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Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER

The Relationship between Circumference and Diameter Clayton D. Wikoff Taft College

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER Abstract

The purpose for this research is to discover whether or not there is evidence to suggest that there is a relationship between the circumference and diameter of a circle. The experiment was begun by viewing a bar graph, frequency chart, and scatter plot to see if there appeared to be a reasonable association between the circumference and diameter. The outlines did show that the data was not scattered randomly, but that there is an association. This association is linear, so Pearsons Correlation was used to calculate the correlation coefficient. The LinRegTTest of a TI84 calculator resulted with a p-value of 2.2820E-48 (or approximately 0.00000), and a correlation coefficient of approximately 1.0000. This suggests a very strong positive association between circumference and diameter. It was thus concluded that there is certainly a relationship between the circumference and diameter.

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER

Figure #1
Figure #1,a Introduction The motivation for this experiment is to discover whether or not there is a relationship between the circumference and the diameter of a circle. My hypothesis is that there is a relationship between the circumference and diameter of circular objects. Methods Figure #1,b To collect my data, I gathered ten different circular items. Figure #1 shows an example of my measurement process. To find the diameter, I used a ruler to measure across the center of a flat base of each item (shown in Figure #1,a). In order to find the circumference, I wrapped a string around the perimeter of each circular item, and marked the Figure #1,c connecting point with a pencil (Figure #1,b). I then stretched the string out on a ruler and measured the length of the string to the pencil mark (Figure #1,c). Population is the circumference divided by diameter ratio of all circular objects in existence. The sample is the compilation of measured items collected by the students of the statistics class. The sample size is 391 items. A subset of more reasonable size is taken from the sample using a TI-84 calculator to find a random sample of 25 data values. With my sample data set of 25 values, I calculated the ratio of

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER circumference divided by diameter. To get a variety of view points on the ratio, I constructed several graphs and charts (Figures 2-4). Regression Analysis After creating several ways to see if a relationship between the circumference and diameter is practical to assume, I then used a regression analysis to see if the relationship would be supported mathematically. Assumptions for a regression analysis: distribution of the residuals: 1. Is normal satisfied with a normal plot of the residuals 2. has mean of zero satisfied by 1-varstats mean of residuals, or by the Least Squares Regression. 3. has a constant variancesatisfied by a scatter plot with x=Diameter. Y=residuals, make sure theres no linear trend. Residuals independent of each other. Satisfied with the same scatter plot which satisfies the constant variance. Since the scatter plot (x=DIAM; y=CIRCUM) is very linear, we will use Pearsons Correlation to find the strength of the association. Pearsons Correlation Null Hypothesis: rho=0 Alternate Hypothesis: rho>0 LinRegTTest: t=507.0642 P=2.2820E-48, or approximately 0.0000 S=.5358

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER R=1.0000 r2=.9999 Circumference=.1074+3.1807*Diameter

p<alpha, Reject null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to suggest a positive association between diameter and circumference. This relationship is very strong, seen by both correlation coefficients. Diameter predicting Circumference For a diameter of 10: Circumference=.1074+31.807 =31.9144 Diameter=15: Circumference=.1074+47.7105 =47.7105

Figure #2
12 10
40%

Frequency

8 6 4 2 0 10
12%

28%

16%

7 4 0 0
4%

2.9<x<3.1 3.1<x<3.2 3.2<x<3.4 3.4<x<3.5 3.5<x<3.7 3.7<x<3.9 3.9<x<4.0

Category 1 Ratio

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER

Figure #3
Cl a s s 2.8888<x<3.0532 3.0532<x<3.2175 3.2175<x<3.3819 3.3819<x<3.5462 3.5462<x<3.7106 3.7106<x<3.8749 3.8749<x<4.0393 tota l Frequency 3 10 7 4 0 0 1 25 Rel a ti ve Frequency 0.1200 0.4000 0.2800 0.1600 0.0000 0.0000 0.0400 1.0000 Cumul a ti ve Frequency 3 13 20 24 24 24 25 Cumul a ti ve Rel a ti ve Frequency 0.1200 0.5200 0.8000 0.9600 0.9600 0.9600 1.0000

Results Based on the charts, it seems that it is, in fact, reasonable to see a relationship between the circumference and diameter. As can be seen in Figure #2, the ratio of the circumference divided by the diameter most commonly tends to be somewhere between 3.10 and 3.40. Since this data is skewed right, we would use the median, which is 3.2143. In both Figure #2 and Figure #3, it can be observed that there is a single data value that falls in the 3.8749<x<4.0393 range. This odd value is most likely due to the imperfect measurement process. Measuring circumference and diameter with a string and ruler will not always result in an entirely accurate measurement, thus variations of ratio may occur. Therefore, I didnt throw out the data just because it doesnt look right. The mean is also within a fairly close proximity of the median. The mean is 3.2423. In addition, the mode points in the same direction as the mean and median. The mode is in the class: 3.0532<x<3.2175. Furthermore, in Figure #4, the slope of the regression line is 3.1807. From the Regression Analysis, we can see that a relationship between circumference and diameter is also reasonable mathematically. Since the p-value is less than alpha, and the Pearsons Correlation

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER Coefficient equals 1.0000, we see that there is a very strong association between the circumference and diameter of a circle.

Figure #4
60 50

Circumference

40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 Diameter 15 20

Discussion We can learn from this experiment that there does indeed appear to be definite evidence to suggest there is a relationship between the circumference and diameter of a circle. The evidence strongly suggests that there is a positive association between circumference and diameter. As diameter increases, circumference increases at a constant rate. A major limitation for this research is the measurement process. The circumference and diameter measurements are continuous, not discrete; therefore, using an ordinary ruler to measure will not get an accurate measurement to the fourth decimal. A ruler will not always be entirely accurate even to the first decimal. This inaccurate method of measurement causes the ratios to vary.

Running head: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND DIAMETER

Appendix
My Data # Object Measured Circumference Diameter ratio 1 CD disc 392 121 3.239669 2 Partial roll of duct tape 295 95 3.105263 3 Small bike tire 652 208 3.134615 4 Poker Chip 122.5 39 3.141026 5 Pocket Watch 136 43.5 3.126437 6 AA Battery 43.8 14 3.128571 7 Flashlight 178 57 3.122807 8 cup 262 82.5 3.175758 9 Spool (for thread) 98 32 3.0625 10 roll of toilet paper 394 125 3.152

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Sample Data # in sample Object Measured Circumference Diameter 362 Dresser Drawer Knob 5.2 1.6 168 Ranch Beans 283 88.9 153 Ring 2.6 0.9 220 Fire Extinguisher 14 4 384 Life water bottle lid 5 1.5 67 Quarter 3.1 0.9 242 Plate 25.875 8.25 323 Hat 23.6 7.5 159 Regular RiteAid Chapstick 2 0.59375 224 Track ball 7 2 127 Dime 2.214 0.705 118 Basketball 29.33 9.34 54 baseball 8.9 2.65 304 Lid of Vitamin container 7 2.4 253 Green ball 6.2 1.6 246 Soufle Dish 11.25 3.5 20 Disposable cup 30.7 9.8 50 shaving cream 6.7 2.05 114 paper plate 50.27 16 137 Dime 2 0.68 133 Fan 29.438 9.375 302 Kirkland coffee can 19.7 6.1 18 Corn tortilla 45.7 14 258 wedding ring 3.25 0.9375 291 Soda can base 6 1.95

ratio 3.25 3.183352 2.888889 3.5 3.333333 3.444444 3.136364 3.146667 3.368421 3.5 3.140426 3.140257 3.358491 2.916667 3.875 3.214286 3.132653 3.268293 3.141875 2.941176 3.140053 3.229508 3.264286 3.466667 3.076923