Anda di halaman 1dari 33

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK.

tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUPERIOR SUBSEA HYDRAULIC FLUID OCEANIC HW 720 OCEANIC HW 740

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

CONTENTS
Quality Policy Environmental Policy 1. 2. Introduction Typical Physical Properties (Table) 2.1 Viscosity Temperature Graphs 2.2 Density Temperature Graph 2.3 Low Viscosity 2.4 Fluids For All Conditions High Temperature Stability 3.1 HSE/BHR Testing 3.2 South West Research Testing High Lubricating Ability 4.1 Dynex Pump Test 4.2 Scana Valve Test Metal Compatibiltiy and Corrosion resistance Elastomer and Plastics Compatibiltiy Stability with Contaminants 7.1 Seawater 7.2 Calcium Brine Discharge in to the Marine Environment Filter Elements Paints Supply and Manufacture Quality Control 12.1 Fluid Cleanliness Testing of Oceanic Fluids 13.1 Taking a Fluid Sample For Particle Analysis System Preparation Equipment Storage General Flushing Procedure 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 12 17 17 20 21 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 31 31 32
2

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13

14. 15. 16.

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Quality Policy

It is the policy of the company to provide customer satisfaction through a continuous process of quality improvement. A close liaison will be maintained at all times with both customers and suppliers, to develop mutually beneficial relationships, and to ensure that future product development continues to meet the needs of the customers we serve. The company is committed to providing constantly improving standards of profitability, management, administration, product development, production and distribution consistent with the needs of our customers and shareholders. It will ensure that employees are appropriately trained and motivated towards success. The quality standards adhered to by the company are ISO9001 Compliant and ISO14001. The performance standards will be regularly measured, reviewed and published. It is the responsibility of the Director to ensure that this Quality Policy is understood, implemented and maintained at all levels. Every employee has a duty to adopt the quality policy, and is encouraged to participate in the continuous improvement philosophy.

Simon McManus Technical Director MacDermid Plc 22 January 2002

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY STATEMENT


The company recognises that it uses and manufacturers a wide range of speciality chemicals, some of which have the potential to pollute the environment. The company has a commitment to the prevention of pollution throughout its operations. The companys objective is to conduct its manufacturing operations in a way which ensures continuing compliance with legal obligations on emissions to air, disposal of liquid trade effluent to water and the removal of chemical and other wastes. To help employees achieve this objective and to keep up to date with future legislation, close working relationships will be maintained with relevant regulatory bodies and training provided. All reasonable steps will be taken to reduce the environmental impact of the companys products and manufacturing sites. The company will strive to improve its operations continuously so that pollution is reduced and fewer non-suitable resources are consumed, to achieve this, improvement objectives will be set at local levels. Process and products are designed and formulated to minimize the effect on the environment. Process design will take into account the need to reduce the use of energy and water, to reduce production of greenhouse gases and to reduce the demand placed on finite water resources. Operations will be examined regularly in order to minimise the production of waste, especially non-destructible hazardous waste; the introduction of additional means of recycling or recovering materials will be given a high priority. All operating sites will be regularly audited and the results reported to the Canning Group Board. The policy will be made available to the public on request. MacDermid Offshore Works to maintain the ISO 14001 registration. Peter Johansen Managing Director th 12 March 1999

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

OCEANIC HW700 SERIES


1. INTRODUCTION

Oceanic HW fluids are water based hydraulic media specifically formulated for use in subsea production control systems. Their low viscosities promote optimum system response, while a sophisticated additive package provides a high degree of protection against wear, corrosion and microbiological degradation. The Oceanic HW fluids have been developed in close consultation with component manufacturers, and are now in worldwide use, helping to achieve maximum production system safety and reliability. Oceanic HW540 and 525 have been the market leaders since the early 1980s operating in a number of systems worldwide. Due to higher temperatures and increasing environmental legislation these fluids now have limitations. Oceanic HW 700 series fluids have a number of advantages over all fluids developed before 2000 and are now the ideal media for use in modern subsea control systems. Oceanic HW700 series fluids offer:

Operation to at least 170C Vapour phase and liquid corrosion protection Compatible with low levels of Calcium brines Sea-water intrusion protection Excellent lubricity Low Toxicity High biodegradability OCNS Class E Resistant to microbiological attack Low viscosity for speedy response High visibility leak tracing dye (if required) Full technical support for engineering and laboratory assistance.

Vapour Phase Testing

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

2.

TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Oceanic HW Appearance Viscosity (cS) @ -20 C 0 C 20 C 40 C Lowest Recommended Operating Temperature (C) Pour Point (C) Specific Gravity (20 C) pH Value Flash Point Fire Point Auto-ignition Temperature Cleanliness Level (as filled into container) Thermal Conductivity W.m .K
-1 -1 -1 -1

720

740

Clear mobile liquids Solid 4.4 2.2 1.3 -5 -11 1.045 9.30 24.9 8.9 4.3 2.5 -25 -31 1.072 9.30

Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable NAS 1638 Class 6 0.443 3721 2.2 0.00041 0.470 3445 2.3 0.00052

Specific Heat Capacity J.kg .K

Bulk Modulus -2 -9 (Nm x 10 ) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. (Volumetric per C)

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

2.1 Viscosity Temperature Oceanic HW720 and Oceanic HW740

Oceanic HW700 series


30

HW 720 HW740 25

20

Viscosity cSt

15

10

0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Temperature C 30 40 50 60 70

2.2 Density Temperature Oceanic HW720 and Oceanic HW740

Oceanic HW740 1.085 1.08 1.075 Density mg/ml 1.07 1.065 1.06 1.055 1.05 1.045 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature C

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Oceanic HW720 1.055 1.05 Density mg/ml 1.045 1.04 1.035 1.03 1.025 1.02 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature C

2.3 Low Viscosity Oceanic HW 700 fluids, being water based, offer an extremely low viscosity when compared with mineral oil or synthetic hydrocarbon types. This allows systems to be designed with optimum response, particularly where control is required over long distances, and through small bore control lines. 2.4 Fluids for all Conditions By providing two fluids, MacDermid Canning have allowed the choice of the fluid that will give the best response in the environment in which it is to be used. For low temperatures, the higher glycol content is required, and here a penalty has to be paid in the form of a slightly higher viscosity due to the necessarily increased glycol level. The correct fluid to use is, therefore, the one having the correct pour point for the worst ambient conditions to be encountered, while still having the lowest possible viscosity. In general Oceanic HW720 is to be used in slightly warmer climates than Oceanic HW740 where the temperature seldom falls below 0C (e.g. Gulf of Mexico or Australia). Oceanic HW740 is used where temperatures drop to -20C (e.g. North Sea), Oceanic HW760 is also available which will be reserved for those areas where temperatures can go as low as -50C (e.g. Northern North Sea and Canada).

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

3.

High Temperature Stability


o

All the fluids in the HW700 range have been tested at 170 C to ensure safe long-term operation at 170C. Longer term testing may increase this limit as further results become available. It should be noted that the fluid is water-based and a static pressure head should be maintained in areas where the fluid is operating over 100C.

Oceanic HW 700 Fluids


100

10

PRESSURE BAR

0.1

0.01

0.001 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

BOILING TEMPERATURE c
There are two reports available concerning the stability of Oceanic HW700 fluids at temperature. 3.1 HSE/BHR High Temperature Test The internal MacDermid testing was done following the HSE recommended test procedure developed by BHR, this testing also conforms to the FMC PRD-021632 acceptance test for high temperature fluids. A high temperature stainless steel POD is filled with 400ml of test fluid and exposed to the test temperature. After a set period the fluid is removed from the container and examined for: Visual solids Filterable solids Viscosity and Density Acid/Alkaline change Lubrication Change Vapour Corrosion Liquid Corrosion

22 January 2002

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Oceanic HW740 has been tested to 170C for 6 months, the following results were obtained. Viscosity The viscosity of fresh Oceanic HW740 and Oceanic HW740 out of the test pod was analysed using the MB method 6.0. There was no change in the viscosity of the fluid before and after high temperature testing. Specific Gravity (Density) The specific gravity of the fluid was checked using a Paar DMA 38 density meter. There was no change in the specific gravity before and after high temperature testing. pH The pH of the fluid was checked using a Hanna pH213 calibrated pH mater. There was no change in the pH before and after high temperature testing. Liquid corrosion The corrosion resistance of the fluid in the liquid phase was checked using MB test method 4.7. The fluid passed the liquid corrosion test before and after high temperature testing. Vapour Phase Corrosion The vapour phase inhibition properties of the fluid was checked using MB test method 4.6. The fluid passed the vapour phase corrosion test before and after high temperature testing Lubrication properties Lubrication properties of the fluid were checked using the Falex instrument. Falex testing before and after high temperature can be illustrated below:

22 January 2002

10

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Falex testing of Oceanic HW740

20 18 16 14 12 Torque lb.in 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 Load lb 300 400 500


Oceanic HW740 - 11 wear teeth Oceanic HW740 6 months @ 170Deg.C 14 wear teeth

Falex testing before and after high temperature testing showed that there is no change, within experimental error, in lubrication and anti-wear. Fluid characteristics before and after high temperature testing can also be tabulated as follows: Property Appearance Viscosity(cS) @ 40 C o Specific Gravity @ 20 C o pH @ 20 C Liquid corrosion Vapour Phase Corrosion Conclusions There has been been very little change in the Oceanic HW740 over the test o period of six months at 170 C. The only significant change being that the fluid darkened in colour. This was to be expected as the acid-amine salt darkens at ambient temperature with time.
o

Oceanic HW740 before high temperature testing Clear, homogeneous fluid 2.5 1.068 9.15 Pass, no corrosion Pass, no staining

Oceanic HW740 - 6 o months @ 170 C Clear, orange/brown homogeneous fluid 2.5 1.068 9.15 Pass, no corrosion Pass, no staining

22 January 2002

11

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

3.2 South West Research Testing Southwest Research in San Antonio tested three fluids for their lubrication properties. Of particular interest were the fluids lubrication properties after being held at 90 and 100C for only 1 month, as two of these fluids are specifically recommended for use at higher temperatures. The following table shows the temperatures and fluids examined
Oceanic HW540 Oceanic HW 740 Transaqua HT New New New 90C 90C 90C 32 Days at 100C 100C 150C 100C 150C

170C

The Lubrication properties were assessed by Falex lubricant tester (ASTM D3233) and Shell 4-ball (ASTM D-4172) as these are industry recognised test methods. SUMMARY OF RESULTS High Temperature Testing A visual inspection indicated all of the fluids were in good condition at their highest temperature with minimal solid formation and no apparent separate fluid phase. Falex Lubricant Test This is the preferred lubrication and anti-wear test method as it has been correlated to pump and valve experience. A fluid that provides good figures on this test has historically gone on to give long pump and valve life.

Wear Results Falex Wear Teeth Oceanic HW540 New 0 Oceanic HW540 90C 8 Oceanic HW540 100C 7 Oceanic HW740 New 2 Oceanic HW740 90C 8 Oceanic HW740 100C 4 Oceanic HW740 150C 1 Oceanic HW740 170C 10 Transaqua HT New 21 Transaqua HT 90C 59 Transaqua HT 100C 67 Transaqua HT 150C 37

22 January 2002

12

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Falex Wear

70

60

50 HW540 HW 740 Transaqua

Wear (Teeth)

40

30

20

10 Transaqua 0 New 90C 100C Fluid Temperature C 150C 170C HW540 HW 740

When looking at the lubrication a good result is a low gradient on the torque v load graph, we are also looking for no change between the new samples and the samples exposed to heat.
Falex Lubrication Transaqua HT
35

30

25

Torque lb.in

20

15

Transaqua Transaqua Transaqua Transaqua

HT HT HT HT

New 90C 100C 150C

10

0 0 300 Load lb 500 500 (30min)

22 January 2002

13

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Falex Lubrication HW540


25

20

Torque lb.in

15 Oceanic HW540 New Oceanic HW540 90C Oceanic HW540 100C 10

0 0 300 Load lb 500 500 (30min)

Falex Lubrication HW740


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 300 Load lb 500 500 (30min)

Oceanic Oceanic Oceanic Oceanic Oceanic

HW740 HW740 HW740 HW740 HW740

New 90C 100C 150C 170C

The graphs above indicate that there has been little change in the lubrication of Oceanic HW740 over the range of temperatures used, right up to 170C. The highest torque for this fluid is approximately 18 lb.in. These results agree with the wear never exceeding 10 teeth. The Oceanic HW540 does show a slight increase in torque, and there was a slight increase in wear from 0 to 8 teeth at the higher temperatures but these still do not exceed 22.5 lb.in. and still shows low wear. MacDermid have stated the operating
14

22 January 2002

Torque lb.in

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

limit of HW500 series fluids to be 90C and this has been shown to be as high as 100 C in these tests. As a safety margin, MacDermid would still only recommend the use of HW540 in projects with a maximum temperature of 90 C. The Transaqua HT however shows a dramatic increase in torque to over 30 lb.in. and simultaneous increased wear to 67 teeth, a positive indication that the lubricating ability of the fluid has been negatively affected after exposure to a temperature of only 90 C after 1 month. It should be noted that 90 C is some 75 C below the published maximum operating temperature. Shell 4 Ball MacDermid Plc do recognise this test as a lubrication anti-wear method for oilbased lubricants, but it is our opinion that this test is not suitable for measuring lubrication in water-based sub-sea hydraulic control fluids. However, we instructed SWRI run this test due to the fact that a few equipment manufacturers consider the Shell 4 Ball test acceptable. To reiterate, we are testing for changes in the lubrication before and after exposure to heat.
Lubrication Shell 4 Ball

20.0 18.3 15.0 15.2

% Change in Scar Diamiter from New (mm)

10.0

5.0

5.7 3.8 3.0

0.0

-1.3

-5.0

-6.8 -10.0

-5.8

-10.0 Oceanic HW540 90C Oceanic HW540 100C Oceanic HW740 90C Oceanic HW740 100C Oceanic HW740 150C Oceanic HW740 170C Transaqua Transaqua Transaqua HT 90C HT 100C HT 150C

While there is some variation in the results, some of the Oceanic fluids show a lubrication improvement over the course of the test. An improvement in lubrication is indicated by negative values. Whereas, the Transaqua HT shows a scar diameter increase in every case although the final scar diameter is not excessive. It should be remembered that these results were recorded after only one-month exposure to temperature and further lubrication changes will occur over longer periods. Looking at the coefficient of friction and torque readings in the Southwest
22 January 2002

15

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Research report we would be looking for smooth lines which indicate even and controlled wear with constant back load and friction. The Transaqua fluids do not exhibit this type of trace and appear to be uneven; this indicates there could be some galling or sudden increases in friction during the tests. If this test were representative to the operation of a shear valve it could mean these sudden increases in friction will cause unpredictable valve functioning. Conclusions The lubricating properties of Oceanic HW740 are unaffected by exposure to heat over the test period, this includes exposure to 170C. Oceanic HW540 was unaffected at the stated maximum operating temperature of 90C, but was slightly affected to some extent when exposed to temperature of 100C. More importantly, HW540 retained excellent anti-wear properties even at a temperature of 100C. Once again, to maintain a safety margin, MacDermid Plc do state the temperature limit for Oceanic HW540 is 90C. When determining the maximum operating temperature of any water-based fluid, it is essential that the critical properties remain largely unaffected at temperature. Since every subsea controls equipment manufacturer considers the lubricating characteristics of a control fluid to be a critical and necessary property, MacDermid considers the lubrication package to be a critical property. Therefore, based on our in-house criteria for determining the maximum operating temperature of our own fluids, we would consider the maximum operating temperature of Transaqua HT to be below 90 C, well below the stated maximum temperature of 165 C.

22 January 2002

16

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

4.

High Lubricating Ability

Particular care has been taken to give the Oceanic HW700 fluids good anti-wear properties, especially in the case of metal to metal sliding contact situations such as are encountered in modern shear seal type control valves or piston pumps. The Oceanic HW700 fluids also provide low coefficients of friction between elastomeric seals and packing and metal surfaces. For customers who are familiar with the Oceanic HW500 series fluids they should see no loss in performance with the HW700 equivalent. There is a fair amount of bench lubrication information shown in the high temperature testing in section 3. but there have been other tests performed which prove the lubricating properties of Oceanic HW740. 4.1 Dynex Pump Test

A 1000 hour pump test was performed in conjunction with Dynex Rivett, a hydraulics manufacturer from the USA. Introduction The PF4200 series pump is a check-ball piston pump manufactured by Dynex/Rivett inc. of the USA. This pump is designed to operate upto pressures of 700, 1000 and 1400 Bar. Due to the limitation of power in our test rigs the PF4205 was tested at 700 Bar. Summary The PF4200 Dynex/Rivett pump was tested at 700 Bar for 1200 hours with regular scheduled inspections. The test fluid was Oceanic HW740 manufactured in the UK, batch number 0070113 There was some damage seen on a small roller bearing, probably due to trapped contamination. This bearing was replaced at the 600-hour mark. On inspection after the 1000 hr test the pump was found to be in good condition and still fit to operate. There are no problems in using the PF4200 series pumps with Oceanic HW fluids.
22 January 2002

17

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Considering the test temperature, the condition of the pump at the end of the test and conditions under which it was run the pump performed exceptionally well. Test Method i. A new PF4205 pump supplied by Dynex/Rivett of Huntingdon UK was fixed to a 25 Hp motor on the MacDermid pump test rig. A schematic of the rig is included in Appendix 1. The rig was fitted with a new 3m absolute Pall filter. The rig was filled with new Oceanic HW740 from batch number 0070113. The pump was started and allowed to run for one hour to remove debris and air from the system The pressure was then increased to 700 Bar using the pressure relief valve. The rig was run for 100 hours. The pump was inspected, no anomaly were noted and the test was allowed to continue. The pump continued to run at pressure for a total of 600 hrs at which point it was inspected again. There was damage to the small needle bearing probably due to contamination. This was replaced and the testing continued. After 1200 hours running time at 700bar the test rig was shut down. The pump was stripped and examined by Dale Houghton from Dynex and Simon McManus from MacDermid Canning. Photographs of relevant components were taken. Results

ii. iii. iv.

v. vi.

vii.

viii.

3.

All the functioning components within the pump were in good or excellent condition as can be seen on the next page. There was no evidence of material incompatibility with elastomers or metallic components. All areas were unworn and free form deposits and rust. There was a slight impression of radial lines seen on one thrust plate but this would not effect the functionality of the pump.

22 January 2002

18

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Thrust Plate after test

Thrust bearing after test

Roller Bearing after test

Piston Assembly after test

Piston Head after test

Wobble Plate and Shaft after test

22 January 2002

19

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

4.2

Scana Rotator Valve Test

Oceanic HW740 was used as the fluid for three high pressure subsea valve tests at Scana Rotator. The fluid performed very well indeed, particularly during the destructive test. Test pressures up to 1896 Bar and a total of 65 000 cycles were experienced by valves and fluid with no degradation of either. These report are the property of Scana Rotator and cannot be reproduced here but are available on request and approval from Scana. Oceanic HW740 has also been run in equipment manufactured by ABB in Nailsea, again the fluid performed well but information on this testing is only available on approval from ABB.

22 January 2002

20

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

5.

Metal Compatibility Corrosion Resistance

The Oceanic HW700 fluids have excellent protection for a wide range of metals used in the oil and gas industry. Even with high seawater intrusion the metals of the control circuit and valves will be protected. Oceanic HW700 fluids are ideally suited for use in steel line umbilicals. Not only will immersed materials not corrode but also metal in voids above the surface, Oceanic HW700 fluids contain a vapor phase inhibitor that produces a protective gas in any voids that will prevent oxidation and galvanic attack of condensation. Oceanic HW700 Fluids are compatible with all ferrous and yellow metal alloys. The fluids can also be used with aluminium and aluminium alloys, this is a further improvement over the old HW500 series. The only common metal used in subsea systems, which may be slightly affected, is zinc. KvrnerMaterials Test There is information on corrosion resistance in the high temperature section of this book. However the main testing done for metal compatibility was performed in conjunction with Kvrner Subsea Components. Materials tested were: Test No
M-01 M-02 M-03 M-04 M-05 M-06 M-07 M-08 M-09 M-10 M-11 M-12 M-13 M-14 M-15 M-16 M-17

Metal Sample
Blank 440C Heat Treated 17.4pH Heat Treated 17.7pH Spring Inconel 718 Super Duplex 316 A4/80 316 S11 Monel K500 316 A4/70 316 S42 Spring Plated Swedish Iron 430 FR 316 A4/100 Tungsten Carbide Nickel & Chrome Bonded Tungsten Carbide 10% Nickel Elgiloy MP35N

Description
B/N 8275MEL T/N 2055HT B/N 4072MEL T/N 0750HT B/N 9613MEL B/N 8470MEL B/N 5052MEL B/N 10063MEL B/B 4293MEL B/N 8560MEL B/N 5698MEL B/N 8844MEL B/N 8861MEL B/N 6143JM B/N 7134MEL B/N 9857MEL B/B 8719MEL B/N 8903MEL

Fluid
HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740 HW 740

22 January 2002

21

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

ICP Analysis Each metallic material was cleaned for 10 minutes in Acetone. The metals were dried, weighed and surface are calculated. Each metal was immersed in 100ml fluid and incubated at 70C for 7 days (168h). after this time had elapsed, the fluid was allowed to cool, the metal removed, rinsed under distilled water and dried. The appearance and weight of the metal were noted. A 10% aqueous dilution of each immersion fluid was submitted to ITS Caleb Brett, for a full metal ICP Scan (APHA 3120B). ITS Caleb Brett was also supplied with 10% dilutions of each test fluid. See Appendix 1 for explanation of ICP testing. Galvanic Corrosion Each metallic material was immersed in paraffin wax and allowed to cool. A 1cm was 2 cut away from the wax. This 1cm test area was immersed in test fluid and coupled with mild steel. Galvanic Corrosion was measured on the DIGI GALV corrosion analyser (ex BK Technology) monitored the current flow (microamps) between the two metals in the test couple. Each metallic material was allowed to stabilise in the fluid for 5 minutes before the electrochemical activity reading was taken. All the metals were tested against the same mild steel at room temperature. Corrosion Results Galvanic Corrosion Under most circumstances the corrosion rate seen would not give concern for components used in hydraulic systems. It should be noted that this method does not indicate which element within an alloy is being removed as ions. ICP Corrosion Tests. Oceanic HW740 seemed to have a significant effect on only one metal (M-12) Plated Swedish Iron, this reading of increased Nickel content to 100ppm is consistent with the galvanic corrosion results which did show a flow of ions. This level of metal solubility however is not enormous and would not normally be of concern. All other fluid metal combinations showed very low levels of metal removal. This metal compatibility testing has been done at 70C which equates to over 8 years at 4C
2

22 January 2002

22

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

6.

Elastomers and Plastics

Common O - ring materials such as Nitrile, Viton, Buna N, Buna A, Silicone and Neoprene are all acceptable. Viton should be limited to 70C maximum temperature. For high temperature HNBR or Chemraz can be utilised. Seal materials such as Teflon (P.T.F.E.) are also acceptable, but composites such as Viton impregnated cotton should be avoided, as they may absorb moisture and swell over extended periods. Polyurethane and Porous gasket materials should be avoided. Agin the best report to carried out so far was in conjunction with Kvrner seal materials:
% Volume Change After 7 Days 1.82, 2.07, 1.82 -1.14, -0.65, -0.40 4.24, 4.12, 5.47 2.92, 2.90, 2.98 -1.92, -0.78, -1.17 Average 7 day (%) 1.90 -0.73 4.61 2.93 -1.29 % Volume Change After 28 Days 3.68, 3.77, 3.19 -0.51, 1.61, 0.34 11.40, 13.70, 14.47 4.90, 4.63, 4.62 3.45, 2.33, 3.11 Average 28 day(%) 3.55 0.48 13.19 4.72 2.96

Material Elastolion PTFE Viton Nitrile Peek

The only seal swell figures that could be of significance are: Viton = 13.19% Swell. Again this testing has been done at 70C which equates to over 8 years at 4C Elastomer shrinkage is generally unacceptable as it can lead to seal failure. Seal swell is acceptable depending upon degree of swelling (See table from The Chemical Resistance of Elastomers, Pruett, 1994). As a general rule the fluid should not chemically attack seal materials and swelling should not be greater than 15%. Swells greater than 15% are permissible if the elastomer is not able to chafe on moving parts.
Symbolic Rating A B C NR VOLUMETRIC SWELLING < 15% in 30 days to 1 year < 30% in 30 days to 1 year < 50% in 30 days to 1 year > 50% immediately to 1 year LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH 5 15% in 30 days to 1 year < 30% in 30 days to 1 year < 60% in 30 days to 1 year > 60% immediately to 1 year DESCRIPTION OF ATTACK Excellent, little or no swelling or softening or surface deterioration. Good chemical resistance. Minor chemical attack, swelling, softening or surface deterioration Limited chemical resistance. Moderate chemical attack. Conditional service Severe, attack, swelling, softening, or dissolved within minutes to years. Not recommended. Questionable resistance. Doubtful usage. Test before using.

Q TEST (Source The Chemical Resistance of Elastomers, Pruett, 1994)

Thermoplastics as used as linings in umbilical hose bundles are generally acceptable. Nylon 11 (Besno P40 TLO) and Ducoflex have been tested in conjunction with DUCO at NEL and have been found to be fully compatible with Oceanic HW740.

22 January 2002

23

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

7.

Stability with Contamination Oceanic HW700 fluids are extremely resistant to the effects of contamination by seawater and micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi, although every effort should be made to avoid these conditions from occurring. Improvements compared to the HW500 series have been made in this respect. The high stability of the additive pack reduces the possibility of flocculation and precipitation taking place, and if a monitoring programme is operated, advanced warning of impending problems will allow corrective action to be taken well before the system safety reliability can be seriously impaired.

7.1 Compatibility with Seawater IP287 Corrosion Test Results: Corrosion inhibition properties of Oceanic HW740 indicated that this fluid is unaffected by addition of at least 10% seawater. Only slight corrosion is evident with 50% seawater. IP329 Galvanic Corrosion Test Results: Results indicated the following galvanic corrosion effects were observed on addition of increasing amounts of seawater (up to 10%): a) Corrosion rates for Zinc are halved with an Aluminium, Steel and Zinc test couple. b) Corrosion rates for Aluminium become evident with an Aluminium, Steel and Zinc test couple. c) Corrosion rates for Cadmium are reduced with a Copper and Cadmium test couple. 7.2 Compatibility with Calcium Brines Calcium Chloride Brine - Oceanic HW740 can tolerate at least 2% of o Calcium Chloride Brine at 20 C for up to periods of at least 12 months. Calcium Bromide Brine - Oceanic HW740 forms pellet like solids with 1% o Calcium Bromide Brine at 20 C. These pellet like solids are not formed instantaneously. At concentrations of 1% solids are formed after one month and at concentrations of 2% solids are formed after 2 weeks.
22 January 2002

24

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

8.

Discharge into marine environments

The Oceanic HW700 range of subsea production control fluids have been formulated to have extremely low toxicity with a high degree of biodegradability. This has resulted in the range being awarded an OCNS Class E usage parameter for use in UK waters, which allows the customer to use up to 1000 tonnes of product, per installation, per year without prior notification to Government bodies. A full HOCNF is available but is summarised below. Toxicity testing: Skeletonema 72h EC50 548 mg/l, Acertia Tonsa 48h LC50 4409 mg/l Scophthalanus Maximus all LC50 testing regardless of time >3000 mg/l Corophium Volutator 10day LC50 3959 mg/kg Components biodegradation and bioaccumulation testing: 40% MEG on PARCOM list A Constituent A LogPow -0.86 60 day biodegradation 100% Constituent B LogPow 1.6 28 day biodegradation 31% 60 day biodegradation 100% Remainder Water 9. Filter Elements

Some impregnated paper types lose structural strength in contact with aqueous fluids. Recommended filter media are woven polypropylene or glass fibre. MacDermid Offshore. have long term experience with Pall Ultipor filter medium, and recommend its use in conjunction with Oceanic HW subsea production control fluids 10. Paints

Most paints used in the offshore industry are compatible with Oceanic HW Fluids. The most satisfactory results may be obtained with Nylon, Phenolic or Epoxy based coatings.

22 January 2002

25

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

11.

Supply and Manufacture

Oceanic HW Subsea Production Control Fluids and Ancillary Products referred to in this document may be obtained from :Contact MacDermid plc Cale Lane New Springs Wigan WN2 1JR ENGLAND MacDermid plc C/o Scottish Express Int. Howe Moss Drive Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND Tel: 01942 501000 Fax: 01942 501110 email ljoynson@macdermid.com Lynn Joynson

Tel: 01224 774785 Fax: 01224 723584 email ballan@macdermid.com

Mike Mahaney

W. Canning Inc Tel: in US 800 521 2589 A subsidiary of MacDermid Inc Fax: 2814449583 5625 West FM 1960 email sjordan@macdermid.com Suite 620 Houston TX 77069 USA

Sharon Jordan

MacDermid Offshore has appointed agents for their oilfield products around the world. Not all agents will necessarily hold the stocks of all products, and so it is important to check availability with the relevant agent before placing an order. In case of doubt, please contact MacDermid direct at the above address. Agents Aquaterra Supply Co. 42 LoyangDrive Singapore 508962 Algoa Oil & Pipeline Services Kendle Street P.O. Box 1916 Port Elizabeth 6000 South Africa Wave A/S Lonningsflaten 30 Lonningen Naeringspark N-5258 Blomsterdalen Norway Tel: (65) 5433533 Fax: (65) 5429271 e-mail aterra@cyberway.com.sg Tel: (27) 41412418 Fax: (27) 41433843 Rodney Tan

Tel: (47) 55226950 Fax: (47) 55228111 e-mail wave.as@online.no

E. Gunnarsen S. Odland

22 January 2002

26

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

Atom Supply 77 Mc Dowell Street Welshpool 6106 Western Australia Australia

Tel: 00 61 893561600 Fax: 0061 893561339 e-mail bruce@atomsupply.com.au

Bruce Roberts

Krest International Av das Americas 1155 Grupo 1509


Barra da Tijuca CEP 22640-100 Rio de janeiro RJ Brazil

Tel: +55 (0)21 4399092 Fax: +55 (0)21 4917804 e-mail krest@unisys.com.br

Gisel Reis

Certificates of Conformity
Certificates of Conformity for all the above products are available. Normally there is a charge for this service. Certificates of Conformity should be requested when placing orders for the goods required. Certificates cannot be issued if not requested at this time. 12. Quality Control Oceanic HW fluids are manufactured at MacDermid Offshore. Wigan Site and in Pasadena TX. The production plants are designed specially for the manufacture of water based control fluids, materials of construction in contact with the fluids during all stages of manufacture being either glass, stainless steel or UPVC. The product process is computer controlled. Quality control procedures fall into three main categories:1. 2. All incoming raw materials are checked against the relevant specifications During manufacture, records are kept of materials used and of any modifications carried out. Each complete batch is allocated a batch number, and batch samples are tested against the manufacturing specification. Records of the test results on each batch are recorded for future reference. Records are also kept of the batch numbers supplied to any particular order.

3.

Samples of fluid from each batch produced are retained for a minimum period of 12 months after the manufacturing date. The fluid is only supplied in new containers, which are visually examined before filling. Oceanic HW Fluids are filtered through a 3-micron absolute-rated polypropylene medium to achieve a NAS 1638 Class 6 cleanliness level. 12.1 Cleanliness of Supplied Fluid It is increasingly becoming common practice to specify levels of cleanliness for hydraulic equipment connected with subsea oil and gas production systems. As a manufacturer of hydraulic control fluids, MacDermid has been requested to supply, on several occasions, fluids meeting particular levels of cleanliness, including NAS1638 Class 6.

22 January 2002

27

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

The fluid production plant incorporates sophisticated filtration systems, which are able to produce fluid well within this level of cleanliness. Our experience to date, however, is that fluid reaching the end user is no longer within the required specification, and this occurrence has been investigated in some depth. The main source of contamination appears to be the container itself, even when new plastic drums are used. Consideration has been given to the flushing of containers with ultra-finely filtered water prior to filling, and even the individual filtration of each barrel of control fluid once filled. The cost of such an operation is however, prohibitive, as a conservative estimate would more than double the price of control fluid. Even if such extensive measures were taken, relatively minor impacts during loading and unloading operations can generate sufficient contamination to put the fluid cleanliness level out of specification. For these reasons MacDermid feel that it is not possible to certify that fluid can be supplies to the customer to a specific level of cleanliness. Further, MacDermid recommend that the only way to ensure that fluid entering the system is within the desired specification is to pass the fluid from the drum to the system reservoir via a suitable filter unit, or to install an off-line filter/circulator on the reservoir itself to clean up the fluid. To minimise the work required to be done by such filter units MacDermid take the following steps. 1. All control fluids are filtered through a 3 micron absolute rated medium and the cleanliness of the filtered fluid as the containers are filled is checked; a certificate showing the fluid at this point to be within NAS 1638 Class 6 can be provided on request as proof that this filtration operation has been carried out. Control fluids are supplied in new, moulded plastic drums, to minimise contamination by harmful metallic and silicaceous material. Every care is taken to minimise contamination during the filling operation and during storage by the use of seals and security tabs on the drums. Typically fluid cleanliness in drum samples taken in the field has been shown to be between NAS 1638 Class 5 and Class 7.

2.

3.

4.

Finally, as a guide to the use of fluid at the user end point, MacDermid recommend that:a) b) Handling of containers should be kept to a minimum. Full drums should be used whenever possible and the storage of part-full drums avoided, as once security seals are removed, there is no guarantee that contamination with foreign matter has not occurred. If a component is to be supplied to a particular level of cleanliness, it must be flushed through with control fluid and the fluid filtered until the desired level of cleanliness is achieved at the fluid outlet of the component. Filling with fluid which has been filtered to meet a particular level of cleanliness does not guarantee that the component will subsequently be at the same level.

c)

22 January 2002

28

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

13. TESTING OF OCEANIC HW FLUIDS To ensure that users of MacDermid Offshore. products get the best possible performance from their fluids, a fluid monitoring services has been established. This service monitors the condition of fluids in service by testing and analysing fluid samples from systems on a regular basis. MacDermid Offshore. clients wishing to take advantage of this service should send a sample of the fluid to be checked to our laboratory at Wigan. (Our technical services department can advise of sampling techniques, volumes required and so on). On completion of the relevant testing and analysis procedure for the product (which normally takes 48 hours), a Service Sample Analysis Report Sheet is issued to the client. This Report Sheet lists the results of the tests and analysis carried out, together with any comments and, where required, corrective action to be taken. Regular monitoring of fluids in service can be of great assistance when incorporated into a preventive maintenance programme. MacDermid Offshore.s products are formulated to have a high degree of tolerance to adverse conditions such as contamination and microbiological degradation. This means that there will be a considerable period of time between potential problems first being detected and their escalation to a point at which system safety or reliability may be compromised. Such advanced warning allows effective corrective action to be taken before such operational difficulties are encountered. Generally it is the case that the earlier such action is taken the less costly and complex that action tends to be. One other advantage of MacDermid Offshore.s Fluid Monitoring Service is that it provides the Research & Development Department with an accurate and up-to-date insight into the conditions encountered by products in the field. This enables Research & Development work to be directed specifically those areas that are of most benefit to clients, and keep the product range right at the forefront of fluid technology. Fluid samples may be sent direct to MacDermid Offshore., Wigan or may be sent to the local MacDermid appointed agent, who will forward the samples. Samples for condition monitoring should be of at least 500cc volume, and should be clearly marked with all relevant information. They should be despatched F.A.O. Service Sample Laboratory Complete a label including the following data :Company Name Installation/Site Fluid Name Fluid Type Sample Source Sample Reference Date Taken Name of Person Taking Sample Any Special Instructions

22 January 2002

29

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

13.1 Taking a Fluid Sample for Particle Analysis


This method is to be used if there is in the system a suitable valve for sampling from the return line or at some other point normally operating at less than 14 bar and that normally sees constant flow. The procedure below must be followed precisely in order to avoid external contamination that will invalidate test results. WARNING : FLUID SAMPLING FROM HIGH PRESSURE LINES IS DANGEROUS AND SHOULD BE PERFORMED ONLY BY EXPERIENCED PERSONNEL. Proceed as follows:1. Operate the system for at least half an hour prior to taking the sample in order to distribute the contamination as evenly as possible within the fluid. Open the sampling valve and flush at least 500ml (approximately one pint) of fluid through the valve. Do not close the valve after flushing. When opening the sample bottle, avoid tearing the Saran film, hold the Saran film against the bottle. Carefully loosen the bottle cap. Before completely removing the cap, lift the film and fold over the cap so that cap and film are removed together. The cap and film must not be placed on any surface; they must be held in the hand facing downwards. Using the other hand, place the sampling bottle under the valve and collect at least 200ml of fluid. (Approximately 7 ounces) CAUTION : DO NOT TOUCH THE VALVE WHILE TAKING THE SAMPLE. This could cause particles to loosen and be released from the valve so that the sample would not be representative of the fluid in the system. Withdraw the sampling bottle leaving the valve open. Rinse the inner surfaces of the bottle with the fluid and discard fluid. Repeat 4 and 5 a second time without closing valve. Then collect 250ml into sample bottle. Reversing the uncapping procedure above, cap the sampling bottle immediately and carefully wipe bottle. Then close the sampling valve. Securely attach a label to the sampling bottle. Complete the label, including the following data :Company Name Installation/Site Fluid Name Fluid Type Sample Source Sample Reference Date Taken Name of Person Taking Sample Testing Required (e.g. Particle Count to ARP 598B) Any Special Instructions

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

22 January 2002

30

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

14. SYSTEM PREPERATION One of the most important requirements for extended control fluid life is careful preparation of the system before fluid installation. Manufacturing debris and machining coolants and lubricants frequently allow microbiological growth to occur, particularly where long storage times occur between manufacture and installation. Concentrations of such growth are frequently so severe that even the best fluids are unable to combat contamination, and hence degradation can occur. To prevent such problems, our recommendation is to flush the system thoroughly with a solution of ERIFON SYSTEMS CLEANER prior to installation. This material is a biological shock treatment which also has a detergent action, and will eliminate pockets of biological activity and remove debris. The importance of the flushing stage cannot be stressed enough, as opportunities for removal of contaminated fluid after system installation are extremely limited. For best results, the flushing procedure should be carried out as soon as possible after manufacture, and the favoured method is to use a 2% solution of ERIFON SYSTEMS CLEANER in the Oceanic HW Control Fluid during testing operations on the system. This solution should remain in the system for a period of between 24 and 48 hours, and then drained out. The system should then be immediately refilled with fresh Oceanic HW Fluid. Specific details of flushing procedures vary considerably depending upon design, and are best dealt with once the design has been finalised. We would also strongly recommend that any intermediate system or component testing required is carried out only using Oceanic HW Fluid, and not water or mineral oil, as is common practice with many manufacturers. 15. EQUIPMENT STORAGE Where the storage time of equipment between manufacture and installation is short, and where stainless steels are used throughout, the system should be filled and stored with Oceanic HW Fluid. Where carbon steels are used, or storage time may be prolonged, there is a danger of corrosion by water vapour above the fluid surface, as frequently filling without operating all functions can leave air spaces. In these instances, our recommendation is to store the system filled with Oceanic E.P.F. equipment preservation fluid. This fluid contains a vapour inhibitor, which will protect ferrous metals above the fluid surface. The Oceanic E.P.F. also contains liquid phase corrosion inhibitors and biocides. Immediately prior to system installation, the Oceanic E.P.F. should be drained out and the system recharged with Oceanic HW Fluid. During storage, all external parts should be carefully sealed to avoid intrusion of contaminants. It is normal to protect external surfaces with mineral oil products. Where any danger exists of contamination of the Oceanic HW Fluid or Oceanic E.P.F. with such materials, we would recommend VINBRITE DP7/SP20 corrosion preventative. This product is a highly effective corrosion preventive film, and should slight contamination of the Oceanic HW Fluid or Oceanic E.P.F. occur, it will have no detrimental effect.

22 January 2002

31

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

16. General Flushing Procedure Regardless of the type of system or the specific circumstances involved, the general procedure to be used when carrying out a flushing operation with Erifon Systems Cleaner can be broken down into a series of steps. There are minor variations depending upon whether the system is new or in service, and these are included in the following suggested approach. 1. Prepare a 2% solution of Erifon Systems Cleaner. In new systems, fresh control fluid should be used as the carrier medium (diluted at the normal operating level where appropriate), and the HPU (hydraulic power unit) reservoir filled with the resulting Erifon Systems Cleaner solution. In operational systems, the appropriate volume of Erifon Systems Cleaner is added to the HPU reservoir. The fluid in the HPU reservoir should be thoroughly agitated using an air line. The resulting foam will clean internal reservoir surfaces, which would otherwise be inaccessible. The accumulators on the HPU should be fully discharged to waste, and then rapidly recharged from the HPU reservoir to create maximum turbulence. This operation should be repeated twice more. Accumulators are one of the most common areas of a system in which microorganisms thrive. With the accumulators charged allow the HPU to stand for a "soak" period of between twenty-four and forty eight hours. At the end of this period, drain the HPU and recharge with fresh control fluid. Add 2% of Erifon Systems Cleaner. Using the HPU as a power source, flush Erifon Systems Cleaner solution through all surface control panels, hook-up hoses and subsea valves. Where necessary, break lines at the subsea end of the control system to bleed "dead" portions of the system, and then reconnect. Cycle valves three times. Operate each system function three times to flush the main hydraulic feed(s) and actuators. Where the system is of a total loss type, it may be possible to temporarily feed the fluid discharge ports back to the HPU reservoir (i.e. in the case of a BOP on deck). Where this is not possible, the fluid depletion in the HPU reservoir must be replaced with fresh Erifon Systems Cleaner solution. When bleeding a section of a system, it is important to know when Erifon Systems Cleaner solution has arrived at a discharge point. On the surface, this may be done using a pH meter or pH test papers, which will register an increase in fluid pH when Erifon Systems Cleaner is present in the fluid. For detection subsea, Oceanic LTD Leak Tracer Fluid can be added to the Erifon Systems Cleaner Solution at a level of 5%. This provides a strong colour contrast when discharged from a port into the surrounding seawater. Allow the entire system to "soak" for a period of between twenty-four and forty eight hours. In the case of working systems, normal operations can be carried out provided that the concentration of Erifon Systems Cleaner is maintained. At the end of the soak period, drain the HPU and accumulator package, and immediate recharge with fresh control fluid. The accumulators should be charged and discharged to waste a total of three times, and then left charged with control fluid. Use the fresh control fluid to displace the Erifon Systems Cleaner solution from the control system. Operate all functions as in step 6. to ensure complete removal.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

22 January 2002

32

Cale Lane, New Springs, WIGAN. WN2 1JR. UK. tel +44 (0)1942 501000 fax +44 (0)1942 501110 WWW.MACDERMID.COM

11.

Removal of Erifon Systems Cleaner can be confirmed either by a return to normal pH or cessation of the appearance of Oceanic LTD at the discharge point. For systems already installed, recommence normal operations. On new systems, take care to minimise the possibility of contaminant intrusion prior to installation. Where a system is likely to be in storage for a considerable period of time (i.e. in excess of six months) fill with Oceanic EPF Equipment Preservation Fluid. This is substituted for the control fluid in steps 10. and 11., and replaced with control fluid prior to system installation offshore.

12.

Once the control fluid has been successfully installed in a system, it is recommended that advantage be taken of the Marston Bentley Fluid Monitoring Service, as a part of a planned maintenance programme.

22 January 2002

33