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To whom gave me life, hope and belief, to the shiny light in my life ,to the breath in every second ,to whom supports me in every step in the way, to whom gives me anything, to whom I give everything. To my mother To whom gave me his warmness, kindness, and support, to whom stands with me anywhere and everywhere, to whom believed in me, to whom I see his sacrifices through all my life, to whom I am proud of, to whom I cant forget. To My father To those who are lighting my way a long, to those I smile and enjoy with, to those I share every minute of sadness and happiness, to those gave me wonderful memories, to those I always need. To My sisters and brothers To the companies of the way, to those I can rely and depend, to those make everything easy to me when its getting hard. To My friends To each one who uses his knowledge to lighted minds of others, to those who taught me the beauty of making the most out of a little. To my professors and teachers We would like to pass the gratitude to our supervisor Mr.Aqiel Ne'ma. Thanks for his great supervision. We could not have finished this thesis without his valuable advice and support. We are deeply indebted to Dr.Oday Ridha for his great help and support. Special thanks to our head of the department Ass.Prof .Suliman Murtdha .


I wish to express my thanks to my supervisor Mr. Aqiel Ne'maa, for his motivation and patience throughout the year of this study. Thanks to my: Father , mother & brothers , for their loving and cooperation.

Ahmed.A Hindawi

M.Mijbel Al-dulaimi


We worked in this year to implement a distance measurement circuit based on ultrasonic waves ,sending the wave and when its jitters with an object the reflected wave is returned to the circuit ,receiver sensor will take this voltage ,amplify it and then calculate the phase shift occurred between the transmitted wave and the received wave , the o/p can either be taken to a speaker or LCD displays ( our project will use 7 segment displays to display the distance ).

The circuit theory and ultrasonic we've written in chapters 2,3,4

The project is use the properties of ultrasonic waves to implement a system that measure a distance of an object and alarm is set if the distance exceed of less specified value already set in the system .the distance is displayed through LCD . Microcontroller is used for its precision and simplicity integrated with analog circuitary that perform transmission and reception .The system convert the phase difference between the transmitted and received to distance as the distance is linearly proportional with phase difference . When a transmitted wave jitters with an object a reflected wave is picked up by receiver sensor with a time delay according how the object is far , amplified then the phase can be calculated .


Dedication Acknowledgment Abstract Contents List of Abbreviations List of Symbols Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Ultrasonic 1.3 Microcontroller 1.4 Microcontroller I II III IV V VII VII 1 2 2 3 Based 3

Ultrasonic ranger Chapter Two: Ultrasonic 2.1 Ability to hear Ultrasound 2.2 Properties of Ultrasonic Waves 2.3 Wave Propagation Theory 2.4 Interactions of ultrasound with soft tissues 8 10 5 6 7

2.4.1 Attenuation 2.4.2 Reflection 2.4.3 Absorption 2.4.4 Diffuse scatter 2.4.5 Nature of Ultrasound Chapter Three: Microcontroller 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Its operation 3.3 Integrated circuit 3.4 Types or makes 3.5 AT89C2051 Microcontroller 3.6 Pin description Chapter Four: Ultrasonic Ranger 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Distance measurements 4.3 Block diagram 4.4 Circuit analysis

10 11 12 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 28

Chapter Five: Simulation And 33 Results 5.1 Simulating the circuit 34 5.2 Conclution 5.3 Future work References 37 37 38


List of Abbreviations
TDM Time Division Multiplexing PIT Programmable interval time CPU Central processing unit MCU microcontroller (Microcomputer) ROM Read only memory RAM Random access memory ADC Analog to digital converter DAC - Digital to analog converter Tx Transmitter " transmitter circuit with its amplifiers" Rx Receiver " Receiver circuit with its amplifiers" LCD Liquid crystal display PC Personal computer SFR special function register EPROM Erasable programmable ROM EEPROM Electrical Erasable programmable ROM UARTs - Serial input/output ports PWM Pulse width modulation CMOS Complementary MosFET CRO Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope MHZ Mega hertz VII

pX.X pin x for port x in microcontroller

List of Symbols
V Velocity of sound in the air Tn Time where n=1,2... D Distance in meter