in the place prescribed for dumping such waste, containers, garbage disposal equipment made available by the Center, or the solid wastes collection in the course of sanitation campaigns. Any industrial or commercial enterprise, or any agency, institution or individual desirous of collecting and managing any reusable solid wastes disposed of by others or any other solid wastes, must obtain the permission of the Center to do so. While issuing permission for managing solid wastes under section 4.5, the Center shall conduct inquiries into whether or not the action would adversely affect the health of the public, and grant permission after charging fees as prescribed, only if it is provided that the action will not have any adverse impact. The Center may from Inspection Teams according to need under the convenorship of Inspection Officers for the purpose of inspecting on a daily basis whether or not solid wastes are being managed and controlled. The team shall include employees of the Center, the police, the employees of the Village Development Committee or Municipality. The Center must work by establishing coordinating with Village Development Committees or Municipalities while undertaking functions relating to the management of solid wastes under this act. In case the air, soil or water pollution resulting from solid wastes affects or is likely to affect adversely human beings, birds and animals, plants and other objects in any area or public place, or any inhabited area, the Center may make necessary arrangements for the eradication of such pollution. Prohibitions: No one shall take or instigate others to take the some actions prescribed by this section. No one shall take or instigate others to throw, keep or dump solid wastes in any public place, except in containers or places allotted for dumping solid wastes. No one shall take or instigate to use, remove or destroy without permission, the solid waste kept in containers or places allotted for dumping them. Penalties: The Inspection Officer may impose fines in case any person who commits or instigates the some activities which are prohibited and prescribed by the act. Land Acquisition: Government of Nepal may arrange for the acquisition of necessary lands for the Center for the following purpose according to current law: 7.2.1.1 To Throw, or dump solid waste or to install containers for the purpose, or for transit points, the places where solid wastes are finally disposed of, and for arranging places of production. 7.2.1.2 To make available other facilities relating to cleanliness and sanitation. 7.2.1.3 To conduct programs relating to resource mobilization. Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Rules, 1989 Dumping Sites to be prescribed or Container Service to be Provided 2.6.1 The Center may prescribe the location of the container or the site for dumping solid wastes after consulting the concerned VDC or the Ward Committee in case it deems it necessary to remove the solid wastes of any area keeping the convenience of the public in view. 2.6.2 Solid wastes shall be dumped at the place prescribed or into the containers placed under Sub-Rule 2.6.1 within the time fixed by the Center from time to time. 2.6.3 The Center too shall fix the time for collecting and transporting solid wastes from dumping sites or containers and collect and transport them within the prescribed
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Section 4.1

Section 4.3

Section 4.4

Section 4.5

Section 4.6

Section 4.7

Section 4.8

Section 4.9

Section 5.1 Section 5.1.1.1 Section 5.1.1.7 Section 5.2 Section 7.2.1

Rules Rule 2.6

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time. Rule 2.8 Containers to be made Available for Private Use In case any commercial, industrial, religious or social institution or any foreign or diplomatic mission or any individual request the center for making available containers for private use on a permanent or temporary basis. The center may make such containers available for private use on a permanent or temporary basis subject to the payment of the service charge. Power to involve the private sector The center may involve the private sector also in the task of collecting solid wastes, and transporting the collected the solid wastes to the transit point or to the place where the solid wastes are finally disposed of or to any other place.

Rule 2.9

But the act is salient on levying the tipping fee for the waste disposal. The tipping fee could generate necessary fund for the operation of the landfill site as well as development budget for the local area development. The waste collections and disposal is being carried by the private sectors. Levying tipping fee for waste disposal would be the genuine charge. It is understood this act is being revised. It is recommended to consider this in the revised act.

4.3.3 Local Development Law


The Local Self-Governance Act, 1999 empowers the local bodies for the conservation of soil, forest and other natural resources and implementation of environmental conservation activities. Sections 28 and 189 of the Act have made responsible the Village Development Committee (VDC) and District Development Committee (DDC) to formulate and implement the programmes related to the protection of the environment and biodiversity. Furthermore, Sections 43 and 201 require the VDC and the DDC to give adequate priority to the protection of the environment through the formulation and implementation of the local level plan(s).

4.3.4 Forest Law


Section 68 of the Act empowers the government to provide the parts of the forest areas to implement national priority Project. This Section has three provisions: (i) the Project should be of national priority, (ii) there is no alternative other than to use the forest area, and (iii) the Project should not have significant impact on the environment. These three criteria must be fulfilled for the implementation of Project of any sector in any category of forest areas. Rules 65 of the Forest Rules (1995) oblige the proponent to compensate for any loss of the local people or the community, and bear all cost related to forest clearance and transportation. Other components of the Project will be located either in the cultivated area or in the private land containing trees and shrubs. In this case, Sections 38 and 39 of the Forest Act (1993) are attracted which require to register the forests as private forests and get the certificate. Rule 61 of the Forest Rules, 1995 provides provision for the registration of private forests, and Rule 62 is related to the transportation of forest products which requires necessary permission from the government. With regard to species conservation, the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 contains a list of protected wild mammals (26 species), birds (9 species) and reptiles (3 species). It means the Project activities should not affect these animal species. Similarly, Government of Nepal has regulated the utilisation of some plants as per the provisions of the Forest Act 1993. The Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation has issued a notice in the Nepal Gazette on 31 December 2001 and has prohibited the use of prescribed plant and plant products. Government of Nepal has banned the felling, transportation and export of seven species for commercial purposes, export of nine species unless permission is received for export of processed products from the Department of Forest, and also banned the collection, consumption, sales and distribution, transport and export of three species.

4.3.5 Land Acquisition Law


The Land Acquisition Act, 2034 (1977) with amendment in 2049 (1993) guides the compulsory acquisition of land in the country. The Land Acquisition Act, 2034 (1977) and the Land Acquisition Rules 2026 (1969) are the two main legal instrument that specify procedural matters of land acquisition and compensation. Government can acquire land at any place in any quantity by giving compensation pursuant to the Act for the land acquired for any public purposes or for operation of any development
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project initiated by government institutions (Section 3 and 4). This Act empowers the government to acquire land for public purposes, by providing compensation for the private land and properties, as determined by the Compensation Fixation Committee. The Land Act, 2021 (1964) also contains provisions related to compensation issues, particularly on the maximum size of individual landholdings. According to the Act, a landowner may not be compensated for more than he/she is entitled to hold the land. The Land Act also specifies the compensation entitlements of registered tenants on land sold by the owner or acquired for development purposes.

4.3.6 Town Development Law


Town Development Act, 1992 (2045) was enacted taking into accounts the following objectives: To promote guided expansion of the existing townships into urban area, To provide necessary service and facilities to the residential citizens; To make necessary management of the required facilities to the economic interest of the people urban people.

Clause 9 of this Act empower the Town Development Committee to regulate control or prohibit any act or activities, which has an adverse effect on public heath or the aesthetics of the town or any way pollutes the environment. It contains penalty provisions in the form of fines for the violation of the Act. However, no specific legal provision has been mentioned in this legislation regarding the solid waste management in the urban area. Amendment in this legislation has included word "Sewage system and sanitation" and conferred powers to Town Planning Board for planning and approval of the town planning.

4.3.7 Other Laws


The Soil and Watershed Conservation Act, 1982 and its Rules 1985 contain several provisions to regulate activities in the watershed area. However, the Project area has not been declared as a protected watershed and, therefore, the legal provisions thereof are not applicable for this Project. If the Project uses the explosive materials, it should obtain permission from the Chief District Officer with necessary descriptions as prescribed in the provisions of the Explosives Act, 1961. The access road will be constructed to have transportation facility to the Project area and the borrow areas, and, therefore, relevant provisions of the Public Road Act of 1974 may be attracted. Based on this Act, the Proponent, therefore, should plant trees on both sides of the road and handover it to the local bodies for management and utilisation purposes (Section 16). The Act also provides provisions to operate quarries and borrow pits and other facilities during road construction (Section 17). The Labour Act, 2048 prohibits the over utilization of the labour. Section 27 of the Act has made the provision relating to health and safety of the hired labour. Section 4 states that prior work permit is required to the non nepali citizens and they are allowed to work in Nepal for certain period only in the area where Nepalese work force is not available and not competent. Section 5 prohibits hiring o the labour under 14 years old. Section 18 states that thirty minute must be allowed as rest and/or refreshment should be given in every five hours of work. This section also states over time shall be paid at the rate of 1.5 times normal wages rates. The normal working hour shall b 8 hours beyond that shall be considered as overtime. Review of existing legal regime on the environment and sectoral legislation calls upon the Proponent to integrate environmental protection measures in this Project to avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse environmental impacts.

4.4 Related Guidelines and Manuals


4.4.1 Environmental Assessment Guidelines and Manuals
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Government of Nepal has implemented environmental assessment guidelines through administrative decisions in order to assist the Proponent for the integration of the environmental aspects in development Projects. The National EIA Guidelines, 1993 includes elaborated procedures for EIA report preparation and also includes key areas to be looked into (socio-economic, biological and physicochemical, and cultural impacts) during the EIA study. The guideline also provides a basis for proposing environment protection measures in order to avoid, eliminate, minimize and/or mitigate each adverse impact and to augment beneficial impacts resulting from the Project (NPC, 1993). Government of Nepal has also implemented a separate EIA guideline for Forestry Sector, 1995. It also encourages the proponent to identify the likely impacts of the Projects particularly on the forests, propose mitigation measures and monitoring and evaluation system to ensure least impacts on forests and biodiversity (MFSC, 1995). MFSC is also using Review Guidelines for IEE and EIA reports of the Forestry Sector and has issued the Manual for IEE Report preparation of the Forestry Sector (MFSC, 2002 and 2004). This guideline and manual contains a number of aspects that should be addressed in the IEE/EIA report of any sector which will be implemented in the forest areas. Community Forest Inventory Guidelines was prepared in B.S. 2062 (2003/2004) by the Community Forest Division of the Department of Forests. The guidelines aim to support user group members to monitor species and their number in community forests, estimate growing stock, annual increment, and harvestable amount of forest products. This information is necessary for user group members while preparing their operational plans. This guideline will be used in preparing the inventory of the forest products that will have to be cleared for the project requirement. During the implementation of this Project, an access road should also be constructed and this road can be made environment-friendly by considering the issues and aspects as included in the Environmental Management Guidelines, 1997 and the EIA Policy Document for the Road Sector (DOR, 1997 and 2000). Forest Produce Collection and Sales Distribution Guidelines (1998) specifies various procedure and formats for getting approvals for vegetation clearance, delineation of lands for vegetation clearance, evaluation of wood volume etc. These provisions have relevance to the development of the Project and need compliance to these provisions. These guidelines and manuals were reviewed and aspects appropriate to this Project have been duly considered during the preparation of this report.

4.5 Relevant Institutions


During the construction and operation of this Project, some organisations will be directly involved. They are grouped under local and national level institutions. The local institutions include both village and district level organisations.

4.5.1 Local Institutions


(i) Bancharedanda Landfill Site Coordination Committee. The Bancharedanda Landfill Site Coordination Committee has been formed with the representation of the local people from directly and indirectly affected VDCs namely, Okharpauwa, Chatredeurali, Chauthe, Kumari. Initially this Committee was formed during the construction of Sisdol Landfill Site to negotiate with the Government in fulfilling the demands of the local people and assist in the construction of the landfill site. This Committee is assisting KMC in the operation of the Sisdol Landfill Site. This Committee has also assisted in carrying out the EIA Study of proposed landfill site. The Committee is still adhoc. It has been reorganized number of times. This committee could be the main body to look after the interest of the local people. The vigilance of the incoming waste and monitoring of the landfill site operation could be carried out by this Committee. In order to take up this new responsibility, institutional capacity building of this committee would be required. (ii) Village Development Committee The Project components will be installed at Chatredeurali VDC of Dhading district and Okharpauwa VDC of Nuwakot district. The VDCs can facilitate the Project in land and property acquisition and
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compensation issues, and educate the local people in assisting Project construction in time. The VDCs can also convince the local people to provide necessary land for Project construction. Based on the Local Self-Governance Act (1999), the VDCs can plan and implement the environmental conservation programmes and the Project can assist in VDC's activities. (iii) District Administration Office The District Administration Office (DAO), Dhading and Nuwakot could assist the Project on land and property acquisition and compensation issues, and avoiding and/or resolving any conflicts during the Project implementation. Similarly, the Chief District Officer of the respective districts might facilitate the implementation of the Project by issuing the license regarding the use of necessary explosives. (iv) Kathmandu Metropolitan City Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan City (LSMC), Kirtipur Municipality (KRM) is the main cities whose solid wastes is going to be disposed off in the proposed landfill site. The operation of the landfill site will be carried out by these municipalities with KMC having the lead role. These municipalities must ensure that only the municipal wastes are disposed off in the proposed landfill site, proposed mitigation measures for the operational phase and monitoring activities are carried out as suggested in the EIA Report. (v) District Development Committee The Dhading DDC and Nuwakot DDC could play a pivotal role for timely completion of the Project by educating local people and also enabling the Project for land acquisition process. (vi) Other District Organisations The District Forest Office and Land Revenue Office might provide technical assistance for the conservation and management of forests and re-greening the Project area, transfer the land ownership in the name of the Proponent once the private lands and properties are compensated as negotiated.

4.5.2 National Institutions


(i) Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

Once the EIA report is received, MoEST might approve it in stipulated time period as per the EPR, 1997 with a view to assist the Proponent to implement the Project in time. As per the environmental law, MoEST should be involved in preparing the environmental auditing report after two years of operation of the Project. Also, it can appoint or designate environmental inspectors to ensure the compliance of the environmental requirements, if any, during the construction and operational stages. Furthermore, MoEST has ample opportunities to issue guidance and instruction(s) to make the Project environmentally sound and sustainable. (ii) Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation

The Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation (MFSC) might promptly issue permission to use barren land and the District Forest Office (DFO), Kathmandu might issue cutting and transportation permit of the trees even not registered as the private forest based on the provisions of the Forest Rules (1995). The DFO might also be involved in providing technical inputs on forestry matters to the Project, and in environmental monitoring of the forestry sector. Supreme Court: Gokarna Land Fill Site Case This is an important case in the protection of environment of Kathmandu Valley. It is related to prevent of Methane Gas come out from Gokarna Land Fill Site. The petioner challenged that he respondent did not destroy or utilize the Methane Gas appropriately, as a result the environment of Kathmandu valley is being polluted. So the petitioner demanded order of mandamus against the respondent to manage property waste of urban area and establish fertilizer industry in Gokarn Land Fill Site for purifying waste into compost and collection of Methane Gas through scientific technology for using in domestic and industrial fuel or destroy them appropriately.
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In this case, the Hon'ble bench of J. Harish Chandra Prasad Upadhyaya and J. Gopal Prasad Khatri observed that the Methane Gas come out from Gokarna Land Fill Site has not been prevented by the respondent as effective and satisfying way. The learned bench directed to the respondents to be careful on this subject and making law, for the balancing of environment regarding to manage Methane Gas. (Advocate Bharat Mani Gautam and others Vs. HMG/Cabinet Secretariat and others, Writ No. 3474 of 056 decided in 059.2.7.)

4.6 National Environmental Guidelines


To address the NCS strategy, National Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines were formulated in 1993. The guideline provides criteria for project screening and Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). This includes scoping, preparation of terms of reference for EIA, method of EIA report, impact identification and prediction, impact auditing, community participation and schedules and aneses to IEE and EIA. Section 23 of the guidelines requires the proponent to pay attention to socio-economic impact, biological impact, physiochemical impact and cultural impact. These impacts should be categorised as direct, indirect and cumulative impact. Under section 25 of the guidelines the proponent is required to pay special attention to the magnitude of the impact, extent of impact and duration of each impact. Besides, guidelines require the proponent to consider alternatives to the proposed project. Section 28 states that EIA report must be for public review and comments. The comments received should be made available for review by the project proponent along with other stakeholders. Section 32 requires monitoring of the environmental impact to ensure that the impact does not exceed legal standards, to check the implementation of mitigation measures to see whether it is conformity with the EIA report and to provide a timely warning on the potential environmental damage.

4.7 International Instruments


A number of legally-binding international instruments (conventions, treaties, protocols or agreements) have been adopted for the conservation of biological species and the natural environment. Nepal has also ratified or accessed a number of such instruments and she has lots of obligations and commitments on the management of natural environment and biodiversity. As per the Nepal Treaty Act, 1991 [Section 9(1)], the provisions included in such international instruments are above the national laws. Nepal is the Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) and World Heritage Convention, which are related to species conservation, international trade of species and their products, and conservation of wetlands, and natural and cultural heritage. The country as a whole is obliged to implement the Convention's provisions and a single Project may not be responsible for its compliance. The area does not contain World Heritage Sites and Wetlands of International Importance. Futhermore, the Project will not be involved in the international trade of wild fauna and flora. This study complies with the provision(s) of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly with its Article 14, which is related with carrying out EIA. However, the Project will make every effort to respect the provisions of such environment-related instruments and least damage the natural resources and the environment. With this in perspective, this EIA study has given high priority to identifying likely impacts of the Project activities on the environment and biodiversity, and mitigating the adverse impacts, if any.

4.7.1 Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992


The convention on Biological Diversity was signed by Nepal at Rio de Janeiro on June 12, 1992. The convention and particularly Article 14 provides a broad framework on the need for carrying out EIA to minimize adverse impacts of the projects and programs on biodiversity.

4.7.2 Other International Legal Instruments


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Nepal has joined the international community in its quest for global environmental management by being a Party to several conventions. Action plans and strategies have been prepared or are under preparation to implement resolutions enshrined in conventions. Nepal is signatory to many international convention, which deal with the protection of environment. Some of them related with the proposed project are: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, (CITES), 1973, UN Convention to Combat Desertification, 1994, Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their disposal, 1989 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, UN Framework convention on Climate Change, 1992 Plan Projection Agreement for the South East Asia and the Pacific (as amended), 1956, Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 Conservation for the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972,

Besides the international legally binding instruments, there are other instruments such as Stockholm declaration, Rio declaration and also Agenda 21 - a blue print of action - for the 21st century, which obliges the UN member states to adopt necessary measures on EIA application so as to minimize potential environmental impacts and augment beneficial environmental impacts. The Stockholm and Rio Declarations also encourage the UN member States to integrate EIA process in the overall decisionmaking, planning and implementation of the development projects and programmes. In this context, there are ample opportunities to internalize and institutionalize EA system in avoiding and mitigating adverse environmental impacts and make the development initiatives environmentfriendly, economically beneficial and sustainable.

4.8 Conclusions
Based on the existing environmental and sectoral policies, laws, environmental guidelines and manuals, national and international commitments on the environment and species conservation, and the mandate(s) of local and central level institutions, the Project can be implemented through effective collaboration with the concerned agencies and by complying with the existing legal regime on the environment and natural resources with proper design and monitoring of operation of the landfill site. It means, the existing policies and laws, and institutional mandates provide ample opportunities to implement this Project. However the levying tipping fee on the incoming waste could generate substantial fund for the operation of the landfill site as well as local area development.

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EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

5.1 Physical Environment


5.1.1.2 Manahara river basin The Manahara River is located in the northeast of the Kathmandu Valley (Fig. 1). It is elongated in shape having 28 km length from NE to SW covering 83 sq. km of area. This river is straight and narrow in upstream stretch and is meandered and wide in downstream stretch. The northern and eastern catchments, composed of gneiss, granite, quartzite, metasandstone, phyllite and schist possess fine drainage texture, high relative relief and high drainage frequency. The western catchment, composed of soft fluvio-lacustrine deposits, possesses coarse drainage texture, low relative relief and low dranage frequency. The maximum average monthly rainfall received was 567 mm in July and minimum was nil in November (Sankhu Station) during 19802004 (DHM 2004). The total monsoon rainfall (1980-2004) is slowly increasing. Generally, the Manahara River Basin is presently covered by cultivated, settlement and forest lands. Cultivation and settlement areas have been increasing against forest area. About 77% of landscape were occupied by cultivation, 17% by forest and 6% by urban areas in 2002 (Shrestha 2007).

Figure.1 Catchment Area of Manahara River

5.1.1.3 Fluvial geomorphology The Manahara River is a perennial stream fed by storm flow and spring. The mainstem of the river is a fifth order stream and its major tributaries such as the Sali Nadi River, the Ghatte Khola and the Mahadev Khola are forth order streams. The fifth order stream extends for 19 km showing highly meandering pattern. The lowest stretch (Sano Thimi) of this mainstem shows entrenched nature (Entrenchment ratio, ER = 1.39) with high bank height ratio (BHR = 1.63) and gentle slope (0.0235 m/m). River cross-sectional area, discharge and velocity are highest.

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The middle segment (Mulpani) is highly sinuous (1.81) with less entrenchement ratio (12). The material is composed of sandy pebble. Large point bar, side bar and mid bar characterize depositional pattern. Very gentle slope (0.0056 m/m), high width/depth ratio (70) and low BHR (1.3) indicates flooding during high rainfall and channel shifting. The upper stretch (Kurthali) also shows highly sinuous (1.5) pattern and less entrenched nature (7.71). River channel has alternating riffles and pools, and has very gentle slope (0.011 m/m). Large point bar and side bar contains cobble, pebble and sand. Erosional scars and landslides are common of the river banks. Each of the five stretches were measured for longitudinal profile, parameters of water quality and riparian vegetation. The forth order stream extends for 5.9 km showing moderately entrenched segment (ER = 1.43). The channel has alternating riffles and pools, and has higher slope (0.14 m/m) compared to the fifth order stream. The river bed material consists of cobble, pebble and sand with silt. Landslide and bank erosion are common on steep slope river bank. The third order stream stretch (Dandakateri) extends for 1.1 km. It is straight, narrow and moderately entrenched (ER = 1.45) with slope of 0.07 m/m. Riverbed material is dominantly gravel (boulder, cobble and pebble) and minorly sand. River Dynamics Rosgen (1996) defined stream channel stability as the ability of a stream over time, in the present climate, to transport the sediment and water in such a manner that the stream maintains its dimension, pattern and profile without aggrading or degrading. Dynamics of a river is indeed closely related to stability of river, flow competence, aggrading/degrading potential of channel, channel planform changes, etc. Here is a brief attempt to gather field information from existing river, and to assess dynamics of the Manahara River in order to recognise instability in the river.

GEOLOGY OF CATCHMENT
The Manahara River, located in the northeast of Kathmandu, stretches for about 28 km, and is one of the largest tributaries of the Bagmati River (Fig. 1). It has a short headed high gradient segment (about 5 km), and a long low gradient downstream segment (23 km). Gneiss and granitic pegmatites of the Sheopuri Injection Gneiss Zone (Ohta, 1973), and schist and quartzite of the Kulekhani Formation (Stcklin and Bhattarai, 1977) form major rock types in the northern divide (Fig. 2). Meta-sandstone, siltstone and phyllite of the Tistung Formation (Stocklin and Bhattarai, 1977) occupy the eastern and southeastern divides. The strata generally extend E-W and dip towards north. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits cover the central, western and southwestern parts of the watershed (Fig. 2). The Gokarna Formation that comprises gravel, pebbly sand, coarse sand, silt, clay and lignite crops out along the river for the relative height varying between 1.5 and 35 m. The Thimi Formation exposes in the southern region and comprises arkosic sand, silt and silty clay. The river bars and flood plain elements constitute cobble to silt/clay. Planform geometry The Manahara basin is elongated NE-SW, and covers about 83 km2. Its 4th order streams incise bedrock and terrace deposits, while main stem channel (5th order) incises the fluviolacustrine terrace deposits, and widens the valley, in geomorphic time-scale, against upliftment of terraces that has been probably continuing since late Pleistocene due to neotectonic activities (Bajracharya, 1992; Bajracharya, 2001). Hydraulic parameters The Manning's roughness coefficient (n) was estimated from field survey, and parameters were after Cowan (1959) and correction factors were from Aldridge and Garrett (1973). The n-values are 0.04 in segments 1, 2 and 3, 0.05 in Segment 4, and 0.13 in Segment 5. The Manahara River is a perennial river fed by spring and storm flow. Generally, rainfall is high during JuneSeptember and is lean during November-February. The discharge of the river is expected to be high during high rainfall period and varies seasonally. River sediments Median diameter of the reach-scale pebble counted samples falls on fine- to medium-gravel (Table 2). The d50 of the riffle samples falls on very coarse sand to fine gravel. The proportion
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of gravel and matrix of sand and mud is almost equal up to Segment 3 and then gravel increases in upstream portion of the river probably because of proximity to the source rocks where slope and boundary shear stress are enough to carry gravel.

Dominant substrate type The stream bottom of upstream (third and forth order) segments is dominated by small boulder, cobble and pebbles. The substrate of downstream (fifth order) segment is characterized by pebble and sand. Due to the presence of soft sediments, fifth order streams are susceptible to bank erosion and bed scouring. Water quality From the analysis of data obtained from DHM (2005) the water quality of river in Sano Thimi area is being deteriorated as the year passed. Temporal variation of chemical parameters shows fluctuating trends. The value of phosphate and nitrite abruptly increase in 2004, suggesting that the increased content is related to pollution of the river with sewages, faecal and detergents which perhaps had affected oxygen concentration. The data of different water quality parameters also vary with seasons. The spatial variation of parameters was evaluated. Turbidity, colour, EC, COD, Cl and NH3 tend to increase, but DO tends to decrease from upstream towards downstream. DO of Sano Thimi stretch nearly equals to suggested value (5 mg/l) indicating more difficient condition than that in the upstream stretches. EC, turbidity, Cl and NH3 become double in the span of 20 km. Contamination of fertilizer from cultivated land, effluent from sewer pipes and streambank erosion are probably the major sources for increasing the above parameters. BOD and coliform drastically increase downstream of Sano Thimi stretch.

4.2.2 POLLUTION ASSESSMENT (RESULTS)


Acidity and alkalinity (pH), clarity of water, temperature of water, stream flow rate, life in stream, electrical conductivity (EC) and resistivity were measured for evaluating pollution levels in the existing stretches. Clarity of water is the indication of suspended particles carried out by river. The clarity was measured as the distance of visibility of an object within the water column from the observer. 5.1.1.4 Degree of Pollution The results of pollution assessment are high. Surface water of upstream stretches shows slightly alkaline (7.27.5) with low EC (6683) and high water clarity (912). The water of downstream stretches of the Manahara River near Sano Thimi is acidic (5.96) and has high EC (216) with low clarity (5 m) exhibiting worse condition compared to that of the upstream stretches. EC is the highest in Sano Thimi segment, almost three times greater than the EC in Sankhu stretch due to the direct ontamination of sewer and solid waste to the river. The clarity decreases about 50% compared to that of Sankhu stretch indicating turbid water in Sano Thimi stretch. Except in downstream of Jadibuti Bridge, aquatic lives such as Garra sp. (Buduna), Channa sp. (Hiele), Schizothorax sp. (Asal) , and Heteropneustes sp. (Singe) are common in the river.

Parameters Stream order Streambed slope (m/m)


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Length of stream evaluated (m) No. of lateral transect made Primary attributes Total number of riffle Dominant substrate type Average % of substrate gravel Average % of instream cover Secondary attributes Average stream width (m) Average stream depth (m) Channel flow status Maximum pool width (m) Average stream bank slope (degree) Tertiary attributes Average width of buffer vegetation (m) Average riparian vegetation (%) by Tree Shrub Grass and forbe Cultivated land Other Average percent tree canopy Overall aesthetic appraisal

500 4 4 Coarse sand with pebble 29 24 17.4 0.55 Moderate 0.54 46

0 12 8 78 2 0 Common

Table: Some of the physical parameters measured Source: R. Bajracharya and N. K. Tamrakar/ Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 2132

5.1.2 Air Quality


Industrial pollution and vehicle emission are the two major source of air pollution. The project area does not have any industries but the pollutants from the brick kilns at Bhaktapur affects this area. The Crossing at the Araniko Highway being a major link to join Kathmandu to Bhaktapur, thousands of vehicles cross this bridge everyday, resulting to a large extent of vehicular emissions causing air pollution. Hence the air is pristine at present condition.

5.1.3 Noise Level


The major source of noise pollution in this area is the vehicles moving along the crossing.

5.1.4 Odour Level


The odor in the project area vicinity is due to the heaps of garbages dumped in the banks of the river and the sewerage systems that are directly joined in the Manahara river. It gives a very unpleasant smell while moving along the project area. The river water gives foul smell which is further exacerbated
during the dry seasons.
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5.2 Biological Environment Information on the flora, fauna, rare and endangered species, sensitive habitats and species of commercially importance in the project area will be collected Documentation on (i) wildlife in the project site including mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, and (ii) the habitat for sensitive species of birds and mammals known in the study area will be collected Documentation of vegetation status, forested area, distribution of endangered plants, medicinal plants, regionally scare plants and plants with other cultural values will be made. Aquatic lives Fishes found in about 100 m upstream of Sano Thimi stretch are: (a) Garra sp. , (b) Schizothorax sp. , (c) Channa sp. and (d) Heteropneustes sp. Biodiversity: The biodiversity can be rich if protected but are suffering from human and domestic cattle pressure. It needs to be protected.
5.2.1 Sensitive Areas
No sensitive areas are found within the project area

5.3 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment Manohara river area is illegally occupied by internal refugees. Thus the social and economic condition does not lie in a sound condition. Conflict over the area is always a national issue. Moreover internal conflict is common among the inhabitants over minor issues. Economy of the area trembles. There is no fixed source of earning of the people. Farmers who used to earn their living by growing crops on land now lies refugee in the area deprive of land and a fixed occupation. They mostly work as labors. Few have started their own business and have started pig farming along the bank of the river. Flood and erosion of the bank of the river creates another problem to the refugees during rainy seasons. During high flood bank of the river gets eroded and the flood often enters the houses near the bank of the river. In such case the Pig farming near the bank is affected. Refugees near the bank often have to spend their saving to cope with flood and to rebuild the structures destroyed by the flood. Several INGO and NGO works to provide basic human rights to the refugees. They provide them with education, health care and rights. They stand for them to protect their right. An organization named DAIL has continuously worked to protect their rights. Manohara lies in much polluted condition. The basic activities like fishing along the bank of the river are scarce due to the deteriorated condition of the river. The bank of the river should be managed to retain the effects of the flood and to flourish the aquatic life of Manohara. But in the presence of the issue over the land the condition of the Manohara has deteriorated from the past. It is commonly used as dumping sites by the refugees and conservation of Manohara is not a concern to the refugees.

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Decrease in visibility due to dust particles coming from the nearby mining industry and from brick stacks poses threat to the micro- environment here. It also affects the visibility of scenic beauty of Himalayas. The aesthetic values of cultural heritages such as temples (hanumanthan temple suited at this site) is also decreasing due to the garbage dumped in a haphazard way throughout the area. Odour coming out from the garbages and the river itself also is a major problem here. The place is losing its historical and cultural significance due to these factors.

5.3.1 District Profile


3.2.1 Introduction Dhading district is located in the hills of Central Development Region of Nepal. The district is surrounded by Nuwakot, Rasuwa and Kathmandu districts in the East, by Rasuwa and Tibet in the North, Gorkha in the West and by Chitwan and Makawanpur districts in the South. The total area of the district is 1,925 Sq. km, which comprises 73346 ha cultivated land, 92854 ha forest land, 15941 ha grazing land and 10346 ha other land. The district has 50 Village Development Committees (VDCs). Dhadingbesi is the headquarters of the district. Similarly, Nuwakot district is also located in the hills of Central Development Region of Nepal. The district is surrounded by Sindhupalchowk and kathmandu districts in the East, by Rasuwa in the North, Dhading and Rasuwa in the West and by Dhading and kathmandu districts in the South. The total area of the district is 1,121 Sq. km, which comprises 45242 ha agriculture land, 40516 ha forest land, 15950 ha grazing land and 10392 ha other land. The district has 61 Village Development Committees (VDCs) and one municipality. Bidur is the headquarters of the district. The total census population of the Dhading district was 338,658 in 2001 constituting 1,65,864 males and 1,72,794 females. The population density of the district was 176 per sq.km. There were 62,759 households with average household size of 5.4 persons, which is lower than the national average of 5.6. The annual population growth rate in the district is 1.97. The total census population of the Nuwakot district was 288,478 in 2001 constituting 142,731 males and 145,747 females. The population density of the district was 274 per sq.km. There were 53,169 households with average household size of 5.79 persons which is higher than the national average of 5.6. The annual population growth rate in the district is 1.59. 3.2.2 Social Services The literacy rate of 6 years of age and above in Dhading district is 42.0 per cent with male literacy rate of 53 percent and female rate of 31 percent. Similarly, the literacy rate of 6 years of age and above in Nuwakot district is 31.7 per cent with male literacy rate of 45.4 percent and female rate of 18.4 percent. 36 Village Development Committees (VDCs) in Dhading district and 31 in Nuwakot have telephone services. About 480 telephone lines are distributed in Dhadingbesi, the district head quarter of Dhading district and about 1000 telephone lines are distributed in Bidur, the district head quarter of Nuwakot district. Telephone lines per thousand population is 0.96 in Dhading and 2.6 in Nuwakot. About 79.5 per cent of total population of Dhading and 85.9 per cent of total population of Nuwakot districts have tapped water supply. Similalrly, about 20 per cent of the total population of Dhading district in 29 VDCs and 18.5 per cent of the total population of Nuwakot district in 39 VDCs and one municipality enjoy electricity supply in their houses. The Dhading district is connected with Prithivi Rajmarga through Malekhu Dhading feeder road in the south. There are 111 km paved, 23 km gravel and 386 km earthen roads in the district. The district is
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well served by bus services from Kathmandu and other major cities and towns of Nepal. The road density in the district is 0.13 km per sq. km. Similalrly, the Nuwakot district is connected with national strategic road network through Kathmandu Trisuli Dhunche feeder road. The district is also connected with Dhading district at Prithivi Highway near Galchhi through Devighat Prthivi Highway road. paved There are 61 km, 13 km gravel and 146 km earthen roads in the district. The district is well served by bus services from Kathmandu and other major cities and towns of Nepal. The road density in the district is 0.25 km per sq. km. 3.2.3 Economic Activities Nearly 54.44 per cent of total population of the Dhading district is economically active, of which 80.2% totally depend upon agriculture. Others are engaged in manufacturing, trade/business, transport and services and construction and other labor works. The percentage share of females of the district in non agricultural occupation is 25.24. The average farm size of the district is 0.58 ha per household and per capita food production is 2206 Kilo Calories. The per capita income of the district is approximately NRs.15,000. 00 in 2001. In Nuwakot district nearly 49.91 per cent of total population is economically active, of which 63.2% totally depend upon agriculture. Others are engaged in manufacturing, trade/business, transport, services ,tourism and others. The percentage share of females of the district in non agricultural occupation is 23.24. The average farm size of the district is 0.59 ha per household and per capita food production is 3812 Kilo Calories. Other major economic activity in the district is tourism. The tourism industry has provided employment to more than 1,000 persons directly and indirectly. Since Nuwakot district lies in one of the popular trekking routes of international trekkers, thousands of trekkers trek along the route every year to go to Nuwakot Durbar, Gosaikunda, Langtang valley and Rasuwagadhi of Rasuwa district. Ramche and many other villages being in the trekking route, numerous lodges and restaurants are in operation in the centers. Thousands of trekkers use the trekking route every year. The per capita income of the district was approximately NRs.21,000.00 in 2001.

5.3.2 Project Area Profile


The entire project components are located in the ward no 9 of Chatredeurali VDC of Dhanding district and ward no 4 of Okharpauwa VDC of Nuwakot VDC. The land of project components belongs to the people from D - Gau, Upreti Gau, Pathak Gau and Kumunde Gau in Ward 9 of Chatredeurali Village Development Committee (VDC) of Dhading district and settlement of Tallo Seudeni in Ward 4 of Okharpauwa VDC of Nuwakot district. The socio-economic characteristics of the wards are described below to reflect the condition of the project area. 5.3.2.1 Population and Demographic Pattern

The total population of the project area is 1,278 constituting 622 males and 656 females. The total number of households was 153 and average size was 8.35 persons. 28.56 per cent of the total population is between 0-15 years of age and 63.38% were between 16-60 years of age while 8.06% were above 60 years of age. Therefore, 63.38% of the total population in the area is economically active. Amongst them, about 89.73% are engaged in fulltime agricultural works and others are engaged in trade and business (2.42%), service (1.3%), porter (2.61%) and foreign jobs and students etc. (2.86%).
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5.3.2.2

Ethnicity

Among the ethnic groups in the area, Brahman is dominant group accounting for 66.01% of total population. Others are Tamang (20.92%), Chhetry (9.80%) and Magars (3.30%). There is Brahmin domintion in Okharpauwa whereas tamangs are dominant in Chatredeurali of project area. 5.3.2.3 Settlement Patterns

People of the area live in separate clusters based on their ethnicity and status. Housing patterns are more or less the same throughout the area, irrespective of ethnicity and economic status of the people. Almost all houses are constructed by brick masonry with mud mortar. Wood are used for windows and slate, corrugated sheets and cement tiles for roofing. Most of the houses are two storied. The ground floor is used for cooking and storage and first floor for bedrooms. A courtyard is found in the front side of most of the houses. The yard is used for various activities such as resting, meeting people, cottage industry work, and for dining. Most households own a smaller house or hut (shed) for cattle, goat and other purposes such as storing dry fodder, firewood or straw. 5.3.2.4 Cultural and Religious Activities

The people celebrate Dashain (biggest festival of all Nepalese worshipping goddess Durga Bhawani), Tihar (festival of worshipping Laxmi, the goddess of wealth), Shreepanchami (the festival of worshiping Saraswoti, the goddess of knowledge), Ram Nawami (the festival of worshiping god Ram), Teej (festival of worshiping god Shiva by women) and Lhosar (new year of Magar and Tamang). People celebrate these festivals with joy. The major cultural practices of Brahmin and Chhetry include Nwaran (giving the name to the child for the first time), Pasni (feeding grains to a child for the first time), Bratabhanda (shaving the hair of male child for the first time), Gufa Rakhne (keeping female child in a dark room for 12 days at the time of puberty), marriage, rituals during the death of a family member (cremation of dead body) and Sharadha (offering of food to the dead member of the family). The cultural practices of Magars and Tamangs are little different from the above practices. On the third day of a child's birth mother and child are purified by sprinkling Gahout (Cow's Urine). When a male child grows to 2-5 years old, a tonsure ceremony of shaving child's hair by his maternal uncle is held. Similarly, when a girl reaches the age of 5-13 years, offering "Gunio Chola" (a kind of clothes similar to blouse and skirts) holds a tonsure ceremony. These functions are held on a particular day in an odd year. Among them there is a system of patrilateral cross cousin marriage. In this system son and daughter of brother and sister (Cousins) are allowed to marry. The funeral of Magar and Tamang is performed in two ways at the time of initial mortuary site and disposal of the body, which is called "misihari". The concluding memorial ceremony is called "Arghun" or "Pai". The Lama (priest) with the help of his knowledge of astrology decides whether the dead body is to be buried or cremated. 5.3.2.5 Status of Women

Women of the area are well advanced in comparison to the average nepali women. Only 54 percent are fully involved in household chores. Others are engaged in agriculture/livestock farming/cottage industry (43%), trade and business (1.5%), teaching (0.5%) and other labor works (1%). But their involvements in social and political activities are limited. Normally girls get married at 18 - 20 years of age. The average age of women at first delivery is 20 years. About 75% of deliveries are done through the traditional method with the help of auxiliary midwife. Only 5 percent women as with the general status of Nepalese women have properties registered in their names. 5.3.2.6 (i) Social Services

Education Service
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There is only one lower-secondary school located in D-Gau of the area. 100 boys and 160 girls are enrolled in the schools. 6 male and 2 female teachers are providing their services in the schools. The literacy rate of 6 years of age and above in the area is 44.76%. 65.76% males and 24.85% females of the area are literate. 36 percent of the total literate people can only read and write. (ii) Health Service

There is only one sub-health post in Tallo Siudeni of the area. One health worker and one nurse are providing their services from the post. Last year about 600 patients had received health cure services from them. Common diseases of the area are pneumonia, rheumatics, bronchitis, stomach disorders and skin diseases. Still majority of people seek service of traditional healers (Jhankries) for the treatment of most of the illnesses. Only when illnesses get serious people visit hospitals and private clinics in Kathmandu. Recently a health post has been approved by GON for Sisdol Landfill Site. This health post will be served by one health assistant, one assistant health assistant, one auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) and three other administrative support staff. (iii) Water Supply and Sanitation

70.6% households of the area are supplied with tap water. 25 percent depend on well and others on stone tap. Sanitation in the area is not satisfactory. Since only 35 percent of the households use pit latrine and others using open field and stream for defecations. Defecations along the trails are not common as in most of the villages of Nepal. . However, the courtyard of every house and its surroundings are found to be clean. (iv) Electricity

All the houses of the area are connected with electricity supply. (v) Communications

There is 1 P.C.O telephone lines and 1 post office in each of the Tallo Siudeni and D-Gau of the project area. Number of people own mobile phones and CDM phones. SWMRMC has also provided 10 CDM phones to the local community through the Landfill Site Coordination Committee. (vi) Transportations

The project area is from Sisdol Landfill Site. It is about 3 km away from Sisdol Landfil Site. Out of which 2 km has been opened to earthen track level and remaining 1 km is in the process of construction. (vii) Administrative Services

The district level administrative services are located in the respective district headquarters. There are 2 cooperative financial institutions in Tallo Siudeni and one in D-Gau of the project area.

5.3.2.7

Economic Activities

Paddy, wheat, maize and millet are major cereal crops grown by the households of the area. Potato, pulses, mustard and vegetables are major cash crops grown by them. The crops are grown in 55ha of land comprising 17.5ha Khet (lowland) and 37.5ha Bari (upland). There is no landless family in the area. In terms of agricultural productions, paddy (79mt), maize (115.2mt), wheat (73.6mt) and millet (39mt) are the main cereal crops produced in the area. Similarly, potato (35mt), pulses (1.8mt), oil-seeds (0.56mt), sugarcane (2mt) and vegetables (275) are the major cash crops produced in the area. The copping intensity in the area is 236.8 percent.

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Only 3.92% households produce enough food to feed themselves for 12 months. Where as 23.53% households produce food enough to feed themselves for three months only. Animal husbandry is a major contributor to the household income of people of area. They rear cattle, buffalo, goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. Cattle and buffalo are kept for milk, ghee and manure. Pigs, goats and sheep are kept for meat and for sale. Poultry are kept for eggs and meat production and sale. Currently, 1165 livestock and 282 poultry are reared by households of area. In terms of livestock and poultry productions, 0.97 million liters of milk and 46.5mt of meat were major livestock productions and 0.03 millions of eggs were major poultry product. The trade is primarily based on commodities imported from Kathmandu. Commodities required for daily consumptions are normally transported to the area from Kathmandu. Export from the area is negligible. There is no market as such in the project area. A few small grocery shops are found in the villages, where all the consumer goods such as rice, pulses, salt, ghee, edible oil, kerosene, biscuits, noodles, candles, shoes and other consumer goods are sold. Most of the lodges, restaurants and tea stalls also sell above items besides the cooked food, tea, soft drinks, beer and spirits. The industrial activities in the area are negligible. Few cottage industries produce goods for local use only. Average annual income of households is NRs.121,180.00. The main source of income of households is sales of cereal crops, which makes 36.52% of total income. Other major source of income is sales of milk (27.18%). The annual average expenditure of households is NRs.90,750.00. The households spend more money on food items (65.73%) than on non-food items. The main food expenditure is for purchase of rice (21.1%). The average income and expenditure situation is negative. Due to this most families are always laden with debt.

5.3.3 Socio-economic Status of Project Affected Families (PAFs)


Altogether 93 households comprising 34 in Ward 9 of Chatredeurali VDC of Dhading district and 59 in Ward 4 of Okharpauwa VDC of Nuwakot will be directly affected by the project due to acquisitions of land, buildings and sheds. Among 93 PAFs, 36 households will be Seriously Project Affected Family (SPAF). The SPAFs are those families who will lose their main source of income or more than 50% of total land holdings (inside and outside the project area) or place of living by the acquisition of land and/or building for the project. 5.3.3.1 Demographic Structure

A total of 652 people constituting 341 males and 311 females will be affected by the project. Of the total Project Affected Families (PAFs), 6.13% are above 60 years of age while, 35.12% are below 16 years of age. Table. 5.9 shows the distribution of PAFs by sex and age group. Table 5.5 : Distribution of PAFs by Sex and Age Group
Age Group Male Female 0 - 5 Years 26 31 6 - 15 Years 89 83 16 - 60 Years 195 188 60 and Above 24 16 Total 334 318 Source: Household Survey, 2007 Total 57 172 383 40 652 % 8.74 26.38 58.74 6.13 100.00

5.3.3.2

Ethnic Composition

The Brahmin, Tamang and Chhetri are the ethnic groups among PAFs. Table 5.10 shows distribution of ethnic groups among PAFs.
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Table 5.6 : Distribution of Ethnic Groups among PAFs


Ethnic Group Brahmin Tamang Chhetri Total Source: Household Survey, 2007 S. No 1 2 3 %PAFs. 54.84 29.03 16.13 100.00

Among PAFs 82.8% are Hindus and rest are Budhists (13.98%) and Christians (3.23%). 5.3.3.3 Settlement Pattern

PAFs live in separate clusters based on their ethnicity and status. Housing patterns are more or less the same throughout the project area, irrespective of ethnicity and economic status of the people. Most of the PAFs (45.25%) own one house. 8.82% PAFs do not have houses. Table 5.11 shows PAFs having different number of houses. Table 5.7 : PAFs with Different Number of Houses
Description PAFs with one house PAFs with two houses PAFs with three houses PAFs with four houses PAFs without house Total Source: Household Survey 2007 % of PAFs 45.25 35.00 17.64 7.91 8.82 100.00

13.43% houses are one storied house, where as 72.80% houses are two storied houses. Roof of majority of houses (80.30%) are constructed using corrugated sheets/slate. Table 5.12 and 5.13 show the houses with different number of stories and types of roof. Courtyards are found in the front side of almost all the houses. Many houses have main door and windows facing south. Every house has a front courtyard, which is used for various activities such as resting, meeting people, cottage industry work, and for dining. Table 5.8 : Houses with Different Number of Stories
Description % of Houses One storey 13.43 Two storey 72.80 Three storey 16.22 Total 100.00 Source: Household Survey 2007

Table 5.9 : Houses by Type of Roof


Description Thatched Roof Slate Stone Corrugated Sheet RCC Stone/ Corrugated Sheet Total Source: Household Survey 2007 % of Houses 4.74 2.11 7.78 80.30 1.05 6.22 100.00

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5.3.3.4

PAFs with Different Equipments

68.05% PAFs own radio and 49.47% own TVs. Table 5.14 shows PAFs with different equipments. Table 5.10 : Per Cent of PAFs with Different Types of Equipment
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description of Equipment Television Compact Display (CD) Video Compact Display (VCD) Digital Video Display (DVD) Telephone Cordless Telephone Cell Phone Radio Cassette Player Rice Cooker % of PAFs 49.47 8.90 5.40 3.24 9.27 2.32 13.05 68.05 28.00 19.00 6.78

11 Others Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.5

Education

The literacy level of PAFs is 69.3%, which is much higher than national average of 39.6%. About 8.35% literate PAFs are able to read and write only, where as 32.76% have attained primary level education and 2.27% graduate and above. Table 5.15 shows level of literacy among PAFs. Table 5.11 : Educational Level of PAFs
Level Infant Illiterate Informal Education Primary Lower Secondry Secondry SLC Intermediate Graduate Total Source: Household Survey, 2007 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 % PAFs 6.95 23.69 8.35 32.76 12.90 10.90 3.52 4.99 2.27 100.00

5.3.3.6

Occupation

Majority of PAFs are engaged in agricultural/livestock related works. However, only 42.88% are reported engaged full time in such works. Other occupations taken by PAFs are trade, service and foreign jobs. Table: 5.16 shows distribution of PAFs by their occupations. Table 5.12 : Occupational Distribution of PAFs
Area Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Trade Student Service Foreign employment Total
Group-3 ENVE 8-15

% PAFs 42.88 9.46 37.09 4.28 6.29 100.00


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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.7

Land Holding

An average PAF holds 7.39 ropani of land, which includes 4.26 ropani of khet land, 2.94 ropani of bari land and 0.12 ropani of kharbari (grass/forest land). Table: 5.17 shows types of land owned by an average PAF. Table 5.13 : Agricultural Land Holdings of PAFs (in Ropani)
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Type of Land Khet Bari Grassland/Forest Others Description Inside Project Area Outside Project Area Inside Project Area Outside Project Area Inside Project Area Outside Project Area Inside Project Area Outside Project Area Personal 1.98 1.54 1.60 1.13 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.04 6.40 Rented in 0.52 0.07 0.14 0.04 0.04 0.80 Rented out 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.18 Total 2.55 1.71 1.77 1.17 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.04 7.39

Total Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.8

Crop Area and Production

Paddy, maize, wheat, buck wheat and millet are cereal crops grown by PAFs. Potato, mustard, fruits and vegetables are cash crops grown by them. Table 5.18 shows area and productions of cereal and cash crops grown by PAFs. Table 5.14 : Area of Agricultural Land Under Different Crops and Production
Type of Crops Cultivated Area in Ropani Khet Bari Total Production (Muri) 2248.00 761.50 1019.50 453.50 2.00 35.50 351.40 21.60 2224.51 543.59 688.80 Productivity (Muri/Ropani) 6.15 2.42 3.04 2.73 1.00 1.78 8.27 1.41 25.57 193.94 252.50

I. Cereal Crops Paddy 709.57 Wheat 538.69 Maize 114.97 Millet 21.80 Pulses 0.00 Buckwheat 0.00 II. Cash Crops Potato 30.75 Mustard 1.50 Vegetables 73.13 Fruits 2.00 Dale Grass 0.50 Source: Household Survey 2007

76.12 555.20 309.45 2.00 20.00 37.95 29.13 124.95 7.70 12.20

Production in Quintal Production in Quintal Production in Quintal

5.3.3.9

Food Sufficiency

46.24% PAFs produce enough food to feed themselves for more than 12 months whereas 3.23% PAFs produce food enough for three months only to feed themselves. Table 5.19 shows the percent of PAFs who produce food enough to feed itself for certain months. Table 5.15 : Food Sufficiency of PAFs
Food Sufficiency Sufficient for whole year Insufficient for whole year Sufficient for 3 month Sufficient for 6 month Sufficient for 9 month Total
Group-3 ENVE 8-15

% of PAFs 46.24 1.08 3.23 22.58 26.88 100.00


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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.10

Livestock Holdings

Animal husbandry is a major contributor (almost 22%) to the household income of PAFs. They rear cattle, buffalo, goats, pigs and poultry. Cattle and buffalo are kept for milk, ghee and manure. Pigs and goats are kept for meat and for sale. Poultry are kept for eggs and meat production and sale. Table 5.20 shows the total number of livestock and poultry kept by PAFs. Table 5.16 : Livestock Population
S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 27 28 30 31 33 Type of Livestock Local Buffalo Local Buffalo (He) Local Calves (he) Local Calves (she) Hybrid Buffalo Hybrid Buffalo (he) Hybrid Calves (he) Hybrid Calves (she) Local Cow Local Ox Local Calves (He) Local Calves (She) Hybrid Cow Hybrid Ox Hybrid Calves ( She) Goat Goat (He) Castrated Goat Baby Goat (He) Baby Goat (She) Local Hen Local Duck Hybrid Hen Pigeon Others (specify) Total No. 49 6 14 17 13 3 5 5 65 34 19 20 2 8 1 266 85 131 32 81 127 14 23 2 3 1025

Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.11

Income of PAFs

Annual average income of PAFs is NRs. 149,089.11. The main sources of income of PAFs are sales of cereal crops (27.50%), dairy products (15.14%) and foreign remittances (14.21%). Table: 5.21 shows contributions of different activities in the annual income of PAFs. Table 5.17 : Annual Average Income of PAFs
S.N. I. 1 2 3 4 5 Income Source Agriculture Sale of Cereal crops Sale of Cash crops Fruits Dalle Ghas Flower Total (A)
8-15

Annual Avg. Income (Rs.) 41,000.00 6,000.00 6,000.00 2.15 32.26 53,034.41
FINAL REPORT

Group-3 ENVE

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

(B) Animal Husbandry Dairy Production Sale of Egg 2 (Chicken/Duck) 3 Sale of cow/bull/calves 4 Sale of Buffalo/Calves 5 Sale of Goats 6 Sale of Pig 7 Sale of Chicken/Duck Total (B) III. Others 1 Service 2 Pension 3 Business/Trade 4 Wage Labour 5 Pottering 6 Industry/Cottage Industry 7 Sale of Service 8 Sale of Fish 9 Foreign Remittance 10 Others (House Rent) 11 Wood 12 Loan Total (C) Grand Total (A+B+C) Source: Household Survey 2007

II. 1

22,578.39 48.39 6,107.53 2,860.22 7,497.85 0 212.37 39,304.75 10,387.10 0 11,268.82 7,268.82 204.3 752.69 322.58 0 21,182.80 3571.44 232.26 1559.14 56,749.95 149,089.11

5.3.3.12

Expenditures of PAFs

The annual average expenditure of PAFs is NRs. 138,974.57. The PAFs spend more money on food items (63.34%) than on non-food items (36.66%). The main expenditure on food is purchase of rice (13.54%) is. The main non-food expenditure of 7.37% is on education. Table 5.22 shows expenditure of PAFs in different items. The average income and expenditure pattern is positive. Table 5.18 : Annual Average Expenditure of PAFs
S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Group-3 ENVE

Description Rice Pulse Wheat Millet Maize Vegetable Milk Curd Meat ( Mutton) Meat ( Chicken) Meat ( Pig) Meat (Fish) Meat (Buff)
8-15

Annual Average Expenditures (Rs.) 18,822.53 3,055.42 4,372.52 828.39 10,700.17 12,467.10 16,989.25 1,324.24 6,827.57 1,300.59 8.06 103.76 1,428.82
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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Oil Ghee Spices Salt Sugar Tea Firewood Kerosene LP Gas Electricity Medicine Education Clothes Festivals Transportation Labor charges Entertainment House rent

3,913.35 1,785.59 1,285.32 378.74 1,721.59 714.54 8,849.76 1,464.78 65.59 672.26 7,022.58 10,244.09 7,519.35 9,913.98 4,732.26 150.54 118.28 193.55 138,974.57

Total Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.13

Energy Use

Though all the houses has electricity connection, 44.09 % of the households use both kerosene and electricity for the lighting purpose. The electricity is being supplied from the local grid. It is not from the national grid hence the supply is not reliable and voltage fluctuates. 2.15% PAFs use solar panel for lighting. A total of 61.29% PAFs use firewood for cooking. Table 5.23 and 5.24 show the uses of different energy sources by PAFs for lighting and cooking respectively.

Group-3 ENVE

8-15

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Table 5.19 : Sources of Energy of PAFs for Lighting


S.No. 1 2 3 Sources Electricity Electricity and Kerosene Electricity (Solar) % of PAFs 53.76 44.09 2.15

Source: Household Survey 2007

Table 5.20 : Sources of Energy of PAFs for Cooking


S.No. 1 2 3 5 Sources Firewood Kerosene Dung Cake LPG Gas % of PAFs 61.29 5.38 1.08 1.08 31.18

6 Straw/Hatch Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.14

Source of Drinking Water of PAFs

84.96% of PAFs have access to piped drinking water. Others use well and river/stream water for drinking. 5.3.3.15 Status of Women

In the project area 0.63 9.16% women think their decision is final (Level I) for different household activities. Where as 11.91 24.63% thinks their decision plays significant role (Level II) in execution of household activities. Similarly, 2.22 5.68% women think their decision plays very little role (Level III) in execution of different household activities. Where as 0.93 10.41% thinks their decision plays insignificant role (Level IV) in execution of household activities. Table 5.25 shows the levels of decision making power of female members of PAFs in different household activities. Table 5.21 : Levels of Decision Making Power of Senior Female Member of Households
Type of Decision To go outside the village for over night stay Treatment of children Buying and Selling of Live Stock Sale of Grains Admission of Children in School Purchase and sale of Gold and Jewellery Borrowing loan Amounting more than Rs.500 for 7 Household Expenses Borrowing loan Amounting less than Rs. 500 for 8 Household Expenses 9 Working of Household Member in later Works 10 Participation in community Activities Source: Household Survey 2007 S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Level I 9.16 0.63 0.95 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.63 1.27 0.93 0.95 %Senior Women of PAF Level II Level III Level IV 15.09 2.84 1.23 23.67 2.80 1.23 23.62 2.22 1.25 24.63 2.47 0.93 23.01 3.14 1.55 21.74 4.72 1.57 11.91 16.40 21.11 20.15 5.68 3.43 5.34 5.66 10.41 7.23 1.25 1.89

5.3.3.16

Participation of PAFs in Committees, Groups and Clubs

125 males and 55 females of PAFs are the members of different users committees, clubs and groups. Highest number of males and females (61 males and 26 females) are engaged in Savings and Credit User Group. Table 5.26 shows the participation of PAFs in different committees, groups and clubs.

Group-3 ENVE

8-15

FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Table 5.22 : Participation in Users' Committees, Clubs and Groups


Name of Institutions Forest User Group Drinking Water User Group Saving and Credit User Group Youth Group Woman and Mother User 5 Group 6 Guthi User Group Total Source: Household Survey 2007 S.No. 1 2 3 4 Male 31 20 61 7 1 5 125 Female 13 4 26 3 7 2 55

5.3.3.17

Expectations of PAFs for Compensation

100% PAFs wants cash for compensation to their lost assets. 5.3.3.18 Use of Compensation

28% PAFs expressed their desire to use cash compensation for purchasing land, where as 18.88% PAFs want to pay loan. Table 5.27 shows the desires of PAFs to use cash compensation. Table 5.23 : Uses of Cash Compensation
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 For buying land Description % of PAFs 28.57 22.96 18.88 14.29 1.53 7.65 4.08 2.04 100.00

For constructing house For clearing loan For Business For buying land and construction of house For buying land and clearing loan For buying land,construction of house and clearing loans For buying land, construction of house, paying loan and 8 starting business Total Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.19

PAF Members Who Want to Work in the Project

194 project affected people want to work as unskilled labor in the project. 39 want to work as skilled labor, 55 in administrative works and 5 want to work as executives. Table 5.28 shows willingness of PAF members to work in different fields of the project. Table 5.24 : Members of PAFs who Wants to Work in the Project
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Description As Unskilled Labor As Skilled Labor In Administration As Executive Officer No of People 194 39 55 5 293

Total Source: Household Survey 2007

5.3.3.20

Expectation of PAFs from the Project

31.12% PAFs expects good compensation from the project for their lost assets. Similarly, 31.47% PAFs expects employment opportunity in the project. Table 5.29 shows expectations of PAFs from the project. Table 5.25 : Expectations of PAFs from the Project
Group-3 ENVE 8-15 FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION

Description Good Compensation of land & house Employment opportunity Development of the local area Rapid development of village Improvement in lifestyle Happiness Total Source: Household Survey 2007

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

% of PAFs 31.12 31.47 31.12 3.50 2.10 0.70 100.00

5.3.4 Status of SPAFs


The Seriously Project Affected Families (SPAFs) are those families who will lose more than 50% of their total land holdings and place of living (house). Altogether 36 families (8 in Dhading and 28 in Nuwakot districts) will be seriously affected due to acquisition of land, building and sheds for the project. The SPAFs constitutes 141 males and 115 females. The average household size of SPAFs is 7.11 persons. 34.37% members of SPAFs are below 16 and 6.25% are above 60 years of age. The economically most active population constitutes 58.98% of SPAFs. Similarly, 43.75% of economically active SPAF members are engaged in agricultural and animal husbandry. 37.50% of them are students. Others are engaged in service, trade etc or are unemployed. 70.7% members of SPAFs are literate of which 2.34% have acquired secondary level education, 5.07% have acquired higher secondary level and 1.95% are graduates. Average land holding size of SPAFs is 16.31 ropanies of land comprising 8.74 ropanies of khet land, 6.88 ropanies of bari land, 0.23 ropanies of kharbari and other remainings are other lands. 61.11% SPAFs have 1 house, 16.67% have two houses, 16.67% have three houses and 5.56% SPAFs have four houses. The annual average income of SPAFs is NRs. 194,327.94 which comprises 67.04% come from agriculture and animal husbandry, 4.06% from service, 7.79% from trade, 14.29% from remittances and other remaining from industry, labour etc. The annual average expenditure of SPAFs is NRs.120,585.84. SPAFs spend more on food items (63.92% of total expenditure) than on non-food items. Among non-food items, SPAFs spend more on education of children (10.36%) followed by purchase of clothes (5.79%). The details of socio-economic status of SPAFs is presented in Annex 5.

Group-3 ENVE

8-15

FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Both beneficial and adverse impacts have been identified, predicted and evaluated for this project. They are described in the following sections. The beneficial impacts are described in sub-section 6.1 and adverse impacts are described in sub-section 6.2. Impacts evaluation have been made with due consideration on aspects as mentioned in the methodology chapter.

6.1 Beneficial Impacts


The direct benefit from the project will be for the inhabitants of the Kathmandu and Bhaktapur districts. The river banks and the surrounding area can be protected from inundation during the times of high discharge. This will not only protect the surrounding settlement areas from flooding but will also protect the cultivable lands, crops and thus enhance the productivity of the soil. The government has also planned to make a road along the river from the crossing at Araniko highway, all the way till the crossing at Pepsi-Cola. This will further increase the beneficial impacts to the inhabitants here. The roads will hence increase the economic value of the land as well. Apart from these benefits, the project will provide employment opportunity during the construction stage and operational stages. The following section enumerates the identified and predicted beneficial impacts of the project. Both identified and predicted impacts were evaluated in terms of their environmental significance, and possible augmentation measures have been proposed to enhance the benefit.

6.1.1 Construction Stage


The likely beneficial impacts of the project during its construction stage are: (i) Employment generation to local people

Benefit During the construction of the project, large number of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled manpower will be required. The socio-economic survey revealed that people are willing to work as the unskilled and skilled labours. Some people have expressed their willingness to work in the administrative section also but the opportunity in the administrative post will be very limited. However they will be considered depending in qualification and availability. The employment opportunity will increase the income level of the local people. During the construction period, workers will reside in the project area for considerable period of time. Since, they will have good purchasing power there will be increased demand for different types of food, beverage and other daily necessary items. Local people will get opportunity to open restaurants and grocery shops and other business enterprises, thereby creating employment opportunities to themselves and others. As a result, significant amount of cash will be channelled into the local economy. Magnitude, extent and duration of the impact is rated as high, regional and short-term (construction period) respectively. Enhancement Measures The project will give first priority to the SPAFs, PAFs and local people who want to work in the project. The project will maintain the roster of the PAFs. During the construction period, at least one member of PAF will be offered employment based on his/her skill. The employment will increase the income level of that family. The project will provide necessary training to the SPAFs and PAFs, if necessary, depending upon the nature of the work offered. The project will include a binding clause in the contractor's agreement to give first priority to SPAFs and PAFs while hiring both skilled and unskilled labor forces and to give daily wages or monthly wages equal to the official district rates. The project information will be disseminated through pamphlets and other printed materials regularly. The project will disseminate information regarding the project activities through the printed materials. The employment opportunity will be advertised in the local news papers.
Group-3 ENVE FINAL REPORT

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

An amount of NRs . 50,000/ will be allocated for the publication of the vacancy announcement in the local newspaper. The recruitment for the permanent administrative and technical works will be integrated in the project management cost. (ii) Local economy

Benefit The workforce will also require significant quantities of vegetables, cash crops and livestock products such as milk, ghee, meat and eggs. From the sales of the products they will be able to increase their income levels and improve the living condition. Marketing the local products to the project employees and the construction workers will increase income of the local people. Furthermore, construction workers and project staff will have good purchasing power, and increases of consumption of local production will likely improve the local economy. It will also result to the flow of significant amount of cash into the local economy and additional income generation opportunities will be opened. This impact will be of indirect nature. Taking note of the nature of the project and its location, magnitude, extent and duration of the impacts will be high, local and short-term respectively. Enhancement Measures The project will designate certain places, within the project area, for the operation of tea stalls and grocery shops to sell local products such as vegetables, rice, pulses, eggs, milks, ghee, chicken, mutton etc. to the extent possible. The project will encourage its staff and construction workers to purchase local products in order to uplift the economic condition of local farmers. (iii) Technical skills and know-how

Benefit The project will launch training programs in specialized area such as operation of heavy equipments, specialized concreting works, slope stabilization, etc. Priority will be given based on the order of seriously project affected people, project affected people and local people to the extent they are interested to get involved in construction activities. The project will allocate certain fund for training of local farmers and traders in modern techniques of cash crop and livestock productions and in enterprise development activities suitable to fulfill likely demands from the work force. It is envisaged that the project will enhance technical skills and know-how on construction works. However, magnitude, extent and duration of the beneficial impact is predicted as high, local and shortterm respectively. Enhancement Measures The project will launch training programs in specialized area as specified above. First priority will be given to the seriously project affected people, project affected people and local people to the extent they are interested to get involved in the construction activities. The project has planned to train 100 people in the construction skills. An amount of Rs. 500,000.00 has been allocated for the construction skill training.

6.1.2 Operation Stage


i) Surroundings will be saved from floods

Benefit The chief benefit of the project is that the embankment will protect the surroundings from inundation during the times of high discharges. It will not only save the lives of people and property but also the cattles and the cultivations in the surrounding, thus enhancing the overall infrastructural development of the entire area. Enhancement Measures
Group-3 ENVE 8-15 FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Once the project is implemented, it will be easier for the government to construct road along the river, all the way through Pepsi-Cola, which will further boost the economic activities. It will be a large-scale infrastructural developmental achievement.

6.2 Adverse Impacts


The approved scoping document and Terms of Reference for this project has identified possible issues on physical, biological and socio-economic and cultural environment. In order to keep the study as per its ToR, impact on each issue has been identified, predicted and evaluated in the following subsections:

6.2.1 Physical Environment


6.2.1.1 Construction Stage (i) Landscape disturbance

Impact The project infrastructures will occupy areas of both private and public sector, i.e., people and the government. The lands with the land ownership paper by the people have been categorized as the private land and without ownership paper have been categorized as government land. These land need to be acquired from the owners. The construction of infrastructures for the project will change the land use pattern of the area. The magnitude, extent and duration of this impact will be high, site-specific and long-term respectively. This impact is evaluated as significant. Mitigation Measures The disturbance to the surrounding areas will be minimized to the extent possible. The consent of the land owners will be taken. If necessary compensation will be provided to those lands which have been disturbed due to the project activities. (ii) Land stability, landslide, and soil erosion

Impact Although the project aims at stabilizing the slopes, temporary disturbances may occur at some points. The removal of vegetation from the sloping portions of the project area site may create some soil erosion. Slopes at the lower half of the hills are comparatively flatter than the upper half. Hence the soil erosion problem may not be significant. The magnitude, extent and duration of this impact will be low, site-specific and short-term respectively. Mitigation Measures Careful observation and attention will be given to minimize these problems to maximum possible extent. (iii) Change in air quality, water quality, noise level

Impact Earthworks for the construction and plying of vehicles in the earthen road within the project area for the transportation of construction materials from the quarry site to the construction site and movement of consultant's and contractor's personnel on daily basis will add emission of air pollutant in the local atmosphere. The construction activities such as operation of heavy equipments will increase the noise level at the site. These changes in the natural environment are normal in any construction projects. Hence it is not significant impact as such. The magnitude, extent and duration of this impact will be low, site-specific and short-term respectively. Mitigation Measures Although noise level increase has been evaluated as insignificant, the project will make effort to reduce the noise level during its construction period. The construction area will be fenced by thick plywood;
8-15 FINAL REPORT

Group-3 ENVE

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Noise producing engines such as air compressors will be fitted with noise reducing equipment; and All vehicles plying in the construction area will be maintained regularly as per the manufacturers recommendations.

As an initial commitment, the project will allocate NRs. 100,000.00 to bring the noise level to the acceptable level and minimize its impact on human beings. In order to mitigate the possible change in air quality, the following mitigation measures will be implemented: Water spraying will be carried out in all the gravel and earthen roads at least once everyday during dry period of 4 months (February May); All vehicles belonging to the project i.e. those of consultants, owner, contractors, vendors will comply with the national emission standards and regular (monthly) check-up for maintenance of all vehicles will be carried out after plying every 3000 km; Use of mask by the construction workers in the dust-prone areas such as crushing plant, batching plant, rock drilling areas etc will be made compulsory; and

About NRs. 100,000.00 has been allocated as an initial commitment of the project to accomplish the above activities. (iv) Location and operation of quarries and borrow areas

Impact Significant quantities of construction materials such as clay, boulders and cobbles, gravels and sand, and coarse aggregate are required for the construction of the project. Most of the construction materials are likely to be obtained from the project area vicinity by dislodging the bluff of the meander section of the river and the river bed materials. Large quantity of construction materials such as boulders is being collected from the river bed every year. The magnitude of the impacts will be medium, extent is site-specific and the duration is short term. Mitigation Measures The quarry sites will be taken on lease and following precautionary measures will be taken: Retaining structures will be constructed if necessary while taking out the construction materials; Masonry wall will be constructed to minimize the aesthetic aspect from the main access road; Preferably less than 450 slope will be maintained at the quarry sites; and Both vertical and horizontal drains will be constructed to drain water.

This will be the part of civil works and will be specified in the technical specification of the condition of the contract on the operation of quarry sites and borrow areas. An amount of Rs 200,000.00 has been allocated for the restoration of the quarry sites. (v) Drainage alteration and associated erosion and sediment

Impact The construction activities are likely to make temporary drainage alteration resulting soil erosion and sediment transport in the river. Since the project area is confined in a small valley such alteration will be low in magnitude. It will be for the site specific in location and short in duration. Mitigation Measures Provision of the temporary drains will be part of construction activities. (vi) Impact
Group-3 ENVE FINAL REPORT

Change in River morphology

8-15

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Extensive construction activities will be required for the diversion of the river, dislodging of the bluff of the meander section. Hence the river morphology will be changed during the construction. The magnitude of the impact is considered high, extent will be site-specific and duration will be shortterm. Mitigation Measures The extraction of the river bed material if any will be planned in such a way that river morphology does not change after the removal of the materials. The design and construction of the diversion weir will be planned in such a way that the concentrated flow or the diverted flow does not make bank erosion as such. As the mitigation measure is related to planning and design, no budget will be required for mitigating this impact. 6.2.1.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage The operation and maintenance related environmental impacts are given below: (i) Change in Surface Water Hydrology

Impact The meander section of the river will be cut opened. The river bed level will be dropped by 18.0 m within 75.0 m distance. This sudden drop in the bed level will create the hydraulic jump and generate high hydraulic energy. If it is not properly controlled, whole area could be eroded. The magnitude of the impact will be high, extent will be site specific and duration will be long term. Mitigation Measures River diversion is one of the main components of the project. Design of the diversion structure will take care of hydraulic jump and energy dissipation of hydraulic energy created by drop structures.

6.2.1 Biological Environment


6.2.2.1 Construction Stage

(i) Disturbance on protected plant and wildlife species Impact Although no such protected plants and wildlife species are noticed, however, there is every possibility of trampling of plants by the labors and increased noise level through movement of heavy vehicles; and drilling works during construction may likely produce adverse impact to such species. The magnitude, extent and duration of this direct impact is predicted as low, local and short-term. Mitigation Measures The impact could not be prevented but could be minimized by the following means: Use of low noise concrete mixture and educate the labors on the preservation of such plants and wildlife species. (ii) Deterioration in Aquatic Life Impact The construction work such as river diversion and working at the flood plain can pollute the river and its water both chemically and physically. Similarly disposal of construction spoils, wastewater, oils and grease could also pollute water. This could change the water quality chemically, which might have negative impact on fish population of in the river. As the fish population is reported to be small in number, the magnitude, extent and duration of this impact is predicted low, local and short-term, Mitigation Measures
Group-3 ENVE 8-15 FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Water quality protection measures will be applied during construction stage. The construction contractor will develop a waste management plan, which will detail out the use, storage and disposal of toxic and solid waste materials. All batching plant wastewater and truck wash down will be diverted to a settling basin for treatment prior to discharge. The storage area will be lined to reduce potential surface and ground water pollution in the event of spill. Necessary budget will be included in the detail design and waste management plan. 6.2.2.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage i) Micro habitat of the stream may be affected Impact Construction of the embankments alters the river morphology which further affects the microhabitat of the river. The effects, either beneficial or adverse, are unforeseen. Mitigation Measures Once the changes in river morphology are identified, steps to eradicate the problems will be immediately taken. Biologists and specialists will immediately be hired to tackle the problem.

6.2.2 Socio-economic and Cultural Environment


6.2.3.1 Construction Stage (i) Demolition of Permanent and Temporary Structures as a Part of Site Clearance

Impact 15 houses and 20 animal sheds will have to be demolished for site clearance. Loss of houses will be loss of dwellings of the PAF. Hence the magnitude will be high, extent will be site specific and duration will be forever. Mitigation Measures As mentioned above, compensation will be provided for lost assets such as houses and animal sheds. The compensation may include house for house and cash compensation. Cash compensation at replacement value for assets will reflect real market rates. The PAFs expected cash compensation for their lost properties. Market as such has not been developed in the area and transaction cases of buildings are very few. Based on the prices the total compensation costs of the lost houses and sheds are estimated at Rs.4, 500,000.00 and Rs.1,500,000.0 respectively. The compensation will be paid to the owner in the presence of the female member of the family so that even the female member is aware of the compensation paid. In addition to the house compensation, each family will be paid an amount of Rs 5000.00 per month for 12 months as the displacement cost. Total allocated cost for the displacement of the houses will be Rs. 900,000.00. Compensation will be paid only to those who own the land privately. Illegal settlements comprising of internal refugees will not be compensated. (ii) Health and Sanitation

Impact The people may be exposed to high noise and dust levels during the construction. Concentration of a large number of people in the project sites may create problems in disposal of sewerage and water contamination. These may increase pressure to the health services. Hence the magnitude will be high, extent will be site specific and duration will be short term. Mitigation Measures
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The workforce will be made aware of the health problems caused by unhealthy sanitation and contamination of drinking water. Proper methods of managing disposal of sewerage and checking of water contamination will be taught to the contractors and workers. The project will establish campsite for the workers from outside of the project area and all outside workers will be housed in the campsite. The project will allocate NRs. 200,000/ as an initial commitment, to provide additional services and facilities such as drinking water supply, pit latrines and health clinics along with necessary medicines to the workers and their dependants in the labor camps so that no additional pressure on the existing services and facilities will be created due to workers who come from outside the project areas. One pit latrine for every 10 workers will be constructed. (i) Occupational Health and Safety

Impacts The workers may be exposed to high noise levels during unloading and. They may be exposed to high levels of dust during construction, transportation, and unloading. Mitigation Measures Workers will be provided with safety equipment and safety procedures will be implemented as far as possible. Drivers and workers will be trained and made aware on proper handling of waste and personal protections. They will also be trained on identifying hazardous waste and proper safety procedures on handling and reporting such items. Routine medical exams for workers will be carried out. The area being sensitive, entry of unauthorized person will be restricted.

(iii)

Gender and Vulnerable Group

Impact During construction period some men of the project area are likely to involve in the construction activities creating shortage of labor required for agricultural and other household activities in their homes. The shortage may have to be fulfilled by women and children. This will give them heavy burden of workload. Few parts of the project is occupied by internal refugees from over 48 district of Nepal. These are economical refugees. They do not own the land and are illegally settled. However the project design do not affect any of their land in operational stage. Few household might e affected temporarily during the construction. Magnitude of the impact is considered to be low, extent could be local since most of the construction workers would be from the nearby vicinity and duration would be short term as long as the construction activities last. Mitigation Measures Weekly working hours will be fixed to the construction workers so that they will have enough time for household works, marketing of essential consumption goods and other government related works. Compensation for their economic losses during the project construction phase will be provided either by money or by job in the project. (iv) Law and Order

Impact The concentration of large number of people with varied social and cultural backgrounds and inflow of cash at the same time may lead to anti-social activities such as use of more alcohol, gambling, and prostitution. The influx of outside workers may also disturb existing socio-cultural practices of the area. This may bring uneasiness to the local people resulting in conflicts. The conflict may deteriorate the law
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and order situation. The project proposes to hire local people to the extent possible limiting number of workers from outside. The magnitude of the impact is, therefore, considered to be minimum. Extent may be local and duration will be short term. Mitigation Measures A local committee comprising representatives of all national as well as local political parties will be formed. The committee will be encouraged to impose restrictions on certain activities in the social places so that the workers do not become a nuisance to local people. Regular surveillance by security people will also be managed. To develop good relationship and understandings between local community and the project people and to maintain a harmonious relationship between them a public relation officer will be employed. (v) Cultural and Aesthetic Sites

The execution of project activities will not disturb archaeological and/or religious sites of the area. 6.2.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Stage (ii) Issues of Socio-economy of Severely Affected People

Impact The project may compensate severely affected people according to their expectation. But due to inexperience in handling cash and transactions they may spend money in unnecessary things and waste the compensation money. Moreover they will be hired for different jobs according to their qualifications during the construction and operation stages to the extent possible. . Sand mining is common in the Manahara River. There are two sand mining industries in the bank of the Manahara river. The construction will surely hamper the industries. Impact magnitude is considered high, extent site specific and duration is long term. Mitigation Measures The project will run an awareness program to the project affected people in the proper use of compensation money. The project will also run job and enterprise development oriented training programs to the severely affected people. The trainings will be useful to the project during construction and operation periods and future similar projects elsewhere in Nepal. For the sand mining company another suitable location will be searched. They will be compensated for the transportation cost they require for moving their machinery. Nominal compensation will be provided for the few days extraction losses. (iii) Recession of Local Economy

Impact When construction works will be completed almost all workers will leave the area except few staff and workers required for the operation of the project. This sudden fall in the number of people will decrease demands for commodities dramatically. Market for local produces will be lost. Many local people will be out of work. These will affect incomes of local people due to loss of business, jobs and market and may develop depressions among local people. Impacts are considered to be low in magnitude, regional in extent and short term in duration. Mitigation Measures The project will investigate the availability of markets for the local products in Kathmandu and other parts of Nepal and make aware local farmers about the availability.

6.3 Evaluation of the Impacts


The above impacts are of two categories identified and predicted. These impacts have been evaluated (Tables 6.5 and 6.6) to know their environmental significance taking into consideration the
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location of the project, direct or indirect nature, reversibility and irreversibility of the impacts, and more importantly the national policy, law and guidelines. Furthermore, they have been grouped into identified and predicted impacts for easy understanding. In general, direct impacts are identified, and indirect impacts predicted. The significance of the impacts has been evaluated using the words significant, moderately significant and insignificant. Assumption has also been made to evaluate the significant impacts. For example, the direct impacts or direct loss of land and property, forests and demolition of infrastructures as a part of site clearance are as significant impacts; the project induced impacts are considered moderately significant; and impact that may occur outside the project area, and/or which is not directly related with the project activity is considered insignificant for this project. For convenience, direct impacts having total score of over 75 are considered significant; impacts having 50 to 75 score are considered moderately significant; and impacts having total score of less than equal to 50 are considered insignificant for this project. However, some of the impacts whose total score exceeds 50 may not be significant in view of the nature of the predicted impacts. Some impacts having less than 50 score could also be considered significant, and logical base for such ranking has been given in the remarks. It has been done so as the impacts are related to the subjective judgment on magnitude, extent and duration of the impacts (Table 6.5 and 6.6). For example, impacts likely to occur outside the project's direct impact zone and of indirect nature may not be significant although the total score exceeds 50. This ranking has provided a basis to select and propose environmental protection measures, i.e., beneficial impacts augmentation measures, and adverse impacts mitigation measures. Table 6.26 : Evaluation of Beneficial Impacts
Likely Impacts Nature Environmental Impacts Predicted Identified Extent Magnitude Duration Total Score Significance of Impacts Remark

1. Construction Stage 1.1 Employment generation to the local people 1.2 Increase in local economy 1.3 Enhancement in technical skills and know-how 2. Operational Stage 2.1 Surrounding will, be saved from floods
Note:

D IN D

H (60) H (60) H (60) H (60)

R (60) L (20) L (20) R (60)

ST (05) ST (05) ST (05) LT (20)

125 85 85

Significant Significant Significant

140

Significant

Nature of Impact: D=Direct; IN = Indirect; R = Reversible; IR = Irreversible at site-specific level Magnitude, H = High (60); M = Medium (20); and L = Low (10) Extent, R = Regional (60), L = Local (20); and SS = Site-specific (10) Duration, LT = Long-term (20), MT = Medium-term (10); and ST = Short-term (05) The points in the parenthesis are taken from the National EIA Guidelines, 1993.

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Table 6.27 : Evaluation of Adverse Impacts


SN Likely Impacts Nature Environmental Impacts Predicted Identified Extent Magnitude Duration Total Score Significance of Impacts Remark

1. Physical Environment 1.1 Construction Stage 1.1.1 Landscape disturbance 1.1.2 Land stability, landslide and soil erosion 1.1.3 Air quality, water quality, noise level 1.1.4 Drainage alteration and associated erosion 1.1.5 River morphology

D IN D D D

L (10) L (10) L (10) L (10) M (20) L (20) L (10) H (60) H (60) H (60)

SS (10) SS (10) SS (10) SS (10) L (20) SS (10) SS (10) L (20) L (20) SS (10)

LT (20) ST (05) ST (05) ST (05) MT (20) LT (20) SS (10) LT (20) LT (20) LT (20)

40 25 25 25 60 50

Insignificant Insignificant Insignificant Insignificant Significant Insignificant

1.2. Operational Stage 1.2.1 Surface water D hydrology 2. Biological Environment 2.1. Construction Stage 2.1.1 Disturbance on IN protected plant and wildlife species 2.1.2 Aquatic Life D deterioration 2.2. Operational Stage 2.2.1 Micro habitat of the D stream 3. Socio economic and Cultural Environment 3.1. Construction Stage 3.1.1 Demolition of D, IR permanent and temporary structures as a part of site clearance 3.1.2 Health and IN sanitation 3.1.5 Occupational D health and safety 3.1.6 Gender and IN vulnerable group 3.1.7 Law and order IN 3.1.10 Cultural and aesthetic 3.2. Operational Stage 3.2.1 Socio-economy of severely affected people 3.2.2 Recession of local economy
Note:

30 100 100

Insignificant Significant Significant

Not a core habitat

90

Significant

L SS ST 25 Insignificant (10) (10) (05) L SS ST 25 Insignificant (10) (10) (05) H L ST 85 Insignificant (60) (20) (05) L L ST 35 Insignificant (10) (20) (05) There is no impact on cultural and aesthetic sites H (60) R (60) L (10) LT (20) ST (05) 140 25 Significant Insignificant

IN IN

L (10)

Nature of Impact: D=Direct; IN = Indirect; R = Reversible; IR = Irreversible at site-specific level Magnitude, H = High (60); M = Medium (20); and L = Low (10) Extent, R = Regional (60), L = Local (20); and SS = Site-specific (10) Duration, LT = Long-term (20), MT = Medium-term (10); and ST = Short-term (05) The points in the parenthesis are based on the National EIA Guidelines, 1993

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ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS

ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS

7.1 Introduction
Alternative analysis is one of the integral parts of the EIA Study. This section makes the assessment of environmental implication by the different alternatives considered in the concept design of the proposed landfill site.

7.2 Type of Landfill Systems


7.2.1 Anaerobic Sanitary Landfill Systems
Anaerobic Sanitary Landfill is a structure in which leachate collecting pipe is installed for drainage at the bottom. The pipe ends are not exposed to air (the main leachate pipe outlet is immersed in the leachate pond). There is no conveyance of air into the waste disposal area and the wastes decomposition is mainly in anaerobic condition. An anaerobic Sanitary Land Fill is presented in Figure 7.1.

Solid Waste

Leachate Collection Pipe

Pit

Leachate Collection Pipe

Leachate

Figure 7.10 : Improved Anaerobic Sanitary Landfill

7.2.2 Semi-aerobic Landfill Site


In a Semi-aerobic Sanitary Landfill leachate is collected in a leachate collection pond through properly sized perforated pipes embedded in graded gravels/ boulders. As the outlet of the main leachate collection pipe is always open to air, fresh air is drawn into the waste layers, thereby introducing an aerobic condition around the pipes. Since leachate is removed as quickly as it is formed, the internal waste layers have lower water content. A Semi-aerobic Sanitary Landfill System is presented in Figure 7.2.

runoff collection duct

Leachate Collection Pipe Solid Waste

Pits for pumping

Leachate Collection System

Leachate

Figure 7.11 : Semi-aerobic Landfill System

7.2.3 Comparison of Anaerobic and Semi aerobic Landfill System


A comparison of the two landfill systems in different technical aspects are elaborated in the Table 7.1.
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Table 7.28 : Comparison of Anaerobic and Semi-aerobic Landfill Systems


Particular Objective Condition layers Leachate pipes of waste Anaerobic Landfill Maintain uniform condition throughout the disposal site Landfill gas recovery Anaerobic condition prevails Semi-aerobic Landfill Waste stabilization by natural ventilation Reduction of leachate toxicity 0Layers surrounding leachate and gas collection pipes are semi-aerobic

collection

Pipe outlet immersed

Open to air at pipe outlet Connected with gas vents Large pipe diameters Roughly divided into methane and carbondioxide about 40% : 60% Lower BOD and COD Rapid decrease in generated volume

Gases produced

Mainly methane with some carbondioxide about 60% : 40% Higher BOD and COD Slower decrease in generated volume

Leachate quality

Special Features / Advantages of Semi-aerobic Landfill System Compared to Anaerobic Landfill System Rapid stabilization of the input (i.e. land filled waste) through better aerobic conditions, Better quality of the outputs (i.e. landfill gas and leachate), which saves the treatment cost, and Low water pressure on the liner and reduction in possibility of leachate seepage.

7.2.4 Reason for Selection of Re-circulatory Semi-aerobic System


Semi-aerobic Landfill System is an appropriate system of sanitary land filling with the control of input (i.e. the incoming waste) and of outputs (i.e. leachate and the landfill gas). The solid wastes of Kathmandu valley mainly comprises of biodegradable waste and the decomposition of biodegradable waste can be accelerated by supplying the air. Leachate produced from the wastes and infiltration of water percolated through the dumped waste layers will be collected in a pond (aeration pond) through properly sized perforated pipes (main leachate pipes and branch leachate pipes) embedded in graded gravels/ boulders as filter material. Aerobic condition in the waste layer around the pipes will be introduced by keeping the outlet of the main leachate collection pipe always open to air to allow free entry to the fresh air into the waste mass. Leachate are drained out from the waste mass by giving proper slope to the pipes over the liner system, which facilitates lower water content in the internal waste layers and stabilizes the waste mass in a short-time period. In addition the required cover soil material for semi aerobic process is comparatively less than anaerobic process and the sub tropical climate like Kathmandu is best suited for the decomposition. The well-known Fukuoka method of semiaerobic landfill type, which was developed at the Fukuoka University of Japan in early 1970's has been very successfully practiced in the Asian countries like Malaysia and Republic of Iran. This system is scientific and is expected to be appropriate in Nepalese context, as it is technically simple and costeffective.

7.3 Wastes Storage Dam


The main objective of the Waste Storage Dam is to retain the waste materials safely regarding several forces coming on it for long time without any failure of the dam structure and its function is to create space for dumping waste materials and to retain the waste within the land fill site area There are various types of storage dam such as RCC retaining structure, Concrete gravity dam, Soil cement dam and earthen gravity dam. Each of them has own advantage and disadvantage. RCC and concrete dams occupy less space compare to the soil cement or earthen dam but they are expensive. The earthen dams are cost effective compare to other but it occupies large area reducing the capacity of the land fill and the material required for the construction dam will have to be transported from a greater distance which will increase the cost. In the case of Bancharedanda sanitary landfill site due to
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limited space availability, Cement Soil and Gravel (CSG) Dam has been proposed in the concept design. The required material for the construction of CSG dam is available in the project area vicinity.

7.4 Liner System


The different liner system such as (i) full liner (ii) vertical liner and (iii) partial surface liner had been considered in the concept design with due consideration of the site conditions at Kudule (e.g. the topographical and geological conditions of the landfill site, soil conditions, groundwater conditions, as well as the location of leachate collection facility).

7.4.1 Full Liner Application


This option is a full surface liner with complete horizontal liner over horizontal bed and liner along the slope the entire height of land fill. The horizontal liner shall comprise of 1.5mm thick HDPE geomembrane and clay of compacted thickness 0.5m and slope liner of 1.5mm thick HDPE geo-membrane. An example of fuller liner application is shown in Figure. 7.3

1:3 Waste storage dam Waste Bank 1:2 Liner sheet

Existingground line

Figure 7.12: Full Liner Application

7.4.2 Vertical Liner


A vertical liner is possible only if the impermeable layer underneath the storage dam is available. The vertical liner can be constructed below the foundation of the waste storage dam by injection method of grouting to a depth of 2m below the impermeable bed rock throughout its total running length. An example of vertical liner application is shown in Figure. 7.4

1:3 Waste storage dam

Waste Existingground line Permeable layer Impermeable layer VerticalLiner Figure 7.13 : Vertical Line Facilities

7.4.3 Partial Surface Liner


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This option is a full surface liner over horizontal bed and slope liner up to a height of ~3m. The horizontal liner will comprise of 1.5mm thick HDPE geo-membrane and clay of compacted thickness 0.5m, and slope liner of 1.5mm thick HDPE geo-membrane. An example of partial surface liner is shown in Figure 7.5.

1:3 Waste storage dam Waste Existing ground line Liner sheet and clay Liner sheet Liner sheet Clay(t=50cm 1:2 ) Bank Existing ground line 5m

Figure 7.14 : Partial Surface Liner

7.4.4 Selection of Liner System


In the Full Liner System, liner is provided at the vertical as well as bottom of the land fill site. In order to install the liner along the slope, the grade must be gentle of not more than 1:2. The slopes at the site are very steep and in order to install a liner it would be necessary to make them gentler by banking (filling with suitable soil materials to achieve the required slopes). It has been estimated that for Bancharedanda a total volume of 1 million m3 of materials for banking would be required. This would both reduce the fill capacity of the site as well as incur high construction costs. Therefore the Full Liner system was not selected. Moreover the presently available information on the sites soil conditions is inadequate to confirm the continuity of the impermeable layer under the site and therefore at this time it is difficult to adopt the vertical liner alternative. Accordingly the Partial Surface Liner has been selected as the liner system and based upon which the concept design has been prepared. At the time of the detailed design it is recommended that detailed soil investigation be made to confirm the conditions of the impermeable layers under the site. The comparative analysis of the three options considered is tabulated below in Table 7.2. Table 7.29 : Comparison of Liner System
Particular Horizontal liner Slope liner Construction Environment Cost LF capacity / Life span Full surface liner (1) Geo-membrane + Clay (0.5m) Geo-membrane Difficult Better Highest Lowest Vertical liner (2) Vertical liner facility Simple Better Lowest ~ same as (3) Partial surface liner (3) Geo-membrane + Clay (0.5m) ~3m geo-membrane Medium Fair Medium ~ same as (2)

7.5 Treatment System


The quality of the leachate is one of the main problems in the landfill site which can not discharged into the natural source of water and there is the possibility of contamination if not properly stored. The
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anticipated leachate quality from the proposed landfill site would be similar to the leachate from Sisdol Landfill Site. The Sisdol leachate contains parameters like BOD, COD, TSS, ammonia nitrogen, phenol compound, lead, oil and grease. Among these, parameters like BOD, COD, TSS and ammonia nitrogen would be resulting from the domestic wastes whereas other parameters like phenol compound, lead, oil and grease result from the industrial and hospital wastes. This indicates that the present municipal wastes brought in Sisdol are mixed with industrial and hospital wastes. Though the quantity of industrial and hospital wastes are very small compared to domestic wastes, the presence of phenol compound, lead, oil and grease waste even in traces is harmful to health. Hence the leachate will have to be treated to the acceptable standard before discharging into the natural source of water or environment. There are different types of treatment options depending upon the content of leachate.

7.5.1 Treatment Option


Considering the quality of the leachate from Sisdol Landfill, availability of the space and resources for the treatment various options were considered for the treatment option. Option 1: Biological Treatment In this option, only biological treatment such as simple aeration is considered. Leachate will be collected in the aeration pond and it is re-circulated in the landfill area. If all the generated leachate is to be retained without discharging into the river, the size of the aeration pond will have to be big enough to accommodate the generated leachate. Reduction of the leachate will be from the evaporation only. This treatment process will be able to reduce the pollutant like BOD, COD and ammonia nitrogen. It will not be effective for the removal of the suspended solid and other chemicals such as phenol compound, oil and grease. Similarly, it can not remove the heavy metals. Option 2: Physical and Biological Treatment In this option, the leachate is collected in the aeration and sedimentation ponds, and re-circulated to the land fill site. Leachate is treated in the aeration pond for the reduction of BOD, COD and ammonia nitrogen, and in the sedimentation pond for the reduction of the suspended solids. In this option the size of the aeration pond and sedimentation pond will be big enough to accommodate the generated leachate until it evaporates. However this option of treatment does not remove or reduce the chemical compound like phenol and heavy metals. Option 3: Physical, Biological and Chemical Treatment Since the leachate produced from the Sisdol Landfill Site comprises of chemical compound like phenol, oil, grease and heavy metals, treatment options will be difficult. In addition the available area for the treatment is very limited due the topographic condition of the proposed site. Hence the chemical treatment process would be the appropriate treatment option for the present quality of leachate that has been coming out from the Sisdol Landfill Site. Oil and grease can be treated in oil separating tank, BOD, COD and ammonia nitrogen can be treated by biological de-nitrification method, suspended solid could treated by sand filtration method, lead could be treated by coagulating sedimentation method and phenol compound could be treated by activated carbon absorption method. In the chemical treatment option, the effluent from these treatment facilities could be directly discharged into the river but both capital cost and operation maintenance cost of these options would be so high that it would not be affordable. All the different options of treatment were discussed in the concept design planning workshop on June 1, 2006 in Kathmandu. The Workshop was attended by all the stakeholders of proposed landfill site area including the representative from the local people. The heavy metals and chemical compounds resulting from industrial and hospital wastes can only be treated by chemical process, and this is difficult to provide because of the difficulty to maintain the system and the very high costs incurred both for construction and maintenance and operation. Therefore it is necessary to make utmost efforts to separate industrial and hospital wastes from the waste stream entering the site by adopting separate collection system for these waste types and monitoring the waste at the transfer stations and as the waste arrives to the landfill. Under this pre-condition Option 2 Physical and Biological Treatment was adopted.

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7.6 Gas Collection System


Collection and management of the generated gas from the landfill site is another major task in the landfill site. There are mainly three types of gas collection system, namely: (i) Passive venting ((ii) Flaring and (iii) Recovery of Landfil gas. (i) Passive Venting

In this option the generated gases are collected through the pipes and they are removed through the venting facility within the landfill layers into the atmosphere. (ii) Flaring

In this option gas is collected, controlled and regulated by installing gas vent pipes to a central system and it is flared up from the one location. (iii) Recovery of Landfill Gas

Besides controlling and regulating the landfill gas generated, the generated gas is recovered in this option with some purpose of use. But appropriate gas treatment facility shall be considered, depending upon the type of recovery. Out of the above-described options, the flaring option and gas recovery option are not appropriate for a semi-aerobic landfill system in terms of quantity and quality of gas generated. Besides, they are also not cost-effective, even though they have some other advantages such as reduction in green house gas (GHG gas) emission thereby contributing to the minimization of global warming to some extent. But the simple operation & maintenance of a passive venting system in a semi-aerobic system outweighs the relative advantages of flaring option and gas recovery. Therefore, passive venting option has been selected in the conceptual design. But EIA study recommends reconsidering recovery of landfill gas for the protection of the environment. This could be developed as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Project for the sustainability of the project through carbon trading

7.7 Site Boundary


The boundary of the landfill site will be clearly defined as the activities within the site will be not only hazardous but also risky. The area will be properly fenced so that any outsider (unrelated and/or unauthorized person) and/or animal will have no access to the site. Though the waste deposits will be covered at the end of day operation, which will minimize the foul smell but during the operation time, the wastes will be mixed and turned which will produce foul smell. The smell could be bad enough for the people in the vicinity. Some times the old wastes are brought into the landfill site. Land fill operation of such old waste produces very bad smell. Hence it is necessary to maintain the buffer zone around the landfill. The area of buffer zone will depend upon the topography of the project area. The extent of the buffer zone area was one of the major issues of local people. It seems that the people negotiated higher price than the market price for the land that were acquired for the Sisdol Land Fill site. With this experience local people wanted to extend the buffer zone to the extent possible. After the series of discussions with the local people, communities and member of Landfill Site Coordination Committee, following site boundary has been proposed. On east and west of the valley, immediate gully after the hill tops were proposed as the buffer zone boundary where as on the north, the existing track has been proposed as the boundary it is about 300 m aerial distance from the edge of the landfill site and on the south also about 300m aerial distance from the edge to of landfill site has been taken as the proposed boundary. The total proposed buffer zone area will be 53.68 ha.

7.8 River Diversion


The river diversion will decrease length of the river. Within the span of 75 m, 19 m of bed level of the river is going to be dropped. Hence this Drop Channel is the most significant part of the river diversion works. A drop channel could be cascade type or chute type. The concept design of the project has
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made the detailed study for both type of structure and suggested chute type of drop structures. A comparative table for both structures is presented in Table 7.3. Table 7.30 : Comparative Study of Drop Channel
S.No. 1.Technical Aspect Cascade Type Advantage: Effective energy dissipation against operating head more than 15m ensures. Design is relatively easier than others. Lesser basin length and protection works can be requested. Disadvantage: Scouring bed in the apron is bigger than chute type. Low height of cascade can not be adopted in the current site space. 2.Environmental Aspect Serious damage for floating lives in the river due to drop in higher gap. Excavation volume becomes more than chute type. NRs. 39,450,000 Chute Type Advantage: Effective energy dissipation against operating head more than 15m ensures with hydraulic jump in the stilling basin. Prospected risk of scouring in the channel bed is less than cascade type. Disadvantage: Channel length becomes longer than cascade type.

From the landscape viewpoint, chute is more suitable than cascade. Excavation volume becomes less than cascade type. NRs. 62,590,000

3.Economic Aspect

7.9 Do Nothing Alternative


The proposed Okharpauwa Land Fill Site is the only possible land fill site for the disposal of the solid waste of the municipalities of Kathmandu Valley. Government of Nepal has been developing this project since last 10 years as the long term solid waste disposal site for the Kathmandu Valley. The existing Sisdol Land Fill site is only a short term land fill site which has the capacity for 3 years only. The infrastructures developed for the Sisdol Land Fill Site is meant for the proposed Bancharedanda Land Fill Site which has the capacity for 19 years. If this project is not implemented, the solid waste of the Kathmandu Valley can not be disposed off which will have serious implication on the municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley. Government of Nepal (then HMG/N) has explored possibility of land fill sites in the vicinity of the Kathmandu Valley. This is the only site that has been acceptable by the local people. Peoples' acceptance has been the main concern in the development of the land fill site. The Sisdol Land Fill is in operation since June 5, 2005. It has the capacity for another 6 months maximum. If the proposed Bancharedanda Land Fill could not be completed before the closure of Sisdol Land Fill Site, there is no other site where the Solid Waste could be disposed. Hence the GON is looking for other short or mid term alternative landfill site for KMC and LSMC.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

8.1 Introduction
Lohani et al. (1997) has emphasized to set out the environmental protection measures (EPM) in environmental management plan (EMP) and other measures that should be undertaken to ensure compliance with environmental laws and to reduce or eliminate adverse impacts. The EMP should define technical work program including details of the required tasks and reports and necessary staff skills, supplies and equipment; a detailed account of the estimated cost to implement the plan; and implementation of the plan in a planned way, including proposed staffing, schedules of participation and inputs of different agencies. Furthermore, the mitigation measures and monitoring requirements are normally set out in an EMP. It is also recommended to establish an Environmental Management Unit (EMU) for the implementation of the plan. Based on the consultants experience and reviewed literatures, EMP of this report follows POSDCORB concept to prepare EMP for this report. It focuses on the inclusion of planning, organization, staffing, directives, co-ordination, reporting and budgeting. Within this broad framework, the following sections describe to address 5W's (what, why/how, where, when and who) for the implementation of benefit augmentation and mitigation measures, environmental monitoring and auditing works. The EMP guides the project management in such a way that the environmental protection measures are adequately implemented, effectiveness of such measures are monitored and environmental auditing is carried out to know the project performance on the environmental ground.

8.2 Planning
8.2.1 Stages for the Implementation of Environment Protection Measures
The environmental protection measures (EPMs) will be implemented during the pre-construction, construction and operational and maintenance stages of the project. Different stakeholders will be involved during theses stages. The design will be undertaken by adopting the basic civil engineering design principle for the environmental protection. To be specific the detailed design will consider all the proposed mitigation measures in this EIA report. The condition of the contract will include the proposed mitigation measures at the appropriate place. Overall implementation of EPMs will be the responsibility of the proponent. All preparatory activities related to site clearance including the necessary permission from the relevant government organization and land and property acquisition will be completed during the pre-construction stage. In this stage, the project will delineate the actual area to be acquired for the project. Necessary process of land acquisition and compensation for the lost resources will be under taken. As these are basically related to the pre-construction stage, the project will not be implemented without completing these pre-requisites. A management plan for the implementation of proposed enhancement measures is presented in Table 8.1 and implementation plan for proposed mitigation measures is presented in Table 8.2.

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Table 8.31 : Implementation Plan of Proposed Enhancement Measures


Sl Likely Beneficial Impacts 1. Construction Stage 1.1 Employment generation to the local people Enhancement Measures Cost Responsible Agency or Person Project Manager

The project will give first priority to the SPAFs, PAFs and local people who want to work in the project. The project will disseminate information regarding the project activities through the printed materials. The employment opportunity will be advertised in the local news papers.
The project will designate certain places, within the project area, for the operation of tea stalls and grocery shops to sell local products such as vegetables, rice, pulses, eggs, milks, ghee, chicken, mutton etc. to the extent possible. The project will allocate budget for training of local farmers and traders especially willing to enhance skills in modern techniques of cash crop and livestock productions and in enterprise development activities. The project will launch training programs in specialized area such as operation of heavy equipments, specialized concreting works, etc. The Project has planned to train 50 people in the construction skills.

An amount of NRs . 50,000/ will be allocated for the publication of the vacancy announcement in the local newspaper
An amount of Rs. 2,00,000.00 has been allocated for the income generating trainings.

1.2

Increase in local economy

Project Manager

1.3

Enhancement in technical skills and know-how

An amount of Rs. 5,00,000.00 has been allocated for the construction skill training.

Project Manager

2. Operation Stage 2.1 Surrounding will, be saved from floods

Construction of road along the river, all the No cost way through Pepsi-Cola, which will further boost the economic activities Table 8.32 : Implementation Plan for Proposed Mitigation Measures
Cost

Government

Likely Adverse Mitigation Measures Impacts 1. Physical Environment 1.1 Construction Stage 1.1.1 Landscape Landscape disturbance will be kept disturbance minimum to the extent possible by careful planning. 1.1.2 Land stability, Careful observation and attention will be landslide and given to minimize these problems to soil erosion maximum possible extent. Angle of

SN

Agency to be Consulted

No additional cost No additional cost will be required.

Contractor Contractor

repose will be maintained for the soil.


1.1.3 Air quality, water quality, noise level The project will make effort to reduce the noise level during its construction period.

The construction area will be fenced by thick plywood; Noise producing engines such as air compressors will be fitted with noise reducing equipment; and All vehicles plying in the construction area will be maintained regularly as per the manufacturers recommendations

About NRs. 100,000/ has been allocated as an initial commitment of the project to accomplish the above activities.

Contractor

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SN

Likely Adverse Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Cost About NRs. 100,000/ has been allocated as an initial commitment of the project to accomplish the above activities

In order to mitigate the possible change in air quality, the following mitigation measures will be implemented: Water spraying will be carried out in all the gravel and earthen roads at least once everyday during dry period of 4 months (February May); All vehicles belonging to the project i.e. those of consultants, owner, contractors, vendors will comply with the national emission standards and regular (monthly) check-up for maintenance of all vehicles will be carried out after plying every 3000 km; Use of mask by the construction workers in the dust-prone areas such as crushing plant, batching plant, rock drilling areas etc will be made compulsory The quarry sites will be taken on lease and following precautionary measures will be taken: Retaining structures will be constructed if necessary while taking out the construction materials; Masonry wall will be constructed to minimize the aesthetic aspect from the main access road; Preferably less than 450 slope will be maintained at the quarry sites; and Both vertical and horizontal drains will be constructed to drain water. Provision of the temporary drains will be part of construction activities. The extraction of the river bed material if any will be planned in such a way that river morphology does not change after the removal of the materials. The design and construction of the diversion weir will be planned in such a way that the concentrated flow or the diverted flow does not make bank erosion as such. As the mitigation measure is related to planning and design. River diversion is one of the main components of the project. Design of the diversion structure will take care of hydraulic jump and energy dissipation of hydraulic energy created by drop
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Agency to be Consulted Contractor

1.1.5

Location and operation of quarries and borrow areas

An amount of Rs 200,000.00 has been allocated for the restoration of the quarry sites.

Contractor

1.1.4

1.1.6

Drainage alteration and associated erosion River morphology

The project will allocate NRs. 500,000 to rehabilitate the quarry No cost

Contractor

Contractor

1.2 Operation Phase 1.2.1 Surface water hydrology

Within design hence no cost

Contractor

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SN

Likely Adverse Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Cost

Agency to be Consulted

structures.
2. Biological Environment 2.1. Construction Stage 2.1.1 Disturbance on protected plant and wildlife species

2.1.2

Aquatic Life deterioration

The impact could not be prevented but could be minimized by the following means: Use of low noise concrete mixture and educate the labors on the preservation of such plants and wildlife species Water quality protection measures will be applied during construction stage. The construction contractor will develop a waste management plan, which will detail out the use, storage and disposal of toxic and solid waste materials. All batching plant wastewater and truck wash down will be diverted to a settling basin for treatment prior to discharge. The storage area will be lined to reduce potential surface and ground water pollution in the event of spill. Once the changes in river morphology are identified, steps to eradicate the problems will be immediately taken. Biologists and specialists will immediately be hired to tackle the problem.

No cost

Contractor local people

and

Will be included in Detail design

Designer

2.2. Operational Stage 2.2.1 Micro habitat of the stream

Will be included in the monitoring cost

Monitoring team

3. Socio economic and Cultural Parameters 3.1. Construction Stage 3.1.1 Demolition of Compensation will be provided for lost permanent and assets such as houses and animal temporary sheds. The compensation may include structures as a house for house and cash part of site compensation. Cash compensation at clearance

Compensation costs Rs.20,00,000


Displacement Rs 9,00,000 cost:

Designer

replacement value for assets will reflect real market rates.


.

3.1.2

Health and sanitation

The workforce will be made aware of the health problems caused by unhealthy sanitation and contamination of drinking water. Proper methods of managing disposal of sewerage and checking of water contamination will be taught to the contractors and workers. Weekly working hours will be fixed to the construction workers so that they will have enough time for household works, marketing of essential consumption goods and other government related works. Compensation for their economic losses during the project construction phase will be provided either by money or by job in the project A local committee comprising representatives of all national as well as local political parties will be formed. The committee will be encouraged to impose
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Part of construction cost and a amount

Contractor

of NRs. 200,000/ as an initial commitment

3.1.4

Gender and vulnerable group

Will be included in land aquistion cost

Municipality

3.1.4

Law and order

No cost

Local committee

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SN

Likely Adverse Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Cost

Agency to be Consulted

3.1.5

Cultural and aesthetic

restrictions on certain activities in the social places so that the workers do not become a nuisance to local people. Regular surveillance by security people will also be managed. To develop good relationship and understandings between local community and the project people and to maintain a harmonious relationship between them a public relation officer will be employed. The execution of project activities will not disturb archaeological and/or religious sites of the area The project will run an awareness program to the project affected people in the proper use of compensation money. The project will also run job and enterprise development oriented training programs to the severely affected people. The trainings will be useful to the project during construction and operation periods and future similar projects elsewhere in Nepal. For the sand mining company another suitable location will be searched. They will be compensated for the transportation cost they require for moving their machinery. Nominal compensation will be provided for the few days extraction losses. The project will investigate the availability of markets for the local products in Kathmandu and other parts of Nepal and make aware local farmers about the availability..

No cost

Contractor

3.2 Operation Stage 3.2.1 Socio-economy of severely affected people

Amount 20,00,000 allocated.

of will

Rs be

Local community

3.2.2

Recession of local economy

An amount of NRs. 1,00,000 has been allocated.

Local Community

8.2.2 Environmental Monitoring


Environmental monitoring is an integral part of the EIA report. It is the activities that will be carried out to confirm the compliance and effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures. There are three types of monitoring namely baseline, compliance and impact monitoring. Baseline monitoring is carried out if there is significant gap (say more than 5 years) in the EIA report approval and implementation. The project will update EIA report completely. Otherwise the project will update the key basic data such as the required land for the permanent and temporary acquisitions. However implementation of the proposal is likely to be as early as possible. Hence, this sub-section focuses on the compliance and impact monitoring. The impact monitoring will be carried out during and after the construction stage as per the types of EPMs to evaluate their effectiveness. The project proponent will be primarily responsible for carrying out all the proposed monitoring activities. The project has planned to monitor the compliance by establishing an Environmental Monitoring Unit within the project. The Unit will have full time qualified people for the monitoring purpose. The team of this unit has been presented in section 8.3. In order to guide and supervise the compliance monitoring, an inter-ministerial monitoring team has been proposed. This monitoring team will comprise of the representative each from MoEST, MoLD and of River Training Group. This team will make necessary site visit to oversee the compliance. Required budget for this monitoring team has been included in the monitoring budget.

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8.2.2.1 Monitoring Parameters The monitoring parameters have been linked with the above EPMs. The following parameters will be monitored during the pre-construction, construction and operational stages of the project with respect to background environmental data. (i) Physical Environment During the construction stage, the project will monitor the air quality, noise level and water quality of the project area at regular intervals particularly in the construction areas. Similarly, locations of natural slope disturbance, implementation of slope protection measures, provision for adequate drainage facility such as side drains will be monitored to know the compliance and effectiveness of the EPMs. Furthermore, the monitoring parameters number of safety equipment provided to the construction workers including mask, helmet, glove and ear plugs, erection of informatory, road safety signs at settlements, and road bends will also be monitored at regular intervals. During the operational stage, walk through survey for change in surface water hydrology will be done and necessary diversion structure will be made. (ii) Biological Environment In the construction stage the project will monitor the protected plant and aquatic life. Species count will be done frequently to know the nature of impact on the aquatic and terrestrial species. During the operational stage the species count will be made frequently with proper sampling techniques and comparision will be made with the baseline information to know the nature of impact of project. (iii) Socio-economic and cultural environment During the pre-construction stage, the project will monitor the rate and amount of compensation paid for acquired houses, land or other properties. The project will also record the use of received compensation if possible, number of counseling trainings and income generating activities during the construction stage. The project will monitor the percentage of construction labourers in particular the SPAFs, PAFs and the local people according to the type of work, number of women employed, number of outside labourers and their dependants and will record the salaries or daily wages. The project will also monitor the number and type of tea stall nearby the project area, health and sanitation facilities in the work camp and labour camp. Similarly, the project will monitor in-migration and out-migration in the project area. Frequency of illness of the construction workers and cases of construction-related respiratory diseases, type and number of accident, availability of first-aid and emergency services and awareness of the workers on occupational health and safety will also be monitored. Furthermore, the project will monitor the events of social disharmony and related disputes, prostitution and liquor drinking, if any, and other disputes within the project area. During the operational stage, the project will monitor the use of cash compensation, condition of the social service facilities and general socio-economic condition of SPAFs and PAFs. After the completion of the project, the proponent will carry out impact assessment study of the project including the socio-economic status of PAFs. . 8.2.2.2 Monitoring Locations, Schedules and Responsibilities During the project construction and operation stages, two types of monitoring compliance and impact monitoring will be conducted by keeping records and checking about the implementation status of all EPMs. Key baseline data will be updated prior to the construction stage which will be considered as the baseline monitoring. The compliance monitoring only provides information on the status of Project's performance on complying with the implementation of EPMs. Much focus will be given on impact monitoring in order to know the effectiveness on EPMs on improving the environmental condition, and making the project environment-friendly. Monitoring will be carried out at different locations during the pre-construction, construction and operational stages. In order to know the level of compliance and effectiveness of the EPMs, the monitoring parameters, indicators, location of monitoring, method and responsible agencies are given as follows (Table 8.3). The environmental monitoring will be done by the Environmental Management Unit (EMU) and appropriate local organization will be consulted as and
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when necessary. An impact assessment survey on the PAFs has been proposed towards the end of the construction phase. The purpose of this survey would be to assess the socio-economic impact and changes in the life style of PAFs.
Parameters Baseline Monitoring Physical Environment Water quality Table 8.33 : Monitoring Parameters, Methods and Responsibilities Indicators Method Location Color/Appearance, Odor, Discharge,,Turbidity, , pH, Electrical Conductivity, DO, Total Disolved Solids ,Total Suspended Solids, HCO3-, BOD, COD, KMnO4 as O, Cl-, Ca++, Na++, SO4-, SO3-, Sulfide F, As, Cd, Cr+6 , Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2N, Total-N, PO4-P, Oil & Grease, Fecal Coliform Total suspended solid particulates, SO2 CO2 NO2 PbO2 Dust accumulation Enumeration of trees and plants Type of the species found in river Sample collection and laboratory testing U/s and d/s stream of the River Training site Schedule Before construction the

Air quality

High volume sampler, inspection and measurement Listing the species of trees and plants Species count

In and around construction sites Project sites U/s and D/s of the River Training site Project affected sites

Before construction

the

Biological Environment Vegetation Aquatic life

Before construction Before construction Before construction

the the

Socio-economic and Cultural Environment Land and Houses Confirmation of PAF and SPAF

Survey

the

Compliance Monitoring: Pre- Construction Stage Parameters Indicators Implementation of EIA recommendations Inclusion of EPMs in the design and tender document Allocation of adequate budget for EPMs' implementation Contractors arrangement regarding labor camp, material storage and other construction activities Land/property acquisition procedures Rate of compensation for land and property

Schedule During approval of project implementation During approval Beginning construction period of

Method Assistance to detail design team, tender document preparation Review on budget Site observation

Agency to Consulted Proponent

be

Proponent Proponent

Construction logistic

Property

Discussion with the local people and the project management Once

At the time of land acquisition File inquiry record,

Compensation fixation committee Proponent

Parameters Indicators Location Schedule Method Compliance Monitoring (to be carried out by Environmental Management Unit EMU) of the Project
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Parameters Construction Stage Physical Environment Slope and Drainage sites Water quality

Indicators

Location

Schedule

Method

Slope protection measure Drainage facility Color/Appearance, Odor, Discharge,,Turbidity, , pH, Electrical Conductivity, DO, Total Disolved Solids ,Total Suspended Solids, HCO3-, BOD, COD, KMnO4 as O, Cl-, Ca++, Na++, SO4-, SO3-, Sulfide F, As, Cd, Cr+6 , Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2N, Total-N, PO4-P, Oil & Grease, Fecal Coliform TSP PM10 S02 NOX Noise level (dBA) Actual no of rare species cut Use of firewood or kerosene or LPG/month

Slope cutting Project site U/s and d/s stream of the landfill site for the surface water and bore holes established by the projects

After rainy season 1 in 6 months Once in a month

Observation Observation, measurement Water sampling and testing and comparison to ambient standards

Air and Noise quality

Project site Project site Project site Project site Project site in the project area vicinity Work camp/Labour camp Project site Project site Project site Project site

times a year times a year times a year times a year times a year Record inspection and royalty record Twice a year

HVAS/HACH DREL HVAS HVAS/HACH DREL HVAS/HACH DREL Sound Level Meter Inquiry, record inspection Record, inquiry

Biological Environment Vegetation

Socio economy and Cultural Environment Water supply sanitation Health and sanitation in the project area facilities in camp(s) Availability of palatable water supply Public health First-aid and emergency services Number and type of safety equipment such as mask, helmet, glove and ear plugs Informatory, safety and no horn signs Economy

Twice a year Twice a year Twice a year Once a year

Observation Observation Observation Record inspection inquiry, and observation Observation, inquiry, record inspection File record Record

Project site

1 in 6 months

No. of children employed Project site Thrice a year Rate of compensation for Once land and property Impact Monitoring (to be carried out by Environmental Management Unit EMU) of the Project Construction Stage Physical Environment Slopes Condition of the river Project site Inspection/Observat banks ion Water quality Biological Environment Vegetation and aquatic Utilisation of vegetation Project site Once in a life and fishes by workers if month any Numbers of tea stalls and Project site Twice a year Inquiry, record restaurant, firewood trade inspection Socio-economic Parameters Public health Public awareness on Settlement Twice a year Inquiry, information occupational health and materials safety Frequency of illness of Project site Thrice a year Health record the construction workers Cases of respiratory Project site Once a month Inquiry, file record
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Parameters

Resettlement and rehabilitation

Economy

Social and economic status Operation Stage Physical Environment Slopes

Indicators diseases Type and number of accident Number of PAFs and SPAFs Social disharmony and related disputes Attitude of the local people towards the Project Number of meetings with local people and CBOs Effectiveness of skill development training Number of construction workers Percentage of local construction labourers Number of women employed No. of outside labourers and their dependants Loss of agri- products Usage of compensation Impact on socioeconomic condition of SFAFs and PAFs Income level, education, health and sanitation, use of compensation money etc Condition of the River banks Effectiveness of Retaining wall Effectiveness of drainage facilities Color/Appearance, Odor, Discharge,,Turbidity, , pH, Electrical Conductivity, DO, Total Disolved Solids ,Total Suspended Solids, HCO3-, BOD, COD, KMnO4 as O, Cl-, Ca++, Na++, SO4-, SO3-, Sulfide F, As, Cd, Cr+6 , Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2N, Total-N, PO4-P, Oil & Grease, Fecal Coliform No of species in the River Species survival rate and conditions Wildlife population

Location Project site Project site Settlement Settlement Project site Project area Project site Project site Project site Project site Project site Project area Individual houses

Schedule Once a year Once a year Thrice a year Twice a year Once a year Once in a year Thrice a year Thrice a year Thrice a year Thrice a year Once Once a year After 2 years of Project construction After construction

Method File record Record Inquiry, file record Public meeting Record Inquiry/ Observation Record, inquiry and observation Record, inquiry and observation Record, inquiry and observation Record, inquiry and observation Inquiry Inquiry or study Inquiry, record Householdsurvey

Project site Project site Project site U/s and D/s of the Project site Once in the month

Water quality

Inspection/Observat ion Inspection/Observat ion Inspection/Observat ion Water sampling and testing and comparison to ambient standards

Biological Environment Aquatic species Vegetation

U/s and d/s of project area Plantation site Plantation site Project site

Once in the six month Once a six month Once a six month Once in the first year

Species count Measurement Inquiry, observation Inquiry

Socio-economic and Cultural Environment Condition of Vulnerable Economy raised due to groups River training

8.2.3 Environmental Auditing


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Environmental auditing provides guidance to know the pre-and post-project changes on natural resources and the environment in the project area. In general, environmental auditing is carried out to assess the actual environmental impacts occurred, accuracy of impacts identification and prediction, effectiveness of EPMs, and functioning of the monitoring mechanisms. The National EIA Guidelines (1993) includes different types of auditing such as decision point auditing, implementation auditing, performance auditing, project impact auditing, predictive techniques auditing, and EIA procedure auditing to examine the effectiveness of EIA recommendations. Among them project impact auditing is the key one which helps in assessing actual principles of audit in terms of impact prediction and effectiveness of EPMs in the project. 8.2.3.1 Auditing Parameters and Methods When the nature of existing environmental conditions, evaluation of significant impacts of the project activities on the environment, type of EPMs and also environmental monitoring parameters are considered, the recommended auditing parameters will mainly relate to the characteristics of the discharge, aquatic life, flood height, river water quality, lodges/tea stalls/restaurant operators, compensation, socioeconomic condition of SPAFs and PAF, employment, project commitment in development activities of the project area. The monitoring reports will provide necessary information on these parameters particularly of the project area, plantation site, flood height recorded, species population of the river. It is recommended to involve a team of knowledge-based manpower or professionals for environmental auditing. The team is recommended, by reviewing this EIA report as bench-mark information, to compare the baseline data with the environmental monitoring results, office records, map overlays, and collection of additional data through necessary checklists, questionnaire and walkthrough field survey. The team is also recommended to sample and analyse pollutants. For buffer zone plantation, the project will carry out measurement to know the growth rate and survival of the plant species, conduct field study, interact and/or discuss with the local people. However, it is suggested to use the similar methods used for baseline data collection and for analysis to minimize method-based errors. In order to streamline environmental auditing, the parameters, locations and methods have been proposed (Table 8.4). Table 8.34 : Environmental Auditing Parameters, Indicators, Locations and Methods
Parameter Indicator Physical Environment Water quality As specified in Table 8.1 River Dischage Discharge Location Surface water of Kolpu Khola and ground water Downstream of the River site 1 height meter in every 1 km U/s and D/s of the project area every year Project area vicinity Method Observation and Measurement Area-velocity Method Observation Counting observation Focused group discussions, interview with the officials of the local institutions Record, interview Record, observation Interview Record and inquiry Inquiry and observation Inquiry

Flood Height Height meter Biological Environment Aquatic Ecosystem Species Count Socio economic and Cultural Environment Compensation Amount of compensation and use pattern

Employment Social services Agriculture production Health Development activities in the project area Living standard

Number of local people and women employed, amount received Social service facilities affected and maintained by the project Area of cereals and cash crops lost and change in production Number of illness and accidents Development activities in the project area Commodities price

Project area Project area Project area Project area Project area Project area

8.2.3.2 Responsibility and Timing for Auditing Based on EPR (1997), the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology is responsible to carry out environmental auditing after two years of service provided by the project. After the promulgation of EPR,
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EIA Study is being carried out for almost all the development projects in Nepal. Even the bilateral and multi lateral funding agencies operating in Nepal are also very specific in carrying out the EIA study. But environmental monitoring and environmental auditing is seldom carried out. There are cases of environmental auditing being carried out for some hydropower projects namely: Kali Gandaki "A" HEP and Modi Khola HEP. They were carried out by the proponent itself. MoEST has awarded the consultancy service to carry out the environmental auditing of irrigation and hydropower projects. Hence, it is recommended to start the auditing work after two years of project operation and complete the auditing work preferably within three years of project operation to assess changes on natural resources in between pre- and post-construction stages.

8.3 Organization and Staffing


The project will implement EPMs itself or through the involvement of the contractor(s), and/or through the hiring a supervising consultant. The proponent will establish a separate Environmental Management Unit (EMU) as an integral part of the project to ensure the implementation of EPMs and monitoring as an in-built effort. The flow chart of the organization is given in Figure 8.1. Although the implementation of the EMPs is the responsibility of the project, environmental monitoring and auditing is its additional commitments. The EMU will focus on compliance monitoring, record keeping, and providing technical inputs to the contractor(s), and conduct and report on the impact monitoring. The proponent will conduct environmental monitoring through its EMU or might hire an independent monitoring team for impact monitoring. Figure 8.15 : Organogram of the Environmental Management Unit for Manhara River Training

RIVER TRAINING SITE


Project Site Office

Project Design Team

Environmental Management Unit

Project Implementation Team

Staff
Environmentalist / Team Leader Environmental Engineer Communication specialist/Sociologist Community Forest Expert Socio-economist Three Support staff (physical, biological and socio-economic aspects)

The EMU will function as the "technical bridge" between project management and contractor and will work independently. The proponent will ensure for its independence on technical matters, and instruct the project administration not to influence its activities. The EMU of the project will: Provide technical assistance to the project design team for the incorporation of benefits augmentation measures, and adverse impacts mitigation measures in the detail design along with the budget in the contract document; Supervise and monitor the contractor's performance about the implementation of EPMs; Prepare necessary monitoring format(s), carry out record keeping, and conduct compliance and impact monitoring; and also prepare and distribute environmental monitoring report(s) to the concerned agencies; Organize meetings with stakeholders and encourage the project to promote for participatory environmental monitoring, develop co-ordination mechanism as and when necessary, organize meetings of the coordination committees, if any; Propose EPMs for additional environmental impacts identified during the construction/monitoring period; and
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Assist the monitoring team of the concerned body (ministry), if any, to carry out environmental monitoring in accordance with the provision of the EPR, 1997.

The EMU staff will work closely with the construction and operation personnel to ensure that the measures and requirements outlined in the EMP are carried out satisfactorily and effectively. The EMU will be located at the project site. The EMU will prepare format(s) for the environmental monitoring during operational phase and the technical team will be entrusted to carry out operational stage monitoring. An engineer and technicians will be trained for environmental monitoring of the operational stage. The project will hire independent environmentalist as and when needed to make the monitoring more effective. A senior environmentalist will lead the EMU. His/her input will be intermittent as and when needed basis. However s/he will have overall responsibility for the EMU. An environmental engineer and a communication specialist will work on full-time for the regular monitoring. Communication specialist will have knowledge and experience in social science to deal with the local people, prepare and distribute communication material. The community forestry expert will assist the community in developing the community forest management plan. The EMU staff will be involved in environmental inspections (site inspection) and record collection/keeping/verification. The EMU will also hire or depute three support staff having knowledge and experience in the areas of physical, biological, and socio-economic and cultural environment and they will be involved in data processing/analysis. The proponent will appoint or hire the Nepalese professionals for these activities. The project will mobilise the same EMU staff for the preparation of the impact assessment report at the end of the project period. The EMU will assist the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technolgoy (MoEST) on on-call basis.

8.4 Directives and Coordination


Based on the analysis of the policy and legal provisions and institutions relevant for the smooth functioning of the project, the project will run smoothly without any social or economic conflicts.

8.5 Reporting Requirements


The EMU will prepare and disseminate monitoring report twice a year during the construction stage, and annually during the operational stage. This report will include information on the implementation status of the EPMs and monitoring results including compliance status. During the construction stage (nearly to completion stage), the EMU will prepare and disseminate an impact monitoring report which will be circulated to the concerned organizations. The EMU will prepare the auditing report and provide it to the concerned organizations upon request. It will also assist the MoEST to prepare environmental auditing report for legal purpose.

8.6 Budget for Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Implementation


The estimated budget includes for benefits augmentation and adverse impacts mitigation measures, environmental monitoring and auditing. The cost required for compensation for acquiring land and property has also been included. The estimated budget will be an integral part of the project administration and will be included in the project cost.

8.7 Budget for Benefit Augmentation and Mitigation Measures


The major costs of implementation of the project will be included in the engineering design and contract document with clear specification in the tender document. However, in the feasibility report a provision of upto 4% of the total present cost has been tentatively included. The present EIA study detailed out to the extent possible, the budgeted cost for benefit augmentation and impact mitigation measures. These costs are presented in Table 8.5 below.

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Table 8.35 : Implementation Cost for Environment Protection Measures


Environmental Protection Measures 1. Benefits Augmentation Measures Pre- and Construction Stages 1.1 Employment generation to local people 1.2 Increase in local economy SN. Activities Estimated Budget (NRs.)

Job publication in news paper Income generating training in modern techniques of cash crop and livestock productions and in enterprise development activities Construction skills training programs in specialized area Sub-total (i)

50,000 2,00,000

1.3

Enhancement in Technical Skills and Know-how

5,00,000 7,50,000

Operation Stage 1.5 Surrounding will, be saved from floods 2. Adverse Impacts Mitigation Measures Construction Stage 2.1 Air quality, water quality, noise level 2.2 2.3

Construction of road along the river, all the way through Pepsi-Cola,
Compliance of national air quality standards, plantation, provision for safety gears to the workers.. Construction of retaining wall, masonry wall, etc 2,00,000 2,00,000 5,00,000 29,00,000

Location and operation of quarries and borrow areas

Drainage alteration and associated erosion 2.5 Demolition of permanent and temporary structures as a part of site clearance 2.6 Health and sanitation Operation and Maintenance Stage 2.13 Socio-economy of severely affected people 2.14 Recession of local economy

Construction of the temporary drains


Compensate and provide displacement cost Awareness program Run awareness program and provide trainnings Market survey for trade development Sub-total (iv) Total

2,00,000
20,00,000 1,00,000 61,00,000

68,50,000

8.7.1 Environmental Monitoring Cost


The proponent will include the environmental monitoring as one of the project activities through the establishment of an EMU within the project. The cost for compliance monitoring has not been calculated as it is related to observation, review of records and reports and few site visits only. All environmental monitoring works of the proponent will be performed from this EMU, and hence, an estimated cost for EMU operation is presented in Table 8.6. Apart from the proposed EMU, an inter-ministerial monitoring team comprising of the representatives from SWRMC, MoEST and MoLD has been proposed. This team is recommended to visit the project area once in six months and review the monitoring activities of EMU. The logistic cost of this team is included in the monitoring cost and the proponent will bear this cost for internal monitoring. Table 8.36 : Estimated Cost for Environmental Unit (in NRs.)
S. No. 1 Personal Cost Environmentalist/Team Leader Environmental Engineer Communication Specialist/Sociologist Subject Matter Specialists
Group-3 ENVE 8-15

Item

Unit months months months months

Qty. 1 2 1 1

Rate 1.20,000 50,000 50,000 1,00,000

Amount 1,20,000 1,00,000 50,000 6,00,000


FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Support Staff 2 3 4 Per diem Subsistence/housing Professional Air Quality and Noise Level Measurement High Volume Sampler Sound Level Meter 5 6 7 8 Laboratory Analysis Water Quality Analysis Air quality analysis Office Establishment Space Furniture Computer and other office equipment 9 Office Supplies Transportation Facilities Including Operation Cost Report Preparation Facilitation Cost for inter-agency supervisor team Total

months days months

5 180 10

20,000 900 10,000 4,00,00 0 1,00,00 0 10000 5,000 5,000

1,00,000 1,62,000 1,00,000 4,00,000 1,00,000 1,00,000 1,00,000 0 10,000 30,000 1,00,000

no. no. sample sample

1 1 10 20 2

months months Quarterly Quarterly

10 2 8 8

5,000 75,000 3,000 50,000

50,000 1,40,000 24,000 4,00,000 26,86,000

10 11

8.7.2 Environmental Auditing Cost


As per the EPR, the MoEST will conduct an environmental auditing. The indicative input as well as the cost for auditing is presented in Table 8.7. This will provide a basis for MoEST to allocate fund in future. The proponent will also allocate budget equivalent to it for environmental auditing for its own purpose.

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Table 8.37 : Indicative Cost for Environmental Auditing (in NRs)


S. No. 1 Item Personal Cost Environmentalist Solid Wastes Management Specialist Socio-economist Support Staff Field Per diem Vehicles and Logistic Office supplies and Consumable Report Production Sub-Total Contingencies Grand-Total Unit 1 1 1 2 Quantity 2 1 1 1 L.S L.S L.S L.S Rate 140,000 120,000 120,000 25,000 Amount 280,000 120,000 120,000 50,000 150,000 100,000 25,000 10,000 855,000 85,500 9,40,500

2 3 4 5

10%

8.8 Comparison with the Project Cost


The EIA Study has estimated cost for EPMs, environmental management unit (EMU) and environmental auditing as NRs. 68,50,000 NRs 26,86,000 and NRs 9,40,500 respectively which totals to NRs1,04,76,500. The environmental mitigation cost is 5% of the base civil cost.

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FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 Conclusions
The proposed Bancharedanda Long-term Landfill Site will be developed as the semi aerobic system landfill site in which the aerobic condition in the landfill site is maintained by supplying the air through the leachate collection outlet pipes which is left opened in the atmosphere. The semi-aerobic landfill site is best suited for the solid waste comprising high percentage of biodegradable wastes under sub tropical climatic condition. The proposed landfill site is place for the disposal of municipal solid wastes of KMC, LSMC and KRM for the period of 19 years. The capacity of the landfill was estimated based on the wastes reduction at the house level and community level as per the Solid Wastes Management Mater Plan Study carried out under Clean Kathmandu Valley (CKV) Project funded by JICA in 2005. The Government of Nepal and all the municipalities of Kathmandu Valley are committed to work according to this master plan. As reported, the Solid Wastes Management and Resource Mobilzation Act and Rules are also being revised to accommodate the recommendation of this master plan. Hazardous wastes from the hospital and industries shall not be allowed in this site because proposed treatment facilities for the leachate are suitable for physical and biological treatment only. No chemical treatment facilities have been proposed. The lesson learned from the design and operation of Sisdol Landfill Site has been fully taken care where the quantity of the leachate generation is the major problem. Hence number of provisions such asperipheral drains all around the landfill have been proposed at two different levels so that the surface runoff from out side the landfill site could drained out from the landfill site. Two water springs located within the proposed landfill site have been guided out of the proposed landfill site. In order to minimize the leachate quantity generation, landfill development has been proposed in small units of section and blocks. Partial surface liner system has been proposed in the landfill site which will prevent the leachate contamination in the ground water and the surface water. The leachate is collected through the network of collection pipes laid at the bottom of the landfill site. The leachate is collected in a large aeration pond and a sedimentation pond with the combined capacity of 60,000 m 3. The capacity of these ponds has been in such a way that all the generated leachate could be stored until they are evaporated by evaporation. In order to minimize the impact in nearby settlement, buffer zone has been proposed all around the core area of proposed landfill site for quite a long distance more than 200 m and broad leaves tree plantation have been proposed in the buffer zone. The proposed landfill site will occupy 19.35 ha of cultivated land, 35.42 ha of government land and 12.2 ha of community forest. The private land will be compensated at the market value. The vegetation within the core area of proposed landfill site will cleared whereas they will be retained as it is within the proposed buffer zone. The experience of operational difficulty of Sisdol Landfill Site, the operation of Bancharedanda Landfill Site will also be not easy. The local people will use this site as the fulcrum to bargain for fulfillment of their demand. Hence a clear agreement will have to be made with the local community on the availability of the development fund against using their area or the landfill site. The proposed infrastructures for the landfill site must be built. There shall not be any compromise. The Proponent will sure that all the proposed infrastructures will be incorporated in the detailed design. At the same time the operation of these facilities are also equally important. Hence the operational manual of each facility will be prepared and trained the staff in their operation. Considering gravity of the system operation, necessary back ups will also be made during the detailed design. The identified and predicted impacts have been evaluated to know their significance. A number of benefit augmentation measures and adverse impacts mitigation measures have been proposed to offset the adverse environmental impacts, and make the project environment-friendly. The mitigation measures would minimize the impacts sufficiently. All land, property, including crops production for one year will be compensated at local market price. All SPAFs and PAFs will be compensated and the project will give adequate attention to employ them in the project activities, and also skill training. This EIA report includes mitigation measures for each of the adverse impacts.
Group-3 ENVE 8-15 FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In order to ensure the implementation of the proposed EPMs, an environmental management plan has been proposed which includes activities, staffing, budgeting and reporting. An EMU will be established within the project organization, which will be responsible for the environmental monitoring and environmental auditing. Costs for EPMs, environmental monitoring and auditing have been proposed. The project has the commitment to allocate a total of NRs. 215,132,683.00 for the effective implementation of EPMs, conduct monitoring and auditing. This cost is about 11.7 percent of the base civil cost.

9.2 Recommendations
This EIA report uses valuable information of the Concept Design of the project completed in 2006. The concept design of the proposed project has considered lessons learnt from the implementation of Sisdol Landfill Site. If the project is implemented as scheduled, there is no need for updating the baseline environmental condition. Taking into consideration the nature of the project, its location, evaluated environmental impacts and practical mitigation measures, including existing policies and laws on solid wastes management and resources mobilization, and the environment, this project could be recommended for implementation. However it is to be noted that proposed site is meant for the disposal of the municipal wastes only and hazardous wastes shall not be allowed in the landfill site. The fund for local area development is recommended to be generated from the wastes disposal fee with respect to the disposed quantity so that it becomes right of the local community rather than depending on the discretion of government authority. Necessary amendments will have to be made for raising waste disposal fee in Solid Wastes Management and Resources Mobilization Act. Based on the suggestion of the local people during public hearing, it is recommended to change the name of landfill site as Kudule Landfill Site. Since there is possibility of developing the proposed project as Clean Development Mechanism Project by properly managing the generated gases from the landfill site, it is recommended to look in this option during the detailed design phase.

Group-3 ENVE

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FINAL REPORT

EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

List of Annexes

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Annex 1.1: Data collection sheet on biological environment

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 1.2: Household level survey questionnaire

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 1.3: Checklist for the focused group discussion

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Annex 3 : Details Calculation of Leachate

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Annex 4. : Surface Water Quality of Kolpu Khola

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 5: Socio-economic Status of SPAFs

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 6: List of SPAFs

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Annex 7: Proceedings of Public Hearing

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 8: Approved Terms of Reference

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EIA Study of River Training at Manahara River

Annex 9: Recommendation Letters

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