International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 508-511
Wind and Earthquake Analysis of Tall RC Chimneys
K. R. C. Reddy
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, KITS Ramtek-441106, Dist. Nagpur, (M.S.) E-mail: krcreddy22@rediffmail.com
O. R. Jaiswal
Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, VNIT Nagpur (M.S.)
P. N. Godbole
Emeritus Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, VNIT Nagpur (M.S.)
ABSTRACT: Chimneys are normally designed for critical loads produced by earthquake or wind. It is necessary to analyse the dynamic response of chimney due to influence of earthquake and wind loads. Chimney being tall and flexible structure, it is expected that wind loads will be more critical than earthquake loads. In this paper, two RC chimneys are analysed for earthquake and wind loads. Earthquake analysis is done as per IS 1893 (Part 4): 2005 ^{2} and wind analysis is performed as per IS 4998 (Part 1): 1992 ^{1} . This paper presents the comparison of wind loads with that of earthquake loads to decide the most critical loads for the design of the chimney shell. The design wind load is obtained by combination of along and across-wind response of the chimney. The combination is performed as per the procedure given in ACI 307-98 code ^{3} . It is seen that, the earthquake forces acting on the chimney in zone V are closely matching with wind loads in a zone whose basic wind speed is 44 m/s.
KEYWORDS: RC chimneys, earthquake loads, wind loads, combined design loads, zone factor.
INTRODUCTION Tall RC chimneys are commonly used to discharge pollutants at higher elevation. The enforcement of stricter air-pollution control standards has led to the construction of increasingly tall RC chimneys worldwide. Further due to the availability of advanced construction materials chimney shell is being made with thinner wall. As a result, chimneys have become more slender and sensitive to wind-induced vibrations. The cross-section of the chimney is generally hollow circular, from aerodynamic considerations, and tapered, from considerations of structural economy and aesthetics. The chimney is subject to gust buffeting in the along-wind direction due to drag forces, and also to possible vortex shedding in the across-wind direction. In the typical case of slender, tapered RC chimneys, it is the along-wind response which generally predominates and governs the design.
Tall reinforced concrete (RC) chimneys form an important component of major industries and power plants. Damage to chimney due to wind or earthquake load may lead to shut down of power plants and important industries. However, if chimney is located in higher seismic zone and lower wind speed zone, then, earthquake forces may become comparable, if not more, than the wind loads. In fact, the chimney is designed for the combined effect of along-wind and across-wind loads. In the literature, various approaches to combine along-wind and across-wind loads are mentioned. In this paper a method given by ACI 307 code is being used to obtain the combined design loads. Earlier many researchers ^{4}^{,}^{6}^{,}^{7} have shown the results of earthquake analysis using the simplified procedures given in the codes. The objective of this paper is to analyze the chimneys for design wind loads and earthquake loads and compare them to decide the most critical loads for the design of chimney shell.
WIND ANALYSIS Wind load on structures, depends on gustiness of wind, topography of terrain and also on the interaction of wind with structures. Dynamic wind loads induces along-wind loads and across-wind loads on tall chimneys. Here the random response method is used for the analysis as given in IS 4998:1992.
Along-wind analysis
The along wind load per unit height at any height z on a chimney is given by
F
z
= F
zm
+ F
zf
(1)
Where, F _{z}_{m} is the wind load in N/m height due to HMW at height z and F _{z}_{f} is the wind load in N /m height due to the fluctuating component of wind at height z.
F
zm
F zf
= P
z
= 3.(
⋅ C
D
G
−
⋅ d
z
1) /
h
2
.(
z
/
h
)
h
∫
0
F
zm
.
z d
.
z
(2)
(3)
where G is the gust factor, h is the height of the chimney
G = 1 +
#020410311 Copyright © 2011 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved
Wind and Earthquake Analysis of Tall Rc Chimneys
Across-wind analysis The across-wind response of chimney occurs mainly due to vortex shedding and velocity dependent forces. Across- wind analysis of chimney is required only if the critical wind speeds for any mode of oscillation is less than the mean design wind speed. The critical wind speed V _{c}_{r}_{i} , for vortex shedding in the i ^{t}^{h} mode of vibration is given by
V
=
i
×
f
d
cri
S
n
(5)
The sectional shear force (
(
by
_{)} and the bending moment
) at any height z _{0} , for the i ^{t}^{h} mode of vibration is given
F z
0 i
M z
0 i
F
z
0
i
M
z
0
=
4 π
⋅
2
i
=
4 π
⋅
⋅
2
f
i
2
⋅
f
i
⋅
2
η
oi
⋅
⋅
η
oi
h
∫
z 0
h
∫
z 0
m
m
z
z
⋅
⋅
ϕ
zi
ϕ
zi
⋅
(
dz
z
−
z
0
)
⋅
dz
(6)
(7)
Calculation of across wind load is made by first calculating the peak tip deflection for the specified mode of vibration. For Chimney with Little or No Taper {d(h)/d(0) > 0.5}, the model response, at a critical wind speed shall be calculated by
η oi
=
(8)
where, m _{e}_{i} = equivalent mass per unit length in kg/m in the
ϕ
zi
2
⋅ dz
(9)
EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS The earthquake loads are obtained as per IS 1893 (part 4):
2005. Time period of vibration, T of chimneys when fixed at base is given by,
T
=
C
T
(10)
where, C _{T} is the coefficient depending upon the slenderness ratio of the structure, W _{t} is the total weight
of the structure including weight of lining and contents
above the base, h is the height of structure above the base, E _{s} is the modulus of elasticity of material of the structural shell, A is the area of cross-section at the base of the structural shell.
For circular sections, A = 2 π r t, where r is the mean radius of structural shell and t its thickness, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The damping factor considered for the reinforced concrete material is 3 percent of critical value for design basis earthquake. In
this case, the material damping factor of 0.048 is considered for determining S _{a} /g. Using the period T, the horizontal seismic coefficient A _{h} shall be obtained from the spectrum given in IS 1983 (Part 1). The design horizontal seismic coefficient for A _{h} design
basis earthquake shall be determined by the following
(11)
where, Z is the zone factor This is in accordance with Table 2 of IS 1893 (Part 1), I is the importance factor,
R is the response reduction factor.
The ratio (R/I) shall not be less than1.0. S _{a} /g is the spectral acceleration coefficient in accordance with IS 1893 (Part 1). The horizontal earthquake force shall be assumed to act alone in one lateral direction at a time. The effects due to vertical component of earthquakes
are generally small and can be ignored. The effect of
earthquake and maximum wind on the structure shall
not be considered simultaneously.
Design shear force and moment
The simplified method can be used for ordinary stack-
like structures. The design shear force, V, and design bending moment, M, for such structures at a distance x from the top, shall be calculated by the following
formulae,
V = C .A .W .D
v
h
t
M = A .W .h.D
h
t
m
v
(12)
(13)
where, C _{v} is the coefficient of shear force depending
on slenderness ratio k, A _{h} is the design horizontal seismic coefficient, W _{t} is the total weight of structure including weight of lining and contents above the base,
h is the height of centre of gravity of structure above base, and D _{v} , D _{m} are the distribution factors for shear and moment respectively at a distance x from the top of chimney. The expressions for these distributions for moment and shear along the height are given in Table 11 of code for use in computer programme.
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 508-511
K. R. C. Reddy, O. R. Jaiswal, P. N. Godbole
EXAMPLE CHIMNEYS Two chimneys are considered for the analysis purpose. The 217 m chimney as shown in Figure 1(a) consists of four tapers and twenty one platforms. The platform details are also shown in Figure 1(a). Where as the 220 m chimney as shown in Figure 1(b) is of uniform taper whose outer diameter and shell thickness at the top and bottom are shown.
Modeling For the analysis purpose Chimneys are modeled as vertical cantilever fixed at the base having varying cross sections using beam element (NKTP 12) of NISA (EMRC, 1998). Chimneys are divided into elements of one meter length along its height. The mass of each section is calculated by averaging the mass of above and below it. Chimney is idealized as mdf system with mass lumped at various levels. Horizontal motion is considered. Natural frequency and mode shapes required for the analysis are obtained from this finite element model of chimney.
Material The material used for chimney shell is M25 grade concrete whose mass density (ρ) considered as 2.5 t/m3, weight density as 25 KN / m3, Young’s modulus (E) as 3.2 x 10 ^{7} kN/m2 and structural damping as a fraction of critical damping (β) is considered as 0.016. Free vibration characteristics such as natural frequency and time periods are obtained from the dynamic analysis of chimneys and shown in Table 1. Then critical wind speeds and mean design wind speeds are calculated and presented in Table 2.
Table 1: Free vibration characteristics of chimneys
Chim. |
Natural Frequency |
Time period |
||||||||||
Ht. |
(Hz) |
(sec.) |
||||||||||
(m) |
_{1} |
st |
_{2} |
nd |
_{3} |
rd |
_{1} |
st |
_{2} |
nd |
_{3} |
rd |
mode |
mode |
mode |
mode |
mode |
mode |
|||||||
217 |
0.33 |
1.39 |
3.44 |
2.98 |
0.72 |
0.29 |
||||||
220 |
0.44 |
1.86 |
4.53 |
2.23 |
0.53 |
0.22 |
The critical wind velocity and the design wind velocity are calculated by taking V _{b} = 44 m/s , k _{1} = 1.07 , k _{3} = 1.00, s _{n} = 0.2 and d = average diameter over the top 1/3 height of chimney
Table 2: Critical wind speeds (V _{c}_{r}_{i}_{.} =fd/s _{n} ) and mean design wind speed(V _{z}_{b}_{a}_{r} )
Chi |
d |
Critical Wind Velocity, |
V |
zbar |
|||||
ht. |
(m) |
V _{c}_{r}_{i} =fd/s _{n} (m/s) |
=V b k 1 k 2b |
||||||
(m) |
_{1} |
st |
_{2} |
nd |
_{3} |
rd |
ar k 3 |
||
mode |
mode |
mode |
m/s |
||||||
217 |
14.7 |
24.7 |
102.5 |
253.9 |
46.35 |
||||
220 |
15.6 |
34.9 |
145.5 |
354.6 |
46.45 |
(a) 217 m chimney
(b) 220 m chimney
Figure 1: Example chimneys
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The numeric results of along- and across-wind analysis and earthquake analysis are obtained as per the procedure given above for the both the chimneys.
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 508-511
Wind and Earthquake Analysis of Tall Rc Chimneys
Along-wind analysis The along-wind analysis of chimney is performed using Random Response Method of IS: 4998 (Part-1)1992.
Maximum shear force and bending moment for both the chimneys have been calculated with various options using random response method and the results are given in Table
3.
Across-wind analysis In across-wind analysis, those modes for which critical wind speed less than mean design wind speed are to be
It is fond that the critical wind speed of only
first mode is less than the mean design wind speed, hence only the first mode has been considered in the across-wind analysis. Maximum shear force and bending moment computed by random response method of IS: 4998 and the results are presented in Table 3.
considered.
Table 3: Results of wind analysis |
|||
Chimney |
SF |
||
Height |
kN |
||
(m) |
Along |
Across |
Combined |
217 |
1512 |
2239 |
2701 |
220 |
3410 |
5654 |
6654 |
Chimney |
BM |
||
Height |
kNm |
||
(m) |
Along |
Across |
Combined |
217 |
196822 |
348462 |
400205 |
220 |
454434 |
832453 |
948413 |
Earthquake analysis To obtain the earthquake loads, the time period is calculated using the Equation 10. Knowing the time period of chimneys the horizontal seismic coefficients are calculated as per the Equation 11. Then the design shear force and bending moments are evaluated by Equations 12 and 13 respectively. The results are obtained for different response reduction factors with R equal to 3.0 and 1.5 and also various values of zone factors. The design shear force and the bending moment of 217 m chimney are presented in Table 4 and that of 220 m chimney is given in Table 5.
Table 4: Earthquake analysis results of 217 m chimney
Sr. |
Zone |
Zone |
R=3.0 |
R=1.5 |
||
no. |
No. |
factor |
SF |
BM |
SF |
BM |
kN |
kNm |
kN |
kNm |
|||
1 |
II |
0.10 |
454 |
74222 |
909 |
148443 |
2 |
III |
0.16 |
727 |
118754 |
1456 |
237509 |
3 |
IV |
0.24 |
1091 |
178131 |
2184 |
356263 |
4 |
V |
0.36 |
1637 |
267198 |
3276 |
356264 |
Table 5: Earthquake analysis results220 m chimney
Sr. |
Zone |
Zone |
R=3.0 |
R=1.5 |
||
no. |
No. |
factor |
SF |
BM |
SF |
BM |
kN |
kNm |
kN |
kNm |
|||
1 |
II |
0.10 |
522 |
87238 |
1045 |
174476 |
2 |
III |
0.16 |
836 |
139581 |
1672 |
279162 |
3 |
IV |
0.24 |
1254 |
209371 |
2508 |
418743 |
4 |
V |
0.36 |
1881 |
314057 |
3762 |
628115 |
On studying the results presented in the above tables, it shows that as the zone factor increases the values of shear force and bending moment increases. It is mentioned that the response reduction factor of 3.0 is sufficient for estimating the earthquake loads but the results becoming double if the R equal to 1.5. The results obtained with R equal to 1.5 and with zone factor of 0.36 are almost matching with that of the wind loads.
CONCLUSIONS On comparison of the wind loads with that of the earthquake loads, the following conclusions are drown, The wind loads are always governing the design of chimney shell. In the most critical earthquake zone with zone factor of 0.36 and response reduction factor of 1.5, the earthquake response is almost matching with that of wind response but never been crossing the wind response. For the design of the chimney shell, the combined design wind loads are used.
REFERENCES
[1] ACI 307:1998,’Standard practice for design and
construction of RC chimneys(ACI 307-98) and
commentary(ACI 307R-98)’,American Concrete
Institute, Detroit
[2] IS 4998(part-1):1992, ‘Criteria for Design of
Reinforced Concrete Chimneys’, 2 ^{n}^{d} revision,
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[3] IS 1893 (Part 4):2005, ‘Criteria for earthquake
resistant design of structures’, Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
[4] Jain, S.K., Singh, B.P., Guptha, B.K., 1990, ‘I.S.
code provisions for seismic design of tall
chimneys’, International of structures, Vol. 10,
No. 2, pp 103-111
[5] Jaiswal, O.R., Srinivas, V., 2005, ‘Effect of tuned
mass damper on across-wind response of tall RC
Chimneys’, Journal of Wind & Engineering, India,
vol.2, No.1, pp.9-21
[6] Shivaji, M., Raju, V.S.N., ‘Dynamic analysis of
R.C.C. chimneys’
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 508-511
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