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Units: bbls=barrels, C=degrees Celsius, cm=centimeter, cP=centipoise, cSt=centistoke, F=degrees Fahrenhe Types of Pressure Taps for Small Bore Orifices:

Topics: Introduction Equations Discharge Coefficients Error Messages References

Introduction Orifice flow meters are used to determine a liquid or gas flow rate by measuring the differential pressure (P

The LMNO Engineering small diameter orifice calculation is valid for orifices installed in pipes having pipe di Equations To top of page The calculations on this page are for orifices carrying a liquid as described in ASME (2001).

w is the static pressure loss occurring from a distance of approximately D upstream of the orifice to a distan of the orifice. It is not the same as differential pressure. Differential pressure is measured at the exact locat (shown in the above figures). Km is computed to allow you to design pipe systems with orifices and incorpor computed as h=KmV2/(2g) where V is the pipe velocity. Discharge Coefficients (ASME, 2001) To top of page Corner Taps:

Flange Taps:

where D is in inches; and d/D and ReD are dimensionless. C is dimensionless. Applicability: Pipe Diameter, D LMNO Engineering calculation requires 1 cm < D < 5.1 cm for both corner and flange taps. ASME (2001) suggests 1.2 cm <= D <= 4 cm for corner taps and 2.5 <= D <= 4 cm for flange taps.

Diameter ratio, d/D LMNO Engineering and ASME (2001) require 0.1 <= d/D <= 0.8 for corner taps and 0.15 <= d/D <= 0.7 for fla Reynolds number based on pipe diameter, ReD LMNO Engineering and ASME (2001) require ReD > 1000.

Error Messages given by calculation To top of page Messages indicating input values are out of the acceptable ranges: "Need 1<Density<1e9 kg/m 3 ", "Need 1e-19<Viscosity<1e9 m 2 /s", "Need 0.01<D<0.051 m", "Need 1e-30<Q "Need 0.1<d/D<0.8" for corner taps. "Need 0.15<d/D<0.7" for flange taps.

Run-time messages. Computations not completed: "Re D will be <1000". If solving for flow rate. Unable to compute Q's. Value for Q will cause ReD to be < 100

"Diff P too large". If solving for flow rate. Unable to compute Q's because the differential pressure that you "d/D will be too small" or "d/D will be too large" . If solving for d. Unable to compute d; value for d will caus

Note If your pipe diameter, D, is 2 inch (5.1 cm) or greater, use our Large Diameter Orifice Calculation for Liquids

References To top of page American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 2001. Measurement of fluid flow using small bore preci

International Organization of Standards (ISO 5167-1). 1991. Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressur

International Organization of Standards (ISO 5167-1) Amendment 1. 1998. Measurement of fluid flow by m

ntipoise, cSt=centistoke, F=degrees Fahrenheit, cfs=cubic feet per second, ft=feet, g=gram, gpm=US gallons per minute, gph=US gallons per hour, gpd=

Messages References

rate by measuring the differential pressure (P1 - P2) across the orifice plate. The two standard pressure tapping arrangements for small bore orifices ar

alid for orifices installed in pipes having pipe diameters between 1 cm and 5 cm (2 inch), and pipe Reynolds numbers greater than 1000. For larger diam

as described in ASME (2001). Inlet Orifice ( No.1,2,3)

oximately D upstream of the orifice to a distance of approximately 6D downstream rential pressure is measured at the exact locations specified in ASME (2001) design pipe systems with orifices and incorporate their head loss. Head loss is

both corner and flange taps. d 2.5 <= D <= 4 cm for flange taps.

8 for corner taps and 0.15 <= d/D <= 0.7 for flange taps.

/s", "Need 0.01<D<0.051 m", "Need 1e-30<Q v <1e30 m 3 /s", "Need 1e-30<Q m <1e30 kg/s", "Need 1e-99<Pdiff<1e99 Pa", "Need Re D > 1000".

ute Q's. Value for Q will cause ReD to be < 1000 (out of range of validity).

Q's because the differential pressure that you entered will cause the throat velocity to exceed 1000 m/s, a velocity for which the calculation is not vali or d. Unable to compute d; value for d will cause d/D to be out of range of validity.

Large Diameter Orifice Calculation for Liquids based on ISO 5167. Or, try the simpler orifice calculation on our Bernoulli page if your parameters are ou

asurement of fluid flow using small bore precision orifice meters. ASME MFC-14M-2001.

Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices, Part 1: Orifice plates, nozzles, and Venturi tubes inserted in circular cross-section c

ment 1. 1998. Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices, Part 1: Orifice plates, nozzles, and Venturi tubes inserted in circular

er minute, gph=US gallons per hour, gpd=US gallons per day, hr=hour, kg=kilogram, lb=pound, m=meters, min=minute, mm=millimeter, N=Newton, Pa=

g arrangements for small bore orifices are shown in the drawings; the location of the pressure taps affects the discharge coefficient somewhat. Flange

mbers greater than 1000. For larger diameter pipes, please see our Large Diameter Orifice Calculation for Liquids. We also have orifice calculations for g

iff<1e99 Pa", "Need Re D > 1000".

ocity for which the calculation is not valid. The calculation is not valid for supersonic flows.

Bernoulli page if your parameters are out of range. The Bernoulli calculation is not as accurate, but won't give "parameter out of range" error message

tubes inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full. Reference number: ISO 5167-1:1991(E).

es, and Venturi tubes inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full. Reference number: ISO 5167-1:1991/Amd.1:1998(E).

min=minute, mm=millimeter, N=Newton, Pa=Pascal, psi=pound per square inch, s=second

s the discharge coefficient somewhat. Flange pressure taps penetrate the flange and are at a standard distance of 1 inch (2.54 cm) from either side of Liquids. We also have orifice calculations for gas flow (D<5 cm and D> 5 cm); and calculations for flow through nozzle and venturi flow meters.

t give "parameter out of range" error messages.

7-1:1991/Amd.1:1998(E).

stance of 1 inch (2.54 cm) from either side of the orifice. For corner taps, tappings are right up against the orifice.

rough nozzle and venturi flow meters.

Qm= C= Athroat = = d/D = = p = sq. root(2**p) = C=

C* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = 0.60654639 /4 * d2 = 2.73E-05 0.374365482 d= 0.0059 681 (density Kg/m3) 441300 ( Differential pressure N/m2) 24516.33333 [0.598 + 0.468 (a+10*a^3)]* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

a = ^4 = ReD = (kinematic viscosity) Vpipe (m/s) =

0.019641886 Vpipe * D / =

a^3 36799.4 sq. root ReD =

(dynamic viscosity in cP) / 1000* = 1.0252

* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = Qv (m3/s) = Qv (l/min) = D= 0.01576

0.410602 0.000603 36.17639

ntial pressure N/m2)

* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

7.57791E-06 191.8316963 4.3906E-07

sq. root(1-a) =

0.99013

Qm= C= Athroat = = d/D = = p = sq. root(2**p) = C=

C* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = 0.60156565 /4 * d2 = 8.04E-06 0.203045685 d= 0.0032 D= 681 (density Kg/m3) 2741300 ( Differential pressure N/m2) 61103.60546 [0.598 + 0.468 (a+10*a^3)]* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)}

a = ^4 = ReD = (kinematic viscosity) Vpipe (m/s) =

0.001699711 Vpipe * D / =

a^3 72507.6 sq. root ReD =

4.91049E-09 269.2723454 4.3906E-07

(dynamic viscosity in cP) / 1000* = 2.02

Qv (back calculated)=

*p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = Qv (m3/s) = Qv (l/min) = 0.01576

0.295876 0.000434 26.06833

8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

sq. root(1-a) =

0.99915

0.000394

23.634

Qm= C= Athroat = = d/D = = p = sq. root(2**p) = C=

C* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = 0.59990414 /4 * d2 = 3.31E-05 0.203045685 d= 0.0032 D= 681 (density Kg/m3) 2441300 ( Differential pressure N/m2) 57663.25173 [0.598 + 0.468 (a+10*a^3)]* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)}

a = ^4 = ReD = (kinematic viscosity) Vpipe (m/s) =

0.001699711 Vpipe * D / =

a^3 297927.3 sq. root ReD =

4.91049E-09 545.8271254 4.3906E-07

(dynamic viscosity in cP) / 1000* = 8.3

Qv (back calculated)=

*p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = Qv (m3/s) = Qv (l/min) = 0.01576

1.144509 0.001681 100.8378

8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

sq. root(1-a) =

0.99915

0.001619

97.11

Qm= C= Athroat = = d/D = = p = sq. root(2**p) = C=

C* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = 0.611688502 /4 * d2 = 5.03E-05 0.507614213 d= 0.008 D= 681 (density Kg/m3) 581300 ( Differential pressure N/m2) 28137.7078 [0.598 + 0.468 (a+10*a^3)]* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)}

a = ^4 = ReD = (kinematic viscosity) Vpipe (m/s) =

0.066394957 Vpipe * D / =

a^3 288063.3 sq. root ReD =

0.000292688 536.7153307 4.3906E-07

(dynamic viscosity in cP) / 1000* = 8.0252

Qv (back calculated)=

*p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = Qv (m3/s) = Qv (l/min) = 0.01576

0.89538 0.001315 78.88809

8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

sq. root(1-a) =

0.966232

0.001565

93.89484

Throat bush area changed to equivalent orifice

Qm= C= Athroat = = d/D = = p = sq. root(2**p) = C=

C* Athroat * sq. root(2**p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = 0.602480713 /4 * d2 = 2.46E-05 0.355329949 d= 0.0056 D= 681 (density Kg/m3) 2741300 ( Differential pressure N/m2) 61103.60546 [0.598 + 0.468 (a+10*a^3)]* sq.root(1-a) + (0.87+8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)}

a = ^4 = ReD = (kinematic viscosity) Vpipe (m/s) =

0.015941429 Vpipe * D / =

a^3 288063.3 sq. root ReD =

4.05118E-06 536.7153307 4.3906E-07

(dynamic viscosity in cP) / 1000* = 8.0252

anged to equivalent orifice dia

*p) / sq. root (1- ^4) = Qv (m3/s) = Qv (l/min) = 0.01576

0.914041 0.001342 80.5322

4.831932

Throat bush clearance area =

2.42E-05

Bush ID Shaft OD 0.07022 0.07

8.1a)*sq.root{(1-a)/ReD)} =

sq. root(1-a) =

0.991997