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What is underpinning? underpinning is the process of strengthening and stabilizing the foundation of an existing building or other structure. Underpinning was carried out mainly because of settlement of structures as a result of inadequate foundation Types Remedial underpinning:-

It is done to provide additional foundation strength to an inadequately supported structure which may be settling or in danger of collapse. Precautionary underpinning:It cannot be avoided as it becomes essential by the construction of a new foundation, deeper than those of the existing building UNDERPINNING IS REQUIRED To strengthen the shallow footings of the existing buildings. To safeguard against differential or excessive settlement of existing structure. To deepen the existing foundation to increase the bearing capacity so as to sustain heavier loads . To provide a basement to an existing building structure. The original foundation is not strong or stable enough. The usage of the building has changed. The type of soil supporting the foundation may have changed or were misjudged during planning. The construction of nearby structures causes the excavation of soil supporting existing foundations. It is more economical, due to land price or otherwise, to work on the current structure's foundation than to build a new one.

Causes of Foundation Problems Water is the main enemy in expansive soils problems TOO MUCH WATER will cause the soil to swell LESS WATER will cause the soil to shrink Evaporation And Transpiration cause the soils to dry and shrink Uneven moisture causes uneven movement, which can lead to structural damage to the structure. If all soils beneath a foundation swells uniformly or shrinks uniformly it is unlikely to cause a problem.

1. Pit method 2. Pile method 3. Pier method 4. Miscellaneous methods PIT METHOD The most common and oldest method of underpinning is the pit method It Requires careful and skilled work as loss of ground will cause building settlement Columns/ walls above the affected footing should be braced as much as possible A pit of 3 wide, 4 long and 5 deep is excavated in front of the footing to be underpinned

Pit is extended laterally to reach under the foundation to be underpinned The foundation is then deepened to the required depth Vertical formwork is built in the pit and then is concreted up to the foundation Dry packing operation is then carried out Steps:1.The wall over the foundation is divided into various sections (1.2 to 1.5 m) 2.Holes are made to adequate height in the existing wall. 3.In these holes Steel Needle Beams with bearing plates are inserted and supported on either side of the wall by means of crib supports (wooden blocks) 4.The jacks in turn are provided below the crib supports , 5.The pit is now excavated up to the level of new foundation directly or by cutting down the lower part of the old foundation

Points to be noted
The entire wall foundation has to be replaced or deepened in sections. For long section of walls , work is started from center and progressed in sideways. Instead of central needle beams, cantilever beams may be used . Soon after the completion of the work each excavated section should be filled with cement concrete(1 : 2 :4). Vertical mild steel bars of circular section are used of connection between old foundation and new foundation

Needle beams and shores have to be removed only after the completion of the new foundation

Pile method
Pit method is sometimes impracticable or uneconomical under certain circumstances like, 1.underpinning in water logged structures 2.when heavy loads are to be transferred to greater depths 3. the cost of underpinning by pit method is more compared to pile method. 4. piles with concrete grouting

In pile method ,underpinning is carried out in two stages

STAGE 1 1.In the first stage a precast Rcc pile is installed by carefully digging a approach pit under the existing wall foundation to obtain about 2 m of the head room . 2. A jacking arrangement is set up below the foundation to access the overload capacity and to drive in the welding beams accordingly 3. All the materials surrounding the piles are removed by means of earth augers , water jets or air lifts . 4.The gap so formed is filled up with cement concrete to provide a firm bearing ground.

Stage 2
1. Concrete is filled up to the second level . 2. The jacks are then removed leaving a completed underpinning cylinder .

Methods of installation of piles Displacement piles Non-displacement piles

Displacement piles Dropping weight Diesel hammer Vibratory methods of pile driving Jacking methods of insertion Jacked piles Non-displacement piles Small diameter bored cast-in-place piles Large diameter bored cast-in-place piles Large diameter bored cast-in-place piles

Diameter - 750mm up to 3m Depth - 70m Constructed by - cranes Uses bentonite slurry to eliminate some of the difficulties involved in drilling in soft silts and clays, and loose granular soils By using an expanding drilling tool the diameter at the base of the pile can be enlarged, significantly increasing the end bearing capacity of the pile.

Small diameter bored cast-in-place piles

Diameter - 600mm or less equipment :- tripod a winch a cable operating a variety of tools. In granular soils, the basic tool consists of heavy cylindrical shell with a cutting edge and a flap valve at the bottom. Water is necessary to assist in this type of excavation. To prevent sides of the bore in granular soil a temporary casing should be advanced by driving it into the ground. In cohesive soils, the borehole is advanced by repeatedly dropping a cruciform-section tool with a cylindrical cutting edge into the soil and then winching it to the surface with its burden of soil.

Piering a foundation is the process of installing steel piers under the footing of a foundation and driving the piers through the soil down to load bearing stratum. The piers can be used to either support the structure or lift the structure. The oldest methods of underpinning is installing piers under foundation of the structure This method is generally adopted in dry ground, because of the difficulty of pits below the water level without loose of ground, which would increase the tendency for the building to settle. The pits may be placed continuously or at suitable spacing. Their number and size are determined by the weight of the structure to be underpinned and the bearing capacity of the soil. After filling the pits with concrete ,the pits become supporting piers beneath the foundation The depth to which underpinning pits are carried depends upon the stratum which can support the load ,depth of the adjacent footings ,and whether there was settlement before In pier underpinning it is essential that proper care has to be taken to prevent the loss of ground in installing the sheeting, since loss of ground can cause settlement of the structure during or after underpinning. The least size of underpinning to provide workers proper working space is 1 m by 1.3 m Various shapes of pit can be sunk such that the soil under the foundation is disturbed to a minimum.

The pits can be taken down as much as 10m to 15m until a stratum strong enough to support the desired load Is met

Types of piers

RESISTANCE PIERS These are also called as PUSH piers Typically they have the best lifting potential. This is because these types of piers are "pushed" down into the ground, through the soil until they hit a hard surface - load bearing stratum. The weight of the structure is used as a counter-force to hydraulically push these piers into the ground. Once they hit this bottom, they can be pushed even further so that they actually lift the structure back to their original level. Once that is accomplished, the pier is capped off and permanently attached to the bottom of the foundation. This should prevent any further settling of the structure The advantage of this type of pier is that a soils report is not really necessary to know how deep the piers must be pushed. Once the "bottom" is reached, that is, stratum that is strong enough to support the structure, the structure can be lifted. These types of piers are typically used for heavier structures but are also perfect for single story residential homes.

Push Pier Installation Steps: Step 1: The footing is exposed and prepared for the bracket Step 2: Foundation Bracket is secured to the footing. Step 3: Steel pier sections are hydraulically driven through the bracket to competent soil or bedrock Step 4: The weight of the home is transferred through the piers to load bearing strata. Home is lifted back to level if possible.

Other types of piers Hydraulically Advance Push pier Injection pier HELICAL piers These are typically used to support a structure and not to lift it These types of piers are "turned" into the ground much like a corkscrew. Each pier has one or more "flights" that are like blades that do the pulling into the ground. These flights keep the pier in place after installation. The advantage of a helical pier is that is can be used on very light structures, unlike resistance piers . However, to install a helical pier properly, a soils test should be performed by a geotechnical engineer Helical piers are very useful in other applications such as tie-backs. Since they are screwed into the ground, and held in place with their flights.

Helical piers are ideal in pre-construction applications. They are installed before the foundation is placed to prevent any future foundation settlement. Also, helical piers can be used in conjunction with resistance piers on hillside homes. Helical Pier Installation Steps STEP 1: Footing is exposed and prepared for the bracket. step 2: Round-shaft helical piers are mechanically advanced into the soil Step 3: Foundation Bracket is secured to the footing. Step 4: The weight of the home is transferred through the piers to load bearing strata. Home is lifted back tolevel if possible. Helical Pier Advantages: Round shaft has a high resistance to bending Suitable for both heavy and light loads Long life span galvanized steel is resistant to corrosion Doesn't rely on the weight of the structure for depth and capacity

Steel Piers
steel piers is stronger deep foundation product. Most importantly, concrete pilings are not as strong as steel piers. Also, installing concrete pilings is messy and disruptive.

And finally, concrete pilings are not a permanent solution to foundation settlement. If the foundation pilings are installed in clay soil the structure could begin to settle again. steel pier systems are designed to withstand the test of time and are a permanent solution to settlement. The installation is cleaner than concrete pilings the steel piers are stronger and safer than that of concrete pilings LIMITATIONS OF PIER FOUNDATIONS Foundation Upheaval Caused by Poor Drainage: Swelling soil can also push the supporting piers upward, if they are not designed and constructed to adequately resist uplift. As a result, the pier will lift causing differential movement and subsequent structural damage Foundation Settlement Caused by Inadequate Pier Depth: The piers supporting many older pier and beam foundations may not extend below the zone of expansive soil that is affected by the climate. During periods of dry weather, these shallow piers may not provide sufficient support to portions of the foundation, which may result in differential settlement.

Miscellaneous methods

CEMENT GROUTING Cement grouting, also known as slurry grouting or high mobility grouting, is a grouting technique that fills pores in granular soil or voids in rock or soil, with flowable particulate grouts. Depending on the application, Portland cement or microfine cement grout is injected under pressure at strategic locations either through single port or multiple port pipes. JET GROUTING is an advanced technique used in cenent grouting. CHEMICAL CONSOLIDATION Chemical consolidation is a grouting technique that transforms granular soils into sandstone-like masses, by permeation with a low viscosity grout The most common permeation grout for structural applications is sodium silicate. The grout is injected under pressure through previously installed pipes. The grouted soil has increased strength and stiffness, and reduced permeability. The equipment is relatively small, and therefore suitable for use on sites with restricted access. Here the soil under the existing footing is consolidated using chemicals

Procedure:1.The perforated pipes are driven in inclined direction 2.When the pipes are driven a solution of sodium silicate in water is injected through the pipes. 3.The pipes are withdrawn and during withdrawal magnesium or calcium chloride is injected through the pipes. 4.The chemical reaction takes place between these chemicals and the soil is consolidated This method is useful when soil consist of sand or granular materials The cost of construction depends upon the nature of the soil, depth of consolidation, site of work, etc,

In this method ,freezing pipes are driven below the existing footing and the soil is frozen This method is rarely adopted for two reasons 1.It is expensive 2.More time is required for installation of freezing pipes

Vibro-flotation is a sand compaction method that is used to compact layers of loose sand which are underground, and is a common requirement in sand treatment for land reclamation works. Without vibro-flotation treatment, roads built in these areas will suffer settlement due to the heavy weight of travelling vehicles.

In this method underpinning is carried out by vibrating the sand and thereby increasing the density which ultimately results in the increase of the bearing capacity of the soil This method is useful for granular soil or sandy soil Before the process of underpinning starts ,the structure is shored carefully. The vibrating equipment is isolated from the building or the shoring Vibro-flotation involves using high concentric vibrations together with quick-charging water in the sand. Quick-charging a high volume of water in the sand creates a quicksand (boiling) effect which, together with the effect of the vibrations, causes the sand particles to re-orientate from a loose layer to a tight and dense layer.