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High-Pressure and Temperature Effects on Enzyme Inactivation in Tomato Puree

Altas Presiones hidrostticas 50-500 MPa con tratamiento trmico (20-60C) sobre P, PPO, PME en pur de tomate 15 min TT. Presurizacin/depresurizacin causan una desnaturalizacin continua de protenas solubles a T amb Altas presiones hidrostticas producen reduccin de PME: 150 MPa, 30C; Inactivacin 335-500 MPa, 20C Reduccin de P a 350 MPA, 20C, inactivacin a 30-60C PPO no cambia o mnima reduccin.

Commercial Scale Pulsed Electric Field Processing of Tomato Juice

Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 s. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 C for 42 days (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of lycopene, Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

Effects of Commercial-scale Pulsed Electric Field Processing on Flavor and Color of Tomato Juice
Effects of commercial-scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the flavor and color of tomato juice during storage at 4 deg;for 112 d were studied. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 s. The PEF-processed tomato juice retained more flavor compounds of trans-2-hexenal, 2-isobutylthiazole, cis-3-hexanol than thermally processed or unprocessed control tomato juice (P < 0.05). PEF-processed juice had significantly lower nonenzymatic browning and higher redness than thermally processed or control juice (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that the flavor of PEF-processed juice was preferred to that of thermally processed juice (P < 0.01).

Color Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods

Color is a critical measure of quality in foods and beverages. Researchers and technical personnel in quality assurance and product development need appropriate objective methods for measuring color. This book contains chapters by scientists from throughout the world with expertise on the pigment and color stability of many different commodities. While a broad range of foods are represented, there is particular emphasis on fruits and vegetables and beverages. There is heightened interest in the natural food pigments today because of their health benefits and roles in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, cancer and other diseases. However, research on the health benefits of natural colorants is not the subject of this book, rather the focus is on color quality- how it can be optimized and how it is appropriately measured. The book opens with a section on color measurement covering the basic principles and practical aspects of color measurement. Sixteen chapters are devoted to fruits, vegetables and beverages. The perspective of plant breeders is given along with that of academic and industrial scientists. Food colorants are given intense scrutiny when it comes to regulation, and there is considerable variation from country to country with respect to both basic principles and specific rules for use and labeling of colorants. The six chapters in the final section on regulatory aspects give a very comprehensive update on colorant regulations in the USA, Europe, Central and South America and Asia. The viewpoint from regulatory agencies is given along with that from manufacturers and users of food colorants. This section provides a very clear picture of food colorant regulations at the present time. Much of this information is also relevant to other food ingredients. The book contains a number of color plates that were selected to make for a clearer presentation of the author's concepts.

Lycopene in Tomatoes: Chemical and Physical Properties Affected by Food Processing

Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripetomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of -carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutri-ent with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the finalproducts, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomatolycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the

potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from thetomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivometabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry.

Kinetics of colour change of double concentrated tomato paste during thermal treatment
The kinetics of the colour change of double concentrated tomato paste during heating was studied. The Hunter L, a, b tristimulus values were measured to characterise the colour, and colour difference (E); saturation index (SI) and ratio were calculated from those values. The kinetic study was performed using the capillary tube method with

temperatures ranging from 70.0 to 100.0 C. The order of reaction and the constants Ea and k0 of the Arrhenius equation were determined. All the colour parameters followed an apparent first order kinetics, with the exception of E, which showed a zero order behaviour. The degradation of the colour parameter L followed two consecutive first order reactions, with Ea values of 11.5 and 5.73 kcal mol, and ln k0 of 11.3 and 1.28 min1 for both phases, respectively. The parameter b (Ea = 20.5 kcalmol; in k0 = 22.2 min1) was

more sensitive to /temperature changes than the parameter a (Ea= 9.79 kcal mol; ln k0 = 9.10 min1), and other colour parameters. The

ratio showed an Ea = 6.86 kcal

mol (lnk0 = 5.20 min1), smaller than that of all the other colour parameters, with the exception of L (second phase). Thus,

was less sensitive to changes during heating

than most of the other parameters. Values of Ea and ln k0 of 10.2 kcal mol and 12.9 min1 for E, and 10.1 kcal mol and 9.28 min 1 for SI were determined. The parameters obtained permit colour change prediction in double concentrated tomato paste during thermal processing.