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Diunggah oleh ashinkumarjer

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Anda di halaman 1dari 18

xs

= Ae

jk

0

z+

is a solution to the vector Helmholtz equation, Sec. 11.1, Eq. (16), for

k

0

=

0

and any and A: We take

d

2

dz

2

Ae

jk

0

z+

= (jk

0

)

2

Ae

jk

0

z+

= k

2

0

E

xs

11.2. Let E(z, t ) = 200 sin 0.2z cos 10

8

t a

x

+500 cos(0.2z +50

) sin 10

8

t a

y

V/m. Find:

a) E at P(0, 2, 0.6) at t = 25 ns: Obtain

E

P

(t = 25) = 200 sin [(0.2)(0.6)] cos(2.5)a

x

+500 cos [(0.2)(0.6) +50(2)/360] sin(2.5)a

y

= 19.2a

x

+164a

y

V/m

b) |E| at P at t = 20 ns:

E

P

(t = 20) = 200 sin [(0.2)(0.6)] cos(2.0)a

x

+500 cos [(0.2)(0.6) +50(2)/360] sin(2.0)a

y

= 9.96a

x

+248a

y

V/m

Thus |E

P

| =

_

(9.96)

2

+(248)

2

= 249 V/m.

c) E

s

at P: E

s

= 200 sin 0.2za

x

j500 cos(0.2z +50

)a

y

. Thus

E

sP

= 200 sin [(0.2)(0.6)] a

x

j500 cos [(0.2)(0.6) +2(50)/360] a

y

= 23.9a

x

j273a

y

V/m

11.3. An H eld in free space is given as H(x, t ) = 10 cos(10

8

t x)a

y

A/m. Find

a) : Since we have a uniform plane wave, = /c, where we identify = 10

8

sec

1

. Thus

= 10

8

/(3 10

8

) = 0.33 rad/m.

b) : We know = 2/ = 18.9 m.

c) E(x, t ) at P(0.1, 0.2, 0.3) at t = 1 ns: Use E(x, t ) =

0

H(x, t ) = (377)(10) cos(10

8

t

x) = 3.77 10

3

cos(10

8

t x). The vector direction of E will be a

z

, since we require that

S = E H, where S is x-directed. At the given point, the relevant coordinate is x = 0.1. Using

this, along with t = 10

9

sec, we nally obtain

E(x, t ) = 3.77 10

3

cos[(10

8

)(10

9

) (0.33)(0.1)]a

z

= 3.77 10

3

cos(6.7 10

2

)a

z

= 3.76 10

3

a

z

V/m

11.4. In phasor form, the electric eld intensity of a uniform plane wave in free space is expressed as

E

s

= (40 j30)e

j20z

a

x

V/m. Find:

a) : From the given expression, we identify = 20 rad/m. Then = c = (3 10

8

)(20) =

6.0 10

9

rad/s.

b) = 20 rad/m from part a.

182

11.4. (continued)

c) f = /2 = 956 MHz.

d) = 2/ = 2/20 = 0.314 m.

e) H

s

: In free space, we nd H

s

by dividing E

s

by

0

, and assigning vector components such that

E

s

H

s

gives the required direction of wave travel: We nd

H

s

=

40 j30

377

e

j20z

a

y

= (0.11 j0.08)e

j20z

a

y

A/m

f) H(z, t ) at P(6, 1, 0.07), t = 71 ps:

H(z, t ) = Re

_

H

s

e

jt

_

=

_

0.11 cos(6.0 10

9

t 20z) +0.08 sin(6.0 10

9

t 20z)

_

a

y

Then

H(.07, t = 71ps) =

_

0.11 cos

_

(6.0 10

9

)(7.1 10

11

) 20(.07)

_

+ .08 sin

_

(6.0 10

9

)(7.1 10

11

) 20(.07)

__

a

y

= [0.11(0.562) 0.08(0.827)]a

y

= 6.2 10

3

a

y

A/m

11.5. A 150-MHz uniform plane wave in free space is described by H

s

= (4 +j10)(2a

x

+ja

y

)e

jz

A/m.

a) Find numerical values for , , and : First, = 2 150 10

6

= 3 10

8

sec

1

. Second,

for a uniform plane wave in free space, = 2c/ = c/f = (3 10

8

)/(1.5 10

8

) = 2 m.

Third, = 2/ = rad/m.

b) Find H(z, t ) at t = 1.5 ns, z = 20 cm: Use

H(z, t ) = Re{H

s

e

jt

} = Re{(4 +j10)(2a

x

+ja

y

)(cos(t z) +j sin(t z)}

= [8 cos(t z) 20 sin(t z)] a

x

[10 cos(t z) +4 sin(t z)] a

y

. Now at the given position and time, t z = (3 10

8

)(1.5 10

9

) (0.20) = /4. And

cos(/4) = sin(/4) = 1/

2. So nally,

H(z = 20cm, t = 1.5ns) =

1

2

_

12a

x

+14a

y

_

= 8.5a

x

9.9a

y

A/m

c) What is |E|

max

? Have |E|

max

=

0

|H|

max

, where

|H|

max

=

_

H

s

H

s

= [4(4 +j10)(4 j10) +(j)(j)(4 +j10)(4 j10)]

1/2

= 24.1 A/m

Then |E|

max

= 377(24.1) = 9.08 kV/m.

183

11.6. Let

R

=

R

= 1 for the eld E(z, t ) = (25a

x

30a

y

) cos(t 50z) V/m.

a) Find : = c = (3 10

8

)(50) = 15.0 10

9

s

1

.

b) Determine the displacement current density, J

d

(z, t ):

J

d

(z, t ) =

D

t

=

0

(25a

x

30a

y

) sin(t 50z)

= (3.32a

x

+3.98a

y

) sin(1.5 10

10

t 50z) A/m

2

c) Find the total magnetic ux passing through the rectangle dened by 0 < x < 1, y = 0,

0 < z < 1, at t = 0: In free space, the magnetic eld of the uniform plane wave can be easily

found using the intrinsic impedance:

H(z, t ) =

_

25

0

a

y

+

30

0

a

x

_

cos(t 50z) A/m

Then B(z, t ) =

0

H(z, t ) = (1/c)(25a

y

+ 30a

x

) cos(t 50z) Wb/m

2

, where

0

/

0

=

0

= 1/c. The ux at t = 0 is now

=

_

1

0

_

1

0

B a

y

dx dz =

_

1

0

25

c

cos(50z) dz =

25

50(3 10

8

)

sin(50) = 0.44 nWb

11.7. The phasor magnetic eld intensity for a 400-MHz uniformplane wave propagating in a certain lossless

material is (2a

y

j5a

z

)e

j25x

A/m. Knowing that the maximum amplitude of E is 1500 V/m, nd ,

, , v

p

,

R

,

R

, and H(x, y, z, t ): First, from the phasor expression, we identify = 25 m

1

from the

argument of the exponential function. Next, we evaluate H

0

= |H| =

H H

2

2

+5

2

=

29.

Then = E

0

/H

0

= 1500/

v

p

=

=

2 400 10

6

25

= 1.01 10

8

m/s

Now we note that

= 278.5 = 377

_

R

= 0.546

And

v

p

= 1.01 10

8

=

c

R

R

R

= 8.79

We solve the above two equations simultaneously to nd

R

= 4.01 and

R

= 2.19. Finally,

H(x, y, z, t ) = Re

_

(2a

y

j5a

z

)e

j25x

e

jt

_

= 2 cos(2 400 10

6

t 25x)a

y

+5 sin(2 400 10

6

t 25x)a

z

= 2 cos(8 10

8

t 25x)a

y

+5 sin(8 10

8

t 25x)a

z

A/m

184

11.8. Let the elds, E(z, t ) = 1800 cos(10

7

t z)a

x

V/m and H(z, t ) = 3.8 cos(10

7

t z)a

y

A/m,

represent a uniform plane wave propagating at a velocity of 1.4 10

8

m/s in a perfect dielectric. Find:

a) = /v = (10

7

)/(1.4 10

8

) = 0.224 m

1

.

b) = 2/ = 2/.224 = 28.0 m.

c) = |E|/|H| = 1800/3.8 = 474 .

d)

R

: Have two equations in the two unknowns,

R

and

R

: =

0

R

/

R

and =

R

/c.

Eliminate

R

to nd

R

=

_

c

0

_

2

=

_

(.224)(3 10

8

)(474)

(10

7

)(377)

_

2

= 2.69

e)

R

=

R

(

0

/)

2

= (2.69)(377/474)

2

= 1.70.

11.9. A certain lossless material has

R

= 4 and

R

= 9. A 10-MHz uniform plane wave is propagating in

the a

y

direction with E

x0

= 400 V/m and E

y0

= E

z0

= 0 at P(0.6, 0.6, 0.6) at t = 60 ns.

a) Find , , v

p

, and : For a uniform plane wave,

=

=

c

R

=

2 10

7

3 10

8

_

(4)(9) = 0.4 rad/m

Then = (2)/ = (2)/(0.4) = 5 m. Next,

v

p

=

=

2 10

7

4 10

1

= 5 10

7

m/s

Finally,

=

_

=

0

_

R

= 377

_

4

9

= 251

b) Find E(t ) (at P): We are given the amplitude at t = 60 ns and at y = 0.6 m. Let the maximum

amplitude be E

max

, so that in general, E

x

= E

max

cos(t y). At the given position and time,

E

x

= 400 = E

max

cos[(2 10

7

)(60 10

9

) (4 10

1

)(0.6)] = E

max

cos(0.96)

= 0.99E

max

So E

max

= (400)/(0.99) = 403 V/m. Thus at P, E(t ) = 403 cos(2 10

7

t ) V/m.

c) Find H(t ): First, we note that if E at a given instant points in the negative x direction, while the

wave propagates in the forward y direction, then H at that same position and time must point in

the positive z direction. Since we have a lossless homogeneous medium, is real, and we are

allowed to write H(t ) = E(t )/, where is treated as negative and real. Thus

H(t ) = H

z

(t ) =

E

x

(t )

=

403

251

cos(2 10

7

t ) = 1.61 cos(2 10

7

t ) A/m

185

11.10. Given a 20MHz uniform plane wave with H

s

= (6a

x

j2a

y

)e

jz

A/m, assume propagation in a

lossless medium characterized by

R

= 5 and an unknown

R

.

a) Find , v

p

,

R

, and : First, = 1, so = 2/ = 2 m. Next, v

p

= / = 2 20 10

6

=

4 10

7

m/s. Then,

R

= (

2

c

2

)/(

2

R

) = (3 10

8

)

2

/(4 10

7

)

2

(5) = 1.14.

Finally, =

0

R

/

R

= 377

1.14/5 = 180.

b) Determine E at the origin at t = 20ns: We use the relation |E| = |H| and note that for positive z

propagation, a positive x component of His coupled to a negative y component of E, and a negative

y component of His coupledtoa negative x component of E. We obtainE

s

= (6a

y

+j2a

x

)e

jz

.

Then E(z, t ) = Re

_

E

s

e

jt

_

= 6 cos(t z)a

y

+ 2 sin(t z)a

x

= 360 sin(t z)a

x

1080 cos(t z)a

y

. With = 4 10

7

sec

1

, t = 2 10

8

s, and z = 0, E evaluates as

E(0, 20ns) = 360(0.588)a

x

1080(0.809)a

y

= 212a

x

+874a

y

V/m.

11.11. A2-GHz uniformplane wave has an amplitude of E

y0

= 1.4 kV/mat (0, 0, 0, t = 0) and is propagating

in the a

z

direction in a mediumwhere

= 1.610

11

F/m,

= 3.010

11

F/m, and = 2.5 H/m.

Find:

a) E

y

at P(0, 0, 1.8cm) at 0.2 ns: To begin, we have the ratio,

= 1.6/3.0 = 0.533. So

=

_

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

_

2

1

_

_

1/2

= (2 2 10

9

)

_

(2.5 10

6

)(3.0 10

11

)

2

_

_

1 +(.533)

2

1

_

1/2

= 28.1 Np/m

Then

=

_

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

_

2

+1

_

_

1/2

= 112 rad/m

Thus in general,

E

y

(z, t ) = 1.4e

28.1z

cos(4 10

9

t 112z) kV/m

Evaluating this at t = 0.2 ns and z = 1.8 cm, nd

E

y

(1.8 cm, 0.2 ns) = 0.74 kV/m

b) H

x

at P at 0.2 ns: We use the phasor relation, H

xs

= E

ys

/ where

=

_

1

_

1 j (

)

=

_

2.5 10

6

3.0 10

11

1

1 j (.533)

= 263 +j65.7 = 271

14

So now

H

xs

=

E

ys

=

(1.4 10

3

)e

28.1z

e

j112z

271e

j14

= 5.16e

28.1z

e

j112z

e

j14

A/m

Then

H

x

(z, t ) = 5.16e

28.1z

cos(4 10

9

t 112z 14

)

This, when evaluated at t = 0.2 ns and z = 1.8 cm, yields

H

x

(1.8 cm, 0.2 ns) = 3.0 A/m

186

11.12. The plane wave E

s

= 300e

jkx

a

y

V/m is propagating in a material for which = 2.25 H/m,

= 9

pF/m, and

a) : We use the general formula, Eq. (35):

=

_

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

_

2

1

_

_

1/2

= (64 10

6

)

_

(2.25 10

6

)(9 10

12

)

2

_

_

1 +(.867)

2

1

_

1/2

= 0.116 Np/m

b) : Using (36), we write

=

_

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

_

2

+1

_

_

1/2

= .311 rad/m

c) v

p

= / = (64 10

6

)/(.311) = 2.06 10

8

m/s.

d) = 2/ = 2/(.311) = 20.2 m.

e) : Using (39):

=

_

1

_

1 j (

)

=

_

2.25 10

6

9 10

12

1

1 j (.867)

= 407 +j152 = 434.5e

j.36

f) H

s

: With E

s

in the positive y direction (at a given time) and propagating in the positive x direction,

we would have a positive z component of H

s

, at the same time. We write (with jk = +j):

H

s

=

E

s

a

z

=

300

434.5e

j.36

e

jkx

a

z

= 0.69e

x

e

jx

e

j.36

a

z

= 0.69e

.116x

e

j.311x

e

j.36

a

z

A/m

g) E(3, 2, 4, 10ns): The real instantaneous form of E will be

E(x, y, z, t ) = Re

_

E

s

e

jt

_

= 300e

x

cos(t x)a

y

Therefore

E(3, 2, 4, 10ns) = 300e

.116(3)

cos[(64 10

6

)(10

8

) .311(3)]a

y

= 203 V/m

11.13. Let jk = 0.2 + j1.5 m

1

and = 450 + j60 for a uniform plane wave propagating in the a

z

direction. If = 300 Mrad/s, nd ,

, and

: We begin with

=

_

1

_

1 j (

)

= 450 +j60

and

jk = j

_

_

1 j (

) = 0.2 +j1.5

187

11.13. (continued) Then

1

_

1 +(

)

2

= (450 +j60)(450 j60) = 2.06 10

5

(1)

and

(jk)(jk)

=

2

_

1 +(

)

2

= (0.2 +j1.5)(0.2 j1.5) = 2.29 (2)

Taking the ratio of (2) to (1),

(jk)(jk)

=

2

(

)

2

_

1 +(

)

2

_

=

2.29

2.06 10

5

= 1.11 10

5

Then with = 3 10

8

,

(

)

2

=

1.11 10

5

(3 10

8

)

2

_

1 +(

)

2

_ =

1.23 10

22

_

1 +(

)

2

_ (3)

Now, we use Eqs. (35) and (36). Squaring these and taking their ratio gives

2

=

_

1 +(

)

2

_

1 +(

)

2

=

(0.2)

2

(1.5)

2

We solve this to nd

= 1.07 10

11

F/m.

Since

= 0.271, we then nd

= 2.90 10

12

F/m. Finally, using these results in either (1) or

(2) we nd = 2.28 10

6

H/m. Summary: = 2.28 10

6

H/m,

= 1.07 10

11

F/m, and

= 2.90 10

12

F/m.

11.14. A certain nonmagnetic material has the material constants

R

= 2 and

= 4 10

4

at = 1.5

Grad/s. Find the distance a uniform plane wave can propagate through the material before:

a) it is attenuated by 1 Np: First,

= (4 10

4

)(2)(8.854 10

12

) = 7.1 10

15

F/m. Then,

since

<< 1, we use the approximate form for , given by Eq. (51) (written in terms of

):

.

=

2

_

=

(1.5 10

9

)(7.1 10

15

)

2

377

2

= 1.42 10

3

Np/m

The required distance is now z

1

= (1.42 10

3

)

1

= 706 m

b) the power level is reduced by one-half: The governing relation is e

2z

1/2

= 1/2, or z

1/2

=

ln 2/2 = ln 2/2(1.42 10

3) = 244 m.

c) the phase shifts 360

= (2c)/(

_

R

) = [2(3 10

8

)]/[(1.5 10

9

)

2] = 0.89 m.

11.15. A 10 GHz radar signal may be represented as a uniform plane wave in a sufciently small region.

Calculate the wavelengthincentimeters andthe attenuationinnepers per meter if the wave is propagating

in a non-magnetic material for which

a)

R

= 1 and

R

= 0: In a non-magnetic material, we would have:

=

_

R

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

R

_

2

1

_

_

1/2

188

11.15. (continued) and

=

_

R

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

R

_

2

+1

_

_

1/2

With the given values of

R

and

R

, it is clear that =

0

= /c, and so

= 2/ = 2c/ = 3 10

10

/10

10

= 3 cm. It is also clear that = 0.

b)

R

= 1.04 and

R

= 9.00 10

4

: In this case

R

/

R

<< 1, and so

.

=

_

R

/c = 2.13 cm

1

.

Thus = 2/ = 2.95 cm. Then

.

=

2

_

R

2

0

_

R

=

2c

R

_

R

=

2 10

10

2 3 10

8

(9.00 10

4

)

1.04

= 9.24 10

2

Np/m

c)

R

= 2.5 and

R

= 7.2: Using the above formulas, we obtain

=

2 10

10

2.5

(3 10

10

)

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

7.2

2.5

_

2

+1

_

_

1/2

= 4.71 cm

1

and so = 2/ = 1.33 cm. Then

=

2 10

10

2.5

(3 10

8

)

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

7.2

2.5

_

2

1

_

_

1/2

= 335 Np/m

11.16. The power factor of a capacitor is dened as the cosine of the impedance phase angle, and its Q is

CR, where R is the parallel resistance. Assume an idealized parallel plate capacitor having a dielecric

characterized by ,

, and

R

. Find both the power factor and Q in terms of the loss tangent: First,

the impedance will be:

Z =

R

_

1

jC

_

R +

_

1

jC

_ = R

1 jRC

1 +(RC)

2

= R

1 jQ

1 +Q

2

Now R = d/(A) and C =

A/d, and so Q =

cos[tan

1

(Q)] = 1/

_

1 +Q

2

.

189

11.17. Let = 250 +j30 and jk = 0.2 +j2 m

1

for a uniform plane wave propagating in the a

z

direction

in a dielectric having some nite conductivity. If |E

s

| = 400 V/m at z = 0, nd:

a) P

z,av

at z = 0 and z = 60 cm: Assume x-polarization for the electric eld. Then

P

z,av

=

1

2

Re

_

E

s

H

s

_

=

1

2

Re

_

400e

z

e

jz

a

x

400

e

z

e

jz

a

y

_

=

1

2

(400)

2

e

2z

Re

_

1

_

a

z

= 8.0 10

4

e

2(0.2)z

Re

_

1

250 j30

_

a

z

= 315 e

2(0.2)z

a

z

W/m

2

Evaluating at z = 0, obtain P

z,av

(z = 0) = 315 a

z

W/m

2

,

and at z = 60 cm, P

z,av

(z = 0.6) = 315e

2(0.2)(0.6)

a

z

= 248 a

z

W/m

2

.

b) the average ohmic power dissipation in watts per cubic meter at z = 60 cm: At this point a aw

becomes evident in the problem statement, since solving this part in two different ways gives

results that are not the same. I will demonstrate: In the rst method, we use Poyntings theorem

in point form (rst equation at the top of p. 366), which we modify for the case of time-average

elds to read:

P

z,av

=< J E >

where the right hand side is the average power dissipation per volume. Note that the additional

right-hand-side terms in Poyntings theorem that describe changes in energy stored in the elds

will both be zero in steady state. We apply our equation to the result of part a:

< J E >= P

z,av

=

d

dz

315 e

2(0.2)z

= (0.4)(315)e

2(0.2)z

= 126e

0.4z

W/m

3

At z = 60 cm, this becomes < J E >= 99.1 W/m

3

. In the second method, we solve for the

conductivity and evaluate < J E >= < E

2

>. We use

jk = j

_

_

1 j (

)

and

=

_

1

_

1 j (

)

We take the ratio,

jk

= j

_

1 j

_

__

= j

Identifying =

, we nd

= Re

_

jk

_

= Re

_

0.2 +j2

250 +j30

_

= 1.74 10

3

S/m

Now we nd the dissipated power per volume:

< E

2

>= 1.74 10

3

_

1

2

_

_

400e

0.2z

_

2

190

11.17b. (continued) At z = 60 cm, this evaluates as 109 W/m

3

. One can show that consistency between the

two methods requires that

Re

_

1

_

=

2

This relation does not hold using the numbers as given in the problem statement and the value of

found above. Note that in Problem 11.13, where all values are worked out, the relation does hold and

consistent results are obtained using both methods.

11.18a. Find P(r, t ) if E

s

= 400e

j2x

a

y

V/m in free space: A positive y component of E requires a posi-

tive z component of H for propagation in the forward x direction. Thus H

s

= (400/

0

)e

j2x

a

z

=

1.06e

j2x

a

z

A/m. Inreal form, the eldare E(x, t ) = 400 cos(t 2x)a

y

andH(x, t ) = 1.06 cos(t

2x)a

z

. Now P(r, t ) = P(x, t ) = E(x, t ) H(x, t ) = 424.4 cos

2

(t 2x)a

x

W/m

2

.

b) Find P at t = 0 for r = (a, 5, 10), where a = 0,1,2, and 3: At t = 0, we nd from part a,

P(a, 0) = 424.4 cos

2

(2a), which leads to the values (in W/m

2

): 424.4 at a = 0, 73.5 at a = 1,

181.3 at a = 2, and 391.3 at a = 3.

c) Find P at the origin for T = 0, 0.2T, 0.4T, and 0.6T , where T is the oscillation period. At

the origin, we have P(0, t ) = 424.4 cos

2

(t ) = 424.4 cos

2

(2t /T ). Using this, we obtain

the following values (in W/m

2

): 424.4 at t = 0, 42.4 at t = 0.2T , 277.8 at t = 0.4T , and

277.8 at t = 0.6T .

11.19. Perfectly-conducting cylinders with radii of 8 mm and 20 mm are coaxial. The region between the

cylinders is lled with a perfect dielectric for which = 10

9

/4 F/m and

R

= 1. If E in this region

is (500/) cos(t 4z)a

V/m, nd:

a) , with the help of Maxwells equations in cylindrical coordinates: We use the two curl equations,

beginning with E = B/t , where in this case,

E =

E

z

a

=

2000

sin(t 4z)a

=

B

t

a

So

B

=

_

2000

sin(t 4z)dt =

2000

cos(t 4z) T

Then

H

=

B

0

=

2000

(4 10

7

)

cos(t 4z) A/m

We next use H = D/t , where in this case

H =

H

z

a

+

1

(H

a

z

where the second term on the right hand side becomes zero when substituting our H

. So

H =

H

z

a

=

8000

(4 10

7

)

sin(t 4z)a

=

D

t

a

And

D

=

_

8000

(4 10

7

)

sin(t 4z)dt =

8000

(4 10

7

)

2

2

191

11.19a. (continued) Finally, using the given ,

E

=

D

=

8000

(10

16

)

2

This must be the same as the given eld, so we require

8000

(10

16

)

2

=

500

= 4 10

8

rad/s

b) H(, z, t ): From part a, we have

H(, z, t ) =

2000

(4 10

7

)

cos(t 4z)a

=

4.0

cos(4 10

8

t 4z)a

A/m

c) P(, , z): This will be

P(, , z) = E H =

500

cos(4 10

8

t 4z)a

4.0

cos(4 10

8

t 4z)a

=

2.0 10

3

2

cos

2

(4 10

8

t 4z)a

z

W/m

2

d) the average power passing through every cross-section 8 < < 20 mm, 0 < < 2. Using

the result of part c, we nd P

avg

= (1.0 10

3

)/

2

a

z

W/m

2

. The power through the given

cross-section is now

P =

_

2

0

_

.020

.008

1.0 10

3

2

d d = 2 10

3

ln

_

20

8

_

= 5.7 kW

11.20. If E

s

= (60/r) sin e

j2r

a

V/m, and H

s

= (1/4r) sin e

j2r

a

power passing outward through the surface r = 10

6

, 0 < < /3, and 0 < < 2.

P

avg

=

1

2

Re

_

E

s

H

s

_

=

15 sin

2

2r

2

a

r

W/m

2

Then, the requested power will be

=

_

2

0

_

/3

0

15 sin

2

2r

2

a

r

a

r

r

2

sin dd = 15

_

/3

0

sin

3

d

= 15

_

1

3

cos (sin

2

+2)

_

/3

0

=

25

8

= 3.13 W

Note that the radial distance at the surface, r = 10

6

m, makes no difference, since the power density

dimishes as 1/r

2

.

192

11.21. The cylindrical shell, 1 cm < < 1.2 cm, is composed of a conducting material for which = 10

6

S/m. The external and internal regions are non-conducting. Let H

a) Find H everywhere: Use Amperes circuital law, which states:

_

H dL = 2(2000) = 2(1.2 10

2

)(2000) = 48 A = I

encl

Then in this case

J =

I

Area

a

z

=

48

(1.44 1.00) 10

4

a

z

= 1.09 10

6

a

z

A/m

2

With this result we again use Amperes circuital law to nd H everywhere within the shell as a

function of (in meters):

H

1

() =

1

2

_

2

0

_

.01

1.09 10

6

d d =

54.5

(10

4

2

1) A/m (.01 < < .012)

Outside the shell, we would have

H

2

() =

48

2

= 24/ A/m ( > .012)

Inside the shell ( < .01 m), H

b) Find E everywhere: We use

E =

J

=

1.09 10

6

10

6

a

z

= 1.09 a

z

V/m

which is valid, presumeably, outside as well as inside the shell.

c) Find P everywhere: Use

P = E H = 1.09 a

z

54.5

(10

4

2

1) a

=

59.4

(10

4

2

1) a

W/m

2

(.01 < < .012 m)

Outside the shell,

P = 1.09 a

z

24

=

26

W/m

2

( > .012 m)

193

11.22. The inner and outer dimensions of a copper coaxial transmission line are 2 and 7 mm, respectively.

Both conductors have thicknesses much greater than . The dielectric is lossless and the operating

frequency is 400 MHz. Calculate the resistance per meter length of the:

a) inner conductor: First

=

1

f

=

1

_

(4 10

8

)(4 10

7

)(5.8 10

7

)

= 3.3 10

6

m = 3.3m

Now, using (70) with a unit length, we nd

R

in

=

1

2a

=

1

2(2 10

3

)(5.8 10

7

)(3.3 10

6

)

= 0.42 ohms/m

b) outer conductor: Again, (70) applies but with a different conductor radius. Thus

R

out

=

a

b

R

in

=

2

7

(0.42) = 0.12 ohms/m

c) transmission line: Since the two resistances found above are in series, the line resistance is their

sum, or R = R

in

+R

out

= 0.54 ohms/m.

11.23. A hollow tubular conductor is constructed from a type of brass having a conductivity of 1.2 10

7

S/m.

The inner and outer radii are 9 mm and 10 mm respectively. Calculate the resistance per meter length

at a frequency of

a) dc: In this case the current density is uniform over the entire tube cross-section. We write:

R(dc) =

L

A

=

1

(1.2 10

7

)(.01

2

.009

2

)

= 1.4 10

3

/m

b) 20 MHz: Now the skin effect will limit the effective cross-section. At 20 MHz, the skin depth is

(20MHz) = [f

0

]

1/2

= [(20 10

6

)(4 10

7

)(1.2 10

7

)]

1/2

= 3.25 10

5

m

This is much less than the outer radius of the tube. Therefore we can approximate the resistance

using the formula:

R(20MHz) =

L

A

=

1

2b

=

1

(1.2 10

7

)(2(.01))(3.25 10

5

)

= 4.1 10

2

/m

c) 2 GHz: Using the same formula as in part b, we nd the skin depth at 2 GHz to be = 3.2510

6

m. The resistance (using the other formula) is R(2GHz) = 4.1 10

1

/m.

194

11.24a. Most microwave ovens operate at 2.45 GHz. Assume that = 1.2 10

6

S/m and

R

= 500 for the

stainless steel interior, and nd the depth of penetration:

=

1

f

=

1

_

(2.45 10

9

)(4 10

7

)(1.2 10

6

)

= 9.28 10

6

m = 9.28m

b) Let E

s

= 50

V/m at the surface of the conductor, and plot a curve of the amplitude of E

s

vs.

the angle of E

s

as the eld propagates into the stainless steel: Since the conductivity is high, we

use (62) to write

.

=

.

=

f = 1/. So, assuming that the direction into the conductor is

z, the depth-dependent eld is written as

E

s

(z) = 50e

z

e

jz

= 50e

z/

e

jz/

= 50 exp(z/9.28)

. ,, .

amplitude

exp(j z/9.28

. ,, .

angle

)

where z is in microns. Therefore, the plot of amplitude versus angle is simply a plot of e

x

versus

x, where x = z/9.28; the starting amplitude is 50 and the 1/e amplitude (at z = 9.28 m) is 18.4.

11.25. A good conductor is planar in form and carries a uniform plane wave that has a wavelength of 0.3 mm

and a velocity of 3 10

5

m/s. Assuming the conductor is non-magnetic, determine the frequency and

the conductivity: First, we use

f =

v

=

3 10

5

3 10

4

= 10

9

Hz = 1 GHz

Next, for a good conductor,

=

2

=

1

f

=

4

2

f

=

4

(9 10

8

)(10

9

)(4 10

7

)

= 1.1 10

5

S/m

11.26. The dimensions of a certain coaxial transmission line are a = 0.8mm and b = 4mm. The outer

conductor thickness is 0.6mm, and all conductors have = 1.6 10

7

S/m.

a) Find R, the resistance per unit length, at an operating frequency of 2.4 GHz: First

=

1

f

=

1

_

(2.4 10

8

)(4 10

7

)(1.6 10

7

)

= 2.57 10

6

m = 2.57m

Then, using (70) with a unit length, we nd

R

in

=

1

2a

=

1

2(0.8 10

3

)(1.6 10

7

)(2.57 10

6

)

= 4.84 ohms/m

The outer conductor resistance is then found from the inner through

R

out

=

a

b

R

in

=

0.8

4

(4.84) = 0.97 ohms/m

The net resistance per length is then the sum, R = R

in

+R

out

= 5.81 ohms/m.

195

11.26b. Use information from Secs. 5.10 and 9.10 to nd C and L, the capacitance and inductance per unit

length, respectively. The coax is air-lled. From those sections, we nd (in free space)

C =

2

0

ln(b/a)

=

2(8.854 10

12

)

ln(4/.8)

= 3.46 10

11

F/m

L =

0

2

ln(b/a) =

4 10

7

2

ln(4/.8) = 3.22 10

7

H/m

c) Find and if + j =

jC(R +jL): Taking real and imaginary parts of the given

expression, we nd

= Re

_

_

jC(R +jL)

_

=

LC

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

R

L

_

2

1

_

_

1/2

and

= Im

_

_

jC(R +jL)

_

=

LC

2

_

_

_

1 +

_

R

L

_

2

+1

_

_

1/2

These can be found by writing out = Re

_

jC(R +jL)

_

= (1/2)

jC(R +jL)+c.c.,

where c.c denotes the complexconjugate. The result is squared, terms collected, andthe square root

taken. Now, using the values of R, C, and Lfound in parts a and b, we nd = 3.0 10

2

Np/m

and = 50.3 rad/m.

11.27. The planar surface at z = 0 is a brass-Teon interface. Use data available in Appendix C to evaluate

the following ratios for a uniform plane wave having = 4 10

10

rad/s:

a)

Tef

/

brass

: From the appendix we nd

dielectric. Also, for Teon,

R

= 2.1. For brass, we nd = 1.510

7

S/m, making brass a good

conductor at the stated frequency. For a good dielectric (Teon) we use the approximations:

.

=

2

_

=

_

__

1

2

_

=

1

2

_

_

c

_

.

=

_

_

1 +

1

8

_

__

.

=

=

c

_

R

For brass (good conductor) we have

.

=

.

=

_

f

brass

=

_

_

1

2

_

(4 10

10

)(4 10

7

)(1.5 10

7

) = 6.14 10

5

m

1

Now

Tef

brass

=

1/2

_

_

(/c)

_

f

brass

=

(1/2)(.0003)(4 10

10

/3 10

8

)

2.1

6.14 10

5

= 4.7 10

8

b)

Tef

brass

=

(2/

Tef

)

(2/

brass

)

=

brass

Tef

=

c

f

brass

RTef

=

(3 10

8

)(6.14 10

5

)

(4 10

10

)

2.1

= 3.2 10

3

196

11.27. (continued)

c)

v

Tef

v

brass

=

(/

Tef

)

(/

brass

)

=

brass

Tef

= 3.2 10

3

as before

11.28. A uniform plane wave in free space has electric eld given by E

s

= 10e

jx

a

z

+15e

jx

a

y

V/m.

a) Describe the wave polarization: Since the two components have a xed phase difference (in this

case zero) with respect to time and position, the wave has linear polarization, with the eld vector

in the yz plane at angle = tan

1

(10/15) = 33.7

to the y axis.

b) Find H

s

: With propagation in forward x, we would have

H

s

=

10

377

e

jx

a

y

+

15

377

e

jx

a

z

A/m = 26.5e

jx

a

y

+39.8e

jx

a

z

mA/m

c) determine the average power density in the wave in W/m

2

: Use

P

avg

=

1

2

Re

_

E

s

H

s

_

=

1

2

_

(10)

2

377

a

x

+

(15)

2

377

a

x

_

= 0.43a

x

W/m

2

or P

avg

= 0.43 W/m

2

11.29. Consider a left-circularly polarized wave in free space that propagates in the forward z direction. The

electric eld is given by the appropriate form of Eq. (80).

a) Determine the magnetic eld phasor, H

s

:

We begin, using (80), with E

s

= E

0

(a

x

+ ja

y

)e

jz

. We nd the two components of H

s

separately, using the two components of E

s

. Specically, the x component of E

s

is associated

with a y component of H

s

, and the y component of E

s

is associated with a negative x component

of H

s

. The result is

H

s

=

E

0

0

_

a

y

ja

x

_

e

jz

b) Determine an expression for the average power density in the wave in W/m

2

by direct application

of Eq. (57): We have

P

z,avg

=

1

2

Re(E

s

H

s

) =

1

2

Re

_

E

0

(a

x

+ja

y

)e

jz

E

0

0

(a

y

ja

x

)e

+jz

_

=

E

2

0

0

a

z

W/m

2

(assuming E

0

is real)

197

11.30. The electric eld of a uniform plane wave in free space is given by E

s

= 10(a

y

+ja

z

)e

j25x

.

a) Determine the frequency, f : Use

f =

c

2

=

(25)(3 10

8

)

2

= 1.2 GHz

b) Find the magnetic eld phasor, H

s

: With the Poynting vector in the positive x direction, a positive

y component for E requires a positive z component for H. Similarly, a positive z component for

E requires a negative y component for H. Therefore,

H

s

=

10

0

_

a

z

ja

y

_

e

j25x

c) Describe the polarization of the wave: This is most clearly seen by rst converting the given eld

to real instantaneous form:

E(x, t ) = Re

_

E

s

e

jt

_

= 10

_

cos(t 25x)a

y

sin(t 25x)a

z

_

At x = 0, this becomes,

E(0, t ) = 10

_

cos(t )a

y

sin(t )a

z

_

With the wave traveling in the forward x direction, we recognize the polarization as left circular.

11.31. A linearly-polarized uniform plane wave, propagating in the forward z direction, is input to a lossless

anisotropic material, in which the dielectric constant encountered by waves polarized along y (

Ry

)

differs from that seen by waves polarized along x (

Rx

). Suppose

Rx

= 2.15,

Ry

= 2.10, and the

wave electric eld at input is polarized at 45

.

a) Determine the shortest length of the material such that the wave as it emerges from the output end

is circularly polarized: With the input eld at 45

and circular polarization will result if the phase difference between the components is /2. Our

requirement over length L is thus

x

L

y

L = /2, or

L =

2(

x

y

)

=

c

2(

Rx

Ry

)

With the given values, we nd,

L =

(58.3)c

2

= 58.3

4

= 14.6

b) Will the output wave be right- or left-circularly-polarized? With the dielectric constant greater for

x-polarized waves, the x component will lag the y component in time at the output. The eld can

thus be written as E = E

0

(a

y

ja

x

), which is left circular polarization.

198

11.32. Suppose that the length of the medium of Problem 11.31 is made to be twice that as determined in

the problem. Describe the polarization of the output wave in this case: With the length doubled, a

phase shift of radians develops between the two components. At the input, we can write the eld as

E

s

(0) = E

0

(a

x

+a

y

). After propagating through length L, we would have,

E

s

(L) = E

0

[e

j

x

L

a

x

+e

j

y

L

a

y

] = E

0

e

j

x

L

[a

x

+e

j (

y

x

)L

a

y

]

where (

y

x

)L = (since

x

>

y

), and so E

s

(L) = E

0

e

j

x

L

[a

x

a

y

]. With the reversal of

the y component, the wave polarization is rotated by 90

11.33. Given a wave for which E

s

= 15e

jz

a

x

+18e

jz

e

j

a

y

V/m, propagating in a medium characterized

by complex intrinsic impedance, .

a) Find H

s

: With the wave propagating in the forward z direction, we nd:

H

s

=

1

_

18e

j

a

x

+15a

y

_

e

jz

A/m

b) Determine the average power density in W/m

2

: We nd

P

z,avg

=

1

2

Re

_

E

s

H

s

_

=

1

2

Re

_

(15)

2

+

(18)

2

_

= 275 Re

_

1

_

W/m

2

11.34. Given the general elliptically-polarized wave as per Eq. (73):

E

s

= [E

x0

a

x

+E

y0

e

j

a

y

]e

jz

a) Show, using methods similar to those of Example 11.7, that a linearly polarized wave results when

superimposing the given eld and a phase-shifted eld of the form:

E

s

= [E

x0

a

x

+E

y0

e

j

a

y

]e

jz

e

j

where is a constant: Adding the two elds gives

E

s,t ot

=

_

E

x0

_

1 +e

j

_

a

x

+E

y0

_

e

j

+e

j

e

j

_

a

y

_

e

jz

=

_

_

_

_

E

x0

e

j/2

_

e

j/2

+e

j/2

_

. ,, .

2 cos(/2)

a

x

+E

y0

e

j/2

_

e

j/2

e

j

+e

j

e

j/2

_

. ,, .

2 cos(/2)

a

y

_

_

e

jz

This simplies to E

s,t ot

= 2

_

E

x0

cos(/2)a

x

+E

y0

cos( /2)a

y

_

e

j/2

e

jz

, which is lin-

early polarized.

b) Find in terms of such that the resultant wave is polarized along x: By inspecting the part a

result, we achieve a zero y component when 2 = (or odd multiples of ).

199

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