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Czech Technical University Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering

Basic Optics Practicum (ZPOP)

Measurement Report

#6 Optical sources and their properties

Roman Pavelka, Jakub koln Roman Pavelka
February 24, 2010 March 2, 2010 March 2, 2010

Performed by: Report written by: Date of Measurement: Date of Report: Evaluation:

1 Objectives
1. Explain measurement of emission spectra by HR4000 Ocean Optics spectrometer. 2. Measure spectra of given sources and discuss it. Measure spectrum and wavelengths and widths of main spectral lines of calibration lamp. 3. Explain the measurement of the laser diode. 4. Graph the dependence of power input of laser diode on current through it for dierent temperatures. Find threshold currents and dierential eciency. 5. Measure the dependence of laser diode spectral line wavelength and width on temperature. 6. Measure the dependence of laser diode spectral line wavelength and width on input power. 7. Measure spatial distribution pattern of laser diode. 8. Explain the measurement of reection spectra. 9. Measure surface's reection spectra and discuss it.

2 Theoretical section
bourhood of some wavelength on this wavelength. It can be dened as function e() which satises relation
2

Emission spectrum of radiant source is the dependence of relative radiation intensity in neighP (1 , 2 ) = k
1

e()d,

where P (1 , 2 ) is intensity of radiation in wavelengths between 1 and 2 and k arbitrary constant. Surface's reection spectrum is the dependence of relative intensity of reected radiation (of unity source) in neighbourhood of some wavelength on this wavelength. It can be dened as function r() which satises relation
2

R(1 , 2 ) = k
1

e()r()d,

where R(1 , 2 ) is intensity of reected radiation of source with spectral intensity e() in wavelengths between 1 and 2 and k arbitrary constant. Spectral line of radiant source is an eect of some photon radiating quantum transition. It cause characteristic peak in emission spectrum. We characterize it by its maximal wavelength and linewidth. Linewidth is dened as width of the peak in its half (often abbreviated FWHM, full width in half maximum). Spatial distribution pattern is dependence of relative intensity radiated in a particular angle measured in specied plane. It can be dened as function p() which satises relation
2

P (1 , 2 ) = k
1

p()d,

where P (1 , 2 ) is intensity of radiation in wavelengths between angles 1 and 2 in small height and k arbitrary constant. It is simple to see that emission spectrum, spectral lines and spatial distribution pattern are characterizing only source and reection spectrum is characterizing only surface.

3 Description of spectrometer
Spectrometer consists of input element, diraction element and measurement device. In case of HR4000 Ocean Optics is input element SMA connector and colimination mirror. Diractive element is diractive lattice. Measurement device is CCD chip sending data through USB to computer. Its best spectral resolution is 0.02 nm, but is further got worse by slit width increasing (needed for increase sensitivity). We neglect transmission characteristic of optical ber due to its short distance and same eect from 300 nm to 900 nm. Measurement is fully automatized and we only let the source shine into input element of spectrometer and see the spectrum on computer.

4 Data processing
It is quite uncomfortable to do every graph by hand. We can automatize it using GNU utilities for, cat, echo, sed and gnuplot. for is typical loop repeating given command. For example:
for f in *.txt; do echo \$f; done

will write out name of every *.txt le in current directory. cat is used for reading le and sending it to stdout (standart output, display) or can be redirected by | operator to other command.
cat file.txt

will write out whole le.txt in current directory and

cat file.txt|wc -l

will send whole le to the input of wc -l (word counter, -l counts lines). echo sends given string to stdout and can be of course redirected by | operator too. Note usage of " character as delimiter and escape sequence \" as character ".
echo "Hello, \"world\""

will write out

Hello, "world"

substitute command:

sed is stream editor. It transforms input from stdin and send it stdout. Basic usage is an

echo file.txt.png | sed -e "s:.txt::"

It will take output of echo: le.txt.png and make substitution s:nd:replace. It will write out
file.png

Another basic command is delete:

for file in *.txt; do cat "\$file" | sed '1,17 d'>../data_proc/"\$file";done

It takes every *.txt le in current directory, write it out to sed and sed will delete 1st to 17th line. Its output is redirected by > operator to le with same name in another directory. gnuplot is an interactive plotting program. We need only basic control from command line.
echo "set style data lines;set xlabel 'wavelength [nm]';\ set ylabel 'relative intensity [1]';set term png;set output \"\$f.png\";\ plot \"\$f\""|gnuplot -persist

will set the plotting styles, x axis label, y axis label, png output to le which name is stored in variable f and draw the graph from data in le f. For detailed explanation refer to manual pages, for example:
man gnuplot

4.1 Putting it together

First we need to edit all les from spectrometer to be usable for gnuplot. We see that it is some bulk text in rst 17 lines and 3666th line. So lets put all les in data directory and make directory data_proc and backup of data. First we need to kick out bulk text:
for file in *.txt; do cat "\$file" | sed -e "1,17 d" -e "3666 d">../data_proc/"\$file"

We kicked out rst 17 lines and 3666th line and save result to ../data_proc. (This folder must exist.) Now we go to ../data_proc folder and put it everything to gnuplot with nice setting of axis, lines and output:.
for f in *.txt; do echo "set style data lines;set xlabel 'wavelength [nm]';\ set ylabel 'relative intensity [1]';set term png;set output \"\$f.png\";\ plot \"\$f\""|gnuplot -persist;done

This will produce png gures for our les. Only ugly extension .txt.png remains. We can solve it easily:
for file in *.txt.png; do f2=`echo \$file | sed -e "s:.txt::"`;mv \$file \$f2;done

We simply use the sed to transform lename of every le *.txt.png (substituting .txt by empty string) and save new name to f2 variable and then simply rename (move) old lename to new.

5 Spectra of given sources

We measured spectra on gures 1-14, spectral lines are in caption, we use notion [wavelength, linewidth]. Wavelength of linewidths of spectral lines of calibration lamp (g. 1) are in tab 1. White LED's consist of ordinary LED in uorescent package. First peak is from PN junction and second is from uorescent layer (g. 11 and 12).

Figure 1: 6025 Hg (Ar) calibration lamp

Figure 2: HeNe laser, spectral lines: [630 nm, 2 nm], [706 nm, 1nm]

wavelength [nm] linewidth [nm] 253 1 312 1 364.5 1 404 2 435 2 545 1 576 1 578 1 695 1 750 2 763 0.5 772 1 Table 1: Main spectral lines of calibration lines and their line widths

Figure 3: Halogen lamp

Figure 5: LED Luxeon green 1W, spectral line Figure 6: SFH484-2 IR LED 880nm, spectral [528 nm, 40 nm] line [844 nm, 93 nm]

Figure 7: L-57EYW Two-color LED, yellow Figure 8: L-57EYW Two-color LED, red side, side, spectral line [586 nm, 35 nm] spectral line [624 nm, 43 nm]

Figure 9: LED 470nm, spectral line [468 nm, Figure 10: IR LED 940nm, spectral line [940 31 nm] nm, 45 nm]

Figure 11: LED white 7000K, spectral lines Figure 12: LED white 5000K 10000K, spec[456 nm, 37 nm], [552 nm, 126 nm] tral lines [456 nm, 26 nm], [543 nm, 120 nm]

Figure 13: UV LED 390nm 400nm, spectral Figure 14: LED 567nm 573nm, spectral line line [389 nm, 15 nm] [567 nm, 29 nm]

6 Laser diode
Laser diode (LD) is semiconductor laser which have laser diode and photo diode in one package. It is sensitive to temperature changes and our objective is to measure these dependencies. We have control unit which can and measure and set the package temperature and power or current. Lets measure dependence of the output power on temperature and current through LD. First we have to calibrate photodiode current to power and set the control unit according to LD datasheet. We measured power and current for temperatures 10 C, 25 C and 50 C. I wanted to t it by piecewise function, but we have only few values and many in-order-dierent combination of parameters I0 , a, b converges. Our result is on g. 15. T [ C] It [mA] 4 0.64 5 0.43 10 0.63 15 0.77 20 0.64 25 0.94 30 0.85 35 0.93 40 0.91 45 1.27 50 0.94 Table 2: Dependence of threshold current on temperFigure 15: Current-power dependence for temperatures 10 C ature (red), 25 C (green) and 50 C (blue) Dierential eciency is roughly get by taking full output power current IF , subtract threshold current It , multiply it by its operating voltage 2.7 V and divide optical output power by it:

PO 2.7V (IF It )

T [ C] [1] 10 0.052 25 0.043 50 0.027 Table 3: Dependence of di. eciency on temperature Figure 16: LD, T=25 C, P=5 mW, spectral line [638 nm, 2 nm] We measured dependence of spectral line's wavelength and linewidth on temperature and optical output. 7

T [ C] [nm] [nm] 10 636 2 20 637 2 30 640 2.5 40 641 2.5 50 643 2.5

P [mW] [nm] [nm] 1 638 2 2 638 2 3 638 2 4 638 2 5 638 2 6 638 3

Table 4: Dependence of wavelength and Table 5: Dependence of wavelength and linewidth on temperature (PO = 3 mW) linewidth on power output (T=25 C) Then we measured spatial distribution in horizontal and vertical direction.

Figure 18: LD vertical spatial distribution

7 Reection spectra
Reection spectra are measured by spectrometer calibrated to some source. We used halogen lamp. So we can determine reection spectrum in interval approximately 500 - 900 nm. There is special coaxial optical sond shining by halogen in the edge and sensitive in the middle. We again neglect eect of transmission spectrum of the optical ber. We measured the reection spectra of human skin and marker. Interesting is reection over 1 in case of markers. It is sign of uorescent properties of this marker. Our spectra are on gures 19 and 20.

Figure 20: Yellow marker

8 Conclusion
We measured emission spectra of various sources, especially laser diode, mainly its temperature dependencies. We examined reexion spectra measurement. I want to notice data processing experience with GNU utilities, see section 4.