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Relationship between Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and Motivational Behavior of Employees by Katrina D.

Brown

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership

University of Phoenix May 2005

UMI Number: 3183509

Copyright 2005 by Brown, Katrina D.


All rights reserved.

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iii ABSTRACT The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. The research development was supported by leaders emotional intelligence and employee/followers motivational behavior. The Emotional Competence Inventory assessed leaders emotional intelligence and the Motivation Sources Inventory assessed employee/followers motivation. The survey sample consisted of 49 leaders and 122 employees/followers in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The survey results suggested no correlation between leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers.

iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgements for personal endeavors are sent to Dr. Freda Turner, for providing direction, stamina, staying power, and focus. I would like to thank Dr. Cheryl Winsten-Bartlett, for supplying the guidance needed in ensuring a quality product was issued, while focusing on understanding what it is like to be on the writing side of the dissertation process. I would like to thank Dr. Craig Barton for his spirit, attentiveness, acceptance, appreciation of the dissertation topic, and for understanding what was needed to ensure a quality dissertation was produced. I would like to take the time to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ for the completion of this dissertation. I would also like to thank my husband, William Marvin Brown for being my greatest supporter, my ever-loving son, who is in school at Temple University in Philadelphia, who was adamant about me not overdoing my studies. I would like to give personal thanks to Roger Fuller, for being the messenger from God. I would like to take a moment to thank Dr. Richard Schutler who was responsible for aligning my individual thoughts in the Doctoral program. I want to take this special moment to say thanks to Steve Johnson who was unbelievable in his endeavors, and understanding of my pursuits. I would also like to give thanks to my adopted daughter, Randi as well as my friends and associate Misa Alexander. I want to thank Managers/Leaders and employee/followers from the participating organization studied, especially Mr. Kenny, Mrs. Ebbighausen, Mr. Hezarkhani, Mr. Shreeran, Mr. Vazquez Mr. Marriott, and Mr. Mazzeo to name a few, as they were essential in ensuring my endeavors were successful.

v DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my mother (who is no longer with us) who was partly responsible for my achieving the Doctoral degree; she was the reason for the completion of my Bachelors, and Masters. She believed degrees were essential, and that once attained they could never be taken away. Her words provided the staying power when I wanted to give up and lightness when darkness was all around. Dedications are given to Rosa Mae Kelly McAlister, Owen McAlister, Ethel Edwards, Bettye, and Allen Hudson, Virginia Lane (Mom-Lane), Curt Wilder (your little sis) this dissertation is for you in memory of how you all have influenced my decision to attain such a prestigious degree, and have positively influenced my life. This dissertation is dedicated to my husband and sonWilliam Marvin Brown and William Marvin Brown II. .

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables ......................................................................................................xii List of Figures .....................................................................................................xii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1 Problem Statement ................................................................................................ 4 Problem Background ............................................................................................ 5 Emotional Intelligence and Performance....................................................... 7 Purpose of Study ................................................................................................... 9 Significance of Study............................................................................................ 9 Significance of Study to Leadership ................................................................... 11 Nature of Study ................................................................................................... 12 Research Question ....................................................................................... 17 Hypothesis ................................................................................................... 17 Theoretical Framework....................................................................................... 18 Motivation Theories..................................................................................... 18 Intelligence Theories ................................................................................... 21 Definitions........................................................................................................... 22 Assumptions........................................................................................................ 25 Scope of Study .................................................................................................... 26

vii Limitations and Delimitations............................................................................. 27 Summary ............................................................................................................. 28 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ 31 Emotional Intelligence as a Construct ................................................................ 37 Historical Overview of Emotional Intelligence .................................................. 39 Historical Perspectives of the Emotional Competence Inventory ...................... 44 Current Findings on Emotional Intelligence....................................................... 45 Historical Overview of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Characteristics 49 Current Findings on Emotional Intelligence and Workplace Performance ........ 55 Emotional Intelligence in Service Organizations ........................................ 57 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Journals on Emotional Intelligence.......................................................................................................... 59 Motivation as a Construct ................................................................................... 71 Historical Overview of Motivation..................................................................... 73 Historical Perspectives of Motivation Sources Inventory .................................. 75 Current Findings on Motivation.......................................................................... 77 Current Findings on Motivation in Organizations .............................................. 80 Historical Overview of Motivation and Leadership Characteristics................... 84 Motivation in Service Organizations ........................................................... 86 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Journals on Motivation ............ 88 Current Findings on Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, and Motivation in Organizations ...................................................................................................... 93 Using Emotional Competencies with Leadership............................................... 96

viii Quantitative Study and Its Effectiveness ............................................................ 97 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 98 Summary ............................................................................................................. 99 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY .................................................................... 101 Variables ........................................................................................................... 102 Research Question ............................................................................................ 103 Hypotheses........................................................................................................ 103 Research Design................................................................................................ 104 Appropriateness of Research Design ................................................................ 105 Feasibility of Study.................................................................................... 107 Informed Consent.............................................................................................. 108 Protection for Survey Respondents ........................................................... 108 Geographic Location......................................................................................... 109 Methodology ..................................................................................................... 110 Methodology Appropriateness................................................................... 112 Validity and Reliability of Research Approach ................................................ 113 Population Sample ............................................................................................ 114 Sampling Frame ................................................................................................ 115 Selection of Participants ............................................................................ 117 Data Collection Process .................................................................................... 118 Data Analysis .................................................................................................... 121 Identification and Correction Error ........................................................... 122 Presentation, and Interpretation of Data .................................................... 123

ix Survey Instruments ........................................................................................... 123 Emotional Intelligence Instruments........................................................... 125 Reliability and Validity of Emotional Competence Inventory ......................... 128 Motivation Instruments.............................................................................. 132 Sample Item of Motivation Sources Inventory.......................................... 134 Reliability and Validity of Motivation Sources Inventory ............................... 135 Summary ........................................................................................................... 137 Chapter 4: Data analysis ................................................................................... 140 Research Design and Method ........................................................................... 141 Pilot Study ................................................................................................. 143 Data Collection Procedure ................................................................................ 145 Survey Production ..................................................................................... 146 Quota Sampling ......................................................................................... 146 Data Presentation .............................................................................................. 147 Computer Software.................................................................................... 148 Validated Forms......................................................................................... 148 Presentation of Results...................................................................................... 150 Variables and Their Scales ........................................................................ 150 Scale Type ................................................................................................. 151 Description of Variables ............................................................................ 151 Sample Demographic Characteristics........................................................ 152 Sample Population ............................................................................................ 173 Data Screening........................................................................................... 174

x Reliability and Validity..................................................................................... 185 Reliability .................................................................................................. 186 Construct Validity...................................................................................... 187 Common Method Variance (CMV)........................................................... 193 Sample Size ............................................................................................... 193 Statistical Analysis............................................................................................ 194 Hypotheses........................................................................................................ 194 Bivariate Correlations (Pearson Product Moment).................................... 196 Structural Equation Modeling.................................................................... 197 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ............................................................... 200 Acceptance and Rejection of Hypotheses.................................................. 201 Findings Relevant to Research Question .......................................................... 202 Research Question ............................................................................................ 202 Summary ........................................................................................................... 203 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................... 205 Problem, Purpose Methodology and Literature Review................................... 207 Problem...................................................................................................... 207 Purpose ...................................................................................................... 208 Methodology.............................................................................................. 209 Summary of Issues and Comparison to Literature Review .............................. 210 Discussion of Findings...................................................................................... 216 Other Statistical Associations .................................................................... 221 Inferences and Conclusions ....................................................................... 223

xi Implications....................................................................................................... 225 Implications for Organizational Leaders ................................................... 226 Implications to Organizational Performance and Motivation ................... 227 Implications to Gender Differences........................................................... 228 Implications to Theoretical Framework and Research .............................. 229 Recommendations............................................................................................. 230 Summary ........................................................................................................... 233 References: ........................................................................................................235 Appendix A: ECI (Emotional Competence Inventory) Permission...................274 Appendix B: Permission to Use Motivation Sources Inventory.........................276 Appendix C: Letter of Introduction....................................................................277 Appendix D: Informed Consent Agreement.......................................................279 Appendix E: Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study......................281 Appendix F: Instructions for Completion of ECI/ECI Survey...........................282 Appendix G: Demographic Questionnaire..........................................................290 Appendix H: Postcard Request...........................................................................291 Appendix I: Informed Consent Permission to Use Premises..............................292 Appendix J: Letter of Collaboration....................................................................293 Appendix K: Internal Review Board Approval Letter.........................................295

xii List of Table s Table 1 Dissertations - Emotional Intelligence and Performance (1997-2003)..60 Table 2 Dissertations - Motivation and Emotional Intelligence (1998-2003) ... 91 Table 3 Demographic Statistics ....................................................................... 153 Table 4 Demographic Data: Overall Age ........................................................ 158 Table 5 Demographic Data: Age Leaders........................................................ 159 Table 6 Demographic Data: Age Employees/Followers ................................ 160 Table 7 Demographic Data: Overall Gender ................................................... 161 Table 8 Demographic Data: Gender of Leaders .............................................. 162 Table 9 Demographic Data: Gender of Employees/Followers ........................ 163 Table 10 Demographic Data: Overall Years of Service (YOS)....................... 163 Table 11 Demographic Data: Years of Service (YOS) Leaders ...................... 164 Table 12 Demographic Data: Years of Service (YOS) Employees/Followers 166 Table 13 Demographic Data: Overall Educational Level................................ 167 Table 14 Demographic Data: Educational Level of Leaders.......................... 168 Table 15 Demographic Data: Educational Level of Employees/Followers..... 169 Table 16 Qualified Leaders/Number of Responding Leaders/Departments.... 171 Table 17 Number of Responding Employee/Followers................................... 172

xiii Table 18 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, Reliability Coefficients................................................................ 175 Table 19 Descriptive Statistic Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Ciefficients, and Reliability Coefficients.......................................................... 177 Table 20 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficients......................................................... 179 Table 21 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviation, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficients......................................................... 181 TABLE 22 Normality Tests............................................................................. 183 TABLE 23 Instrument Construct Validity Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA): Divergent Validity ............................................................................................ 188 TABLE 24 Instrument Construct Validity Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA): Convergent Validity.......................................................................................... 192 Table 25 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)....................................................... 201 Table 26 Hypothesis: Findings Overview........................................................ 211 EXHIBIT 1 Data Revealing ECI Construct...................................................... 296 EXHIBIT 2 Data Revealing MSI Construct ..................................................... 298

xiv List of Figures Figure 1 Literature review map................................................................................33 Figure 2 Structural model of proposed relationship between ECI and MSI ............34 Figure 3 Definitions of emotional intelligence.........................................................37 Figure 4 Constructivists reaction to the use of ECI.................................................69 Figure 5 Definitions of motivation............................................................................71 Figure 6 Demographics statistics number of employees of by department.............155 Figure 7 Demographics statistics number of employees by gender.........................155 Figure 8 Demographics statistics number of employees by age...............................155 Figure 9 Demographics statistics number of employees by education.....................156 Figure 10 Demographics statistics number of employees by years of service.........156 Figure 11 Scattergram of years of service of respondents........................................173 Figure 12 Structural model of relationship between ECI and MSI Null model........190 Figure 13 Structural model re-specified relationship between ECI and MSI selected model.................................................................................................191

1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. The focus of this chapter is to introduce the problem statement, purpose statement, and background of the problem, significance of the study, significance of the study to leaders, the nature of the study, definitions, research question, hypothesis, and limitations and delimitations. Additionally, the theoretical framework of the research study using intelligence theories and motivation was introduced. The problem under investigation is introduced.

2 Leaders awareness of emotional intelligence influences individual and organizational performance (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Cherniss and Goleman (2001) and Bass (2002) noted that 50 to 70% of employees/followers discernment and acceptance of organizational climate has strong connections to leaders emotional intelligence (EI). Furthermore, research indicates, EI accounts for 85 to 90 percent of the success of organizational leaders (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001, p. xv). Emotional intelligence may serve as an approach for understanding gut feelings, insight, and emotional sensations that influenced leaders quality decisions for many years (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Salovey & Mayer, 1989). Various studies (Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Salovey, Mayer, and Caruso, 2000; Schutte, Malouf, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, & Dornheim, 1998; Martinez-Pons, 1997) relating emotional intelligence to increased motivational performance have been executed. Based on the studies findings, relationships exist between emotional intelligence and other behavioral responses, such as managing divergences, organizational tension builders, and managers and teams performances (Svyantek & Rahim, 2002). Motivational performance level increases can be associated with understanding nonverbal use of emotions in various organizations (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002a; Syvantek & Rahim, 2002). Further research has determined skills that have associations with emotional intelligence, such as self-awareness, are necessary for people to progress and advance in organizational hierarchies (Svyantek, 2003; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Emotional intelligence may be the determining factor in the long-standing argument of whether leaders are born or made. Emotional intelligence has a significant impact on above average salespersons skills, which contributes to the profitability of an

3 organization (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka, 2003). In sales organizations, the best performers are those who have association with emotional intelligence factors, such as awareness of competencies (Goleman, 1995; Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka). Emotional intelligence has connections to the concept of intelligence quotient (IQ). While emotional intelligence measures ones own as well as others understanding of emotions, intelligence quotient measures the amount of intelligence of individuals, and tests individuals natural intelligence when being considered for hire (Damasio & Damasio, as cited in McMullen, 2003). Goleman (1995; 1998) stated intelligence quotient is of less importance than emotional intelligence in organizational settings. Emotional intelligence is associated with the potential for advancement as noted in the percentage of organizational leaders success (Goleman; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Studies (Harackiewicz, Manderlink and Sansone, 1984; Cameron & Pierce, 1994) have demonstrated that there is an enormous gap in motivational practices in organizations. The exploration of various studies is closing the gaps relating emotional intelligence to organizations. There are several measures of motivation, Vrooms expectancy theory, and Herzbergs needs-based theory, and a vast amount of research available on the subject (Herzberg, 1966; Maslow, 1954; McGregor, 1957; Aldefer, 1969; Vroom, 1964). This research study attempted to explore a correlation between two variables, which may increase motivational behavior in order to augment employees/followers performance levels. Included in this chapter were the problem statement, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, and its impact on leadership, the nature of the study, hypotheses, research question, and the theoretical framework.

4 Problem Statement There is a deficiency of awareness of certain emotional competencies among leaders in organizations (Goleman, 1998; Goleman, 1998b). Linked to unfamiliarity with emotional intelligence competencies are leaders who experience unfavorable performances (Goleman, 1998; Goleman, 1998b). More than 80% of those rated as top performers, and who reach top levels in the organizations, are those who are mindful of the importance of using emotional competencies (Goleman, 1998; Rushmore & Baker, 1987). Organizational leaders cognizance of the importance of emotional intelligence might increase capital and performance, decrease recruitment cost and employee turnover expenses (Goleman 1998; Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997, as cited in Goleman, 1998; McClelland, 1999; Lam & Kirby, 2002). In the transportation industry, a service industry, the issues of leaders lack of self-awareness and the use of emotional competencies affect employees/followers intrinsic motivation (Dubrin, 2000; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003). Durbin, Dulewicz and Higgs, and Dunn (2004) noted that a lack of self-awareness was associated with a decline in productivity, morale, accurate judgments, and effective decision-making. Organizations in the transportation industry use extrinsic motivators, which separates top performers from average performers (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Anonymous, 2003; Kohn, 1995). Bridoux and Vandamme (2003) posited that only 20% of individuals in organizations possess the motivational competencies associated with emotional intelligence. This quantitative descriptive correlational research study examined if leaders use of self-awareness related to the motivational behavior of employees/followers in a

5 metropolitan New York transportation organization. This data might provide information that contributes to profitability in organizations. Problem Background Cooper and Sawaf (1997) asserted, Emotional intelligence is the ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection, and influence (p. xiii). This understanding of emotional intelligence served in assessing the importance of leaders awareness of their own emotions and the resulting ability to influence others emotions. Emotional intelligence is important to leaders because people who possess the ability to control negative approaches and inclinations tend to be reasonable. Leaders create an environment that harvests trust, respect, and fairness and can serve as a means of increasing performance and productivity (Harvard Business Review, 2004; Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Salovey and Mayer (as cited in Harmon, 2000) coined the phrase emotional intelligence in 1990, but scientific perspectives, such as non-cognitive intelligence, were in practice throughout the 1900s (p. 44). Research has shown that an understanding of oneself is analogous to understanding emotional intelligence as both have associations with specific competencies such as self-awareness (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003, Goleman, 1998). Thus far, modest data exists regarding the effect of motivational behavior on employees/followers and the relationship to performance in organizations. There has been a great deal of interest in emotional intelligence since Golemans (1995) book (Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter more than IQ) formally introduced the concept (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003). Other researchers and leaders have had concerns

6 regarding the concept of emotional intelligence, yet the field is blossoming (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Dulewicz and Higgs (2003) and Cooper and Sawaf (1997) were instrumental in informing others of the connectivity between ones personality, performance level, and potential for advancement. Personal competencies and characteristics emerged because of the link between personality and performance levels. Merlevede, Bridoux, and Vandamme (2003) noted that a microscopic percentage of individuals in organizations possess motivational drive that is associated with emotional intelligence. Comparatively, ones intelligence quotient predicts only 20% of individuals success (Merlevede, Bridoux, & Vandamme). This statistical data indicates individuals in organizations may be motivated to perform more productively by using emotional intelligence effectively in organizations. Using emotional intelligence in organizations can be effective in numerous ways. The effectiveness of high emotional intelligence can be used for: (a) hiring and retaining employees, (b) improving skill-sets, (c) building groups of people who can work together to ensure commitment, (d) uplifting employees morale and motivation, and (e) ensuring that innovation continues to thrive in organizations, which can increase productivity. Each of these methods for using emotional intelligence has attachments to an individuals sense of self. While effectiveness of emotional intelligence may appear quite subtle, there are economic costs associated with a lack of its use (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Emotional intelligence can be effective in organizations. Therefore, if an awareness by organizational leaders is not present, a decline in employee/followers organizational commitment occurs, which costs the organizations millions of dollars in recruitment and turnover costs, and motivational performance (Goleman, 1998; McClelland, 1999; Lam & Kirby, 2002).

7 Emotional Intelligence and Performance Research indicates that there is significant data regarding the relationships of selfawareness to advancement (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003; Goleman 1995; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Leaders success in organizations coincides with the extent of emotional intelligence awareness one possesses Cherniss and Goleman (2001). Individuals internal, functional skill-sets is linked to the growing phenomenonemotional intelligencein the advancement of individuals to leadership positions. Researchers have found that individuals who are high in emotional intelligence competencies have a greater tendency to impact and influence motivational performance (Johnson, & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Lam & Kirby, 2002). While intelligence quotient and technical skills account for 4% to 10% of performance by individuals in organizations, emotional intelligence was doubly important to other jobs scopes at all levels. Thus, the competencies needed for sustained motivational performance are those associated with emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Goleman (1994, 1995, and 1998) suggested the significance of possessing awareness of emotional and social competencies was necessary to organizations. A paradigm shiftfrom a Machiavellian to a rationalistic way of thinkingis taking place in organizational thinking (Hooijberg & Choi, 2000). The rise of emotional intelligence is demonstrating the need for possessing awareness of competencies such as empathy and self-awareness. This awareness can increase motivational fortitude and organizational performance (Goleman, 1998; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Organizational cultures and climates are necessary in motivating employees/followers (Dubrin, 2000; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003). These climates and

8 cultures can have long-term, intrinsically positive effects on employees/followers when emotional intelligence is used (Dubrin, 2000; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003). There is a propensity to use extrinsic motivational tools in transportation organizations. Leaders believe that extrinsic motivational practices are as influential as positive reinforcement and self-awareness (Anonymous, 2003; Kohn, 1995). Many organizations use practical performances, such as extrinsic, influential means, to ensure that associations, needs, and accomplishments remain intact (McClelland, 1961, 1985). Personal needs can be associated with driving forces within individuals personalities (Judge & Bono, 2000). Individual needs can correlate to various attributes apparent in managers, and leaders self-awareness in organizations (Dubrin, 2000). Found in leaders who embrace the change from rationally to emotionally intelligent leadership paradigms is awareness of ones self (Harmon, 2000; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998). Emotional intelligence is a concept learned from infancy (Harmon, 2000; Goleman, 1995). A desire to understand and use emotions as a means of communication develops through maturity (Harmon). Harmon asserts using emotional intelligence as a means of communicating can stimulate and raise personal renewal of learning and motivating in organizations. Organizations are continuing to assess what motivates employees; and how motivation can be associated with ones inner self-awareness, selfefficacy, and performance (Harmon, 2000; Goleman, 1998). Westerners believe ones inner awareness is individualistic, and possesses no correlations to workplace behaviors (Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2000c). This thinking provides a basis for the purpose of this research study.

9 Purpose of Study The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Significance of Study The significance of the study may reflect how emotional intelligence can increase productivity and profitability (Johnson & Indvik, 1999; Svyantek & Rahim, 2002), and can decrease employee turnover costs (Dunn, 2004; Hom & Kinicki, 2001). Found in the research study is the significance of the study: Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers?

10 This study might contribute new data to respond to the new interest in emotional intelligence in organizations. The significance of the study is in the researchers attempt to produce useful knowledge regarding the emotional intelligence of leaders, and the motivational behavior of employees/followers in organizations. In order to ensure motivation of employees/followers, leaders, managers, and organizations could access and potentially use the results of this quantitative, descriptive correlational research study. Without strong intrinsic motivation and/or emotional commitment, leaders, managers, and organizations could continue to foster stagnation in employees who have resolved themselves to non-commitment (Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002). Commitment is necessary to performance in organizations (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Woolridge, 2000). Self-awareness can motivate individuals and increase their personal performance (Goleman, 1998, Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Shea & Howell, 2000). Merlevede, Bridoux, and Vandamme (2003) noted that linked to not having awareness of ones self is less than 21% of individuals in organizations who possess the intrinsic motivational sources. Thus, leaders may use this research study to provide the remaining percentage of individuals with the intrinsic motivational sources connected to self-awareness. This study may provide empirical substantiation for the efforts used by organizational leaders to add to individual and organizational motivational performance. The study could serve as an approach to encourage leaders use of emotional intelligence in organizations, based on the findings of the data. The analysis of the relationship of emotional intelligence could influence the way leaders lead others and themselves, and

11 might affect the development of leaders (Stock, 2001). The findings of this research could increase the body of knowledge and might prepare organizational leaders to achieve increased motivational performance from current and prospective employees. The next section discusses the studys significance in the context of leadership. Significance of Study to Leadership This quantitative, descriptive correlational research study may serve as a means of increasing motivational performance in organizations similar to the organization researched in this study. Transformational leadership has been associated with understanding and accepting ones emotions for many years. Higgs and Rowland (as cited in Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003) posited, indeed, although not explicitly surfaced, much of the literature on transformational leadership implies that leaders require emotional intelligence (p. 197). This research study could assist in illustrating a need for understanding emotions. As leaders develop awareness of emotions, transformations can begin distinguishing cogent from poignant thinking. Leaders can use this research study to self-assess, thereby modeling emotionally intelligent competencies for employees/followers. Effective leadership is concerned with changing environments and processes (Bass, 1990). Transformational leaders are facing challenges of envisioning, accepting, and taking action on changes as they occur (Karl, 2000). Transformational leaders have concerns with hiring and retaining individuals as sudden changes can lead to decreased productivity. Transformational leaders use of emotional competencies in the hiring process could save millions of dollars on training and re-training. Goleman (1998) asserted that retention is a product of awareness of emotional competencies.

12 This research also has the potential to influence leaders ability in intrinsically motivating employees/followers as well as enhancing self-motivation (Lord & Brown, 2001; Lord, Brown, & Freiberg, 1999). Self-motivation is a facet of emotional intelligence. Therefore, a highly self-motivated leader can assist in increasing organizational performance. Furthermore, there may be indications that an effectively motivated leader can generate highly effective individuals. Conducted was research that analyzed the gap between a leaders emotional intelligence and its influence on the motivational behavior of employees/followers in a Northeastern transportation organization. The next section describes the nature of the study. Nature of Study A quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was used to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Parametric statistical methods, such as correlation coefficients (r), and structural equation modeling of latent variables (L-ECI and L_MSI) were analytical techniques used in the present research study. A structural equation modeling approach includes the

13 development of a model to measure and define latent variables, and to ascertain if relationships are present among those variables (Bollen & Long, 1993). Employed in analyzing the fit of the overall models, were the Normed Fit Index (NFI), the NonNormed Fit Index (NNFI), the Goodness of Fit (GFI), and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (Bollen & Long, 1993). Measurement of latent variables are conjectured or hypothesized, not directly measured (Bollen & Long). In order to determine if relationships among variables are present, descriptive research designs are used. The use of a quantitative descriptive correlational research study and structural equation modeling (SEM) to derive relationships between emotional intelligence and motivation among the collected data occurred. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) asserted A correlational study examines the extent to which differences in one characteristic or variable are related to differences in one or more other characteristics or variables (p. 191). The use of quantitative research designs determines if relationships exist between variables while controlling certain occurrences (Leedy & Ormrod). Based on theoretical perspectives that coincide with the problem of the study is the underlying principle for this research design. This problem of the study is founded on understandings of participants emotions (objectivity), motivational behavior of employees/followers (the objectivity of realization), and how leaders use of emotional intelligence is viewed in organizations. Crewsell (2003) asserted the execution of research studies to examine causes that influence effects, occurs in quantitative studies as quantitative studies typically use the positivist approach. As a result, the use of a quantitative research study related various methods with outcomes, variables, and generalizability with objectivity. For that reason, collected was objective data from a

14 select group of participants, representative of a larger population. Therefore, The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) believed there is power in using correlational research to examine relationships of variables that have dissimilar traits. This research design was selectedbased on the desire to establish a collective mean score of samples from various departments of leaders emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. The desire to correlate the data found with the two research instruments is also a basis for selecting this research. For the purposes of this research study, the use of the simplistic form of correlation, correlation coefficient, for each of the departments to determine if there was a relationship between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior demonstrated in employees/followers occurred. At no time do correlational research studies show causation, just an indication of relationships between variables. For the purposes of this study, the use of a quantitative study in making relational determinations transpired. Therefore, a quantitative correlational research design accomplished the studys goal of examining if a relationship exists between observed and latent variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others), and observed and latent variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). The research design and method was appropriate for the study intended in determining this relationship.

15 Based on collected data from a representative sample of the selected population, were the results determined. The attainment of the results occurred by using two quantitative survey approaches that the researcher believed was most appropriate for this study (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Inductive reasoning was used, based on hypotheses and generalized conclusions. A qualitative method was not considered for this research study, because qualitative research studies . . . is typically used to answer questions about the complex nature of phenomena, often with the purpose of describing and understanding the phenomena from the participants point of view (Leedy & Ormrod, p. 101). While qualitative methods are great for their intended study, qualitative researchers construct interpretive narratives from their data and try to capture the complexity of the phenomenon under study (Leedy & Ormrod, p. 103). The present research study is quantitative in nature as this research study devises a theory based on inductive inferences and generalizabilities. For the abovementioned reasons, The research was conducted using a selfreporting questionnaire in assessing the emotional intelligence (Appendix F) and a selfreporting questionnaire assessing the motivational behavior of employees/followers (Barbuto, 2003). The research examined the relationship that a leaders emotional intelligence had on employees/followers motivation. The questionnaires included the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000) (Appendix F) and the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003). The Hay/McBer Group, for whom the survey was designed, granted; permission to use the Emotional Competence Inventory for this research study (see Appendix A). Barbuto, for

16 whom the Motivation Sources Inventory was designed, granted; permission to use the Motivation Sources Inventory for this research study (see Appendix B). Given to 120 leaders and 480 employees/followers were the survey questionnaires. In the words of Dooley (2001), In the absence of precise estimates of required sample size, and within the constraints already noted, most researchers use rule of thumb guesswork to set sample size. The researcher may set overall sample size so as to achieve some minimum number in the smallest subgroup of interest. (pp. 129-30) Respondents (leaders) receiving the Emotional Competence Inventory (Appendix F) used a likert-type scale to indicate how prevalent certain behaviors had been over the past 12 months. Respondents (employees/followers) receiving the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) used a likert-type scale to indicate the extent of agreement of personal and organizational motivation. The survey evaluated five sources of motivation (intrinsic process motivation, instrumental motivation, external self-concept-based motivation, internal self-concept-based motivation, and goal internalization motivation). Participants received a questionnaire containing 30 items that described the various sources of motivation. There were a series of demographic questions included as well. Research Question/Hypotheses The literature may show a relationship between observed and latent variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others), and observed and latent variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). The following research question indicated the framework that used to maintain the structure of information presented in the research study, and was reflective of the purpose statement.

17 Research Question Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers? This research question posed determined whether there was a relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. The tested hypotheses to address the research question are: Hypothesis H0: There is no statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. The null hypothesis theorized that statistically, there is no relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers in a New York transportation organization. HA: There is a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. The alternative hypothesis indicates that statistically, there is a relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers in a New York transportation organization. The relationship between variables analyzed the synthesized findings from leaders and employees/followers from different levels of the hierarchy in a metropolitan New

18 York transportation organization. The next section provides the theoretical framework for the present study. Theoretical Framework Based on the theoretical framework that links exist between motivational performance, emotions and leadership was the current research study. Leaders can actively work to produce self-awareness and to comprehend how understanding their own emotions can segue understanding employees/followers emotions. The goal of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study was to examine the extent to which relationships are present between two variables (emotional intelligence and motivation). Research can provide leaders with significant data needed to make a paradigm shift from Machiavellian, rational leadership to a style that conveys awareness of self and others. The factors that were determined in this research study could ensure that motivated environments exist in organizations (Humphreys & Einstein, 2004). Therefore, the broad theories used in structuring this development are intelligence, emotions, motivational behavior, leadership, and the link between motivation and organizational performance. The prediction of this research study is specific to the connection between motivational behavior, emotions, and its influence on individual and organizational performance. Motivation Theories In a recent quantitative study conducted by OLeary (2003), Organizational Commitment and Technical Workers in a Department of Defense Activity Center: A Correlational Study, the theoretical framework that was used was based on various theories of motivation (Herzbergs two-factor theory, and Maslows hierarchy of needs)

19 that were used in organizational settings. Therefore, the theoretical framework used in this quantitative research study encompassed various motivational theories that are relevant to organizational settings. Maslows (1954) hierarchy of needs theory, Lock and Lathams (1990) goal-setting theory, Herzbergs (1966) theory of job satisfiers and dissatisfiers, and McClellands (1961) theory of achievement motivation were used in this development. Maslow (1954) and Herzbergs (1966) theories of motivation have applicability to organizational settings and were instrumental in revealing various internalizing motivational factors. Maslow was instrumental in Herzbergs development of internal motivational factors associated with individual work satisfiers. Maslows belief was that all needs are hierarchical, and as one need is satisfied, other needs then take precedence (Maslow). The hierarchical needs are (a) the physiological set of needs, (b) the need for safety, (c) the need to be loved, or to belong; (d) the need for esteem, and selfactualization. The materialization of motivational behaviors varies vastly from leader to leader and follower to follower, yet the identification of a core set of variables transpired. Variables include intrinsic motivational factors versus extrinsic, and interpersonal versus intrapersonal (McClelland, 1961; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Herzberg, 1966). Motivation is a key factor in work satisfaction. Maslow (1970) and McClelland (1985) asserted that once certain needs are satisfiedsuch as salary and benefitsthat other needs take priority, such as belonging. To assist in constructing the theoretical framework for this study was Herzbergs (1966) theory of job satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Herzberg conducted an initial survey of 200 accountants and engineers that led to the construction of the theoretical framework

20 on motivation used in this study (Ramlall, 2004). Herzberg discovered the motivation of employees by such variables, as recognition, and reward (job satisfiers) were commonplace. Conversely, some employees were motivated by the type of work they were given (Ramlall). Herzberg believed that if one were to eliminate those tasks that have associations to dissatisfactions amongst employees, people would then reach neutrality, not necessarily motivation. Herzberg believed motivation of employees occurred by enrichment of tasks associated with a specific job, and challenges (Herzberg, 1966). The use of McClellands (1961) theory of achievement motivation in this research study was necessary as McClellands theory focused on individuals possessing three needs, (a) the need for achievement, (b) the need for power, and (c) the need for affiliation. McClellands theory was similar to Mazlows (1954) hierarchy of needs theory. McClelland believed the need for achievement or advancement was essentially ones inner force that surfaces during specific times of need (McClelland, 1961; Ramlall, 2004). The need for power is associated with possessing control over individuals. Influencing others to act in a way that they would not normally act, had they not been influenced (McClelland; Ramlall). The need for affiliation was similar to Maslows need for love and belonging. The need for affiliation is associated with an individuals desire to surround themselves with others in a social manner. Effective managers and leaders possess a strong need for affiliation (Ramlal). Locke and Henne (1986) were instrumental in asserting that motivational theories do not possess unifying themes. On the contrary, various researchers (Stryker, 1980; Tajfel & Turner, 1986; Beach & Mitchell, 1990; Schlenker, 1985; Bandura, 1982, 1986)

21 believed that to assess motivational behavior, one needed to assess the self-first. These conceptual theories provided the basis for evaluating ones own motivational behavior and, thereby, others motivational awareness (Leonard, Beauvais, & Scholl, 1995). Intelligence Theories Maddock (1998) was instrumental in enlightening others of the link between motivation and emotions. Gardner (1983) was influential in providing the understanding that people possess many types of intelligences (Multiple Intelligences). Gardners enlightenment provided the notion that individual intelligences need further exploration. As a result, various theories of intelligence have emerged. Moral intelligence is the capability of knowing the difference between right and wrong (Gardner, 1999). Researchers have concluded there is a need for strong moral intelligence in organizations. Moral intelligence can be learned. Leaders and parents alike may be influential in increasing, or teaching moral intelligence to others (Gardner). Gardner was influential in informing others of the necessity of possessing high moral intelligence. People with high-levels of moral intelligence possess awareness of issues relating to the sanctity of life in its diverse facets (p. 70). Moral intelligence consists of the facets that are associated with personal, social, mental, and emotional skills that build moral fiber (Gardner, 1999). The definition of social intelligence is the ability to understand occurrences in the world, and to respond effectively to that understanding in an individual and social setting (Caporael, 2001). Jolly (1966) were involved in the acceptance that there is a hierarchical order to social intelligence complexities. Social intelligence provides a process in which

22 people can recognize ones personal ignorance, and commitments. Included in the theory of social intelligence is the theory of emotional intelligence (Caporael, 2001). Emotional intelligence is a new and emerging concept of social intelligence (Caporael, 2001). Emotional intelligence involves the understanding of ones and others emotions in a manner that allows for guidance in decision-making, thinking, and actions (Mayer & Salovey, 1993). Goleman (1995) asserted, Emotional intelligence, the skills that help people harmonize, should become increasingly valued as a workplace asset in the years to come (p. 160). Self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy, and handling relationships are all domains of emotional intelligence. Motivation is Emotion, and Leadership is Motivation (Maddock, 1998, p. 12). Motivation, and emotional intelligence, when viewed as intrinsic, nonverbal entities, is necessary to leaders in organizations (Feldman, Tomasian, & Coats, 1999; Philipott, Feldman, & Coats, 1999). Recognized by understanding the operational definitions of terms used in the research study are the theories of motivation and emotional intelligence. The next section discusses the definitions. Definitions The following terms used in the research study are relevant to the purpose of the study. Provided in this section are definitions to ensure that readers have a familiarization with key terms and their specific usage in this research. Furthermore, because emotional intelligence and motivation have been defined in several ways since they were conceived (Goleman, Boyatzis, & Mckee, 2002) (Figures 2 and 4), the researcher has included a figure that displays the definitions, authors, and the year the definitions became operational (chapter 2, Figures 2 and 4).

23 Competency is an amalgamation of understanding, talents, abilities, and specific qualities that are inherent in individuals (McClelland, 1973). A correlational study examines the extent to which differences in one characteristic or variable are related to differences in one or more other characteristics or variables (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001, p. 191). Crorrelations are present when measurements of one variable either increase or decrease, as the other variable increases or decreases (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). A descriptive research design is a means for providing a systemic manner by which facts and/or characteristics of an existing occurrence, or occurrences, are described (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Emotional intelligence is a means of assessing how leaders handle themselves and their relationships (Goleman, Boyatzis, & Mckee, 2002, p. 6). Emotional intelligence engrosses the concept of the capability of managing ones emotions, associating oneself with those emotions, and using empathetic measures in understanding others emotions that builds emotional liaisons (Harrison, 1997). Emotions are communal occurrences shaped by the environment from which they originate (Gabriel & Griffiths, 2002). Empathy consists of the ability to understand others emotions (McMullen, 2003). Empathy means having social radar (Goleman, 1998) Goal internalization motivation states that the motivation of people occurs when there is belief that what occurred is what is best for them, and that there are no deviations from those beliefs (Reimers & Barbuto, 2002).

24 Handling relationships are determined to be interpersonal effectiveness (McMullen, 2003, p. 18). Instrumental motivation occurs when the ideology of an award or substantial result is associated with an assigned task (Reimers & Barbuto, 2002). Intelligence is comprising the mental abilities for adaptation to, as well as shaping and selection of, any environmental context (Sternberg, 1997, p. 1030). Interpersonal sensitivity is showing sensitivity and empathy towards others, particularly consideration for their needs and feelings, and the ability to listen to, and build on, other peoples ideas (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003, p. 196). Intuitiveness is the ability to make decisions, using reason and intuition when faced with incomplete or questionable information (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003, p. 196). Latent variables are unobserved variables whose measurements are conjectured or hypothesized based on observed variables (Bollen & Long, 1993). Motivation is an inner state or condition that gives direction by stimulating behavioral responses. Motivation is also a desire or want that elicits a certain behavior (McClelland, 1985). Quantitative research approach is a method by which researchers use postpositivist acclamations in creating facts and predetermined inquiries, such as experiments, surveys, and data collection tools, to measure statistical data (Creswell, 2003, p. 18). Self-awareness is being aware of ones emotions (McMullen, 2003). Self concept-external motivation occurs when others view and have an opinion of a persons self-worth and motivation (Reimers & Barbuto, 2002).

25 Self concept-internal motivation occurs when self-competencies and values become the basis for motivation (Reimers & Barbuto, 2002). Self-efficacy consists of the perception of oneself in analyzing the ability to structure and implement an assigned mission (Bandura, 1997). Self-motivation consists of possessing control of ones emotions while allowing that control to motivate internally (McMullen, 2003). Service Organizations are organizations that supply a service to others while ensuring that performed processes continue as expected (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003). The participants used a self-reporting questionnaire in assessing the emotional intelligence of a leader (Appendix F) and a self-reporting questionnaire assessing the motivational behavior of employees/followers (Barbuto, 2003). While Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Malsow (1954) were responsible for operationalizing the terms emotional intelligence and motivation the classifications of various assumptions transpired when designing the research study that incorporates these terms. Assumptions The participants in this study may have certain perceptions about using self-report questionnaires. The following itemized assumptions add to the clarity of the research, and do not represent any specific order of importance or sequence. Therefore, the identification of certain assumptions occurred in designing the research study. The assumption that respondents were individuals who are presently working in a position in which they can be classified as leaders and whose followers are employed by a Northeastern transportation organization occurred. An assumption was that respondents were individuals who are presently working in a position in which classifications of

26 employees/followers occur in a Northeastern transportation organization. The assumption was that respondents were employed by a Northeastern transportation organization in New York and were pre-qualified prior to receiving the research survey. The assumption that respondents answered the questions candidly based upon viewpoints, as opposed to altering answers to the perceived answer of choice transpired. The assumption that the numbers of participants who responded represented a significant sample size took place. The assumption was that the organization selected for the study gave permission to collect data. The assumption that the observed/latent variable emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others), related to the observed/latent variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response) happened. These assumptions were necessary in providing the reader with the suppositions made regarding the present research study. The assumptions also provided the basis for the scope of the study. Scope of Study The scope of this research study was limited to classified variables: emotional intelligence and its effect on the motivational performance of employees/followers. In an effort to eliminate variables that could occur as a result of using various transportation organizations, the study population was limited to a sample of leaders and employees/followers in a single northeastern transportation organization in the metropolitan area of New York. Participants were full-time employees and classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers (salaried), directors, and executive-level managers. Data collection was limited to a pre-determined, 6-week timeframe. This period was used-based on the proximity of the facility and the need to

27 eliminate contamination of results due to increased communication within this environment. The next section provides the limitations and delimitations of the present study. Limitations and Delimitations There were limitations in the sample size (n = 171), based on the rule of thumb (10:1) that for each variable measured 10 surveys should be received (Hair, Anderson, Tatham & Black, 1998). Twenty-nine (29) variables were measured. There were limitations to the study based on the subjectivity that is associated with using a quantitative descriptive correlational research approach. Limitations and biases could have been present in the sample selection. When using a quota sample, not all persons in the organizations population will be used (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001).While statistical data may favor the use of descriptive statistics in examining effective use of emotional intelligence by organizational leaders, these results may be inconclusive. There may not be any statistical data quantifying a connection between emotional intelligence and its influence on the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Although there may be connections present relating emotional intelligence to motivation, there may be very minute connections determined. Significant sample sizes may require more extensive periods for data collection and collaboration with other researchers. The limited sample size and limitations on time for collecting data can lead to poor performance of two descriptive statistical tools used. Considerable sample sizes may be instrumental in ensuring the reliability and viability of the present research study. While this research design was sufficient for the study intended, it was not indicative of all transportation industries, nor all departments of the transportation

28 organization studied. Delimitations emerged in participants determination to complete the questionnaires, and the limited number of participants (600). This research study had limitations placed upon it-based on its research design and methodology. The need for this study qualified the use of selected individuals and design. The next section summarizes the key points provided in the chapter. Summary Emotional intelligence is a thoroughly discussed subject, yet some leaders are still uncertain of its impact on organizations. Research has shown that less productive organizations often demonstrate limited awareness of emotional intelligence (Carton, Kessler, & Pape, 1999). Research also suggests that leaders who demonstrate awareness of emotional intelligence and use that awareness to employ individuals who are high in emotional intelligence can assist in increasing organizational performance (Goleman, 1998; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Shea & Howell, 2000). Emotional intelligence awareness provides leaders with the ability to initiate training on how to recognize, manage, and reorganize negative emotions (Gauldine & Thorne, 2001; Frost, 2003). Merlevede, Bridoux, and Vandamme (2003) assert that intelligence quotient decides only 20% of organizational and personal success. This statistical data exemplifying organizational performance may increase by the effective use of emotional intelligence in organizations. Leaders who are cognizant of the necessity of the use of emotions in organizations are high-performing leaders This research study analyzed connections between two dissimilar, but perhaps remotely associated, characteristics of behavior (emotional intelligence and motivation). The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the

29 Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Goleman (1998) believed that emotional intelligence was more significant to organizations than intelligence quotient. Emotional intelligence is associated with potential for advancements, intelligence quotient, and may be necessary to organizations. Emotional intelligence measures a personal understanding of ones own and others emotions. Intelligence quotient measures intensity of intelligence one possesses (Damasio & Damasio, as cited in McMullen, 2003). While the understanding of emotional intelligence and motivation is essential to this research study, the consideration of how this understanding connects to the literature

30 in this field is also necessary. The next chapter (chapter 2) provides a review of the existing literature regarding the purpose and nature of the study. The next chapter provides contrasting and comparative theoretical perspectives of the existing literature.

31 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. This chapter provides a research-based explanation of the emergence of emotional intelligence in organizational environments and of the reasons underlying the emerging interest in emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1998). In relation to the problem under investigation, presented in this chapter are the published reviews and studies. This research study could reduce the gap between existing and forthcoming literature that

32 addresses emotional intelligence of leaders and motivation in transportation organizations. The chapter provides a literature review map to demonstrate how the literature frames the research study (see Figure 1). Based on the quantity of present literature regarding emotional intelligence and motivational correlations, there is a gap in citations referring to a recent 5-year period. This research study provides a 70% rate of references that are within this 5-year range (1999-2004), compared to the required 85%. Research studies addressing motivation, emotional intelligence, and leader/follower dyads incorporate theoretical perspectives into the review. Drawn from primary, peer-reviewed journals that address earlier theorists viewpoints on leader/follower relationships are theoretical perspectives. Many of these theorists works were older than 5 years but considered necessary in order to understand the purpose of this research study and its connection to the problem under investigation. Due to the nature of this study, these perspectives are important in building a comprehensive literature review. Thus, organization of this chapter is around germinal theories, theorists, the purpose statement, and its variables.

33

Emotional Intelligence
Theoretical Research Weschler (1943), Goleman (1998), Gardner (1993). Empirical Research Goleman (1995), Deeter, Schmelz & Sojka (2003). Definition Johnson & Indvik (1999), Shipper, Kinkaid, Rotondo & Hoffman (2003).

Motivation

Leadership

Theoretical Research Kleinginna & Kleinginna (1981), Butkus & Green (1999).

Empirical Research Daley (1991) Schroth (2001) Simmons, Wehner, Tucker & King Hastings, Kiley & Watkins (1988).

Leadership and Motivation Barbuto & Scholl (1999), Ramundo & Shelly (2000), Reimers & Barbuto (2002).

Leadership/ Emotional Intelligence Cooper & Sawaf (1997) Atwater & Bass & Avilio (1993), Burns (1978), G ardner & Avolio (1998).

Definition Maslow (1954) Hudy (1992) Kohn (1995), Reeve (1996), McClelland (1985), & Megginson (1992).

Definition Lussier & Achua (2001), Girth & Mills (1953), Bass (1990) Burns (1978), Wren (1995), Bass (1985)

Present Research Study

Figure 1. Literature review map. Creswell (2003) noted the necessity of literature review maps. The literature review map . . . is a visual summary of the research that has been conducted by others,

34 and is typically represented in a figure (p. 39). While the literature review map provides a summary of existing research that leads to the proposed study, a structural model provides the reader with a complete understanding of the competencies and sub-competencies that will be measured in the existing research study. Based on the current research study, Figure 2 provided representation of the studys collected and analyzed data.
Q16
Q11

Q21
Q26

D
E

Q6

Q7
Q2

Intrinsic Process
(IntriProc)

Q12
Q17
Instrumental
(Instrum)

SelfManagement
(SELFMANA)

Q1

I
SelfAware
(SELFAWAR)

r1

A
1

Q22
2

Q27

Q3

Q8
Leader Emotional Competence
(ECI or L_ECI)

r5 r4
r2

Follower Motivation
(MSI or L_MSI)

Q13
SC SC External (ScExter) External

Q18
4

r6
Social Awareness
(SOCAWAR)

Q23

Q4
Q9

Q28

J
K
L

r3

Relationship Management
(RELATION)

R
Q
Q30
Goal Interest
(Goal)

SC Internal
(SCInter)

Q14

M
N

P
O

Q25

Q5

Q29
Q24

Q19

Q20

Q15

Q10

LEGEND (variable names in parentheses)


Measurement Model Structural Model Structural Path Coefficient r Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient A Achievement Orientation (AchOrient)

E Optimism (Optimism) F Transparency (Transpar) G Accurate Self-Assessment (AccSelAs) H Emotional Self-Awareness (EmoSelAw) I Self-Confidence (SelfConf) J Empathy (Empathy) K Organizational Awareness (OrgAware)

L Service Orientation (SerOrien) M Change Catalyst (ChangCat) N Conflict Management (ConfMana) O Developing Others (DevOther) P Influence (Influenc) Q Inspirational Leadership (InspLead) R Teamwork (Teamwork)

B Adaptability (Adapt) C Emotional Self-Control (EmoContro) D Initiative (Initiat)

Figure 2. Structural model of proposed relationship between ECI and MSI. Figure (2) is representative of the variables measured in the research study. The model provides the structural path of coefficients present in the research study. Measured in the research study were four clusters of leaders emotional intelligence: self-

35 management, self-awareness, social awareness, and relationship management. Each cluster is indicative, of possessing awareness of ones emotions and the emotions of others (Goleman, 1995). The structural model of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) provides an assessment of the construct validity, using confirmatory analysis (Bollen, 1989). Also measured in the research study were five sources of employees/followers motivation: intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self concept internal, and goal internalization. Researchers use structural equation modeling to assess various aspects of intelligence (Jacques, 2003) Jacques conducted research on emotional intelligence and leaders self-differentiation, which is a predicted relationship. This research studied the predicted relationships using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) on data collected from graduate students in a leadership program. Data suggested there were many positive relationships between self-differentiation, and transformational leadership. This research provided a basis for the current research studys use of SEM. Structural equation modeling uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess relationships between latent variablesvariables that are unobserved, and are hypothesized or conjectured (Bollen, 1993). When certain constructs of relationships are proposed, hypothesized or conjectured, structural equation modeling can be an effective tool for specifying direct and indirect relationships between latent variables, and can be used to depict explained and unexplained variances (Bollen, 1989). Structural equation modeling is similar to using multiple regressions, except structural equation modeling is more powerful (Bollen, 1993). Structural equation modeling considers multiple indicators of latent variables

36 (Bollen). Structural equation modeling is based on theoretical constructs of the proposed research study (Bollen, 1993). The current research study used the theoretical perspectives associated with emotional intelligence and motivational constructs. Measurement of each of the clusters contained dimensions of sub-competencies (Figure 2) including latent variables (L_ECI and L_MSI). The clusters and subcompetencies are listed below. The self-management cluster measured the subcompetencies: (a) achievement orientation, represented in the model as letter A; (b) adaptability, represented in the model as letter B; (c) emotional self-control, represented in the model as letter C; (d) initiative, represented in the model as letter D; (e) optimism, represented in the model as letter E; and (f) transparency, represented in the model as letter F. The self-awareness cluster measured the sub-competencies: (a) accurate selfawareness, represented in the model as letter G; (b) emotional self-awareness, represented in the model as letter H; and (c) self-confidence, represented in the model as letter I. The social-awareness cluster measured the sub-competencies: (a) empathy, represented in the model as letter J; (b) organizational awareness, represented in the model as letter K; and (c) social orientation, represented in the model as letter L. The relationship-management cluster measured the sub-competencies: (a) change catalyst, represented in the model as letter M; (b) conflict management, represented in the model as letter N; (c) developing others, represented in the model as letter O; (d) influence, represented in the model as letter P; (e) inspirational leadership, represented in the model as letter Q; and (f) teamwork and collaboration, represented in the model as letter R. The need to discuss emotional intelligence as a construct is necessary for the review of the literature. The next section will discuss the construct of emotional intelligence.

37 Emotional Intelligence as a Construct Figure 3 illustrates the various definitions of emotional intelligence that have emerged since the concepts operationalization in 1990. Salovey and Mayer (1990) were instrumental in making others aware of the need to understand and accept the definition of emotional intelligence and the effectiveness of its use. Emotional intelligence has had many definitions since its inception.

38

An array of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a persons ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures (Martinez, 1997, as cited in Johnson & Indvik, 1999, p. 85).

Emotional intelligence (EI) holds the promise of capturing that elusive set of personal characteristics important to understanding the psychological and emotional growth necessary for personal growth (Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo, & Hoffman IV, 2003, p. 171.

The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships (Goleman, 1998, p. 317

The intelligent use of emotions: you intentionally make your emotions work for you by using them to help guide your behavior and thinking in ways that enhance your results (Weisinger, 1998, p. xvi).

Emotional intelligence, coined by Salovey and Mayer (1990) is the beginning from which all branches of emotional intelligence flowed

A type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor ones own and others emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide ones thinking and actions (Mayer & Salovey, 1993, p. 433).

A measure of ones street smarts of social radar (Harmon, 2002, p. 46

The ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions, and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997, p. 5).

Figure 3. Definitions of emotional intelligence. Language as well as emotional intelligence is changing and growing (Zeidner, Mathews, Roberts, & MacCann, 2003). Cross and Travaglione (2003) asserted, Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a crucial predictor for workplace success (p. 221). The publics interest in holistic health and emotional intelligence is

39 changing and growing, and emotional intelligence is closing the gap between intellect and emotions (Gabriel & Griffiths, 2002). This trend could be a direct result of the terrorist attacks on America on September 11, 2001. The attacks, in some instances, demonstrated the need to understand oneself. By possessing self-awareness, individuals understand others (Goleman, 1995, 1998, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Gangestad & Snyder, 2000; Bellack, 1999). Managers and academicians are beginning to view the necessary improvements in organizational effectiveness by putting into practice emotional intelligence (George, 2000; Cross & Travaglione, 2003; Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Pitcher, 1999; Gabriel & Griffiths, 2002; Eicher, 2003). There is a growth in the interest of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1998). This growth attributes to the individuals who advocate inspirational emotional intelligence and the individuals who understand that knowledge attainment, ethics, and emotional intelligence are connected (McEwan, 2001; McCarthy, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Dienhart, 2000). Rules of nature extend beyond material world concerns and stretches into emotional intelligence, a mental and inspirational arena (McCarthy, 1997). This information is relevant to the present study and provides the basis for the historical overview of emotional intelligence. Historical Overview of Emotional Intelligence Goleman (1997) asserted that Gardner, a psychologist at Harvards business school, was influential in others understanding of additional forms of intelligence thinking. The notion of a monolithic form of intelligence replaced a larger spectrum of intelligences, termed multiple intelligences (Goleman, 1998, p. 38). Indications of several intelligences emerged from Wechslers (1940) perspective of unintelligible concepts of

40 intelligence. Multiple, general, social and practical intelligences are necessary to leaders existence. When leaders possess multiple intelligences, their effectiveness increases (Riggio, Murphy, & Pirozzolo, 2002; Zaccaro, 1999, 2001). Rushmore (1987) advocated that general intelligence was relevant to leaders in higher levels of the organizational hierarchy (Mandell and Pherwani, 2003). Other researchers, such as Gottfredson (1984), also espoused this thinking. Gottfredsons research was significant in associating intelligence in organizations. Ghiselli (1973) noted that intelligence can be used as a means of employing individuals. When individuals use intuitions and emotions, indication of acceptance of commonalities of self, organizations visions, values, and mission are present. Internalizing these concepts produces intrinsic drivers of motivation (DiStefano & Maznevski, 2000; Dehler & Welsh, 1994; Ramlall, 2004; Elliot, 1999; Bong, 2004; Smigla, Pastoria, 2000). Dehler and Welsh were instrumental in connecting the philosophy of motivation with possessing the ability to know oneself. Goleman (1998) asserted, motive and emotion share the same Latin root, moteer which means to move (p. 106). Wechsler (1943) gave indications, based on the development of an intelligence test in 1939, that there were correlations between cognitive and non-cognitive measures of general intelligence. Development of this test constructed a means of measuring noncognitive and cognitive perspectives of general intelligence. Furthermore, the use of Dolls (1935) effort structured Wechslers non-intellective standpoints of intelligence. Dolls work consisted of non-cognitive aspects of broad intelligence. Doll constructed an organized dialogue named the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, intended for use in evaluating and assessing competencies associated with societal concerns. The scale

41 indicated levels of social maturation, thereby titled social quotient (SQ). It was this assessment that led researchers to believe Doll had been assessing various social intelligences with the introduction of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale in individuals. Dolls assessment occurred before many others began making such assessments of intelligences (Doll, 1935). Merlevede, Bridoux, and Vandamme (2003) asserted that within the realm of intelligence, there are two very distinct intelligences: traditional intelligence/classic intelligence, and emotional intelligence" (pp. 6-11). It is during the use of emotional intelligence that interpersonal intelligence, which serves to recognize how certain emotional behaviors affect individuals, can serve as a guide. Intrapersonal intelligence, the determining factor by which moods affect behavior, will surface typically during this time (Merlevede, Bridoux, & Vandamme, 2003). The notion of classical intelligence is what many Westerners had been referring to for many years when they broached the notion of intelligence testing by way of intelligence quotient. The thought was intelligence quotient had dissimilar measures. Conversely, on further investigation, youll find these tests are about logical reasoning abilities, spatial orientation, analytical skills, language skills, etc (Merlevede, Bridoux, & Vandamme, 2003, p. 6). While a significant amount of information exists regarding emotional intelligence in organizations, controversy exists regarding its use in the workplace. Putnam and Mumby (1993) and Fineman (1996) asserted that using and revealing emotions could be disruptive in organizations where managing ones emotion is commonplace. Men possess a mechanistic viewpoint of rationality and according to Fineman (1996) and Parkin (1993), men act in a rationalistic manner, whereas women act in an emotional manner. It

42 is this viewpoint that has given rise to the notion of women being more expressive and men more dominant in decision-making, and therefore, more productive in controlling mentality (Parkin). This assertion can leave one to surmise that revealing emotions in the workplace is tantamount to being less productive. This contention was similar to the acceptance of emotions in organizations by women, not men (Parkin, 1993; Domagalski, 1999). Goleman (1998) asserted that humans have two minds: rational and emotional. The emotional mind solicits certain responses from active incentives. Brown (2003) noted that those who had damage to the portion of the brain that was responsible for intuition and emotions (neocortex and limbic linkages) were incapable of making sound decisions (p. 123). Brown believed that individuals needed to rely upon computer-like responses for complete functionality of the brain. Conversely, computer-like responses are devoid of emotions and are easily hindered, and subjected to making erroneous decisions. Emotions are influential entities, which are communal (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994; Kisfalvi & Pitcher, 2003). Communal emotions demonstrate how people imitate the actions of others when encountering relationships. When one imitates others actions, it sanctions that type of behavior (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994; Domagalski, 1999; Darwin, 2002; Matthews & Wells, 1999). This influence of emotions can have negative impacts upon individuals in organizations (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1995). Hatfield, Cacioppo, and Rapson asserted that people who manage depressed individuals mimic the depressed state of inflection in vocal expressions. People who

43 convey strong emotions are more effective in eliminating emotional contagion compared to those who are less expressive (Domagalski, 1999). While Western belief is that emotions are indicative of animalistic and irrational senses, modernists believe emotions are evolutionally necessary for human survival (Buss, 1999; Darwin, 1962; Lazarus, 1991; Tooby & Cosmides, 1990; Matthews & Wells, 1999). Davidson (as cited in Lama, 2003) stated that there are long-term effects of certain emotions upon their arrival, and that reasoning becomes a past thought. In various organizations, there is a propensity to use certain emotions over others. Displaying particular emotions is culturally acceptable (Fineman, 1993; James, 1993; Hearn, 1993). Displaying of emotions to construct or deconstruct power and status structures as a symbol of hierarchy occurs (Domagalski, 1999). Emotions are viewed as destructive (Gaudine & Thorne, 2001) when displayed as hatred, prejudice, and so forth (Lama, 2003, p. 223). Lama (2003) noted that displaying negative emotions might have a negative impact upon society and the workplace. Ethical dilemmas may result from negative emotions (Gauldine & Thorne, 2001; Frost, 2003). The effect of emotions on individuals is evident in leaders of organizations. Leaders emotional approaches are associated with followers emotional approaches and can affect profits accordingly (Lama, 2003; Kobe, Palmon, & Rickers, 2001). This view of emotions in organizations potentially praises the use of emotions. Both children and adults need praise for accomplishments. Lama (2003) asserted, Praising children is one of the most effective ways to correct certain behaviors. For example, if you praise a child first before pointing out mistakes, saying youre so smart, youll be able to correct this, this is a very skillful way of giving confidence to the child. (p. 297)

44 Dunn (2004) posited that a lack of emotions could be associated with a decline in productivity, morale, accurate judgments, and effective decision-making. This inaccuracy can serve as a de-motivator to a once motivated force, and as a precursor for increased turnover (Dunn, 2004; Hom & Kinicki, 2001). High self-esteem, increased productivity, high morale, and strong decision-making abilities attribute to ones awareness of self (Carton, Kessler, & Pape, 1999). This awareness can also produce anxiety and loss of control of emotions if not used effectively (Hoschild, 1983). Viewing of emotions negatively occurs when used as a means of inflicting pain, and can have an overwhelming impact on performance (Frost, 2003; Macaleer & Jones, 2002). Consequently, various researchers (Goleman,1995; 1998; Mayer & Salovey, 1999; Johnson & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001) related the use of emotions in organizations to having positive impacts on performance (Klenke, 2002; Macaluso, 2003), morale, and retention (Swanson, 2001; Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandeberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002). Other researchers (Frost, 2003; Hoschild, 1983; Lama, 2003; Ashforth & Humphrey, 1995; Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994) have claimed that using emotions can be devastating to organizations. This devastation can produce organizational and emotional health problems that may evolve into emotional dissonance (Abraham, 1999).The next section discusses the historical perspective of the instrument that were used to measure the variable, emotional intelligence, the Emotional Competence Inventory. Historical Perspectives of the Emotional Competence Inventory The instrument that was used to assess emotional intelligence was the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). The Emotional Competence Inventory was developed from

45 McClellands (1973) description of competencies in working environments. Daniel Goleman, a student of McClelland, used McClellands research in developing the book, Working with Emotional Intelligence (1978). This information was used to construct the Emotional Competence Inventory. Collaboration between Goleman, Boyatzis, and the Hay Group produced a finalized version of the Emotional Competence Inventory (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001; Sala, 2002). This information was needed to show the historical perspectives of the development of the instrument that was used to measure the variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) in this research study. The next section discusses the empirical data that is presently available on emotional intelligence. Current Findings on Emotional Intelligence Some researchers have asserted that there is a link between emotional intelligence and certain competencies associated with increased performance (Fletcher & Baldry, 2000). Cooper (1997) found this link necessary to personal and organizational success: We are paying a drastic price, in our personal lives and organizations, for our attempts to separate our hearts from our heads and our emotions from our intellect. It cant be done. We need them both, and we need them working together. (p. 32) Luthans (2002) asserted that possessing awareness of emotional intelligence and managing the awareness effectively could increase organizational performance (Lowe & Barnes, 2002; Macaleer & Jones, 2002). There is empirical data relating these contentions. Various studies have been performed correlating relationships between emotional intelligence and predictors of performance (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2000). More research relating to the effect of emotional intelligence and motivation on performance might be of value.

46 A series of studies attempted to investigate cognitive aspects of emotional intelligence on performance in organizations. Studies found emotional intelligence was a primary factor in performance in organizations (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka, 2003). In a study of 11 sales professionals with strong performance records, Deeter-Schmelz and Sojka found that respondents exhibited characteristics associated with emotional intelligence. Characteristics of empathy, perceiving others emotions, and self-awareness were present (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka). Respondents related the ability to empathize with customers to viewing themselves as the customer. Respondents demonstrated the ability to perceive others emotions through the interpretation of customers body language. This interpretation became a necessary tool in clarifying misinterpreted spoken language (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka). When understanding customers, male respondents felt the need to associate selfawareness with how one dressed. There was also a reliance on being ethical, reliable, knowledgeable, trustworthy, helpful and sincere (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka, p. 215). It was during heightened awareness of emotions that ensured customers satisfaction where respondents believed self-regulation was needed. Controlling ones negative emotions was necessary during sales calls (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka). Furthermore, in ensuring customer satisfaction, respondents believed it was important for sales persons to possess self-motivation. Those who are in sales should be motivated by simply performing stated tasks, which is the nature of intrinsic motivation (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka). This information relating self-awareness, and self-motivation was relevant to the present study addressing awareness of emotional intelligence. This awareness can affect organizational performance (Deeter-Schmelz & Sojka).

47 McClelland (1975) pioneered the investigation of individuals possessing various competencies associated with differences between average and outstanding performers (Fatt, 2002). Other studies have been performed assessing similar data. Consequently, Lam and Kirby (2002) were instrumental in assessing the linkage between emotional intelligence and cognitive-based performance. In a study of 304 undergraduates at a university in the western United States, a paper-and-pencil survey was administered. The results of the survey were conclusive in demonstrating that emotional intelligence, perception of emotional intelligence, and regulation of emotions have strong correlations to cognitive-based performance (Lam & Kirby, 2002). Lam and Kirbys study on regulating emotions was necessary to the present study of emotional intelligence and its influence on motivation. In another study, Douglas, Frink, and Ferris (2004) found similar results in a study of 205 students enrolled in two principle management classes at a university in the southern United States. The study measured a combination of objective individual performance, objective group performance, and subjective assessment of contributions made to the groups work (Douglas, Frink, & Ferris, p. 7). Results conclusively suggested strong correlations between high-levels of conscientiousness, high-levels of emotional intelligence, and high-performance scores (Douglas, Frink & Ferris). A more conscientious individual, according to Douglas, Frink, and Ferris, exhibits high-levels of emotional intelligence, which could serve as a foundation for influencing motivational behavior and potentially increasing performance. This information related performance to emotional intelligence, and was necessary to the present research study.

48 Pesuric and Byham (1996) performed a study on supervisors in a manufacturing firm who received training in using emotional competencies. The training was given on listening and providing the necessary tools for resolving problems independently. The researchers found employees losing time due to accidents had decreased by 50%, grievances decreased from approximately 15 to 3 per year, and the firms productivity resulted in revenue being increased by $250,000. Possessing awareness of emotional intelligence and effectively using that awareness can affect endurance, and performance of employees/followers. This information was necessary to show how effective awareness of emotional intelligence was to organizational performance. Several studies have been performed referencing gender differences and emotional intelligence (Fineman, 1996; Parkin, 1993; Mayer & Geher, 1996 and Mayer, Caruso & Salovey). Researchers have concluded that there are gender differences in levels of emotional intelligence displayed. Women display higher levels of emotional intelligence (Fineman, 1996; Parkin, 1993; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Mayer & Geher, 1996). Consequently, Goleman (1995) alluded to the notion of women and men having both strengths and weaknesses concerning emotional intelligence. It is within the confines of emotional intelligence that motivational performance can be considered a positive factor. Based on empirical data analysis, correlations are present. This information was relevant to this study. The notion of emotional intelligence and its relation to motivational performance can potentially affect genders differently (Fineman, 1996; Parkin, 1993; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Mayer & Geher, 1996). While previous studies were instrumental in demonstrating that performance scores increased with individuals who scored high on emotional intelligence (Dearborn,

49 2002), there are gaps in the literature. This researcher intends to close the gaps in the existing empirical data on emotional intelligence. There were indications made regarding its relevance to motivation such that performance increases in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The next section discusses the historical overview of emotional intelligence in organizations, leaders use of emotional intelligence, and challenges transformational leaders face. Historical Overview of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Characteristics This section reviews the historical overview of emotional intelligence in organizations. Transformational and servant leaders face challenges while coexisting with individuals who do not possess high-levels of emotional intelligence. There is an indication transformational leaders need to possess enthusiasm, audacity, and consideration (Karl, 2000) when coexisting in an emotional intelligent environment (Goleman, 1998). Leaders with transformational, servant, and charismatic abilities affect employees/followers emotional intelligence levels (Douglas, Frink, & Ferris, 2004; Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000; George, 2001; Cherniss, 2000). Theoretical/historical perspectives of leadership theories and analogies are necessary for understanding relationships of leaders and followers (Einstein & Humphreys, 2001). When leadership is viewed from a postmodern perspective, definitions are vastly different from the modern era. Definitions in the modern era are more interactive (Burns, 1978). Burns (1978) introduced the concept of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership occurs when one or more persons elevate leaders and followers to higher levels of motivation and morality (Burns, 1978, Bass, 1997; Kanungo, 2001; Conger & Kanungo, 1998; Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs &

50 Fleishman, 2000; Jacobsen, 2001; Mumford, Dansereau, & Yammarino, 2000). Gardner and Avolio (1998) were instrumental in asserting that transformational leaders have strong associations to emotional and sensible intelligence (Atwater & Yammarino, 1993). Honesty and veracity are necessary for leaders to effectively build trusting relationships with followers (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991; Masi & Cooke, 2000; Barling, Moutino & Kelloway, 2000; Pillai, Schriescheim, & Williams, 1999) True transformational leaders possess honest concerns for others (Aronson, 2001; Casimir, 2001; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). The relationship between leaders and employees/followers, and the effect transformational leaders have on relationships that are high in emotional intelligence is the perspective this study is attempting to demonstrate (Clark and Matze, 1999; Erhart & Klein, 2001). Transformational leaders serve to transform organizations. Transformational thinking can be associated with the application of emotional intelligence in organizations. Leaders who demonstrate effective leadership possess the ability to interpret others emotions (Sivanathan & Fekken, 2002; Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000; Palmer, Walls, Burgess, & Stough, 2001; Manning, 2003). This interpretation of emotions allows transformational leaders to understand how emotions can affect organizational success (Feldman, 1999; Goleman, 1995; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Stein & Book, 2000; Mehrabian, 2000). Transformational leaders, and leaders who advocate emotional intelligence, elevate followers confidence levels, which encourages them to maximize potentials (Barnett et al., 2001; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Aronson, 2001). Transformational leaders are inclined to have influence over followers, which can have positive or negative

51 implications (Kanungo, 2001; Bass, 1999). Transformational leadership can be taxing on leaders who have embraced this venture. Transformational leaders have a need to develop relationships with other transformational leaders for assistance and emotional guidance (Stokes, n.d.; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). To this end, Carlson and Perrewe (1995) posited that, The arousal of strong emotions in followers, results in their being motivated to do more than would normally be expected. With this approach, leaders transform their followers by activating higher order needs, emphasizing the value of certain outcomes, and influencing their followers to put the organization before their own self-interest. (p. 16) Leaders aspiring greatness, are those who use moral, ethical, and emotionally intelligent decision-making in organizations. Leaders use intuitive decision-making to manage ones emotions successfully. This is one method for assuring trust and loyalty (Ryback, 1998; George, 2000; Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Mussig, 2003). Ryback (1998) asserted, The cardinal rule in creating an emotionally intelligent business is quite simple and old-fashioned: Always tell the truth. Executive intelligence starts with basic honesty, starting with ones own self-doubts and personal revelations (p. 60). Consequently, truth and trust allow openness to occur. Understanding oneself and emotions can close the gap between Machiavellian and teamwork leadership (Ryback, 1998; Boyatzis & Van Oosten, 2003). Truth telling allows values to be shared. The values leaders possess can determine if emotional intelligence engenders such traits as continual elevation, constant awareness of self, and the ability to lead oneself (Fairhom, 2003; Sternberg, 1999). Breaky (2001) and Book (2000) postulated that people do not exist within contained mechanisms as values, cultures, and understanding others emotions give credence to existence. Intellectual potential is fulfilled, when values are shared between

52 leaders and followers (Carlson & Perrewe, 1995; Mendonca, 2001; Brett, 2004; Barrett, 1999). Work is an extremely important facet of peoples lives, and emotional intelligence needs to be incorporated into the daily workplace environment (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). People spend a great deal of time at work with emotional competencies attached to physical awareness (Fairholm, 1996; Segal, 1997). This occurs frequently. Academicians are beginning to change thought patterns regarding emotional intelligence, which was once viewed as non-essential (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2001). This thinking is changing, because the need to bring the entire person physical and emotional to work is emerging (Fairholm, 1996; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998). Bass (1990) and Kanungo (2001) hypothesized that transformational leaders employ intuition management. Transformational leaders have influential power that can result in building trusting relations, respect, commitment (Gopinath & Becker, 2000), and emotional rewards (Carlson & Perrewe, 1995; Sivanathan & Fekken, 2002). Various intelligencescognitive and socialhave been thought to influence leaders characteristics of transformational behaviors (Bass, 2002; Connolly, 2000). Just as transformational leaders have a connectedness to emotional competencies of emotional intelligence, so do servant leaders (Burns, 1978; Goleman, 1995). Leaders who display high emotional intelligence possess the ability to relate effectively to individuals. Relationships that are high in emotional intelligence create environments that produce elevated levels of motivation (Kreitner and Kinicki, 1999), productivity, and profits (Johnson & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Cherniss, & Goleman, 2001). This characteristic of leadership is the primary focus of motivation. It is

53 necessary that leaders understand the importance of emotional intelligence to organizational success (Johnson, 1987; Bass 1985, 1990). For acceptance of servant leadership to occur, one needs to have openness and fairness amongst individuals who are responsible for creating cohesive environments. Servant leaders provide an environment where high emotional intelligence can exist (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Servant leaders have no fear of reaching beyond ideal leadership and connecting to positive influences, such as complimentary wording (Johnson, 1987; Spears & Lawrence, 2002). Liturgical usage of words is necessary for those who are high in emotional intelligence. Gibbs (1995) asserted, one needs to know what to say, when to say it, and how to say what needs to be said (Hage & Powers, 1995). Freud (as cited in Johnson, 1987) linked motivation, emotional intelligence, and the influential use of words: Words have a magical power. They can bring either the greatest happiness or deepest despair; can transfer knowledge from teacher to student; words enable the orator to sway his audience and dictate its decision, Words are capable of arousing the strongest emotions and prompting all mens actions. (p. 91) Language and its emotional connection can be instrumental in monitoring the growth of emotions in organizations. Belief is a language that can be interpreted as an unconscious, un-instinctual act (Lacan, as cited in Sarup, 1993; Covey, 1991). Emotionally competent leaders tend to steer negative emotions away from organizations and in the direction of applied focus and attention. Emotionally competent leaders possess the ability to eliminate destructive moods, which is similar to possessing competencies associated with emotional intelligence (Brown, 2003). Leaders are expected to maintain control during episodes in which unsound incidents occur (Stearns

54 & Stearns, 1989). Leaders are to monitor employees emotions for ethical continuity (Gaudine & Thorne, 2001). In terms of understanding ones ability to self-assess, research from various assessments reveals certain characteristics, elements, traits, and competencies that are relevant to personal intelligences (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003; Harmon, 2000; Gardner, 1993). Personal intelligence and emotional intelligence are necessary in organizations. Goleman (1998) posited that emotional intelligence is more indispensable to organizations than intelligence quotient. Emotional intelligence is associated with the potential for advancements and is significant to organizations. The concept that performance can suffer if emotions are not recognized should be understood by all leaders (Lama, 2003), or irreconcilable differences can result. Goleman (1998) and Cooper and Sawaf (1997) suggested that emotional intelligence is indispensable for leaders who espouse future success (Lama, 2003). Goleman (2004) promulgated [Leaders need to use emotional intelligence, because] without it, a person can have the best training in the world, an inclusive, analytical mind, and an endless supply of smart ideas, but he still wont make a great leader (p. 2). Cherniss and Goleman (2001), Saarni (2000), and Scharfe (2001) stated that emotional intelligence could be taught and learned (Cross, 2001). Leaders who have embraced transformational characteristics can be instrumental in acquiring immense opportunities for organizations workplace performance (Clements & Washbush, 1999; Carlson & Perrewe, 1995; Black & Deci, 2000). The next section discusses the current findings on emotional intelligence and workplace performance.

55 Current Findings on Emotional Intelligence and Workplace Performance Various studies have been performed examining emotional intelligence in connection to the workplace. Martinez-Pons (1997) held that emotional intelligence possessed correlations to a form of cognition that was goal specific to everyday living. While these indications were needed, other researchers were already beginning further studies on the effects of emotional intelligence in the workplace. Abraham (1999) posited that emotional intelligence possessed connections to groups performance and adhesiveness as well as individuals performance and commitment. The use of emotional intelligence could be a means to prevent discord. McClelland (1998) was instrumental in indicating strong correlations exist between emotional intelligence, job performance (Goleman, 1998; Spencer & Spencer, 1993), and increased potential for job promotion (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). McClelland (1998) recognized that there were various emotional intelligence competencies but that one single cognitive competency materialized in leaders who were top performers. Goleman (1998) hypothesized that emotional competencies were relevant to a persons success. Goleman stated two out of three of the much-needed competencies for increasing performance had associations with emotional competencies. McMullen (2003), posited that once individuals were made aware of themselves, they became more efficient in performance of duties, and intrinsic motivational levels increased (Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser, 2004). Increase in motivation increases individual performance (Tauer & Harackiewicz, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Emotional intelligence in the workplace is a phenomenon that has taken leaders by surprise. Certain aspects of a persons life can evoke the need for understanding

56 others emotions (Goleman, 1998; Johnson & Indvik, 1999). Emotional intelligence in the workplace is becoming a large portion of daily non-verbal and verbal communication. The need to understand emotional intelligence is felt by leaders and followers alike. It is important to remember that the mind of an individual can determine an individuals perception. A persons beliefs - the manner in which a person is reared - can be a determining factor in lifes acceptances (Anderson, 1992; Senge, 1994). Goleman (1995, 1998) and McMullen, (2003) noted that top performers have associations to emotional intelligence factors. Emotional intelligence is linked to intelligence quotient. Emotional intelligence measures the extent that one understands personal, and others emotions (Polednik & Greig, 2000), while intelligence quotient measures the intensity of intelligence, one possesses (Damasio & Damasio, as cited in McMullen). While emotional intelligence serves as a measure of ones inner character, McMulllen posited that it has links to motivation of oneself and, therefore, others. Emotional intelligence arose because of a group of peoples assessment in the need for leaders to understand personal emotions and their connection to workplace performance (Goleman, 1995, 1998; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Possessing awareness of oneself could enhance leaders ability to understand and accept others suppositions and emotions (Goleman; Cherniss & Goleman). Mitroff and Denton (1999) noted that there is an emergence in understanding the need to address ones innermost beliefs and feelings; just as inner feelings arrive at organizations, so does the physical. Recognizing the need for displaying emotions allows for acceptance and association of emotional intelligence to be employed in organizations (Goleman, 1998; Cherniss & Goleman,

57 2001). The next section discusses emotional intelligence in organizations that supply a service to others. Emotional Intelligence in Service Organizations While a review of the literature demonstrates a growing interest in emotional intelligence and performance in organizations (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002a; Svyantek & Rahim, 2002), literature addressing emotional intelligence and motivational performance in transportation organizations was sparse (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003). The need to expand the search of related literature emerged because of limited available data. In expanding the search, over 200 peer-reviewed journal articles addressing emotional intelligence and performance in organizations were revealed. A refinement of the search was needed to ensure that the literature was relevant to the present study. The search was refined to include emotional intelligence and performance in service organizations. The ProQuest database contained two peer-reviewed, scholarly journal articles. One of the articles addressed the motivational aspects of emotional intelligence and was not relevant to this search. The article was relevant to the motivational aspects of this endeavor, and was referenced in that section of the research study. The other article, by Bardzil and Slaski (2003), discussed the relevance of emotional intelligence in service organizations. Bardzil and Slaski proposed that emotional intelligence can be developed, and that a higher level of emotional intelligence facilitates a positive climate. The researchers found that many individuals feel that promotions, or the hiring of management personnel, should be based on emotional intelligence levels (Bardzil & Slaski). Conversely, others believe the notion of emotional intelligence is a repackaging of interrelated personal skills.

58 A study was performed on 60 managers from a retail chain. The managers were asked to attend an emotional intelligence development program to ascertain if emotional intelligence could be developed in service organizations. Several participants were given questionnaires designed to measure personal awareness of themselves and their relationships with others, based on individual emotional experiences. Other participants were given the same questionnaires but were not a part of the program, forming a control group (Bardzil & Slaski). Results revealed high-levels of self-awareness were necessary in developing self-control, awareness of others, and the ability to influence others emotions (Bardzil & Slaski). Each of the variables measured was a component of emotional intelligence. Results also revealed higher levels of emotional awareness and statistically significant improvements on responses to questionnaires in participants who completed the program. These improvements were considerably greater than any found in the control group. This data was necessary in suggesting the need for further research on emotional intelligence and performance in service organizations. The need to ensure development of senior-level management in organizations is necessary, as senior-level managers influence the culture of service organizations (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003). The information addressing the need for development of emotional intelligence in service organizations was relevant to the present study, as further research could form the creation and maintenance of an environment that is conducive to individuals with high-levels of emotional intelligence. The creation of an environment that accepts emotional intelligence is necessary in organizations, and is necessary for researching articles, journals, and documents that are relevant to the present study.

59 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Journals on Emotional Intelligence In researching emotional intelligence and performance in organizations, journals, books, magazines articles, and newspapers were necessary. Research was indicated by using word searches for terms such as emotional intelligence and performance in organizations. The results were: (a) ProQuest revealed 235 peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, (b) EBSCOhost revealed 57 peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, and (c) Questia, an Online Library, revealed the following from keyword searches emotional intelligence and performance in organizations 21,316 books, 1,817 journals, 187 magazines, and 17 newspaper articles. The findings from the word search were relevant-based on the need to understand the impact emotional intelligence can have on organizations. It became evident that interest in emotional intelligence and workplace performance had grown since the inception of emotional intelligence. As awareness of the influence emotional intelligence had on organizations grew, popular press began recognizing its need as evidenced by the number of journals and articles printed. There is a significant amount of dissertation material relating to emotional intelligence from the time of Salovey and Mayers (1990) coining of the phrase, and Daniel Golemans (1995) book, which asserted emotional intelligence as the panacea for humanitys problems. Searching ProQuest database on the terms transportation leaders and emotional intelligence produced no results, indicating a need for research in this field of study, and the need to expand the search to emotional intelligence and performance in organizations. When researching for dissertations on emotional intelligence and organizational performance, 39 dissertations, published between 1997 and 2003 were revealed. Table 1

60 lists these dissertations and provides a short description of each. Providing the academic dissertations that have been performed on emotional intelligence and its connections to behaviors was relevant to the present study. Table 1 provided the dissertations on emotional intelligence since Mayer and Salovey made others aware of its existence. The number of dissertations demonstrated the continuous growth of emotional intelligence interest, and provided the basis for continued research study on emotional intelligence. Table 1 Dissertations - Emotional Intelligence and Performance (1997-2003)
Date 1997 Author Stewart, Joseph Harold Dissertation Title Practical Intelligence: Assessing its Convergent and Discriminant Validity with Social, Emotional, and Academic Intelligence Dissertation Information The study examined the relationship of nonacademic intelligence, and its predictive validity of nonacademic intelligence with regard to performance. This study examined how general emotional intelligence affected individual performance during various stress conditions This study focused on the affective tendencies and capabilities that enabled individuals to use emotions to achieve desired outcomes Number of Pages 120

1998

Lam, Laura Thi

Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Individual Performance

160

1998

Menhart, Suzy Fox

Emotional Intelligence: An Alternative Explanation of Career Success. Development of a Multi-Componential Theory of Emotional Intelligence and its Relationships to Interview Outcomes Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Ability: Predicting Performance in Job-Simulated Activities

215

1999

Graves, Jamen Gilbert

This study assessed whether emotional intelligence under cognitive ability predict behaviors that generalize to effective job-performance

216

61
2000 Hirschhorn, Douglas Kamin The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence Levels and Performance Statistics of NCAA Division 1Caliber Baseball Players Emotional Intelligence, General Intelligence, and Personality: Assessing The Construct Validity of an Emotional Intelligence Test A Using Structural Equation Modeling Attachment Relationships and Emotional Intelligence in Preschoolers This study assessed if there was a relationship between emotional intelligence and performance statistics by NCAA division 1 baseball players This study investigated the claims of emotional intelligence and its impact on performance 30

2000

Graves, Melissa Leigh McMahan

344

2000

Houtmeyers, Kimberley Ann

The study examined the association between attachment relationships with mothers and fathers and emotional intelligence This study examined the relationship between a clients perception of an organizational development, and emotional intelligence, and the clients perception of an organizational development consultants competence The study investigated the relationship between the competencies of emotional intelligence, personality characteristics, cognitive abilities of critical thinking, and the attainment of strategic goals by upper management.

215

2000

Mogavero, Theresa Marie

Clients Perception of Consultants Emotional Intelligence as an Indicator of Clients Perception of Consultants Competence

124

2000

Murensky, Catherine Lynn

The Relationships Between Emotional Intelligence, Personality, Critical Thinking Ability and Organizational Leadership Performance at Upper Levels of Management

152

62
2001 Markuly, Mark S. Creating a Theory for the Role of Emotion in the Religious Education Work of Middle School Teachers in Catholic Schools This study assists in exploring the connection between goals and methodologies of religious education, and the notion of emotional intelligence. This study identified ways in which leaders in healthcare perceived the use of emotions in their leadership role. This study reviewed job evaluation scores of a health care facilitys administrative staff, and compared them to emotional intelligence scores This study addressed the relationship of three variables in graduate school learning, emotional intelligence, learning style preference, and academic performance. This study examined two well-known emotional intelligence measures and their construct validity and predictive validity. These studies explored how an organization could become more productive by ensuring individuals have the ability to raise performance levels within themselves. This study explored if there was a relationship between supportive and non-supportive cultures in effective/ineffective leadership. 389

2001

Molter, Nancy Curtis

Emotion and Emotional Intelligence in Nursing Leadership

255

2001

Rau, William Arthur

The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence Test Scores to Job Performance Evaluation Scores in the Management Group of a Health Care Organization Emotional Intelligence, Learning Style, and Academic Performance of Graduate Students in Professional Schools of Public Administrative.

98

2001

Jaeger, Audrey Jean

216

2001

Livingston, Holly Ann

Assessing Emotional Intelligence Measure: Do They Predict Work and Life Outcomes?

67

2002

Ferdowsian, Mehran Charles

The Making of a TopPerforming Employee in a High-Technology Industry

197

2002

Harris, Tamira Marjon

Interviews with CEOs in Healthcare: The Relationship Between Supporive/Nonsupportive Culture and Effective/Ineffective Leadership

164

63
2002 Hurd, Jean L. Learning for Life: A Phenomenological Investigation into the Effect of Organizational Coaching on Individual Lives The study investigated the relationship between adult and organizational development, by assessing organizational coaching on individuals. This study evaluated the effects of an educational program on the development of emotional intelligence in preschool and elementary educators and caregivers. This study examined the performance of primary and secondary psychopaths and control participants and their emotional intelligence. This study assessed certain groups emotional intelligence and group cohesiveness. The study examined the relationship between family environment and emotional intelligence, alexithymia, and egos. 138

2002

Kaplan, Fran Beth

Educating the Emotions: Emotional Intelligence Training for Early Childhood Teachers and Caregivers.

246

2002

Lorenz, Amanda Ruth

Emotional Processing in Criminal Subtypes.

112

2002

Rapisarda, Brigette Ann

The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Work Team Cohesiveness and Performance An Investigation of the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Family Environment, Ego Development and Alexithymia Socializing Good Enough Students: A Contextualized And Ideographic Analysis of African American Students Emotional and Identity Development An Examination of Emotional Intelligence: Its Relationship to Achievement and the Implications for Education

77

2002

Rippeth, Robin Ann Murphy

176

2002

Siegel, Galia Dinah

The study investigated the academic performance of a group of African American 6th graders, by studying their emotional and identity developments. This study examined emotional intelligence and its affect on student achievement of 11th and 12th graders in South Texas.

250

2002

Stottlemyer, Barbara Grace

165

64
2003 Amundson, Susan J. An Exploratory Study of Emotional Intelligence, Group Emotional Competence, Effectiveness of Health Care and Human Service Teams This study examined the effect of individual emotional intelligence, group emotional competence, and the effectiveness of an infrequently studied heat care team. The study investigated the relationship between attachment style variables and emotional intelligence and if gender, and/or race influenced the relationship of 271 college students. The study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and the temperaments in children and adolescents. The study examined the contribution of the four branches of emotional intelligence on selfreported deviance, and criminal behavior. The study examined if there was a relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout with of staff nurses. The study focused on the relationship between locus of control, emotional intelligence, job performance, and contextual performance. The study examined the ability of managers to decipher emotions from nonverbal behavior, and the effect it has on 211

2003

Boncher, Mary Katherine

The Relationship Between Achievement Styles and Emotional Intelligence.

146

2003

Bond, Barbara J.

Emotional Intelligence and Temperament: Distinct or Overlapping Constructs?

123

2003

Bora, Dhruba J.

The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Deviant Behavior.

174

2003

Budnik, Margaret F.

Emotional Intelligence and Burnout: Influence on the Internet of Staff Nurses to Leave Nursing.

207

2003

Busso Licia

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Contextual Performance as Influenced by Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control Orientation.

81

2003

Byron, Kristin Lynn

Are Better Managers Better at Reading Others Testing the Claim that Emotional Intelligence Predicts

192

65
Managerial Performance. 2003 Chasen, Lee Richard Linking Emotional Intelligence and Literacy Development through Educational Drama for a Group of First and Second Graders. subordinates and superordinates perceptions. This study analyzes how educational development may serve as a means of increasing emotional intelligence and literacy in a group of first and second graders. This study tested a model of emotional intelligence and a degree of sales performance. This study was to determine if there was a relationship between emotional intelligence, alexithymia, universaldiverse orientation, and if there is a difference in the effect upon male and female participants. This study assessed if there was a relationship between freshmen, who performed well in high school, and scored low on SATs , and cognitive tolerance, emotional intelligence, and academic hardiness. This study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and adolescent behavior The study assessed whether managers in one organization who are more successful in performance, exhibit higher emotional intelligence than managers with lower performance levels

215

2003

Chipain, George Constatine

Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship with Sales Success.

228

2003

Eicken, Iverson M.

The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Alexithymia, and Universal-Diverse Orientation, to Gender Role Conflict.

96

2003

Feldman, Jill M.

The Relationship Among College Freshmens Cognitive Tolerance, Academic Hardiness, and Emotional Intelligence and Their Usefulness in Predicting Academic Outcomes.

99

2003

Lance, Jennifer Rebecca

2003

Brooks, Joni King

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Adolescent Deviant Behavior. Emotional Competencies of Leaders: A Comparison of Managers in a Financial Organization by Performance Level.

107

192

66
2003 Broth, Michelle Robbins Associations Between Mothers Negative Emotionality and Stress and Their Socialization of Emotion Practices: Mothers Emotional Competence as Resiliency or Risk. The Differences in Emotional Awareness Between Musically Trained and Untrained Young Adults. This study examined negative emotions and stress predictors of mothers. 126

2003

Mundra, Ajit Ramesh

This study assessed the differences in emotional awareness between musically trained and untrained young adults, as defined by performance and composition. This study assessed if there was a difference between resilient and non-resilient academic groups of African American undergrad students, in emotional intelligence and related constructs. This study assessed if there was a relationship between Emotional intelligence and student considered at-risk academically. Study found no correlation to the suspected behavior of student being at-risk academically and emotional intelligence This study assessed how individuals use the positive energy emitting from positive emotions, as a means of making experiential decisions.

69

2003

Lewis, Morris Kenard, III

Differences in Emotional Intelligence and Related Constructs Among Academically Resilient and Academically Nonresillient African American Undergraduate Students. An Examination of Emotional Intelligence Factors: Their Relationship to Academic Achievement and the Implications for Retention of The At-Risk Community

180

2003

La Civita, Lori K.

95

2003

Kwortnik, Robert Joseph

The Role of Positive Emotions in Consumer Choice for Experiential Products.

380

67
2003 Johnston, Andrew William A Correlational Study of Emotional Intelligence and Aggression in Adolescents The study investigated if there was a relationship between adolescent emotional intelligence and adolescent aggression. Slight negative correlations were present. This study investigated group emotional intelligence and group satisfaction. Positive correlations emerged regarding group emotional intelligence level, and group satisfaction This study was used to compare the differences between competencies of teaching excellent faculty, versus average faculty. A commonality was found between emotional quotient competencies and behaviors of excellent teachers. 69

2003

Jacons, Shannon Lee

An Exploration of Group Emotional Intelligence Affect on Group Member Satisfaction

46

2003

Haskett, Rebecca A.

Emotional Intelligence and Teaching Success in Higher Education

121

2003

Grubb, W. Lee, III

Situational Judgment and Emotional Intelligence Tests: Constructs and Faking

2003

Lanning, Mary Lee Wintergerst

A Study of the Influence of Faith Practices and Attitudes on the Development of Emotional Intelligence in Children Ages 10-14

This study was designed to test if an emotional intelligence test could be faked. Results were that all non-cognitive tests were known to be tests that could not be faked. This study examines if a relationship exists between the growth of emotional intelligence and faith practices, and ones faith, and emotional intelligence attitudes. There was no relationship emerging between faith practice, and attitudes associated with emotional intelligence growth.

132

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68 A review of the literature found no research specifically addressing the relationship between emotional intelligence in leaders and the motivational behavior of employees/followers among transportation leaders and employees/followers. Since 1997, the amount of literature addressing emotional intelligence in the transportation industry has been sparse (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003), exemplifying the deficiency of this notion. Therefore, there was a need to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence on transportation leaders and employees/followers. This information was relevant to the present study. There were indications that as the concept of emotional intelligence became more familiar; researchers began assessing correlations between the use of emotional intelligence, performance, and behavior. Ashanasy and Dasborough (2003), Cherniss and Goleman (2001), McMullen, (2003), and Douglas, Frink, and Ferris (2004) asserted this connection. Therefore, emotional intelligence became a construct that was relevant to improving motivation in employees/followers. This information served as the beginning phase in closing the gap between emotional intelligence, performance, and motivation in organizations such as the one researched in this study. Various studies have been performed referencing emotional intelligence, but more research needed to be performed regarding its connection to motivational components. A constructivist emotional usage reaction diagram (Figure 4) demonstrates the impact of performance on organizational behavior when emotional intelligence is cogently used (Johnson, & Indvik, 1999). Johnson and Indvik have found that individuals who possess high degrees of emotional intelligence competencies have a tendency to have significant impacts on performance. By simply implementing emotional

69 intelligence, leaders can examine degrees to which performance (George, 2000) and the overall environment of organizational behavior can be influenced (Goleman, 1998; Harvard Business Review, 2004; Ashanasy, & Dasborough, 2003; Furnham, & Petrides, 2003).

70 Figure 4. Constructivists reaction to the use of emotional intelligence. Possessing awareness of ones emotions has become a motivational driver, because emotions provide fuel for that which moves individuals (Goleman, 1998; Macaleer & Shannon, 2002). Emotions, combined with motivation, direct perceptions, beings and beliefs, are considered motivating forces from which energy is exerted (Goleman, 1998). This thinking can be associated with intrinsic drivers, and it yields connectivity to intrinsic motivators. Intrinsic motivators possess endurance (Stout, 2002; Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, & Deci, 2004). Leadership theories that were described and defined in association with emotional intelligence in the workplace were instrumental in demonstrating acceptance of all persons in order that transformation occurs. Acceptance of organizational change is what drives transformation of organizations. There are indications that changes that can be sensed need to occur. Senses, such as emotions, take part in knowledge attainment (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). The need to discuss emotional intelligence in organizations was necessary for transformational leaders needing to coexist with those leaders who are responsible for creating environments conducive to allowing self-awareness, self-motivation, emotions, and motivation to emerge and survive. This section closed the gap between low productivity and organizations motivational performance. Indications were given relating emotional intelligence to increased performance. The next section investigates principles of motivation in organizations by means of addressing several types of motivating; motivation as a construct; historical overview of motivation; historical overview of motivation and leadership characteristics; current findings on motivation in

71 organizations, motivation in leadership; and present research on motivation. Leadership and emotional intelligence in organizations are also discussed. Motivation as a Construct Vardi and Wiener (1996) speculated that academicians and scientists are becoming more astute in distinguishing blueprints of work related behaviors in organizations. The following figure (Figure 5) shows the various definitions of motivation since it was operationalized in 1954. Maslows (1954) notion of motivational behaviorshierarchy of needswas necessary to the acceptance of motivational behaviors. Maslow was instrumental in making others aware of the need to understand and accept not only the definitions of motivation, but also the effectiveness of its use.

Motivation is the power that motivates and maintains behavior toward specific goals (Hudy, 1992).

Motivation is an inner response formulated by an outer force that serves as a means of influencing behavior in a manner that allows individuals to remain focused and to be driven towards a specific goal (Hudy, 1992; Kohn, 1995).

Maslows (1954) theory of asserting a hierarchy to the needs of individuals, as a means of motivating is where intrinsic motivation began.

Motivation is an inner state of condition that gives direction-using stimulating behavioral responses or a desire or want that elicits a certain behavior (McClelland, 1985).

Motivation involves the internal processes that give behavior its energy and direction (Reeve, 1996).

Motivation is the procedure for stimulating individuals to perform a specific task, while continuously improving their own objectives (Megginson, 1992).

Figure 5. Definitions of motivation.

72 There are consequences aligned with certain negative behaviors in organizations. These actions are a result of de-motivators and can cause devastation to organizations and societies (Vardi & Wiener, 1996). It is purported that misbehavior in organizations is commonplace and has associations to de-motivators that may be inherent to those organizations (Vardi & Wiener). Misbehavior in organizations (MBO) was responsible for informing organizations of such de-motivators as debunking organizations values to harassment, and petty theft (Vardi & Wiener, 1996). Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981) posited that motivation is classified as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic denotes an outward force that elicits behavioral responses with temporary affects; intrinsic motivators are forces that rely upon the inner self to move an individual to react in ways that are enduring. The motivational aspects used in this research study were comprised of various extrinsic and intrinsic motivational sources, theorists, and theories. While some theorists advocated that rewards and awards should be offered in order to motivate certain individuals (Cooke, 1999; Luthans and Stajkovic, 1999; Smith & Rupp, 2003), others believed that, Compensation and incentives were important, but for very different reasons. The purpose of a compensation system should not be to get the right behaviors from the wrong people, but to get the right people on the bus in the first place, and to keep them there. (Collins, 2001, p. 50) Herzberg (2003) stated that negative motivators act as a means of moving individuals to specific points in time, but the move is temporary and is not a true motivator. When leaders want individuals to move from one place to another, incentives and rewards are offered (McLuhan, 1999). Whereas this causes movement, the only persons motivated are those providing the incentives/rewards (Herzberg, 2003). Continuous movement occurs when repetition of the same methodology in moving

73 occurs. This repetition can lead to negative influential motivation and continual application of the same motive (Herzberg, 2003; Lawler, 1971). Barbuto and Scholl (1998) asserted that when an individual is motivated to perform a task for reasons associated with entertainment or drive, that person is intrinsically motivated. Performing specified tasks is encouragement and enlightenment for completing stated tasks. Instinctual influence is what motivates individuals who are intrinsically motivated, and there are no external rewards associated with this influencing (Barbuto, Jr., & Scholl, 1998). The next section discusses the historical overview of motivational aspects explored in the present research study. Historical Overview of Motivation Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981) asserted motivation has many definitions that connect to possessing needs, yearnings, and aspirations. Posited were several definitive statements regarding motivation. Motivation is an internal occurrence that supplies a route by which certain behaviors are controlled, and followed (Kleinginna & Kleinginna). Franken (1994) posited a personal definition that has associations similar to Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981). Both definitions have certain aspects of stimulations that control behavioral facets. Motivation has attachments to behavioral conditions and serves as a means of influencing performance (Komanski, 2003). Jeffrey and Slocum (1987) asserted, reward systems are concerned with two major issues: performance and rewards. Performance includes defining and evaluating performance and providing employees feedback (p. 99). Green and Butkus (1999) wrote that organizations have true concerns regarding continual motivation of employees/followers during change implementation. Many

74 organizations use a carrot-and-stick (Green & Butkus) approach to managing and motivating. This approach implies that, by offering rewards and incentives for performance, people will perform better. Consequently, this motivating technique has temporary measures, temporary lasting implications, and may temporarily affect employee performance (Green & Butkus; Cooke, 1999). While incentive programs do shortly serve as motivators, there are areas of concern not addressed. Every employee/follower has similar motivational measures, and may result in organizations using blanket approaches to motivating. This approach can become expensive for organizations to manage (Green & Butkus). Green and Butkus (1999) were instrumental in assessing employees/followers need for additional motivation. New approaches to motivation are being implemented in organizations such as Delta Airlines, Lucent Technologies, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and Holiday Inn (Green and Butkus). This model addresses what employees believe and feel are more of a motivator than what any manager can offer regarding motivation (Green & Butkus, 1999). Green and Butkus asserted, Like traditional incentive programs, the belief system recognizes that employees must be offered things they want in order to be motivated and to perform. But merely offering rewards isnt enough. If it were, incentive programs would work perfectly (and we know they dont), and improving motivation would be easy (and we know it isnt). What else is needed? With this new approach, managers dont rely solely on external rewards to improve motivation. Since motivation is an internal process unique to individuals, managers utilize a more personalized strategy for improving motivation and focus on what each employee truly feels and believes. (p. 10) The model Green and Butkus proposed will be beneficial in ensuring continual motivation during times of change when emotions need to be addressed. Green and Butkus (1999) offered certain beliefs central to this thinking:

75 1. Do employees/followers believe they can do it? When employees believe they can do what they are being asked to do, they become motivated-based on their beliefs. 2. Will outcomes have connections to employees/followers performance? Employees/followers need to believe that motivational increases on performance will be beneficial. 3. Are rewards for increased performance satisfactory? If rewards being promised are not what employees/followers desire, motivation will not take place (Green and Butkus, 1999). A historical perspective of the Motivation Sources Inventory could help explain the nature of motivational competencies used in the present study. Historical Perspectives of Motivation Sources Inventory When designing the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), Barbuto (2003) observed the need to develop an instrument that provided an integrated framework as a requirement for an integrated taxonomy (p. 1011). This development was executed by monitoring different behaviors of individuals. This was accomplished during several stages of motivation. The initial development of the integrative motivational model, by Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl (1995), was the premise from which the Motivational Sources Inventory was constructed (Barbuto). The original development of the Motivation Sources Inventory consisted of previous research on motivational theories and served in identifying five sources of motivation (Intrinsic, Instrumental, External, Internal Self-Concept, and Goal Internalization) (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). This material is applicable to this research study, and provides substance that is relevant in discussing

76 the construction of the studys instrument that measured the variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). The Motivation Sources Inventory measures five sources of motivation, and the five sources are necessary measurements for the present study (Barbuto, 2003). The following quote provides definitions of the components associated with the Motivation Sources Inventory: Intrinsic process involves desire for fun and process enjoyment of activities; Instrumental motivation involves desire for tangible extrinsic rewards such as pay, bonuses, etc.; External self-concept involves desire for individual or reference groups acceptance and affirmation of traits, competencies, and values; Internal self-concept involves desire to meet personal standards of traits, competencies, and values; and goal internalization involves desire to attain goals consistent with internalized values. (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998, p. 1014) The Motivation Sources Inventory consisted of 78 scale items, but the instrument underwent evaluation by experts on its construct, conformity, and redundancy. Items were reduced to 74 in order to undergo content or face validity (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). Because of such evaluation, the finalized version of the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) now has 30 items, of which Intrinsic Processes of motivation, Instrumental, External Self-Concept, Internal Self-Concept, and Goal Internalization are measured (Barbuto & Scholl). The Motivation Sources Inventory consists of 5-point scale from which individuals are asked to select-based on the extent to which there is agreement, ranging from entirely agree (4) to entirely disagree (0). This inventory has been used as a means to predict leaders behavior and for individuals to conduct selfassessments of their behavior. For the purposes of this study, only the self-assessment approach was used. The information about the development of the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) was necessary to the present study. It summarized the

77 motivational sources measured in the study. The next section discusses the current research findings on contemporary motivational practices. Current Findings on Motivation Goleman (1995) posited, Studies of Olympic athletes, world class musicians, and chess grand masters find their unifying trait is the ability to motivate themselves to pursue relentless training routines (p. 79). It is important for athletes to possess fervor and self-motivation in order to be successful. Fervor begins during childhood (Goleman, 1995). Various studies portrayed several types of motivating factors. These factors serve as the premise for the existing empirical data. Several theories and theorists were discussed in this research study. Studies may show that possessing intrinsic motivational abilities may increase motivational performance. Ascertaining this type of motivation is achieved by using the correct measures for assessing behavioral performance. Hastings, Kiley, and Watkins (1988) were instrumental in arousing individuals awareness by evaluating travel incentives as motivators in a United Kingdom Life Insurance Company. Respondents were sales force representatives, consisting of a 92% male sample, with an average of 54 months of service with the organization. The range of service with the organization was 1 month to 21 years. Selling experience ranged from no previous experience to 25 years (Hastings, Kiley & Watkins). Researchers found that those who had increased stability of sales performance were directly related to selfmotivation. This became apparent when respondents were believed to be working at highest levels of output capacity. Respondents believed overseas and individual travel were rated highest as an incentive for increasing sales achievements. Respondents were

78 vividly expressing relationships between sales incentive travel and motivation, which translated into practical and performance increases (Hastings, Kiley & Watkins, 1988). This information regarding incentives in motivating has relevance to this study, and can serve to increase performance. Daley (1991) performed a study-based on data retrieved from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey and the Iowa Employee Attitude Survey performed in 1983. Surveys were administered randomly to a sample of 20,000 employees, of which 14,000 responded. There was an assessment made about whether increased motivational impacts could be attributed to performance appraisal systems, and if various appraisals had changing affects, namely the Federal Graphic Scale and Iowa Objectives-Based System (Daley). Daley (1991) found that performance systems do make a difference in influencing extrinsic motivational behavior, but an increase in motivational behavior relating to objectives-based appraisal systems could not be concluded. Such appraisal systems elicit negative responses. This study was necessary to this research study. It addressed one aspect of performance measures that may lead to increased motivational behavior. Simmons, Wehner, Tucker, and King (1988) constructed a scale measuring positive and negative attitudes toward success, competitive, and cooperative strategies. The scale was instrumental in assessing whether people were motivated to be successful by competitive measures, use of cooperative strategies, or by avoiding competitive measures (Simmons et al.). Simmons et al. concluded with positive findings for use of competitive and cooperative strategies as a means of motivation for achieving success. There was a relationship emerging between the Fear of Success Scale and the

79 Cooperative/Competitive Strategy Scale. Fear of success mystifies ones motivation to compete and be successful. Demonstrating fear of success is an indicator of workplace motivational success (Simmons et al). This information was relevant to the present study. It provided the necessary information regarding motivation that could lead to an increase in workplace behavioral performance and success. Schroth (2001) determined an interdependency of motives such as the need for achievement (n Ach), need for affiliation (n Aff), and the need for power (n Pow). Furthermore, Schroth assessed two distinct measures of motives. This study was designed using 45 men and 45 women from University of Santa Clara. The assessment of the need for achievement score was representative of Need, Instrumental Acts, and Anticipatory Goal States, and it demonstrated apprehension of high-achieving performance measures (Schroth). The need for affiliation score was indicative of regularity in creative responses. Schroth (2001) asserted affiliation, including categories of Affiliation Imagery, Need, Successful Instrumental Activity, Positive Anticipatory Goal State, Positive Affective State, Environmental Obstacle, and Thema (p. 215) was indicative of behavioral performance measures. Respondents n Pow score represented the frequency of imaginative responses concerning power (Need, Instrumental Activity, Affective States, Thema, etc.) (Schroth, p. 215). Schroth found that needs are dependent on each other, and that there were no significant correlations linking specified needs to men. Significant correlations with women emerged when two techniques of measuring and testing motives were tested (Schroth, 2001). This information is needed in assessing the necessity of certain needs

80 that drive motivational behavior, and serves as the basis for the next section. The next section discusses the current findings associated with motivation in organizations. Current Findings on Motivation in Organizations Intrinsic motivators stimulate inner growth factors of individuals as well as internal motivational aspects that cause individuals to perform in exceptional ways (Maslow, 1998; A Caliper Publication, n.d.). While motivation may be an internal engine (Ramundo & Shelly, 2000, p. 16), if not used in a productive or positive manner, it can decrease with discouragement (Ramundo & Shelly, p. 17). This discouragement can serve as precursor for understanding deep ecology (Capra, 1996, p. 7). Deep ecology represents the recognition of inherent intrinsic values within all living systems, and allows one to accept emotions in others as well as in ones self (Capra). Leaders responsibility is to recognize and ensure managers have capabilities in determining if individuals have the propensity to become motivated through intrinsic means (Strout, 2002). Acceptance of leaders emotions is necessary in driving organizations, and individuals acceptance of self. Allowing for openness in understanding ones work ethic fosters intrinsic motivation (Ramundo & Shelly; Goleman, 1998). Herzbergs (2003) motivational studies (motivation-hygiene theory) were used on accountants and engineers to determine indications of satisfiers and dissatisfiers in organizations. The theory that evolved from the studies concluded that factors for ensuring satisfaction of individuals in organizations were vastly different from those serving as dissatisfactors (Locke, 1976). People in organizations tend to be motivated intrinsically, yet there are times when extrinsic rewards may need to be considered (Herzberg). Moller and Powell (2001) assert 20% of individuals are self-motivated. In

81 order to ensure employees are motivated, Herzberg believed that one needed to allow opportunities for self-motivation, which allows energized aspirations to be continual to emerge. Snyder and Williams (1982) asserted, human beings have a fundamental need to maintain or enhance the phenomenal self (p. 258). Information that was necessary for increased behavioral performance is: (a) Allowing individuals more control over assigned tasks. This will serve as a means of accountability; (b) ensuring responsibility is had for assigned work tasks, (c) ensuring direction for completing assignments is specifically given to individuals, (d) allowing for a more challenging and constructive environment where individuals can prosper, (e) assigning individuals with continual specified tasks that allows for a sense of proficiency (Herzberg, 2003). Herzberg made leaders aware of motivational factors associated with individuals in organizations. The awareness of motivational versus hygiene factors was necessary in demonstrating how factors can be used for proficiency. Herzbergs job satisfiers and dis-satisfiers demonstrated motivational factors/job satisfiers that were aligned with the hygiene factors/extrinsic job dis-satisfiers. Herzberg asserted that achievement was an intrinsic motivational factor that is associated with the extrinsic hygiene factor of company policy and administration. Emotional intelligence, and Herzbergs (2003) conception of job satisfiers and dis-satisfiers, revealed intrinsic motivational factors (actual work, intuitiveness, influential abilities, inward, and outward sensitivity) that paved the way for intrinsically stimulated individuals. If job dis-satisfiers are not present, there could be dissatisfaction. With the acceptance of job-satisfiers comes self-awareness (Herzberg). Possessing selfawareness is helpful in being made aware of others (Dulewicz, 2003; Goleman, 1995,

82 1998). This thinking was the premise for revealing understandings of what was needed in order for leaders to motivate themselves and others (Goleman, 1998). People are motivated by differing means (Taylor & Pierce, 1999). There are some who are motivated by (a) the mere excitement of being motivated (intrinsic), (b) some form of payment (instrumental), (c) acknowledgment and empowerment (self-conceptexternal), (d) the simplistic decree of defiance (self-concept-external), or (e) the sheer fact of existence, or (f) their nature to do what is expected (goal internalization) (Barbuto & Scholl, 1999). This thinking has revealed certain cognitive theories associated with behavioral responses (McClelland, 1985; Barbuto & Scholl). Effective motivators understand that they cannot control attitude. They can however, control behavior. By controlling behavior, good motivators also know they are controlling attitude (Ramundo & Shelly, 2000, p. 23). There are two distinct motivational types, namely behavioral and cognitive. These theories denote biological responses to associated stimuli (Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981, p. 264). Stimuli provide incentives that increase behavioral responses. Cognitive theory incorporates cognitive dissonance (Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981). When there is a difference in beliefs between antagonists and those antagonized, there are influential measures performed on the aggressed in order to change beliefs to match aggressor (Festinger, 1957). This type of motivational tool can have adverse affects on individuals. Vroom (1964) discovered a formula that states expectancy is multiplied by instrumentality and valance, or value. Vroom affirmed that all multipliers should be present in order for motivation to occur, and by possessing a low expectancy value, ones value of motivation can be lowered. Therefore, a person conveying self-esteem yields

83 success (Goleman, 1998; Vroom, 1964). Vroom helped to establish outcome levels of individuals performance-based on individuals effort and ability. Certain behavioral responses are found to be directly proportional to actions being performed (Reinharth & Wahba, 1975). This motivational theory was similar to Maslows (1968) hierarchy of needs. Maslow (1968) discovered a means of motivating individuals that was driven by satisfaction of personal needs, such as food, water, and shelter. Maslow believed that as personal needs became satisfied, individuals could be motivated to reach higher heights. Maslow (1968) posited motivation through gratification of self adequately: [Those who consider themselves as]healthy people have sufficiently gratified their basic needs for safety, belongingness, love, respect and self-esteem so that they are motivated primarily by trends to self-actualization (defined as ongoing actualization of potentials, capacities and talents, as a fuller knowledge of, and acceptance of, the persons own intrinsic nature, as an unceasing trend toward unity, integration or synergy within the person. (p. 31) Self-actualization served as the focal point from which Herzberg (1968), Levinson (2003), and Nicholson (1998) constructed articles referencing motivation and its effect on individuals in organizations. Frunzi and Savini (1997) posited, Motivation is the process of satisfying internal needs through actions and behaviors (p. 139). This quote served as the focal point in purporting that motivation is a tool instilled in individuals since birth. Conversely, some have negated that theory, and demonstrated that motivational skills can be learned (Hill, 1979; Herzberg, 1968). Learned motivation skills can be attributed to individuals possessing differences in productivity (Tomer, 2003), based on places of employment. Friedmann and Havighurst (1954) asserted there are several needs that connect individuals to a place of employment (a) wages; (b) use of strength and brainpower; (c)

84 innovativeness, creativity, and acknowledgment; (d) contacts and opponents; and (e) simple existence. These simplistic needs become satisfied when meaning can be applied to places of employment and when a connection exists between individual and organizational beliefs and values (Fridemann, & Havighurst). Connected to organizations are learned individualistic motivational skills. This learned motivation can have lasting affects upon individuals, and can allow trust, honesty, and respect to emerge (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). This next section discusses the historical overview of motivation and leadership characteristics. Historical Overview of Motivation and Leadership Characteristics Leadership is a combination of persuasiveness, personality, physical traits, and metaphorical usages of words. These behaviors are characteristic of effectual leaders (Wren, 1995; Bass, 1985). McCauley, Moxley, and Van Velsor (1998), asserted that development of leadership incorporates experiences that are challenging. Capabilities of leaders can stretch beyond an average persons abilities and into inspiration and motivational factors (Bass, 1985, 1990). When leaders look to elevate employees/followers to levels of excellence, considerations need to be made of the degree of motivation needed (Barbuto & Scholl, 1999; Steers, Mowday, & Shapiro, 2004). People have a broad range of motivations: (a) an intrinsicfun of performing assigned tasks, (b) instrumentalexternal rewards associated with tasks, (c) self-concept externalstatus, (d) self-concept internalfacing challenges, and (e) goal internalized actual reason for stimulation (Barbuto & Scholl, 1999). Not all individuals possess the same degrees of motivation, and various sources of motivation exist in each individual.

85 Depending on timing and needs, some motivators take precedence over others (Maslow, 1970; Byrne & Kelley, 1981; McClelland 1961; McClelland, 1985). Leaders who advocate a workplace that encompasses values, honesty, respect, and compassion are leaders who have acquired the necessary emotional competencies to ensure organizational success (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1996).These leaders use inspirational motivational tools (Strout, 2002) in their leadership practice. This practice has given rise to leadership thinking that edifies those who have graced the path of emotional intelligence in the workplace (Goleman, 1998; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Leaders who use inspirational motivational tools are leaders who are cultured, and take arousing ones emotions in the workplace seriously (Humphreys, Weyant & Sprague, 2003). Urbane leaders can be the beginning of fiscal and cost-effective success for organizations with greater outcomes from performance (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998; Goleman, 1998). There is a significant amount of information regarding the tactics used by leaders in ensuring employees are motivated. This has created newer forms of leadership that are creative in the development of communal skills, and have impeccable abilities in motivating individuals (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). In order to achieve an environment that is conducive to motivational acceptance, leaders need to be cognizant of the environment and make it conducive to satisfying employees/followers needs (Ramundo & Shelly, 2000). Leaders no longer expect employees to be motivated upon hire (Ramundo & Shelly, 2000). There are indications leaders need to learn skills associated with selfawareness and the use of emotions to motivate others (Barbuto & Scholl: Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997).

86 There is a need to address leaders use of inspirational motivational tools in the workplace. Some executives practice emotional intelligence and use inspirational motivational tools (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Mitroff & Denton, 1999). The difference between the two is significant; emotional intelligence affords the ability to look beyond actions performed without forethought (Cooper & Sawaf). To possess aspirations for finding significance and rationale in life is to be able to incorporate such practices in all aspects of existence (Mitroff & Denton). Barbuto and Scholl (1999) were instrumental in establishing the grounds from which individuals have become motivated. Leaders have opportunities to use specific techniques of motivating to benefit all involved. Influential tactics, used by some leaders, may be reflective of changes that occurred in the shift from a Federalist to an Industrialist society, which evoked behavioral responses (Reimers & Barbuto, 2002). When influential motivational factors and power are continuously used in a negative manner, negative representations will be present in performance. The next section discusses the literature on motivation in organizations that supply a service to others. Motivation in Service Organizations There is growing interest in motivation and its connection to emotional intelligence in organizations. Motivational constructs are contained within all individuals (Taylor & Price, 1999). Some individuals are motivated for different reasons and at different times (Taylor & Pierce). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are inherent in most individuals, depending on the driving forces within the individuals (Judge & Bono, 2000), and these motivators have been associated with emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995). Knowing when to use the right motivational sources takes time and exertion.

87 Developing motivational sources and levels of motivation should be based on the needs of the individuals and of the organization as well as empirical data, establishing the need for research investigating the influence emotional intelligence has on motivational practices at all levels in a hierarchy. Searching for the terms transportation leaders and motivation in the ProQuest database produced no results, indicating a need for research in this field of study and the need to expand the search. There were no articles found in peer-reviewed journals (0), and no articles found in the newspapers (0). This information was relevant to the present study. The relevance was in the need to further assess and expand the search because of limited available data. When the search was expanded to incorporate the terms motivation and emotional intelligence in organizations, over 100 peer-reviewed journal articles were found in the ProQuest database. Due to the amount of literature available addressing motivation in organizations, the search had to be refined to include only motivation and emotional intelligence in service organizations. Refining the search was needed to ensure the data search was relevant to the present study. This narrowed search produced only one peer-reviewed journal, indicating the need for further research on the relationship of motivation and emotional intelligence in transportation (service) organizations. Gabriel and Griffiths (2002) article discussed the association of emotions in organizations. Throughout history, managers have controlled emotions to ensure the increase of motivational levels, customer service, and workplace performance. Gabriel and Griffith asserted that there are arguments regarding whether emotions should be controlled when they are positive emotions. Positive emotions can re-direct negative

88 emotions in a productive manner (Gabriel and Griffith). This notion might indicate that the use of emotions in service organizations is necessary to its success. Gabriel and Griffith (2002) also asserted that, Emotional intelligence can be quantified and individuals with higher emotional intelligence are better able to lead others, strike deals, handle relationships, or sell products, through intelligent deployment of their own emotions and the management and exploitation of the emotions of others. ( 10) While this information addressing the motivational aspects of emotional intelligence was relevant to the present study, it was also necessary in showing how the use of emotions can influence motivational aspects of individuals. A review of the literature demonstrated the growing trend of motivation and its association to emotional intelligence, but literature on transportation leaders and motivation has been sparse, illustrating the absence of this construct within this industry. Consequently, a need to explore the relationship of motivation on transportation leaders and employees/followers emerged. The exploration of the relationship of motivation on leaders and employee/followers is necessary in supporting the research study, and is necessary for researching articles, journals, and documents that are relevant to the present study. Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Journals on Motivation Information regarding motivation gathered from journals, books, magazine articles, and newspapers was relevant to the studys focus on motivation and the use of emotional intelligence. The amount of literature addressing motivation with its connectivity to emotional intelligence has been found in educational and environmental societies. A search on the terms motivation and emotional intelligence produced the following: (a) ProQuest revealed 148 peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, (b)

89 EBSCOhost revealed 12 peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, and (c) Questia, an Online Library, revealed 1, 341 books, 1,145 journals, 62 magazines, and 3 newspapers. Based on the noteworthy number of peer-reviewed journals, there became a need to refine the data search to include motivation and emotional intelligence in service organizations. This search revealed one peer-reviewed, scholarly journal. This final search further indicated the need for exploring a relationship between motivation and emotional intelligence in transportation organizations. The amount of available literature on motivation indicates a growing phenomenon, and a need to associate the phenomenon of emotional intelligence with its use in workforce motivation. While some argue that the use of emotions is unnecessary to service organizations, (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003), others argue its use as a motivational tool is necessary in service organizations (Gabriel & Griffiths, 2002). These conflicting opinions can be viewed as representative of the gap in the existing literature, and thus, help to delineate the need for the present study. There is a significant amount of dissertation material relating to motivation. There is not much research aligned with its connection to emotional intelligence and organizations behavioral performance since Herzbergs (2003) conception of job satisfiers and job dis-satisfiers. Vrooms (1964) expectancy theory, Maslows (1954) and McClellands (1961) needs-based theory were necessary in connecting motivation to behavior. Decis, (1975) Katz and Kahns (1978) intrinsic theory, and Ashford and Maels (1989) social identity theory were also necessary in relating motivation to intrinsic drivers. Etzionis, (1961) Kelmans (1958) value-based theories, Locke and Lathams (1984) goal setting theory; Sullivans (1989), Snyder and Williams (1982),

90 Brief and Aldags (1981), Gecass (1982) self-concept based-theories, and Barbuto and Scholls (1998) construction of Motivation Sources Inventory were necessary in connecting motivation to intelligence. Although motivation had links to emotional intelligence and received greater attention in scientific literature, studies did not close the gap between emotional intelligence and motivational practices used in transportation organizations. There are numerous methods for measuring motivation, and a vast amount of research exists on the subject (Herzberg, 1966; Maslow, 1954; McGregor, 1957; Aldefer, 1969; Vroom, 1964). There is more research needed addressing motivation with its connectivity to effective usage or awareness of emotional intelligence by leaders in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. When researching for dissertations on motivation and emotional intelligence in organizations, 19 dissertations between 1998 and 2003 were found (Table 2). Table 2 documents these studies and provides additional information on each. Providing the academic dissertations that have been performed on motivational behaviors and its connections to the use emotions on organizational performance was relevant to the present study. Table 2 provided the dissertations on motivational behavior since Herzberg, Mazlow, and McClellands motivational theories emerged. The number of dissertations demonstrated the continuous growth of motivational interest and its connections to organizational performance, and provided the basis for continued research study on motivational behaviors in organizations.

91 Table 2 Dissertations - Motivation and Emotional Intelligence (1998-2003)


Date 1998 Author Tuong, Ha H. Dissertation Title Discourse of Respect Among the African American High School Student. Creativity, Motivation, and Defiant Behavior. Young Adolescents Perceptions of a Middle School Experience. An Investigation of Affect and Adolescent SelfRegulation. Dissertation Information This study was conducted to reveal the emotions and feelings African Americans could not reveal due to fear of disrespect. This study examined the creativity of students who were named as having low motivation, varying degrees of deviant behavior, and perceptions. This study focused on examining and verifying a number of variables embedded in the emotional intelligence construct. This study examined the caring concerns maintained by student nurses as caregivers. This study analyzed five ethnographic sources using current theory on the characteristics of gifted learners. This study examined the connection between emotion and behavior by means of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. The study demonstrated the need for emotional intelligence competencies in the successful planning and execution of international business in a capital-intensive, asset-based industry. This study examined the relationship between attachment types, gender, and emotional intelligence. Number of Pages 282

1998

Wright, Sheila

239

1999

Kyp-Johnson, Jay E.

102

2000

Van der Wal, Dirk Mostert

The Maintenance of a Caring Concern by The Care-Giver. Gifted Girls And Fiction: A Passion for Reading.

UNKNOWN

2000

Stutler, Susan Lee

421

2000

Smith, James Emory, II

Emotional Intelligence and Behavior: An Exploratory Study of People on Parole.

279

2000

Mount, Gerald John

What Role Does Emotional Intelligence (EI) Play for Superior Performers in the International Business of a Capital-Intensive, AssetBased Industry?

135

2000

Krikorian, Margaret Jean Nick

Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Attachment Type.

129

92
2000 Kolb, Sharon M. Critical Social Skills for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities: Parental Perspectives. A Retrospective Study of Academic And Social Resiliency That Can Contribute To Success Of At-Risk Students. A Guidance and Counseling Programme in Core Life Skills (Afrikans Text). This study explored parental viewpoints referencing critical social skills for adolescents with mild disabilities. This study examined the issues of stress and emotional intelligence of resilient young adults. 138

2000

Jenkins, Deborah Kaye

171

2000

Ebersohn, Liesel

2001

Diaz, Aura Sofia DominiguezCruz, Gloryana

2001

In What Ways Are Emotions Important to SelfDevelopment? Relationship of Leadership Orientations to Emotional Intelligence of Public Elementary, Intermediate and High School Principles in Puerto Rico. Effect of Emotional Intelligence Competencies on Academic Performance of Algebra 1 Students. Change-Centered Leadership and Various Correlates.

This study designed a guidance and counseling program that enabled people to manage effectively their lives. This study investigated the role of emotions in selfdevelopment. This study examined the relationship between leadership orientations and emotional intelligence.

UNKNOWN

205

151

2002

Sonnenschein, Mary F.

The study investigated the effect of emotional intelligence on Algebra 1 students This study investigated the relationship between leadership behavior, and variables of Organization Citizenship Behavior (OCB). This study identified conflict and management styles, and emotional intelligence of faculty and staff members.

157

2002

Lourens, Jan Francois

UNKNOWN

2003

Lee, Fen Ming (Ellen)

Conflict Management Styles and Emotional Intelligence of Faculty and Staff at a Selected College in Southern Taiwan (China) The Relationship Between Leader Behavior and Emotional Intelligence of The Project Manager and The Success of Complex Projects.

189

2003

Leban, William V.

This study demonstrated the relationship between leadership styles, emotional intelligence, and the success of difficult projects.

231

93
2003 Harstfield, Michael Kirk The Internal Dynamics of Transformational Leadership: Effects of Spirituality, Emotional Intelligence, and SelfEfficacy Voices of Catholic Principles: A Phenomenological Study of Catholic School Principles Perceptions of Efficacy and Resiliency. This study evaluated previous studies of transformational leadership, and the internal drivers of transformational leaders. This study examined the perceptions of some school principles efficacy and resiliency. 113

2003

Goldstein, Judy Campbell

201

The information regarding dissertations on motivational constructs is relevant to the present study because it supplies the necessary information regarding the studies that incorporated motivational aspects. The next section discusses the current findings on leadership, emotional intelligence, and motivation in organizations. Current Findings on Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, and Motivation in Organizations People have a fear of bringing emotional intelligence into places of employment, and that it is best to leave emotions in their personal lives (Goleman, 1998). Individuals are seeking associations with workplaces where values are shared and respected (Mitroff & Denton, 1999). Leaders are beginning to realize that they possess abilities to employ paramount individuals for positions of employment once there is an acceptance of the entire individual (Mitroff & Denton). Companies are discovering that they are better able to attract and keep the best employees if they factor social concerns into how they run their business. Employees are more motivated-and productivity is higher-when they bring their hearts and souls as well as their bodies and minds to work with them. (Mitroff & Denton, p. 133) Before organizational leaders can consider using emotional intelligence, there should be mindfulness of individuals needs and the measures in place to ensure that those needs are aligned with those of the organization (Maslow, 1998).

94 Research shows that in order for leaders to reach a place of absolute success, an assurance that there are dedicated, skilled, and highly motivated individuals within the organization needs to occur (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998). Leaders who desire greatness need to be cognizant of the philosophy that if you have the right people on the bus, they will be self-motivated (Collins, 2001, p. 74). This may require leaders to surrender concepts such as an authoritarian means of leadership, (Maslow, Stephens &, Heil, 1998, p. xvi) and commence with more participative, emotional leadership styles. Transformational leaders possess the responsibility of aligning their own emotional intelligence with their understanding of motivation (Dehler & Washburn, 1994). This is especially true as, alignment occurs when the vision is used by management to infuse work with spirituality and meaning through transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation, resulting in employee behaviors that lead to enhanced organizational performance, and thus reinforce and re-energize the fundamental vision (Dehler & Welsh, 1994, p. 25). Leaders use the vernacular of human capital (Pfeiffer and Veiga, 1999), but there is little attention placed on making provisions to accommodate viewing humans as capital (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998). Maslow, Stephens, and Heil purported that individuals spend a great deal of time working in environments where leaders do not maximize individuals self-actualization (Atwood, 2004). Consequently, before an individual can reach self-actualization, physiological needs have to be satisfied (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil; McClelland, 1968). Maslow, Stephens, and Heil (1998) and McClelland (1968) were instrumental in informing leaders of which needs were prefaced by self-fulfillment and self-efficacy.

95 Maslow, Stephens, and Heil were instrumental in determining to what extent organizations can assist in capitalizing on those needs. Maslow (1968), with scientific knowledge in psychology, had a more productive stance on needs of individuals. According to Maslow, Stephens, and Heil, musicians, artists, and poets are endowed with the desire to perform satisfactorily, and these individuals must have this need fulfilled in order to coexist. This is indicative of the motivational thinking Maslow (1968) believes is necessary in order to attain self-actualization. Leaders are reminded of benefits associated with creating environments where individuals feel empowered. Empowerment raises motivational levels and increases productivity and performance (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998). When leaders recognize that physiological needs should be satisfied before other needs, true intrinsic motivation is accomplished (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998; Byrne & Kelley, 1981). If other needs are satisfied, but physiological needs are unsatisfied, individuals motivation levels can still move towards satisfaction of physiological needs (Maslow, 1987; Byrne & Kelley). Once physiological needs have been satisfied, others emerge as priorities. The need for safety, stability, fair and equitable treatment, and law and order surface as motivational drivers (Maslow, 1987; McClelland, 1985). Bass (1990) asserted that leaders who are willing to transform, transcend satisfaction of needs and satisfy safety needs in individuals. Such treatment can be associated with fairness, provided leaders of organizations distribute the exchange equally. Leaders who possess high awareness of emotional intelligence are leaders who acquire endurance and display transformational behaviors (Smith & Rupp, 2003; Gardner & Stough, 2002). Transformational leaders have qualities such as (a) self-awareness, (b)

96 self-sacrifice, (c) self-control, and (d) a sense of purpose and meaning (Sosik & Megerian, 1999). Transformational leaders agree with reports of others, because they possess [an] internal locus of control, interpersonal orientation, [and] high levels of private self-consciousness (Sosik & Megerian, 1999, 12). In assessing leadership, emotional intelligence, motivation, organizational culture, and values, leaders are aware they need to involve employees in the decision-making process. The involvement serves as an extrinsic motivator that stimulates awareness (Sossik & Megerian, 1999). While leaders need to be cognizant of what extrinsically and intrinsically motivates followers, it is necessary to have all involved in the organizations motivational processes (Goleman, 1998; Capra, 1996). This section described the necessity of addressing emotional intelligence in organizations and the affect emotional competencies had on leaders and followers respectively. The section addressed the need to have the right person for the job, which was tantamount to increasing motivational fortitude. The next section demonstrates how motivational sources of leaders could suggest positive organizational transformations. Using Emotional Competencies with Leadership Emotionally intelligent leadership is at its highest level (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). There is a need for those who are in control of organizations to understand emotional intelligence and its assessments (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). Leaders need to adopt engaged emotional intelligence. Engaged intelligence allows individuals to be inspired beyond all levels imaginable (Groen, 2001). Organizationally, leaders who are adept in using emotional intelligence competencies are usually holistic in thinking and provide environments that are conducive to participatory management styles (Groen, 2001;

97 Goleman, 1998). Research has shown organizations that illustrate spirituality (Mitroff & Denton, 1999) have key tenants associated with awareness of emotional competencies (Zohar & Marshall, 2000). Miller (2002) expounded on Mitroff and Dentons (1999) thinking associated with spirituality in organizations and its interconnectedness to emotional intelligence: Mitroff and Denton offer a compelling case that companies fostering a spiritual environment tend to have employees who are creative, loyal, productive, and adaptive to change than do companies that stifle spirituality. Further, they find that companies that are more spiritual have employees who are less fearful of their company, are far less likely to compromise their basic beliefs and values in the workplace, and perceive their organization as significantly more profitable. (Miller, p. 148) It is this perspective that has been significant in viewing leadership and its connection to emotional intelligence. Leaders who embody emotional intelligence tend to produce: (a) individuals who are dedicated in their endeavors, (b) cultures that allow continuous training in areas of creativity and empowerment, (d) environments that foster flexibility and previous engagements, (e) environments where necessaries are addressed in the forefront, (f) a culture that is both inclusive and communal, and (g) individuals whose values are linked to the organizations values. Each action is indicative of leaders embodying emotional intelligence in a manner that allows success to occur (Groen, 2001; Goleman, 1998; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). These actions are typified in studies that have quantitative effects. The next section describes these types studies. Quantitative Study and Its Effectiveness Many studies assessing emotional intelligence and motivation were quantitative in design. They provided empirical knowledge and substantiated the knowledge by using statistical analyses. Quantitative studies are used when behaviors are being assessed

98 (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001), and studies relating emotions, intelligence, performance, and motivation are behaviorally focused. Quantitative studies can be used in questioning whether relationships between variables exist (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Creswell (2003) asserted, Quantitative research . . . includes a substantial amount of literature at the beginning of a study to provide direction for the research question or hypotheses (p. 31). This information was necessary in demonstrating the relevance of the quantitative descriptive correlational design used in this study. The analysis of this research may reveal the need for organizational leaders to recognize, and continuously assess, their own emotions. This assessment can provide clear direction for future leaders who are interested in continually increasing organizational and individual performance. As evidenced by the review of the literature, those who are high in emotional intelligence are greater performers (Johnson, & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Lam & Kirby, 2002). Quantitative studies are necessary when examining relationships between behavioral responses. Empirical studies on motivation, performance, leadership, and emotional intelligence revealed that quantitative descriptive correlational studies are necessary in providing statistical data concerning its effectiveness. The next section provides the analysis derived from the discussion of the literature review. Conclusion The review of the literature provided information relevant to motivation and emotional intelligence. Furthermore, the review yielded information pertaining to the use of the research question in the present study: Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers?

99 Empirical data suggested connections between emotional intelligence and performance in organizations. Nevertheless, there is a need for further research into emotional intelligences connection to motivation in a transportation organization. While the interest in leaders use of emotional intelligence is growing, there is a gap concerning its use in the transportation industry. Summary The chapter explored the key elements of the present research study: (a) emotional intelligence, (b) leaders emotional intelligence, (c) the influence leaders emotional intelligence has on the organizational performance, (d) motivation, (e) employees/followers motivational behavior, and (f) leaders influence on employees/followers workplace performance. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and

100 observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. After reviewing the literature on organizational performance, emotional intelligence, and motivation, an awareness that correlations exist between various leadership styles and emotional intelligence components emerged (Sosik & Megerian, 1999; Dehler & Washburn, 1994). Empirical studies and theories of emotional intelligence, motivation, and workplace performance were presented in this chapter. The need for further empirical data to understand the continual influence of emotional intelligence and motivation on workplace performance was detailed. Additionally, this literature review provided a historical and theoretical perspective on emotional intelligence, motivation, leadership, and employees/followers workplace performance and presented a framework for the methodology discussion in chapter 3. The next chapter focused on describing this studys specific research design, instruments, validity, methodology appropriateness, data collection methodology, and research tools. The chapter also discussed the reliability and validity of the research tools used in the research study, and demonstrated why other instruments were not appropriate for the present study. This information was necessary in ensuring the most appropriate instrument was selected for the present study.

101 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. This focal point of this chapter was to provide the methodology used in the research study, the appropriateness of the methodology to the study, how the variables were objectified, the research design, the research question that was answered, and the hypotheses that was tested. Chapter 3 provided the selection of participants and instruments, and how those participants were informed of their rights, appropriateness of the research design, the feasibility of the research study, the actual steps taken in

102 obtaining data from the participants, reliability and validity of instrumentation, and selection of instrumentation. Emotional intelligence may serve to motivate individuals in organizations. This motivation could ensure that employees/followers perform more effectively in the workplace (Johnson, & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Lam & Kirby, 2002). Accepting the assumption that emotional intelligence could cause performance to increase in organizations, this study investigated the impact emotional intelligence has on motivational behaviors. The major intention of this study was to develop an intricate, multifaceted understanding of leaders emotional intelligence and its relationship to employees/followers motivational behavior in organizational settings. This quantitative, descriptive, correlational research measured the potential relationship of competencies of emotional intelligence of leaders and the motivational sources of employees/followers in order to examine if a correlation between the influence of leaders emotional intelligence and employees/followers motivational behavior exists. The next section provided the observed, unobserved, measured, and controlled variables in the present study. Variables Leedy and Ormrod noted, When we investigate cause-and-effect relationships, we are of course looking at the extent to which one variable (the cause) influences another variable (the effect) (p. 233). Correlational research approaches do not show causation, but make determinations if relationships exist or if one variable is a predictor of or influences another (Leedy & Ormrod). Emotional intelligence is one variable that may be related to motivation. The intervening variables of age, gender, and years of

103 service were controlled in the research study. Latent variables are variables that are unobserved, and cannot be directly measured but are conjectured, or hypothesized (Bollen & Long, 1993). The next section provides the research question and hypothesis that guided the present research study Research Question Leedy and Ormrod (2005) reminded readers that hypotheses provide a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under investigation (p. 4). In quantitative studies, research questions are to shape and specifically focus the purpose of the study. Research questions are interrogative statements or questions that the investigator seeks to answer (Creswell, 2003, p. 108). According to Leedy and Ormrod (1985), research questions commonly used in quantitative studies provide a means for guiding and directing researchers thinking (p. 60). The research question that guided this study was: Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers? Hypotheses The alternative hypothesis (HA) stated: there is a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. In the current research study, the hull hypothesis (H0) stated there is no statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employees/followers in a New York transportation organization. Failure to reject the hull hypothesis would suggest there is no statistical evidence to

104 support the notion that organizational leaders use of emotional competence relates to employee/follower motivation. This research was conducted using two survey questionnaires: the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), which measured one variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others), and the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), which measured another variable, motivation, (a desire that elicits a preferred response). This chapter describes the studys specific research design, the appropriateness of the design, the methodology used in the present study, data collection, data analysis, the instruments used in determining the validity and reliability of the selected research tools, and the methodology used for collection of data. The next section details the research design used in the current study. Research Design The research design used in this study was a quantitative descriptive correlational approach. Descriptive research designs are used in determining the presence of relationships between an observed and latent variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and another observed and latent variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). In this design, there is no attempt to manipulate any of the variables. Descriptive research designs, such as correlational designs, examine the extent to which one variables differences relate to another variables differences (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Therefore, a quantitative descriptive correlational research design can be considered an effective method for analyzing data and understanding relationships within an identified study (Leedy & Ormrod).

105 Correlational studies examine the level of difference between variables and show frequencies of behaviors (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). In correlational studies, researchers gather data concerning two variables and do not attempt to show causation. This data is a set of numbers that is reflective of measurements of characteristics in a particular group. In this study, the data was designed to be reflective of emotional intelligence by leaders and the motivational behaviors of employees/followers. In assessing data in correlational studies, correlation coefficients are used. Correlation coefficients are expressed by the letter r (Leedy & Ormrod). When one is interested in examining relationships between two variables, scattergrams are used (Leedy & Ormrod). Scattergrams show visual representation of variables, emotional intelligence, and motivation. Leedy and Ormrod asserted there are several statements that can be made regarding scattergrams: (a) Scattergrams describe the extent to which the variables are similar or different, (b) scattergrams describe the degree to which the variables are intercorrelated, and (c) scattergrams provide a means by which to apply meaning to the variables being measured. The use of scattergrams was necessary to visually represent a quantitative descriptive correlational approach among variables. It is important to note that correlational studies do not denote causation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The next section discusses the appropriateness of the research design used in the present research study. Appropriateness of Research Design Regarding quantitative descriptive correlational research designs, Leedy and Ormrod (2001) asserted, this type of research involves either identifying the characteristics of an observed phenomenon or exploring possible correlations among two

106 or more phenomena (p. 191). The present studyquantitative descriptive, correlationalwas designed to identify correlations between two variables, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). Leedy and Ormrod stated a correlation exists if, when one variable increases, another variable increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable fashion (p. 191). Descriptive and correlational studies are an efficient and effective way of analyzing data regarding relationships between variables within an identified area. George and Mallery (2003) stated that all quantitative descriptive correlational research studies examining relationships between variables need a method to determine if correlations exist. The software package, statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS, v 12) (SPSS, 2003), can make determinations of relationships and can display results of the data in many forms. Statistical processing for the social sciences is capable of managing significant and minuscule data analysis and collection. The present study used a t-test and chi-square in analyzing data. George and Mallory (2003) asserted, the purpose of a chi-square test of independence is to determine whether the observed values for the cells deviate significantly from the corresponding expected values for those cells (p. 107). Thus, using chi-square can show significant discrepancies between values and expected values, which can show no statistical relationships between variables, if there are none present. Statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS, 2003) illustrates descriptive statisticsmean, median, and mode. While other statistical software existsWinPC, Datanet, and Analyse-it if it is not easy to understand, and is not published in a variety

107 of journals then it may not be the best software obtainable (Bornstein, 1996). Statistical processing the social sciences met the requirements for satisfying this research study. George and Mallory (2003) asserted, Descriptives is another frequently used SPSS procedure. Descriptive statistics are designed to give you information about the distributions of your variables (p. 97). Therefore, statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS, 2003) is considered an effective and efficient way of collecting and analyzing data when relationships may be present within an identified subject area. The next section discusses the feasibility of the present study. Feasibility of Study In order to perform this research study and accomplish the objective of collecting 120 (completed surveys from leaders), and 480 (completed surveys from employees/followers), the transportation organization used in this study, departments, and individuals meeting the above criteria were identified. There was a meeting held with the Vice President of Operations to discuss the project in its entirety and to obtain approval to use the organization in the study. The Vice President of Operations agreed with the project and officially gave permission in writing (Appendix I). The Vice President of Operations was provided detailed information regarding: (a) the purpose of the study, (b) the research topic, (c) the problem statement, (d) the research question, and (e) significance of the study to leadership. Timelines were also discussed to ensure all participants were informed of the constraints. The survey packet contained a letter explaining the research, detailed instructions on how to complete the survey, and the survey questionnaires. A self-addressed, stamped envelope to return the completed surveys and a postcard (Appendix H) requesting copies

108 of finalized and cumulative results once research is complete were provided in each packet. The next section provides the reader with information regarding how the participants were informed of the present study and its intentions. Informed Consent The informed consent to participate in the research study form was issued to participants. Signed consents were received before the surveys were administered. The survey was confidential. The understanding of confidentiality was indicated in the letter outlining the purpose of the research study, which was included in the Letter of Introduction (Appendix C). Participants were informed that the research study was voluntary and that no one was obligated to participate. No one had access to the individual survey data except the person conducting the survey. Each participant signed all authenticated consent forms used in this study. The participants individual identity was kept confidential during the results of this study, and remained confidential. There was no attempt made to associate answers to any participants, except for data analysis purposes. Participants were made aware of the confidentiality of their responses. Informed Consent Agreement (see Appendix D), Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study (see Appendix E) were received before any surveys were administered. The next section provided information regarding the protection of the survey respondents. Protection for Survey Respondents Two surveys were used to collect data (Emotional Competence Inventory, and Motivation Sources Inventory). For research purposes, respondents from various departments completed the surveys. Each of the surveys had an identification number

109 allocated. There were no other signatures on the surveys providing indications of what surveys were completed, or by whom. Every survey was completed at varying times within the given period. There were no other meetings to request that surveys be completed, except for follow-up requests. Respondents were informed of the time constraints before receiving the surveys. Surveys were sent through the organizations intra-office mailing system, and United States Postal Service. Reminders and copies of surveys were sent through United States Postal Service. Completed surveys were sent to the person conducting the surveys home address and intra-office mailing. All surveys that were sent through United States Postal Service received a self-addressed stamped envelope included with the survey packet. There was a postcard (Appendix H) included in the survey packet that was signed and returned to the person conducting the research study by those wishing to receive cumulative results of research study. Participation in this research was voluntary, and results were not used for any purpose other than what is indicated in the research hypothesis of this research study. A description of the benefits of the research to the selected organization was administered. Information pertaining to how respondents can obtain access to summarized data once research is completed was also provided. The next section describes the geographic location of the organization used in the present study. Geographic Location Survey questionnaires were answered at varying times and locations as participants were given a 2-week timeframe to respond. This timeframe was based on the proximity of the organization. The location of the organization selected for this study was limited to an exact location, the metropolitan area of New York. This transportation

110 agency was selected for this study because of the association of the facility to the researcher, and its diverse cultural background. In attempting to sample the various departments of this transportation organization, it became possible to sample leaders emotional intelligence and motivational behavior of employees/followers interdepartmentally. This sampling was used to show the approach used in the research study by examining the relationship between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. The next section discusses the methodology that was used in the research study. Methodology A quantitative descriptive correlational study and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to derive relationships between emotional intelligence and motivation among the data. The use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine if the survey instruments (Emotional Competence Inventory and Motivation Sources Inventory) questions were aligned with the authors statements for the given research study. Summative averaging of items into dimensions, competencies, clusters and other constructs was used in the present research study (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). The summative averaging reduced ordinal limitations associated with the five point Motivation Sources Inventory scale. In fact, use of averages created continuous ratio data for these dimensions, competencies, clusters and other constructs, even though some (e.g. Motivation Sources Inventory) were based on ordinal data (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). As a result, statistical analytical data was performed using parametric methods to generate statistical conclusions.

111 The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). The intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Quantitative research studies may be helpful in describing quantitative approaches: A quantitative approach is one in which the investigator primarily uses postpositivist claims for developing knowledge (i.e., cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypothesis and questions, use of measurement and observation, and the test of the theories), employs strategies of inquiry such as experiments and surveys, and collects data on predetermined instruments that yield statistical data. (Creswell, 2003, p. 18) The research was conducted using a self-reporting questionnaire in assessing the emotional intelligence (Appendix F) and a self-reporting questionnaire the motivational behavior of employees/followers (Barbuto, 2003). Preceding data collection, written approval to proceed with the study was obtained from the selected organization. The, University of Phoenixs Academic Review Board, and Internal Review Board also provided approval of the research study, before data was collected. The Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) developed by Boyatzis, Goleman, and Rhee (1999) and the Hay/McBer Group (2000), was used to gather emotional intelligence data. The Motivation Sources Inventory (MSI), developed by Barbuto (2003), was used in acquiring motivational behavior data. A quantitative descriptive correlational research design was used to determine if relationships exist between variables. A demographic questionnaire (Appendix G) was used to obtain information on participants age, gender, years of service, and highest degree attained. The intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service were controlled. Statistical analyses were

112 performed, using statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS v.12) (SPSS, 2003), EQS 6.1 and Number Cruncher for Statistical System (NCSS). This software can be used to demonstrate correlations between variables, and to make data analysis. This project was descriptive, allowing relationships between variables to present themselves. Therefore, statistical processing for the social sciences, EQS (6.1), NCSS, and Excel were the appropriate tools for assessing data relevant to quantitative descriptive correlational research studies and the sample population. The next section discusses the appropriateness of the methodology chosen for the present study. Methodology Appropriateness Surveys were analyzed and calculated, based on the codification numbers listed on the surveys. The researcher entered numbers on each survey for ease of determining what respondents answered what surveys. The study was anonymous to others, but based on the codification the researcher provided on the surveys, the researcher was able to link respondents to surveys. Notes were made that were indicative of departmental and identification numbers. A database was created indicating receipt of all surveys to ensure no reminders were sent to those who already responded to survey questionnaires. Each Emotional Competence Inventory and Motivation Sources Inventory response was charted-based on individual aspects in addition to total departmental and organizational scores. This information provided the opportunity to examine the potential relationship between features interdepartmentally, and between employees/followers self-rating responses to the Motivation Sources Inventory. The scores were used to ascertain if relations between any of the variables emerged.

113 Survey response data was examined for accuracy and the presence of any outliers. A t-test was used to determine any statistical significances between the means of the Emotional Competence Inventory sample ratings of self (leader), based on sample sizes.Once survey data examinations were completed and statistical significances tested, non-correlated influences between emotional intelligence present in leaders and the motivational behavior of employee/followers became evident. The direction and strength of the relationships were determined by using correlation coefficients (either or +) (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The next section discusses the reliability and validity of the present research approach. Validity and Reliability of Research Approach Assessing the validity and reliability of a research approach is necessary for any research study (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Leedy and Ormrod asserted, no matter what research methodology you choose, you must consider the validity of your approach (p. 103). Validity is used to determine if there are detailed controls that are specifically concluded by the data (Leedy & Ormrod). When establishing validity and reliability of survey items, one should ensure the survey items have relevance to the study and attempt to measure what was supposed to be measured in the present study. Speculations are drawn in validating research approaches. A researcher needs to be certain that generalizations about the larger population can be concluded (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Analyzing the internal and external validity prospects can make this determination. Leedy and Ormrod asserted, The internal validity of a research study is the extent to which its design and the data that it yields allow the researcher to draw accurate conclusions about cause-and-effect and other

114 relationships within the data (p. 104). Validity of a research study can be affected by participants answering the questions of the survey in the manner that they feel is expected of them. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) noted that external validity is measured by the fact that other studies with similar attributes can draw the same generalizations. External validity can be assessed by the manner in which the research studys conclusions extend beyond the present study. This research study used representative sampling to ensure its external validity remained intact. Representative samples are samples that have been drawn from a specific category, and generalizations are made that are representative of the entire category (Leedy & Ormrod). This information begins the process of providing the reliability and validity of the research instruments used in the present study. The next section illustrates the sample population used in the present study. Population Sample In a quantitative descriptive correlational study, which might include hundreds of participants, it is feasible to select a sample of the selected population. Conversely, this researcher surveyed the qualified population, of the targeted organization. This researcher used the results obtained in this research to make generalizations of the targeted population (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The sample design used in this study was nonprobability, quota sampling. With nonprobability sampling, the chance exists that the population will not be completely represented (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The sampling described in this research study is a quota sampling. Quota samplings are used when there are a select number of respondents representing a select number of the population, but not in a random manner, as in

115 convenience samplings (Leedy & Ormrod). Convenience samplings do not identify a particular sample population. The population is whoever happens to arrive at the location where the study is being performed (Leedy & Ormrod). The population sample size chosen for this research study is representative of the selected population. The next section provides the sampling frame that was chosen for the present study. Sampling Frame Data was collected from a selected group of leaders and employees/followers at a predetermined location. The timeframe was established-based on the proximity of the facility to the researcher. The participants were full-time employees (work at least 8 hours a day) in various departments: transportation, maintenance, human resources, controller, procurement and logistics, strategic investments, management and budget, capital program management, general counsel and secretary, information services, market development and public affairs, system safety, and engineering. Based on the sampling for this research study (quota sampling), the researcher had access to names of potential participants who were full-time employees of the selected organization. Part-time employees (summer workers) were excluded from the sample population. These employees vary from season to season. As a result, their potential for motivation may not be congruent with the rest of the sample population. Aside from the omission of part-time and summer employment, no additions or eliminations were based on demographic data. Leaders are classified as executive-level managers who supervise at least five individuals, including first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers (salaried), and directors. Employee/followers are classified as first-line supervisors,

116 assistant supervisors, first-line managers (salaried), and directors. Six hundred managers fit the qualifications. To be classified as a leader, one needed to supervise at least five individuals and to qualify as an employee/follower one is supervised by the qualified leaders. Participants, who qualify, were selected from an employee database. Participants were a mixture of male and female. For the purposes of this quantitative research method, and quota sampling, the study population involved approximately 600 leaders and employees/followers from a Northeastern transportation organization. The targeted population of the organization was 6,425 people. Based on the quota sampling method chosen, 600 participants qualified and became the study population who received surveys. There were 120 leaders receiving the Emotional Competence Inventory (Appendix F), and 480 employees/followers of leaders receiving the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003). Of the 600 people receiving surveys, this researcher anticipated a 50% return rate, which is adequate to achieve reasonably stable results. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) stated, for small populations (N <100), there is little point in sampling. Survey the entire population (p. 221). In opposition, if the population size is around 500, 50 percent of the population should be sampled (p. 221). Consequently, more than 50% of the study population was surveyed all 600 people were surveyed. Although the sample populationthe sample that was obtained for the research includes employees in various levels of the hierarchy and various departments, the data was combined and analyzed cumulatively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of emotional intelligence by leaders on motivational behavior of employees/followers at the participating organization. Performance increases in

117 organizations when awareness of emotional intelligence is high (Goleman, 1995, 1998, 1998b; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Ashanasy & Dasborough, 2003; Furnham & Petrides, 2003). The next section discussed how the participants were selected. Selection of Participants This research study used two survey questionnaires to determine if a relationship exits between a leaders emotional intelligence and the corresponding employee/followers motivational behavior. Using an accessible employee database, consisting of 6,425 leaders and employees/followers in various departments of the organization, a sample was determined (600) based on qualifications. Surveys of emotional intelligence and motivation were distributed to this sample. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) stated that quota samplings are used when a select number of respondents, from various aspects of the populace, represent the sample population. These persons met a pre-determined demographic profile, versus elements of unequal chance and availability of self-selection required for convenience sample within the nonprobability-sampling rule. Volunteers were selected-based on the conditions outlined above, including full-time leaders and employees/followers (work at least 8 hours a day) from various departments of the organization, classified as either leaders or employee/followers. Surveys were mailed by means of the United States Post Office and intra-office mailing to the sample population. Returns are expected to meet the minimum sample rate of 300 completed in order to achieve a response rate of 50%. (Creative Research Systems, 2004). With an available targeted population size of 6,425 leaders and employee/followers, 600 qualified to participate in the research study. The select sample

118 size (600) supplied an adequate sample from all participating departments of the chosen organization. The influence of emotional intelligence on the motivational behavior of employees/followers may increase workplace motivational performance. This information regarding the selection of the sample population was relevant to the present study and to the data collection process. The next section discussed the data collection process that was performed. Data Collection Process Research packets included a Letter of Introduction (Appendix C), Informed Consent Agreement (Appendix D), and an Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study (Appendix E). To ensure confidentiality and anonymity, participants were not asked to indicate any information that could link them to the questions answered at any location on surveys. There were no risks associated with participating in this study. Participants, who volunteered to partake in the study, were sent consent forms (see Appendix D and E). The survey tools, consisting of the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), the Emotional Competence Inventory (Appendix F), and the demographic questionnaire (Appendix G), were sent to those volunteers. Step 1 of the data collection process included ensuring that participants met the qualifications, based on their position in organizations hierarchy. This determination was made prior to obtaining consent from volunteers. Once qualifications were made, all participants were informed that the study was for research purposes only. All participants were informed that participation in the study was of a voluntary nature and that no one was under any obligation to participate. Participants were informed that the only

119 involvement they had was completing the survey. Partakers were informed of their rights as a participant in the research study and of the confidentiality and anonymity of their responses (Appendix D). Once participants were informed of the purpose of the study, rights as participants and of confidentiality and anonymity, consent agreement was obtained from those who volunteered to participate in the research study. The researchers telephone number and home mailing address (Appendix C) were made available to participants on the consent forms. Respondents provided their consent by way of the organizations intra-office mailing system, and United States post-mailing system. This first step was necessary to ensure participants were fully aware of their rights and was necessary to begin the second step in the data collection process. Step 2 consisted of ensuring complete consent to participate in the research study was achieved. Once all volunteers had consented, survey packets were sent through the organizations intra-office mailing system, and the United States post-mailing system, with a self-addressed stamped envelope for return mailing. This distribution ensured that each volunteer received a packet, instructions, and survey tools at no cost. Participants were informed they have 2 weeks to complete the survey once it was received. Participants (qualifying as leaders) were given one survey (Emotional Competence Inventory), (Appendix F). Participants (qualifying as employees/followers) were given a different survey (Motivation Sources Inventory) (Barbuto, 2003). Each of the surveys was sent out simultaneously to the prospective qualified participants. This step was the preparation needed in order to begin the third step in the data collection process.

120 Step 3 consisted of sending a reminder to those participants who received the survey packets. This reminder was sent 1 week after the survey was received. This timeframe was established-based on the closeness of the organization and the researcher. Salant and Dillman (as cited in Creswell, 2003) stated, The first mail out is a short advance-notice letter to all members of the sample, and the second mail-out is the actual mail survey, distributed about 1 week after the advance-notice letter. The third mail-out consists of a postcard follow-up sent to all members of the sample 4 to 8 days after the initial questionnaire. The fourth mail-out consists of a personalized cover letter with a handwritten signature, questionnaire, and preaddressed return envelope with postage. This mailing is sent to all nonrespondents [who were sent survey packets]. (p. 158) This step was necessary in ensuring a high response rate, and was the next step in the data collection process, before the collection of survey responses, which was step 4. Step 4 consisted of collecting the survey responses. Once the surveys were returned, the data was collected. Data collection began as soon as both Academic and Internal Review Boards accepted the research study and surveys were received. Collection was done using the statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS) software (SPSS, 2003). Descriptive statistics were used at this time to determine if relationships were present between variables (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Descriptive statistics were calculated to provide a summary of the collected data. Due to the sensitive nature of the data that was retrieved, it was important that participants were made comfortable articulating their true feelings. Therefore, participants were assured of complete anonymity. Because the surveys were completed in areas that cannot be controlled, environmental factors such as confined office space, mental astuteness of individuals and time limits may have affected completion of

121 surveys. No efforts were made to link responses to participants in the cumulative data collection and analysis sections, except for research purposes only. Distributed at the conclusion of the research study to the organizations leaders, Hay/McBer group, and Dr. Barbuto were copies of cumulative results. Dr. Barbuto provided permission (Appendix B) to use the Motivation Sources Inventory, with a request to attain a copy of the cumulative results of the data upon the studys completion. The Hay/McBer group provided permission (Appendix A) to use the Emotional Competence Inventory and made a request to attain a copy of the cumulative results of the data upon the studys completion. Sharing the studys cumulative results did not create bias, as the shared results occurred after the study was complete. Sharing of results was not provided until the research was completed. Furthermore, only cumulative data was shared, not individual data. Only the researcher had access to individual data. Available to respondents who requested results, were copies of research findings. A postcard request (see Appendix H) was included in the survey packets sent to respondents to facilitate requests for the studys results. The next section discusses analysis of the data. Data Analysis To analyze data in this research study, the researcher calculated descriptive statistics to explore the existence of a relationship between emotional intelligence and motivation. Used to control and analyze the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service were descriptive statistics. To test for differences between groups of individuals, this researcher used a t test procedure. George and Mallory (2003) stated, a T Test is a procedure used for comparing sample means to see if there is sufficient

122 evidence to infer that the means of the corresponding population distributions also differ (p. 134). Used in the research study was chi-square analysis, a descriptive statistic. Leedy and Ormrod (2003) noted that the use of chi square analysis is to determine how closely observed frequencies or probabilities match expected frequencies or probabilities. A chisquare can be computed for nominal, ordinal, interval, or ration data (p. 278). This material provided necessary information regarding the use of descriptive statistics in this study. During the data collection process, errors identified when a 95% confidence level is not reached, and records of blank returned surveys are noted. The next section provides the identification and error notifications established in the present study. Identification and Correction Error The data analysis process required exact processing of information, which involved codifying and amassing data in an appropriate form. While conducting the data analysis, several types of errors were checked with the existing data for existence of validity (Helberg, 1995). Sampling errors occur when the sampling representative is not representative of the target population (Helberg). This sampling error may bias the survey results. In order that this research study is statistically sound with a 95% confidence level, the researcher needed a minimum of 140 replies. Sampling errors may have occurred if one person filled out more than one survey questionnaire. Sampling errors may occur if any person who had no affiliation with the organizations completed the survey questionnaire. Consequently, certain errors were determined during the data collection process. Eliminated and excluded from analysis of the data were blank survey

123 questionnaires. The next section provides the presentation and interpretation of the data collected. Presentation, and Interpretation of Data Data was collected, presented, analyzed, and interpreted to ensure a level of understanding was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to present and analyze data. Central tendencies were illustrated by determining the mean, median, and mode. Descriptive statistics, correlations (means of determining the existence of relationships between variables) were used to further present and analyze data. Inferential statistics estimations and hypothesis testingwere used as a means to infer from the findings that the results were representative of a larger population. Inferences made about the survey population provided a means by which the researcher was able to make estimations and reasonable guesses about a larger population (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001) (6,425 leaders and employee followers). The inferences were made using a quota sampling for examining a diminutive population that was known (Leedy and Ormrod). Leedy and Ormrod posited inferences could be used to make predictions and estimations for the populace. Inferences were also used in selecting the survey instruments used in the research study. The next section provides the survey instruments used in the present study. Survey Instruments A self-reporting instrument (Appendix F) was used to measure emotional intelligence and a self-reporting instrument was used to measure motivational behavior (Barbuto, 2003). These instruments are relatively new. The surveys used in this research study were cross-sectional. Creswell (2003) as well as Leedy and Ormrod (2001), asserted that cross-sectional surveys have the data collected at one time-frame, and not

124 over a period that stretches into years. While cross-sectional and self-reporting instruments are needed for assessing self and others, limitations exist. The limitations are that these tests have an insignificant amount of discrepancy (Emmerling & Goleman, 2003). Many of the self-reporting instruments are concerned with the link between detailed behaviors, and explicit personas (Emmerling & Goleman). Self-reporting instruments are better predictors of organizational behaviors, rather than selfassessments. The most widely known in the research industry of the two surveys used in this research study is the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000). This survey evaluated four competency clusters (SelfAwareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Social Skills), which were measured and analyzed in the survey as emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others). The Emotional Competence Inventory has been used by many researchers and was considered a reliable and valid instrument. The second survey used in the study measured the second variable evaluated in the research study, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). This survey was the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003). The Motivation Sources Inventory measures the motivational sources employees/followers possess, indicative of the Intrinsic Process Motivation, Instrumental Motivation, External Self-Concept-Based Motivation, Internal Self-Concept-Based Motivation, and/or Goal Internalization Motivation (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). The sources of motivation are variables that were measured and analyzed in the research study. The next section provides the instruments that are available for measuring the variable, emotional intelligence. Each of these

125 instruments was considered for use in the present study, but each was found to be inappropriate for the measurements that were needed. Emotional Intelligence Instruments There are several tools available for assessing emotional intelligence. The selection of the most appropriate instruments for this study was based on review of the literature and analysis of available tools discussed in this chapter. Many tools for assessing emotional intelligence were viewed. Some measured human performance abilities that related to environmental abilities (Multifactor Emotional Scale); others measured various elements of intellectual abilities (MSCEIT). While they were tools that did measure emotional intelligence, they did not serve the purpose of this research study. The researcher considered using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). This instruments main measurement is ability (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001), which is considered the perceptions, facilitation, understanding, and management of emotions (p. 105). In reviewing information on the instrument and its measurements, this researcher decided not to use the survey. The survey relates to perceptions, and management of emotions, which were not measurements needed in the present study. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (Reuven Bar-On, as cited in Cherniss & Goleman, 2001) was also a consideration for the present study, until research revealed that the survey measured both emotional and social intelligence. This level of analysis was not needed in the present study. Measurements of emotional intelligence have been in existence since 1980, when Reuven Bar-On (as cited in Cherniss & Goleman, 2001) developed an interest in emotional and social intelligence. Bar-Ons notion of emotional

126 and social intelligence led to the development of another measure of emotional intelligenceEmotional Quotient Inventory (EQi)that was designed to provide an approximation of ones emotional and social intelligence (Cherniss & Goleman). While this instrument was necessary for measuring the intelligences that were stated, it did not provide the measurement of intelligences that were needed for the present research study. When studying measures of influence and intelligence, the instrument typically used is the Emotional Quotient Map (EQ Map) (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997). The Emotional Quotient Map is used as an instrument for measuring many facets of emotional intelligence. It is constructed from ones personal emotions (Cherniss & Goleman; Cooper & Sawaf). The Emotional Quotient Map measures ones selfassessment of intelligence and creativity in ones personal environment. While this measurement of intelligence was considered for use in the present study, its assessment of intelligence in a personal environment demonstrated that it was not appropriate. The Emotional Competence Inventory was used in the current study to assess the variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others). For this research study, the portion of the Emotional Competence Inventory used assesses ones individual competencies. For the purposes of this research study, leaders responded to questions pertaining to themselves; therefore, the version of the Emotional Competence Inventory needed in this present study is the one that measures leaders personal emotional competencies. The Emotional Competence Inventory is a 360-degree evaluation tool that assembles self, peer, and leaders evaluation on 20 social and emotional competencies (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001, p. 87). Respondents used a likert-type scale as a means of

127 depicting themselves in terms of the competencies measured. Each respondent determined if behavior ranged from slightly characteristic to very characteristic (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001, p. 90). Participants were able to respond if there was uncertainty of the behavior being a personal characteristic by answering do not know (Sala, 2002). The Emotional Competence Inventory consists of 72 items and takes approximately 20 to 30 minutes to complete (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). The design of the inventory was to be used as a development tool and not for employment, advancement, or as a means for monetary decision-making (Cherniss & Goleman). The competencies20 of themwhich are the variables being measured in the Emotional Competence Inventory, are sectioned into four clusters in the survey. The first cluster is Self-Awareness, which relates to understanding ones suppositions, presuppositions, and inner thoughts (Sala, 2002; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). The subdivisions relating to Self-Awareness are emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence. The second cluster, Self-Management, refers to understanding and controlling ones actions, reactions, and impulses (Sala; Cherniss & Goleman). Incorporated into the Self-Management cluster are self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement, orientation, and initiative. The third cluster measured by the Emotional Competence Inventory is Social Awareness. Social Awareness assesses individual relationships and concern for others (Sala; Cherniss & Goleman). The final cluster the Emotional Competence Inventory measures is Social Skills. Social Skills measure ones ability to influence individuals positively to bring about a desired response (Sala; Cherniss & Goleman).

128 The emotional intelligence competencies originally measured in the Emotional Competence Inventory were Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Self-Control, and Relationship Management. These competencies served as a measure of several competencies and sub-competencies (Cherniss, & Goleman, 2001). Cherniss and Goleman (2001) and Sala (2002) provide the clusters and sub-clusters of emotional intelligence, and the relationship of these clusters to motivational performance. Each of the clusters and sub-clusters range from predictor to strong predictors of motivational performance (Cherniss and Goleman; Sala). Sala (2002) asserted, For the ECI, we have conducted research to validate the ECI against various outcome measures of performance in the workplace (p. 6). The present study measures the relationship between emotional intelligence and motivational behaviors of employees/followers. The assessment tool chosen for this study is appropriate for satisfying the need of the present research study. Emotional intelligence may have implications in influencing the motivational behaviors of employees/followers. The Emotional Competence Inventory is the intended measurement of the variable, emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) in this study. The next section provides the reliability and validity of the Emotional Competence Inventory. Reliability and Validity of Emotional Competence Inventory The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing stated that reliability is maintained when a proposed study is determined to be error free (as cited in Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). Statistical affiliations among responses and scores on tests determine the measure of internal consistency (Cherniss & Goleman). Cronbachs Alpha is one

129 means by which internal consistency is measured (Sala; Cherniss & Goleman). Cherniss and Goleman asserted that Boyatzis, Goleman, and Rhee (1999) are responsible for coefficients of Cronbachs Alpha in assessing average scores on the Emotional Competence Inventory. There was a need to test the reliability of the components of the Emotional Competence Inventory in order to ensure that the results were the same consistently. Leedy and Ormrod, (2001) asserted, more generally, reliability is the consistency with which measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured hasnt changed (p. 31). Reliability testing of the component Self-Awareness in the Emotional Competence Inventory varied from .73 for Trustworthiness to .92 for Empathy, with an overall internal consistency of approximately .85 (Sala, 2002). For rating oneself, the alpha coefficients varied from .61 for Accurate Self-Assessment to .85 for Service Orientation, with an overall consistency rating of .75 (Sala). Based on ratings of internal consistencies, the results were exactly what the Cherniss and Goleman expected (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). The information about the internal consistency was significant in providing the reliability of the instrument used in the present research study. Sala (2002) stated that the indications represented in this assessment may be indicative of typical multi-rater (i.e., 360) instruments (p. 3). Cronbachs Alpha coefficient was necessary in demonstrating the reliability of the section pertaining to self and others Emotional Competence Inventory ratings. The Emotional Competence Inventory is a multi-rater instrument. It has the ability to measure personal and others competencies (Sala). For the present study, only personal reliability was measured.

130 Cronbachs Alphas coefficients and testing of internal consistency served to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the Emotional Competence Inventories self-assessment ratings. One way of ensuring reliability is test-retest. For testing reliability of the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), there was pre- and post-assessment research that provided sufficient evidence of testability of the survey (Sala, 2002). Test and re-test stability of coefficients of the Emotional Competence Inventorys self-ratings were discussed as an indicator of the instruments reliability. The test and re-test coefficients were tested on 20 Brazilian executives from a large consumer retail organization, with 7 months between testing. There was an emotional intelligence development program implemented for executives during the 7month gap, which may account for the difference in scores (Sala, 2002). This information provided the test and retest stability of the Emotional Competence Inventory, which, in the present study, measured leaders personal emotional intelligence and its influence on motivational behavior of employees/followers workplace performance. Instruments are considered valid when there are no deviations between intended measurements and actual measurements (Sala, 2002). There are two types of validity: (a) content, and (b) construct (Sala; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001; Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Content validity examines tests accuracy in assessing material relevant to the study (Sala). Construct validity explores whether the survey is appropriate for the research study being performed (Sala). Construct validity may assist in determining relationships

131 and correlations between variables based on the underlying theory (Cone & Foster, 1993). There has been research performed to validate the Emotional Competence Inventorys construct in relation to other performance measures in the workplace (Sala, 2002). The study consisted of a sample of 80 bank employees from Greece to determine if relationships between two distinct personality type tests exist. The results suggested that people with both personality types revealed high-levels of emotional intelligence (Sala). The information on the Emotional Competence Inventorys performance was relevant to the present study. The information provided the use of the instrument for measuring emotional intelligence, which is requisite to the present research study. Cherniss and Goleman (2001) asserted, The Emotional Competence Inventory is supported by construct validity evidence, content validity evidence, and validity generalization evidenced from its predecessor instrument, Self-Assessment Questionnaire (p. 92). The original version of Emotional Competence Inventory was used and tested with approximately 596 subjects from industrial companies and graduate schools (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). After analysis and reliability testing, a revision to the Emotional Competence Inventory was completed in 1998. Another revision was initiated when the Hay/McBer research team conducted research on reliability of the study (as cited in Cherniss & Goleman). Revisions were made to ensure the instruments reliability status was maintained. This information was relevant to the researchers present study. It further provided an explanation for using the Emotional Competence Inventory.

132 The Emotional Competence Inventory was chosen as the survey to be used in this study to measure leaders emotional intelligence. The self-assessment section of the Emotional Competence Inventory has a high degree of construct validity against a variety of behavioral and questionnaire measures (Sala, 2002, p. 1). Since the late 1990s, the self-assessment section of the Emotional Competence Inventory has been used in many studies (Sala, 2002). It is commonly used in many dissertations referencing emotional intelligence, and it is considered the most appropriate instrument for measuring emotional intelligence of the self and any relationship encounters, such as motivation. The next section provides the motivational instruments that are currently being used in dissertations and the available instruments for measuring motivation. Each of these instruments were considered to be used in the present study but were found to be inappropriate for the measurements that were needed in the present study. The next section provides the available and selected instrumentation for measuring motivation. Motivation Instruments Yukls (1998) Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) is a tool that measures influential tactics of leaders behaviors. This scale is used to demonstrate connectivity between organizations policies and procedures. The Influence Behavior Questionnaire is a 50-item survey, which consists of nine subscales. Subscales are Legitimating, Rational, Persuasion, Personal Appeals, Pressure, Exchanges, Ingratiating, Consultative, Inspirational, and Coalitions. It is a more commonly used tool. Many researchers have used it in reference to influential tactics (Barbuto, Fritz, & Marx, 2002). The information regarding the Influence Behavior Questionnaire provided a measurement tool that has been used to measure influential tactics of motivation but it also provided the reason why

133 the Influence Behavior Questionnaire was not appropriate for the present study. This instrument measures influential tactics, which is not a measure that was used in this research study. McClellands (1961) trichotomy of needs used the Thermatic Apperception Test (TAT). This test was determined to be unpredictable and possessed no reliability (Barbuto, Fritz, & Marx, 2002). The Thermatic Apperception test measures need for achievement (n Ach), need for affiliation (n AFF), and need for power (n Pow) (Schroth, 2001). Stall and Harrell (1982) conducted research and developed a more reliable tool. The tool measured trichotomy of needs associated with McClellands trichotomy of needs (Barbuto, Fritz & Marx, 2002). The toolJob Choice Decision-Making Exercise (JCE)measures decision-making behaviors of individuals and not personal motivation. Some self-reported measures have certain biases attached to its premise (Arnold & Feldman, 1981). This information was relevant to the present study, but because this tool does not measure personal motivation, it was not considered for use in the present study. The Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (RUMM) is a self-report questionnaire, which links attitude to behavior. There are three levels of measurement in this model, and each has a sub-level (Waugh, 2002). The Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model measures motivation of persons attitude and behavior in striving for excellence. The model measures rewards associated with attitudes and behaviors, with sub-scales referencing Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Social behavioral items (Waugh, 2002). This information provided the appropriateness of the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models use in research studies that assessed attitudes and behaviors. Particulars also demonstrated that because this tool measured attitudes and behaviors, it

134 was relevant to the present study, but not appropriate for use in the studys attempt to measure personal motivation and organizational behavior. The Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model was a consideration. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) is a device that assesses personalized experiences within a captured environment. It assesses a persons Interest, Enjoyment, Perceived Competence, Effort, Value/Usefulness, and amount of Tension and/or Pressure one feels while performing specific tasks. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory consists of five sections and seven subscales. There are 45 items within the inventory and four different versions. Because this tool measured personal motivation, considerations occurred to use it in the current research study. Upon further consideration, the instrument did not provide a method to assess employee/follower motivation, which is necessary for the present study. The Motivation Sources Inventory can be used to assess leaders, peers, and selfmotivation. It is a 5-point likert-type scale. Development of Motivation Sources Inventory was based on a recommendation from Hinkin and Schriesheim, Devellis, and Spector (as cited in Barbuto, & Scholl, 1998). A sample item of the instrument (Motivation Sources Inventory) (Barbuto, 2003) was included in the research study for ease of read. Sample Item of Motivation Sources Inventory The sample item consists of the first five items on the instrument, and is indicative of the five sources of motivation: (a) an Intrinsic, (b) Instrumental, (c) External, (d) Internal Self-Concept, and (e) Goal Internalization). The statement, I prefer to do things that are fun, represent the intrinsic source of motivation that was measured in the present study. The statement, I like to be rewarded for extra responsibilities,

135 represents the instrumental source of motivation that was measured in the present study. The statement, it is important that others appreciate the work I do, represents the external source of motivation that was measured in the present study. The statement, decisions I make reflect my personal standards, represents the internal self-concept source of motivation that was measured in the present study. Finally, the statement, I work hard for a company if I agree with its mission, represents the goal internalization source of motivation that was measured in the present study (Barbuto, 2003). This information regarding the development of the Motivation Sources Inventory, and the sample items of each question representing a source of motivation measured in the present study provided information for understanding the Motivation Sources Inventorys reliability and validation process. The information was relevant to the research study as sample items are displayed when the surveys can not be displayed. The next section will discuss how the reliability and validation of the Motivation Sources Inventory was obtained. Reliability and Validity of Motivation Sources Inventory While reliability and validity were discussed addressing Emotional Competence Inventory, it was also necessary to discuss the reliability and validity of the second instrument (Motivation Sources Inventory) used in the research study. Creswell (2003) asserted, in any research study, to use an existing instrument, describe the established validity and reliability of scores obtained from past use of the instrument (p. 157). Validity and reliability can be applied in different ways, based on the situation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto 2003) underwent content and face validity (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). Based on the validity testing on 156 graduate

136 students, the instrument went from 78 items to 60 items. The 60 items underwent component analysis. The instrument presently consists of items that are associated with the intrinsic processes, instrumental, external self-concept, internal self-concept, and with goal internalization. This information of testing for the reliability and validity of the Motivation Sources Inventory was relevant to the researchers present study. It provided the previously established reliability and validity scores of the instrument used in the present study. The Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) has been tested 60 times and administered to 156 undergraduate students in classrooms. Data from analysis consisted of 156 upper-level graduate students enrolled in six business courses. The average age of participants was 27 years, and the samples gender was 56% male. The Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) is the instrument that was used in the present study to measure the variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). The initial selection of 60 items was analyzed; using minimum packages, corresponding investigations, and investigative component analysis, to ensure accurate analysis were made (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). The information regarding the testing process of the Emotional Competence Inventory was relevant to the present study, and it provided the beginning phase of the validation process. A varimax-rotated component pattern (a means of validating research instruments) was performed on the subscales. Its use shows the five scales of motivation, along with six items per scale (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). A factor consignment of .040 or greater indicated that items were to be retained for use in data collection (Barbuto & Scholl). Barbuto and Scholl asserted conformity factor analysis could be performed

137 since the amended scale has six items each (p. 1016). A LISREL analysis was conducted on 30 items of the amended scale. Results demonstrated a fit of .92, which was determined to be a good fit (Barbuto & Scholl). Because of this testing and continual validating, the Motivation Sources Inventory was also determined to be a valid and reliable measure for the variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). Therefore, the Motivation Sources Inventorys validation process was sufficient to satisfy the needs of this research study. Based on the motivational tools available, the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998) is the appropriate tool for the present study. Its level of ease in answering questions and inclusion of appropriate measurements suggests that it is the appropriate instrument to use in this study. The Motivation Sources Inventory is easy to administer, and according to Barbuto and Scholl, should not take a significant amount of time to complete. Based on ratings from The Comparative Validity of Likert, Projective, and Forced-Choice indices of Achievement Motivation (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998), the instrument had acceptable reliability and validity. The next section provides an abridgement of the chapters contents. Summary The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional

138 intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Based on review of the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) and the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the selected instrumentation was the appropriate data collection tools for this project. Due to their ease of use and measurement of components relevant to this study, the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) and the Emotional Competence Inventory were determined to be the appropriate tools for the present study. As a result, the survey instruments were mailed to the qualified participants. Survey instruments were available to respondents and were easy to administer. Each survey took no longer than 35 minutes to complete. Each survey instrument contained the demographics attached to the instrument. One survey package (containing the Emotional Competence Inventory) was administered to participants qualified as leaders in this study. Another survey package (containing the Motivation Sources Inventory) was administered to participants qualified as employees/followers. Statistical

139 analysis of data was performed using statistical processing for the social sciences (SPSS) (SPSS, 2003). When analyzing statistical data, a correlational graph was used. The scattergram indicated each departments use of emotional intelligence and its effect on the motivational behavior of employees/followers workplace performance. The scattergram served as a visual relationship between two variables and demonstrated controlled variables such as age, gender, and years of service. A scattergram is the most visible representation of data when using a relational design or assumptions (Triola, 2004). Chapter 4 reports the data analysis and verifies the nature of feedback. It begins by reiterating the purpose of the study, hypotheses, and the research questions, and ends with a summation of proposed findings of data and an introduction of chapter 5. Chapter 4 will provide a statistical-based analysis of the collected data, the statistics used in analyzing the data, as well as the findings based on the data.

140 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. Chapter 3 described the methodology and data collection processes that were used in the research study. Chapter 4 provides the results obtained from administering the Emotional Competence Inventory and the Motivation Sources Inventory for the purposes of examining data from the selected population. Correlational coefficients, t-tests, chi square analysis, and structural equation modeling, and an ANOVA were methods used in determining the relationship between the variables (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001). Presented in this chapter are: (a) overall results from the study, (b) discusses results within the context of the research questions underlying this study, and (c) draws conclusions concerning the relationship between leaders emotional intelligence and follower organizational commitment among executive-level transportation managers. Chapter 5 addresses research data and results associated with this study. Chapter 4 provides conclusions regarding the fundamental hypothesis asserting that leader emotional competence is positively associated with employee/follower motivation among leaders and their employees/followers in a Northeastern transportation organization. This chapter provides the fundamental statistical analysis associated with this research study. Chapter 4 iterates the research design, and method used in examining the potential

141 relationship between observed and latent variables a leaders emotional intelligence and employees/followers motivation. Research Design and Method The research study encompassed examining if a relationship was present between a leaders emotional intelligence and employees/followers motivation. The researcher accomplished this objective by using representatives from various departments within the participating organization. The researcher used a non-probability sampling method and quota sampling. This sampling is proportionate to the population of this organization (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The survey was conducted at a Northeastern transportation organization in New York City. Six hundred survey forms were distributed to those who volunteered to participate in the research study. Distributed along with the survey forms was the form indicating the confidentiality of participants and their responses. The survey mailings continued for approximately 4 weeks. The first mailing included the survey packets, and the subsequent mailings included reminders with copies of surveys. The number of returned and valid survey forms that were used for data analysis was 171, representing 28.5% of the total returns. The population surveyed in this organization came from various departments. The researcher selected leaders and employees/followers from various departments, as they were representative of the characteristics needed for the surveys. To be classified as a leader an individual needed to supervise at least five employees/followers, and to qualify as an employee/follower, the qualified leaders must have supervised the employee/follower. A pilot study was performed on the survey instruments to determine if all participants would understand the 5- and 7-point Likert-type survey questions.

142 Based on the results of the pilot study, the survey questions were determined to be appropriate. The 72 question surveyEmotional Competence Inventorytook approximately 20 minutes to complete. The 30 question surveyMotivation Sources Inventorytook approximately 10 minutes to complete. The researcher sent the surveys through United States Postal Service mailing and intra-office mailing to the studys volunteers. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) asserted that in order to ensure a greater rate of return, researchers should supply the return envelope and postage. A self-addressed, stamped envelope and a post card (for individuals who wanted copies of the cumulative results) were included in the survey packages that were sent through the United States Postal Service. A post card request form was included with the survey packages that were sent through intra-office mailing system. Based on the proximity of the organization to the researcher, participants were reminded of the 2-week period by which to have surveys completed. The 2-week period was established when the last survey was sent, either by intra-office mailing, or by the United States Postal service. One-hundred and sixty two surveys were sent via intraoffice mailing, and 438 surveys were sent via the United States Postal Service. The number of validated and completed surveys returned from intra-office mailing was 28, which is a return rate of 17.3%. The number of validated and completed surveys from the United States Postal Service was 143, a return rate of 32.7%. The receipt of 36 surveys during the first 2 weeks of data collection was not enough to satisfy a 95% confidence level, which prompted the researcher to extend the data collection period. The data collection period was extended to 4 weeks to allow for the collection of more surveys. In this extended period, the researcher received 135

143 surveys, along with the 36 received in the first 2 weeks, ensuring the sample population was representative of the targeted organization in order to generalize. According to the Questa Research Associates standard sample size calculator, the researcher needed to obtain 140 completed and returned surveys to generalize the responses to the entire population (Questa, 2004). This number of surveys represented a confidence level of .95 and a margin of error of .05. According to Leedy and Ormrod (1985), researchers can make the sample size as large as is reasonably possible (p. 276) to compensate for potential bias error in testing hypotheses. Although a minimum sample size for this study was determined to be 140 to have a .95 confidence level based on a population of 600, the actual number of surveys analyzed was 171 (Leedy & Ormrod). Of the total surveys collected, 14 were found to be unusable. There were 10 surveys returned incomplete, and six were blank. Blank surveys had notes attached indicating the participants respectfully declined to participate. Therefore, the blank and incomplete surveys were discarded and were not included in the results. Pilot Study A pilot study was conducted at a Northeastern transportation organization using 10 volunteers who did not match the qualifications for leadership-level participation in the present research study (supervised less than 5 employees/followers), and five employees/followers who did not meet the employee/follower qualifications (were not supervised by qualified leaders). The study was conducted using the Emotional Competence Survey (see Appendix F) for two leaders and the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003) for eight employees/followers. The pilot study was conducted to determine if the questions were succinct, easy to understand, and clear, confirming the

144 Hay McBer group and Barbuto statements. The results of the pilot study were valuable to the present research study, as they provided information that supported the surveys conciseness and understandability (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000; Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). The information gleaned from the pilot study was used to deploy the remaining surveys to those who volunteered and qualified as leaders or as employees/followers. A demographic questionnaire (Appendix G) was included with the survey packets. Age, gender, years of service, department, and educational level was included as questions to be answered by respondents. A variety of departments (transportation, maintenance, human resources, controller, procurement and logistics, strategic investments, management and budget, capital program management, information services, market development and public affairs, general counsel and secretary, system safety, and engineering) were grouped to obtain fitting information. Leaders in departments that were accustomed to handling customers directly could be used, if essential, to compare with departments that are not accustomed to handling customers directly. Individuals with different years of service were grouped to acquire pertinent information. For future research, results of participants who were newly hired could be compared with data from individuals who were employed by the organization for longer periods. Individuals with various levels of education were grouped to acquire pertinent information. For future research, results from respondents without college education could be compared with data from individuals who had an associate, bachelors, masters, or doctorate for the purposes of future research. Participants from different age groups

145 were grouped to acquire pertinent information. Respondents who were in the range of 1825 years, could be compared, if desired, to data from individuals who were 50 years of age and older. Data Collection Procedure Two weeks before surveys were mailed, the researcher sent the Letter of Introduction (Appendix C), Informed Consent Agreement (Appendix D), and Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study (Appendix E) forms to individuals who qualified to participate in the research study. One week before the surveys were mailed, a survey notification letter was sent to individuals who volunteered to participate in the research study. Volunteers were informed of their rights as participants and of their confidentiality using the document represented in Appendix D. Once the researcher received the validated consent forms, the survey packets were sent by way of the United States Postal Service and intra-office mailing. Participants were informed that they had a 2-week period in which to complete the surveys. Participants were allowed to complete the surveys at any comfortable location. Emphasis was placed on taking into account all ethical deliberations while sending out surveys and reminders. Respondents were specifically informed of the voluntary nature of their participation and that at no time were they obligated to complete any survey questions they did not feel comfortable answering. One week after the surveys were sent, the researcher sent a survey notification reminder, along with another copy of the two surveys. The second copy of the surveys was sent as a replacement, in the event the first surveys were lost in the mailing system. While constructing and sending the survey notification reminder, special ethical considerations were emphasized.

146 Specifically, the researcher constructed the reminder in a manner that was easy to understand. Survey Production The researcher sent 1200 sets of survey questionnaires to leaders and employee/followers. The packets consisted of survey instruments and the letter of confidentiality, included in this dissertation as Appendix D. Six hundred sets of survey questionnaires were initially sent to those who volunteered to participate in the research study, and 600 were sent as a reminder after the first week of the initial mailing. The researcher sent a self-addressed, stamped envelope with the survey questionnaires. The researcher and the participants handled the instruments used in the survey. Quota Sampling The sampling frame for the chosen population consisted of a select group of fulltime (working at least 8 hours a day) leaders and employees/followers from a Northeastern transportation organization. The sampling population consisted of leaders and followers from various departments: transportation, maintenance, human resources, controller, procurement and logistics, strategic investments, management and budget, capital program management, general counsel and secretary, information services, market development and public affairs, system safety, and engineering. The survey sample was selected based on a quota sampling. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) define quota samplings as possessing similarities to convenience sampling. The advantage of using a quota sampling is that it selects respondents in the same proportions that they are found in the general population, but not in a random fashion (Leedy & Ormond, p. 219).

147 Every effort was made to ensure the quota sampling was followed. Leaders were sent survey questionnaires that differed from the questionnaires the employee/followers received. A total number of 120 leaders and 480 employees/followers were sent survey questionnaires. Every effort was used to ensure participants were informed of the anonymity of their responses. On the self-addressed envelope, the researcher used the researchers return address to ensure participants of the anonymity of their responses. To ensure maximum participation and responses, the Vice President of Operations held a meeting to discuss the research studys agenda and benefits to the organization. The data was initially to be collected based on a 2-week period from receipt of survey questionnaires. Because several participants responded that surveys never arrived, the researcher resent the first set of survey questionnaires and revised the completion date. The minimum sample size for 600 people with a 95% confidence level was 140 returned survey questionnaires. When a large number of participants contribute by completing and sending validated survey questionnaires, more inferences with increased accuracy can be made regarding the select population (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The researcher assumed that all participants answered questions as sincerely and unequivocally as possible. This assumption led to the acceptance of all validated forms. Data Presentation This section focuses on presenting the data collected through the surveys. The completed and returned surveys were validated visually. Surveys that were incomplete or contained information that was not relevant to the questions were discarded and excluded from the data analysis. Data are presented to indicate the frequency of the responses and percentages for each factor surrounding the responses.

148 Computer Software The software packages used in the data collection and analysis for this study were SPSS (Statistical Processing for the Social Sciences) v.12, EQS 6.1, Number Cruncher for Statistical Systems (NCSS), and Microsoft Excel. Number Cruncher for Statistical Systems has provided reliable statistical analysis since 1981 for those who require statistical analysis on an occasional basis (www.NCSS.com). NCSS has been used in several research studies, such as Wyszynski (2003) who used it to analyze data referencing nutrition. This software has been used in the field of education, health and human services, and social sciences since 1981, and was proven powerful, easy to use, and a best friend for those who have a fear of math. (www.NCSS.com). NCSS is a set of tools for collecting and analyzing statistical data, and has had enthusiastic reviews for measuring unobserved variables such as leaders emotional intelligence and employee/followers motivational behavior from researchers. SPSS and NCSS are comprehensive, integrated software systems that are used for statistical data analysis, and they provide survey results by finding pertinent facts, comparisons, correlations, patterns, trends, and specific information regarding departmental and gender affiliations. SPSS can be used to calculate and analyze specific information from data about individuals perceptions and behaviors that can be used in research studies (SPSS, Inc., 2003). EQS 6.1 was used as structural modeling software. The research assistants processed the collected data using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Validated Forms Forms received that did not include the age, gender, and years of service, or that were missing other pertinent information were eliminated. Forms that had markings that

149 were not relevant to the questions being asked were also discarded. Forms that had extraneous information but still provided clear answers to survey questions were included in the data analysis. Therefore, with the inclusion of the validation process, 171 forms, representing a 28.5% inclusion rate from the contender pool, were accepted as the final sample population. Completed surveys were entered into a template constructed by the researcher. Raw data from two self-reporting surveys was entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, summarized, and averaged separately and collaboratively for data analysis, correlation coefficients, and relationship linkages. The survey measuring leaders emotional competence was summarized into one variable ECI, and the survey measuring motivational behavior of employees/followers was summarized into another variable MSI and demographic information. Demographic data that was collected consisted of the following: (a) age, (b) gender, (c) years of service, (d) educational level, and (d) department affiliation. Once raw data was entered into Excel, variables were produced based on formulas that linked the responses from participants to the survey questions. Survey questions for the Emotional Competence Inventory can be found in Appendix F, and a sampling of the Motivation Sources Inventory can be found in chapter 3. The survey questions were used to generate scores of the variable emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000) and its relationship to another variable, motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response) (Barbuto, 2003). Upon concluding data entry, the data was imported into statistical software: SPSS (v12), EQS 6.1, and NCSS for complete data analysis.

150 Codifying of each survey was performed to ensure all data had a numeric value for data analysis purposes. Presentation of Results Data from 49 leader-completed Emotional Competence Inventories (ECI) and 122 employee/follower-completed Motivation Sources Inventories (MSI) was received for analysis. This represented a response rate of 41% (out of 120 questionnaires sent) for leaders and 25% for employee/followers (out of 480 questionnaires sent). Employee/follower questionnaires were matched with respective leader questionnaires, and responses were averaged to yield composite follower responses for each leader. As a result, 49 matched leader-follower pairs emerged for data analysis. This section describes the multivariate statistical analysis of this 49 leaderemployee/follower sample in terms of the variables defined below. It includes a discussion of (a) the variables and their data types, (b) demographic attributes of the sample, (c) screening activities to validate data for analysis, (d) reliability and validity of survey data and instruments, (e) results from a statistical analysis of survey data, (f) a summary of statistical findings, and (g) general analytical conclusions. All calculations were generated from Number Cruncher Statistical Systems (NCSS) (Hintze, 2001), Microsoft Excel, and EQS 6.1 structural modeling software. Variables and Their Scales Data from this sample was used to analyze the relationships among the constructs each survey was designed to measure. The Emotional Competence Inventory measured self-reported leader emotional competence, based on 72 items that could be reduced into 18 competencies and 4 clusters, using a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 to 7). The Motivation

151 Sources Inventory measured self-reported follower motivation, based on 30 items, reducible to five motivational competencies, on a 5-point Likert-type scale (0 to 4). Scale Type The seven-point Emotional Competence Inventory scale was considered sufficiently discriminating to be classified as an interval scale. The five-point Motivation Sources Inventory scale was marginally acceptable as an interval scale because most researchers use 5-point scales as the lowest range for interval classification (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). The scale was better defined as ordinal, due to the low number of anchors. As a result, data from the Emotional Competence Inventory and the Motivation Sources Inventory contained a mixture of ordinal and numeric (interval) information. Summative averaging of items into dimensions, competencies, clusters, and other constructs reduced ordinal limitations associated with the five-point Motivation Sources Inventory scale. Use of averages created continuous ratio data for these dimensions, competencies, clusters, and other constructs, even though some were based on ordinal data (Nunnally & Bernstein). As a result, statistical analytical data was performed using parametric methods to generate statistical conclusions. Description of Variables Because only 49 viable leader-employee/follower pairs were available for analysis, statistical methods could only be applied to the constructs (clusters, dimensions, competencies, and overall instruments) associated with each survey instrument. Thus, the Emotional Competence Inventory, designed to measure leaders self-reported emotional competence (latent variable), generated 18 observed competency variables (see Tables 18 through 21) (AccSelAs, Adapt, Empathy, among others), four observed cluster variables

152 (SELFMANA, SELFAWAR, SOCAWARE, and RELATION) and a single observed overall composite variable (ECI). The Motivation Sources Inventory, designed to measure employee/follower motivation (latent variable), generated a single observed composite variable (MSI) and five observed competency variables (IntriProc, Instrum, ScExter, SCInter, and Goal). Each of these variables was calculated as the average of the underlying items assigned to it by the authors of the survey instrument. Tables 18 through 21 contain a complete list of these variables and their descriptions. Exhibits 1 and 2 display data that is associated with average constructs. The data was the basis of the statistical analysis discussed later in this chapter. Sample Demographic Characteristics Listed and displayed in Tables 3 through 15 and Figures 6 through 10 are the demographic statistics. The list and display of the statistics define the demographic profiles for the respondents (n=171) who participated in the research study. Most (76.61%) were male college graduates aged between 45 and 50 years, with 10 to 15 years of experience. Employees/followers (n=122), like the overall sample, were largely male (73.77%) collegiate graduates, with similar ages and tenure in their organizations. Leaders (n=49) also were mainly male (83.67%), with characteristics similar to followers and the overall sample.

153 Table 3 Demographic Statistics


A. Age and Years of Service ********** Leader ********* Actual YOS Mean Median Mode Std Dev Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range Count
a

******* Follower ******* Actual

******* Total ******* Actual

YOSa 4.08 4.00 4.00 1.11 1.24 1.18 -1.20 5.00 49

Age 5.06 5.00 5.00 0.69 0.48 3.10 -0.48 4.00 49

YOS 14.38 14.50 5.00 7.15 51.06 -0.92 0.27 29.00 122

YOS 3.11 3.00 2.00 1.36 1.84 -1.27 -0.03 4.00 122

Ageb 4.70 5.00 5.00 1.00 1.01 0.61 -0.71 5.00 122

YOS 15.91 17.00 20.00 7.27 52.82 -0.98 0.00 32.00 171

YOS 3.39 4.00 4.00 1.36 1.85 -1.15 -0.31 5.00 171

Age 4.80 5.00 5.00 0.94 0.88 1.18 -0.81 5.00 171

19.71 20.00 20.00 6.13 37.63 0.40 -0.61 28.00 49

YOS: Years of Service, classified as 1: < 5 years; 2: 5+ to 10 years; 3: 10+ to 15 years; 4: 15+ to 20 years; 5: 20+ to 30 years; 6: 30+

years.
b

Age: Actual age classified as 1: 18-25 years; 2: 26-30 years; 3: 31-35 years; 4: 36-40 years; 5: 41-50 years; 6: 51-60 years; 7: 60

years and over

154
Demographic Statistics Tables continued B. Department, Gender, Education, and Age *** Leader*** Department Human Resources Procurement and Logistics Strategic Investments Controller Management and Budget Capital Program Management Maintenance of Equipment Information Services Market Development & Public Affairs System Safety Transportation Engineering 1 2 3 2 1 3 9 8 1 1 9 9 2.04% 4.08% 6.12% 4.08% 2.04% 6.12% 18.37% 16.33% 2.04% 2.04% 18.37% 18.37% 2 4 11 3 1 9 32 16 1 4 20 19 1.64% 3.28% 9.02% 2.46% 0.82% 7.38% 26.23% 13.11% 0.82% 3.28% 16.39% 15.57% 3 6 14 5 2 12 41 24 2 5 29 28 1.75% 3.51% 8.19% 2.92% 1.17% 7.02% 23.98% 14.04% 1.17% 2.92% 16.96% 16.37% ** Follower ** ** Total **

Gender Male Female 41 8 83.67% 16.33% 90 32 73.77% 26.23% 131 40 76.61% 23.39%

Education High School Associates Bachelors Masters Doctorate 2 2 34 11 0 4.08% 4.08% 69.39% 22.45% 0.00% 18 16 48 39 1 14.75% 13.11% 39.34% 31.97% 0.82% 20 18 82 50 1 11.70% 10.53% 47.95% 29.24% 0.58%

155

Figures 6 through 10 and Table 6 display the demographic statistics of the respondents (n = 171). The majority of the respondents (n = 41 or 23.98%) were from the Maintenance department. The majority of the respondents were male (n = 131 or 76.61%) and were between the ages of 41-50 (n = 101 or 59.06%). The majority of the respondents stated they acquired a bachelors degree (n = 82 or 47.9%). The majority of the respondents indicated having been employed by the chosen organization for 16-20 years (n = 48 or 28.07%).
Number of Employees by Department
45 40 35 # Employees 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
IS M ar G ke en t in er g al Co Sy un st e m sel Sa Tr fe an ty Pa sp ss or en ta tio ge n rS er vi ce En s gi ne er in g HR Pr oc ur em en t St ra te gi c Co nt ro M ll e an r ag em en t CP M ai nt en an ce

Leader Follower Total

Figure 6. Demographic statistics number of employees by department.

156

Number of Employees by Gender


140 120 100 #Employees 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 Leader Follower Total

Figure 7. Demographic statistics number of employees by gender.


Number of Employees by Age
120

100

# Employees

80
Leader

60

Follower
Total

40

20

0 18-25 yrs 26-30 yrs 31-35 yrs 36-40 yrs 41-50 yrs 51-60 yrs 60 and over

Figure 8. Demographic statistics number of employees by age.

157

Number of Employees by Education


90 80 70 # Employees 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 High School Associates Bachelors Masters Doctorate Leader Follower Total

Figure 9. Demographic statistics number of employees by education.


Number of Employees by Years of Service
60

50

40
Leader
Follower
Total

30

20

10

0 < 5 yrs 5+ to 10 yrs 10+ to 15 yrs 15+ to 20 yrs 20+ to 30 yrs 30+ yrs

Figure 10. Demographic statistics number of employees by years of service. Demographic data that were age-specific replicated the aging Northeastern transportation population. The majority (59%) of the respondents were 41-50 (n=101), and 15% (n=25) respondents were aged 51-60. The next set (n=23 or 13%) of the respondents were 36- 40, 9% (n=15) of the respondents were 31-35, 2% (n=4) of the respondents were 26-30, 2% (n=3) of the respondents were 60 years of age and greater, and none (n=0) of the respondents were 18-25 years of age (Table 4).

158 Demographic data that were related to educational level demonstrated the majority of respondents stated they have obtained a bachelors degree. The majority of respondents, (n=82) representing 47.9% of the overall sample population, reported their level of education was Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Arts (BS/BA). Whereas 11.69% (n=20) of the respondents received a High School education (H. S.), 10.52% (n=18) of the respondents earned an Associate (Assoc.), 29.12% (n=50) of the respondents earned a Masters degree (M.S. /M.A.), and .584% (n=1) of the respondents earned a doctorate. Demographic data relevant to the number of years respondents were employed with the Northeastern transportation organization replicated long-term employment. The majority of respondents 28.07 % (n=48) indicated employment of 16-20 years. The next group of respondents, 25.73% (n=44) of the population, replicated employment of 21 to 30 years. The next group of respondents, 21.05% (n=36) of the population, indicated employment of 6 to 10 years. Finally 14.03% (n=24) of the respondents specified employment of 11 to 15 years, 10.52% (n=18) of the respondents indicated employment of 1 month to 5 years, and .584% (n=1) of the respondents indicated employment of 31 years or more. Table 4 Demographic Data: Overall Age Age 1825 2630 3135 36-40 Frequency 0 4 15 23 Percent 0% 2% 9% 13%

159 41-50 51-60 61+ Total 101 25 3 n=171 59% 15% 2% 100%

Data (Table 4) revealed of the total number of respondents (n=171), the majority of the respondents indicated the ages being between 41 and 50 inclusively (n= 101), which is 59% of the respondents. The second most frequent responses were found in the 51-60 age-range inclusively, 25 respondents (n=25) selected this age as representation, which is 15% of the responses. The next section of responses was between the ages of 36-40 inclusively (n=23), representing 13% of total respondents. The next group of frequent responses (n=15) was in the 31-35 range, representing 9% of the total responses. Four respondents (2%) indicated their age to range from 26-30 inclusively. Three respondents (2%) indicated their age was 61 and above. There were no employee/followers who indicated the ages of 18 to 25 inclusively (n=0). Table 5 Demographic Data: Age Leaders Age 1825 2630 3135 36-40 41-50 Frequency 0 0 2 3 35 Percent 0% 0% 4.1% 6.1% 71.4%

160 51-60 61+ Total 8 1 n=49 16.3% 2% 100%

Whereas it was necessary to indicate the complete number of respondents ages, which indicated an aging workforce, it was also necessary to show the frequency and the percentage of frequency of responses from the leaders of the selected organization. Data (Table 5) revealed that, of the number of responding leaders (n=49), the majority of the respondents indicated their ages ranged between 41 and 50 inclusively (n= 35), representing 71.4% of the leader respondents. The second most frequent responses were found between the ages of 51-60 inclusively (n=8), representing 16.3% of leader respondents. In the 36-40 range, three respondents selected this age range inclusively, representing 6.1% of the leader respondents. Two respondents (n=2) answered the demographic data revealing their age to range from 31-35 inclusively, representing 4.1% of the leader respondents. There were no leaders who indicated the ages of 18 through 30 inclusively (n=0). Table 6 Demographic Data: Age Employees/Followers Age 1825 2630 3135 36-40 Frequency 0 4 13 20 Percent 0% 3% 11% 16%

161 41-50 51-60 61+ Total 66 17 2 n=122 54% 14% 2% 100%

Table 6 illustrates the response to demographic data regarding the age of employee/followers who participated in the study. Data (Table 6) revealed that of the number of responding employee/followers (n=122), the majority of the respondents indicated their ages ranged between 41 and 50 inclusively (n= 66 or 54%). The second most frequent responses were found between the ages of 36-40 inclusively (n=20), representing 16% of employee/follower respondents. In the 51-60 age-range inclusively, 17 respondents (14%) selected this age as representation. The next selection of frequent responses was in the 31-35 age-range inclusively, and 13 respondents (11%) selected this age range. Four respondents (n=4), 3% of the employee/follower respondents, answered the demographic data revealing their age to range from 26-30 inclusively. Two respondents (n=2) indicated their age was 61 and above inclusively, representing 2% of the employee/follower respondents. There were no employee/followers who indicated the ages of 18 through 25 inclusively (n=0). Table 7 Demographic Data: Overall Gender Gender Male Female Frequency 131 40 Percent 77% 23%

162 Total n=171 100%

Table 7 illustrates the demographic data regarding the overall gender of the respondents who participated in the study. Table 7 represents the gender of the qualified leaders and employees/followers and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 7) revealed that, of the number of responding leaders and employee/followers (n=171), the majority of the respondents indicated their gender as male (n= 131), representing 77% of the total respondents. Conversely, the remaining respondents indicated they were female (n=40), representing 23% of the total respondents. Table 8 Demographic Data: Gender of Leaders Gender Male Female Total Frequency 41 8 n=49 Percent 84% 16% 100%

Table 8 illustrates demographic data regarding the gender of the qualified leaders who participated in the study. Table 8 represents the gender of the qualified leaders and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 8) revealed that, of the number of responding leaders (n=49), the majority of the respondents indicated their gender as male (n= 41), representing 84% of leader respondents. Conversely, the remaining respondents indicated they were female (n=8), representing 16% of leader respondents.

163 Table 9 Demographic Data: Gender of Employees/Followers Gender Male Female Total Frequency 89 32 n=122 Percent 74% 26% 100%

Table 9 illustrates demographic data regarding the gender of employees/followers who participated in the study. Table 9 represents the gender of employee/followers and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 9) revealed that, of the number of responding employee/followers (n=122), the majority of the respondents indicated their gender as male (n= 89), representing 74% of the employee/follower respondents. Conversely, the remaining respondents indicated they were female (n=32), representing 26% of the employee/follower respondents. Table 10 Demographic Data: Overall Years of Service (YOS) Years of Service 1 month to 5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-30 years Frequency 18 36 24 48 44 Percent 10.52% 21.05% 14.03% 28.07% 25.73%

164 31+ years Total 1 n=171 .584% 100%

Table 10 illustrates overall demographic data regarding the number of years of employment at the targeted organization. Table 10 represents the number of qualified leaders and employees/followers years of service to the organization and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 10) revealed that, of the number of responding leaders and employee/followers (n=171), the majority of the respondents (n= 48) indicated having been employed by the selected organization between 16 and 20 years inclusively, representing 28.07% of the total respondents. The next group of respondents (n=44) indicated having been in the employ of the targeted organization between 21 to 30 years inclusively, representing 25.73% of the total respondents. The third most frequent responses (n= 36) indicated having been employed by the organization between 6 and 10 years inclusively, representing 21.05% of the total respondents. The next group of respondents (n= 24) indicated having been in the employ of the selected organization between 11 and 15 years inclusively, representing 14.03% of the total respondents. Eighteen respondents (n=18) indicated being employed by the selected organization between 1 month and 5 years inclusively, representing 10.52% of the total respondents. One respondent (n=1) indicated having been in the employ of the organization over 30 years, representing .584% of the total respondents. Table 11 Demographic Data: Years of Service (YOS) Leaders Years of Service Frequency Percent

165 1 month to 5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-30 years 31+ years Total 2 4 3 20 19 1 n=49 4% 8% 6% 41% 39% 2% 100%

Table 11 illustrates leaders demographic data regarding the number of years at the targeted organization. Table 11 represents the number of qualified leaders years of service in the organization and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 11) revealed that, of the number of qualified leaders (n=49), the majority of the respondents (n= 20) indicated having been employed by the selected organization between 16 and 20 years inclusively, representing 41% of the leader respondents. The next group of respondents (n=19) indicated having been in the employ of the targeted organization between 21 to 30 years inclusively, representing 25.73% of the leader respondents. The third most frequent responses (n= 4) indicated having been employed by the organization between 6 and 10 years inclusively, representing 8% of the leader respondents The next group of respondents (n= 3) indicated having been in the employ of the selected organization between 11 and 15 years inclusively, representing 6% of the leader respondents. Two respondents (n=2) indicated being employed by the selected organization between 1 month to 5 years, representing 4% of the leader respondents. One respondent (n=1) indicated having been in the employ of the organization over 30 years, representing 2% of the leader respondents.

166 Table 12 Demographic Data: Years of Service (YOS) Employees/Followers Years of Service 1 month to 5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-30 years 31+ years Total Frequency 16 32 21 28 25 0 n=122 Percent 13% 26% 17% 23% 21% 0% 100%

Table 12 illustrated employees/followers demographic data regarding the number of years at the targeted organization. Table 12 represents the number of employees/followers years of service in the organization and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 12) revealed that, of the number of employee/followers (n=122), the majority of the respondents (n= 32) indicated having been employed by the selected organization between 6 and 10 years inclusively, representing 26% of the employee/follower respondents. The next group of respondents (n=28) indicated having been in the employ of the targeted organization between 16 to 20 years inclusively, representing 23% of the employee/follower respondents. The third most frequent responses (n= 25) indicated having been employed by the organization between 21 to 30 years inclusively, representing 21% of the employee/follower respondents.

167 The next group of respondents (n= 21) indicated having been in the employ of the selected organization between 11 to 15 years inclusively, representing 17% of the employee/follower respondents. Sixteen respondents (n=16) indicated being employed by the selected organization between 1 month and 5 years inclusively, representing 13% of the employee/follower respondents. None of the employee/follower respondents (n=0) indicated having been in the employ of the organization over 30 years. Table 13 Demographic Data: Overall Educational Level Educational Level High School (HS) Associates BS/BA MS/MA Doctorate Total Frequency 20 18 82 50 1 n=171 Percent 11.69% 10.52% 47.9% 29.12% .584% 100%

Table 13 illustrates demographic data regarding the educational level of leaders and employees/followers who participated in the research study. Table 13 represents the number of leaders and employees/followers educational level attained and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 13) revealed that, of the number of leaders and employee/followers (n=171), the majority of the respondents (n= 82) indicated having attained a bachelors degree (BS/BA) representing 47.9% of the total respondents. The next group of respondents (n= 50) indicated having attained a masters degree,

168 representing 29.12% of the total respondents. The third most frequent responses (n=20) indicated having attained a high school diploma, representing 11.69% of the total respondents. Eighteen respondents (n=18) indicated having attained an associates degree, representing 10.52% of the total respondents. One respondent (n=1) indicated having attained a doctorate, representing .584% of the total respondents. Table 14 Demographic Data: Educational Level of Leaders Educational Level High School (HS) Associates BS/BA MS/MA Doctorate Total Frequency 2 2 34 11 0 n=49 Percent 4.1% 4.1% 69.4% 22.4% 0% 100%

Table 14 illustrates demographic data regarding the educational level of leaders who participated in the research study. Table 14 represents leaders educational level attained and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 14) revealed that, of the number of leaders (n=49), the majority of the respondents (n= 34) indicated having attained a bachelors degree, representing 69.4% of the leader respondents. The next group of respondents (n= 11) indicated having attained a masters degree, representing 22.4% of the leader respondents. The third most frequent responses (n=2) indicated having attained a high school diploma, representing 4.1% of the leader respondents. Two

169 respondents (n=2) indicated having attained an associates degree, representing 4.1% of the leader respondents. No respondents (n=0) indicated having attained a doctorate. Table 15 Demographic Data: Educational Level of Employees/Followers Educational Level High School (HS) Associates BS/BA MS/MA Doctorate Total Frequency 18 16 48 39 1 n=122 Percent 15% 13.1% 39% 32% .82% 100%

Table 15 illustrates demographic data regarding the educational level of employee/followers who participated in the research study. Table 15 represents the employee/followers educational level attained and the percent of responses received. Data (Table 15) revealed that, of the number of employee/followers (n=122), the majority of the respondents (n= 48) indicated having attained a bachelors degree, representing 39% of the employee/follower respondents. The next group of respondents (n= 39) indicated having attained a masters degree, representing 32% of the employee/follower respondents. The third most frequent responses (n=18) indicated having attained a high school diploma, representing 15% of the employee/follower respondents. Sixteen respondents (n=16) indicated having attained an associates degree, representing 13.1%

170 of the employee/follower respondents. One respondents (n=1) indicated having attained a doctorate, representing .82% of the employee/follower respondents. The sample population (n=171) represented 12 of the 14 qualified departments in the targeted organization. Responding leaders (n=49), who comprised 41% of the respondents, represented 12 of the qualified departments (Table 16). Responding employees/followers (n=122), who comprised 25.4% of the respondents, represented 12 of the qualified departments (Table 17). The researcher received 171 completed questionnaires considered valid for data analysis and final sample population.

171 Table 16 Qualified Leaders/Number of Responding Leaders/Departments


Number of Qualified Leaders 3 2 3 8 5 4 Frequency of Responses 1 2 3 2 1 3

Qualified Departments Human Resources Procurement and Logistics Strategic Investments Controller Management & Budget Capital Program Management Maintenance of Equipment Information Services Market Development and Public Affairs General Counsel and Secretary System Safety Transportation Passenger Services Engineering Total Qualified Leaders

Consenting/Responding Leaders per Department Human Resources Procurement and Logistics Strategic Investments Controller Management & Budget Capital Program Management Maintenance of Equipment Information Services Market Development and Public Affairs General Counsel and Secretary System Safety

% 33% 100% 100% 25% 20% 75%

20 20 2

9 8 1

45% 40% 50%

1 25 1 25 120

1 9 0 9 49

100% 36% 0 36% 47% Average

Transportation Passenger Services Engineering Total Frequency of Responses

Table 16 displays the comparison of the number of qualified leaders versus those who volunteered, received surveys, and responded successfully to the surveys. Data revealed that, of the 14 qualified departments, only 12 departments contained leader volunteers. Emerging data revealed that the average percent of responses for leaders (n=49) was 47%.

172 Table 17 Number of Responding Employee/Followers

Qualified Departments

Number of Qualified Employee/ Followers 17 11 16 24 7 27

Consenting/Responding Employee/Followers Per Department Human Resources Procurement and Logistics Strategic Investments Controller Management and Budget Capital Program Management Maintenance of Equipment Information Services Market Development and Public Affairs General Counsel and Secretary System Safety Transportation Passenger Services Engineering Total Frequency of Responses

Frequency

Human Resources Procurement and Logistics Strategic Investments Controller Management & Budget Capital Program Management Maintenance of Equipment Information Services Market Development and Public Affairs General Counsel and Secretary System Safety Transportation Passenger Services Engineering Total Qualified Leaders

2 4 11 3 1 9

12% 36% 69% 12% 14.% 33%

73 101 12

32 16 1

44% 16% 8%

7 6 104 5 70 480

0 4 20 0 19 122

0 67% 19% 0 27% 25% Average

173

Table 17 displays the number of qualified employee/followers versus those who volunteered, received surveys, and responded successfully to the surveys. Data revealed that, of the 14 qualified departments, only 12 departments contained employees/follower volunteers. Emerging data revealed that the average percent of responses for employees/followers (n=122) was 25%. Sample Population The sample population (n=171) represented leaders and employees/followers in a Northeastern transportation organization. Participants answered demographic questions as part of the research study including queries regarding age, gender, and years of service, educational level, and department affiliation. Of the 171 number of respondents, 77% were male (n=131), and 23% were female (n=40) (Table 7). Of the 171 number of respondents, 74% were between the ages of 41 and over 60 (n=129) (Table 7). This analysis is representative of a quota sampling and is generalized from the targeted population of the selected organization. The sample population (n=171) embodied various departments within a Northeastern transportation organization. The majority of respondents, 60.23% (n=103), indicated they had been employed by the organization for 15 years or more. Figure 11 is a graphical picture (scattergram) of the representative respondents from the selected organization.

174

Number of Years Respondents Were Employed at Selected Organization


35 Number of Years Respondents Served on the targeted Organization 30 25 20 Actual YOS 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 Number of Respondents

Figure 11. Scattergram of years of service of respondents. Data Screening Displayed in exhibits 1 and 2 (observed variables) ECI and MSI, are classifications of continuous data qualifying for parametric statistical analysis. Tables 18 through 21 display descriptive statistics associated with these variables. Tables 18 through 21, along with the normality test data in Table 22, provides information needed to determine the degree to which data (exhibits 1 and 2) satisfied assumptions underlying multivariate statistical analysis (including normality, heteroscedasticity, linearity, outliers, and missing data). This section describes actions taken to assure satisfaction of these assumptions. Screened data (exhibits 1 and 2 and underlying items used as the basis for the averages in these exhibits) identified missing, incomplete, and inconsistent responses.

175 Findings suggested completion of noted data with no missing data. Visualization of data inspected linearity and heteroscedasticity by examining distribution plots for each of the observed variables under consideration. Observed linear data met requirements for heteroscedasticity. Table 18 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficientsa

176
Variable Nameb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Accurate Self Assessment Emotional Self Awareness Self-Confidence SELFAWARNESS Achievement Orientation Adaptability Emotional Self Control Initiative Optimism Transparency SELF MANAGEMENT Empathy Organizational Awareness Service Orientation SOCIAL AWARENESS Change Catalyst Conflict Management Developing Others Influence Inspirational Leadership Teamwork and 21 Collaboration RELATIONSHIP 22 23 24 MANAGEMENT ECI SCORE (TOTAL) Intrinsic Processes RELATION ECI IntriProc 4.13 4.17 2.93 0.31 0.27 0.30 0.39* 0.52* 0.9 0.47* 0.65* 0.45* 0.62* 0.70* 0.30** Teamwork 4.68 0.32 0.04 -0.08 0.30** AccSelAs EmoSelAw SelfConf SELFAWAR AchOrient Adapt EmoContro Initiat Optimism Transpar SELFMANA Empathy OrgAware SerOrien SOCAWARE ChangCat ConfMana DevOther Influence InspLead Average 4.29 3.81 4.67 4.26 3.99 3.93 4.55 4.21 3.91 3.93 4.09 4.10 4.52 4.28 4.30 4.33 3.82 4.12 3.82 4.04 Standard Deviation 0.46 0.51 0.38 0.33 0.62 0.50 0.42 0.28 0.36 0.45 0.27 0.43 0.45 0.44 0.37 0.42 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.50 1 0.31 0.16 0.24 0.65* 0.10 0.37* 0.39* 0.42* 0.21 -0.07 0.36* 0.43* 0.53* 0.25 0.48* 0.26 0.35* 0.46* 0.18 0.20 0.61 0.46 0.78* 0.55* 0.29** -0.09 0.47* 0.31** 0.40* 0.54* 0.31** 0.47* 0.63* 0.57* 0.12 0.40* 0.30** 0.65* 0.35** 0.28 0.74* 0.23 0.33** 0.35** 0.40* 0.47* 0.32** 0.55* 0.34** 0.51* 0.59* 0.58* 0.38* 0.34** 0.47* 0.47* 0.52* 2 3

177
a

Internal reliability/consistency coefficients (Cronbachs alphas; ) for each scale appear on the diagonal in

parentheses. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients (r) appear below the diagonal.
b

Variable reflect the average of items (question) assigned to each section by the author of the instrument.

Names in capital letters are higher order constructs and totals for each instrument as a whole. n = 49, *p < .01 **p < .05.

Table 18 provides the descriptive statistics (correlation coefficients) of the first three variables measured in the research study. Provided in Table 18 is the correlation coefficients which are the italicized, boldface numbers that are along the diagonal. The variables name, average of questions assigned to each section of the ECI and MSI, and standard deviation are presented. Based on 49 leader-follower pairs (n=49), Cronbachs alpha was provided for each scale (ECI; MSI). Correlation coefficients were provided for variables one though three, using a level of significance of .01 and .05. The variable name column reflects the average of items (questions) that were assigned to the section by the author of the instrument. Variable names that are capitalized are higher-order constructs and totals for the instrument as a whole. Table 19 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficientsa

178
Variable Nameb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 AccSelAs EmoSelAw SelfConf SELFAWAR AchOrient Adapt EmoContro Initiat Optimism Transpar SELFMANA Empathy OrgAware SerOrien SOCAWARE ChangCat ConfMana DevOther Influence InspLead Teamwork RELATION ECI IntriProc Instrum ScExter 0.64 0.42* 0.46* 0.27 0.60* 0.44* 0.30** 0.66* 0.49* 0.69* 0.68* 0.75* 0.34** 0.50* 0.56* 0.60* 0.48* 0.09 0.67* 0.85* 0.40* 0.04 -0.03 0.67 0.26 -0.26 0.30* 0.60* 0.42* 0.70* 0.19 0.41* 0.43* 0.41* 0.32** 0.51* 0.47* 0.52* 0.50* 0.14 0.64* 0.64* 0.09 -0.09 -0.11 0.36 0.08 0.35** 0.42* 0.11 0.62* 0.09 0.56* 0.20 0.34** 0.30** 0.43* 0.25 0.19 0.45* 0.08 0.45* 0.54* 0.24 -0.20 0.03 0.44 0.32** 0.29** 0.07 0.33** 0.44* 0.32** -0.03 0.29** 0.13 0.12 0.32** 0.22 0.07 0.20 0.26 0.32** -0.14 -0.21 -0.18 0.11 0.46* 0.02 0.59* 0.52* 0.51* 0.32** 0.54* 0.32** 0.36** 0.56* 0.43* 0.49* -0.11 0.55* 0.65* 0.06 -0.20 -0.05 0.02 0.32** 0.83* 0.44* 0.51* 0.43* 0.55* 0.48* 0.42* 0.59* 0.57* 0.48* 0.28** 0.71* 0.74* -0.01 -0.24 -0.10 0.50 0.57* 0.08 0.14 0.23 0.18 0.21 0.35** 0.03 0.25 0.09 0.16 0.27 0.39* 0.30** 0.03 0.01 0.68 0.43* 0.66* 0.44* 0.61* 0.47* 0.62* 0.58* 0.59* 0.57* 0.22 0.79* 0.89* 0.16 -0.24 -0.11 0.36 0.54* 0.46* 0.80* 0.12 0.19 0.49* 0.42* 0.36** 0.42* 0.49* 0.60* 0.09 0.00 0.04 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

179
Internal reliability/consistency coefficients (Cronbachs alphas; ) for each scale appear on the diagonal in parentheses. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients (r) appear below the diagonal. b Variable reflect the average of items (question) assigned to each section by the author of the instrument.
a

Names in capital letters are higher order constructs and totals for each instrument as a whole. n = 49 .01 **p < .05.

*p <

Table 19 provides the descriptive statistics (correlation coefficients) of variables four through 12 that were measured in the research study. Provided in Table 19 is the correlation coefficients which are the italicized, boldface numbers that are along the diagonal. The variables name, average of questions assigned to each section of the ECI and MSI, and standard deviation are presented. Based on 49 leader-follower pairs (n=49), Cronbachs alpha was provided for each scale (ECI; MSI). Correlation coefficients were provided for variables four through 12, using a level of significance of .01 and .05. The variable name column reflects the average of items (questions) that were assigned to the section by the author of the instrument. Variable names that are capitalized are higherorder constructs and totals for the instrument as a whole. Table 20 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficientsa

180
Variable Nameb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 AccSelAs EmoSelAw SelfConf SELFAWAR AchOrient Adapt EmoContro Initiat Optimism Transpar SELFMANA Empathy OrgAware SerOrien SOCAWARE ChangCat ConfMana DevOther Influence InspLead Teamwork RELATION ECI IntriProc Instrum ScExter 0.33 0.61* 0.87* 0.29** 0.32** 0.58* 0.63* 0.63* 0.25 0.69* 0.81* 0.23 -0.19 -0.14 0.28 0.83* 0.36** 0.36** 0.40* 0.63* 0.55* 0.18 0.63* 0.71* 0.27 -0.04 -0.02 0.68 0.31** 0.35** 0.59* 0.67* 0.62* 0.33** 0.72* 0.85* 0.24 -0.09 -0.05 0.51 0.48* 0.41* 0.07 0.31** 0.00 0.58* 0.51* -0.10 -0.12 -0.24 0.27 0.44* 0.32** 0.37* 0.30** 0.75* 0.66* -0.02 -0.10 -0.09 0.68 0.38* 0.63* 0.25 0.80* 0.73* -0.08 -0.23 -.28** 0.50 0.47* 0.11 0.61* 0.69* 0.12 -0.19 -0.08 0.64 0.18 0.77* 0.70* 0.12 -.35** -0.21 0.29 0.40* 0.31** -0.07 -0.09 0.05 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

181
a

Internal reliability/consistency coefficients (Cronbachs alphas; ) for each scale appear on the diagonal in parentheses. Pearson

Product-Moment correlation coefficients (r) appear below the diagonal.


b

Variable reflect the average of items (question) assigned to each section by the author of the instrument. Names in capital letters are **p < .05.

higher order constructs and totals for each instrument as a whole. n = 49 *p < .01

Table 20 provides the descriptive statistics (correlation coefficients) of variables 13 through 21 that were measured in the research study. Provided in Table 20 is the correlation coefficients which are the italicized, boldface numbers that are along the diagonal. The variables name, average of questions assigned to each section of the ECI and MSI, and standard deviation are presented. Based on 49 leader-follower pairs (n=49), Cronbachs alpha was provided for each scale (ECI; MSI). Correlation coefficients were provided for all variables 13 through 21, using a level of significance of .01 and .05. The variable name column reflects the average of items (questions) that were assigned to the section by the author of the instrument. Variable names that are capitalized are higherorder constructs and totals for the instrument as a whole. Table 21 Descriptive Statistics Averages, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, and Reliability Coefficientsa

182
Variable Nameb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 AccSelAs EmoSelAw SelfConf SELFAWAR AchOrient Adapt EmoContro Initiat Optimism Transpar SELFMANA Empathy OrgAware SerOrien SOCAWARE ChangCat ConfMana DevOther Influence InspLead Teamwork RELATION ECI IntriProc Instrum ScExter 0.83 0.92* 0.00 -0.28 -0.23 0.91 0.20 -0.18 -0.13 0.59 0.27 0.35** 0.61 0.50* 0.76 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

183
a

Internal reliability/consistency coefficients (Cronbachs alphas; ) for each scale appear on the diagonal in parentheses. Pearson

Product-Moment correlation coefficients (r) appear below the diagonal.


b

Variable reflect the average of items (question) assigned to each section by the author of the instrument. Names in capital letters are *p < .01, **p < .05.

higher order constructs and totals for each instrument as a whole. n = 49,

Table 21 provides the descriptive statistics (correlation coefficients) of variables 22 through 29 that were measured in the research study. Provided in Table 21 is the correlation coefficients which are the italicized, boldface numbers that are along the diagonal. The variables name, average of questions assigned to each section of the ECI and MSI, and standard deviation are presented. Based on 49 leader-follower pairs (n=49), Cronbachs alpha was provided for each scale (ECI; MSI). Correlation coefficients were provided for variables 22 through 29, using a level of significance of .01 and .05. The variable name column reflects the average of items (questions) that were assigned to the section by the author of the instrument. Variable names that are capitalized are higherorder constructs and totals for the instrument as a whole. Table 22 Normality Tests

184
----- Skewness Test ---------- Kurtosis Test -------- Omnibus Test Variable Variablea AccSelAs EmoSelAw SelfConf SELFAWAR AchOrient Adapt EmoContro Initiat Optimism Transpar SELFMANA Empathy OrgAware SerOrien SOCAWARE ChangCat ConfMana DevOther Influence InspLead Teamwork RELATION ECI IntriProc Instrum Value -0.69 0.19 -0.56 -0.21 -0.92 -0.34 0.39 0.05 0.54 -0.21 0.33 -0.85 0.1 -0.14 -0.52 -0.31 -0.17 -0.17 0.06 -0.26 -0.12 0.27 0.03 -0.39 0.09 Z -2.06 0.6 -1.69 -0.65 -2.63 -1.05 1.21 0.15 1.65 -0.67 1.04 -2.46 0.31 -0.45 -1.58 -0.97 -0.53 -0.55 0.19 -0.81 -0.39 0.85 0.09 -1.20 0.27 Prob 0.04 0.55 0.09 0.51 0.01 0.29 0.23 0.88 0.10 0.50 0.30 0.01 0.76 0.65 0.11 0.33 0.59 0.58 0.85 0.42 0.70 0.40 0.93 0.23 0.79 Value 2.71 2.32 2.46 3.11 3.57 2.3 2.8 3.31 3.67 2.36 3.71 2.76 2.33 2.13 2.34 2.51 3.08 2.14 2.81 1.82 2.08 2.02 2.55 3.46 2.68 Z -0.11 -1.06 -0.69 0.6 1.2 -1.15 0.08 0.88 1.32 -0.96 1.36 0.00 -1.04 -1.70 -1.03 -0.56 0.55 -1.69 0.09 -3.24 -1.94 -2.20 -0.47 1.07 -0.16 Prob 0.91 0.29 0.49 0.55 0.23 0.25 0.94 0.38 0.19 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.30 0.09 0.31 0.57 0.59 0.09 0.93 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.64 0.28 0.87 K2 4.26 1.49 3.35 0.79 8.34 2.43 1.46 0.79 4.44 1.38 2.93 6.05 1.18 3.11 3.56 1.25 0.58 3.16 0.05 11.19 3.90 5.54 0.23 2.60 0.10 Prob 0.12 0.47 0.19 0.67 0.02 0.30 0.48 0.67 0.11 0.50 0.23 0.05 0.55 0.21 0.17 0.53 0.75 0.21 0.98 0.00 0.14 0.06 0.89 0.27 0.95 Normal? No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes

185

Table 22 illustrates skewness, which is a standardized test that shows whether the data comes from a normal distribution. The letter Z measures the skewness, and it is normally between -2 and +2 (Hair, et al, 1998). Kurtosis is the level at which the distribution peaks, and it is measured by the letter Z. Skewness, kurtosis, and omnibus tests demonstrated normal distributions for 22 variables and non-AUDInormal distributions for seven variables (AccSelAs, AchOrient, Empathy, InspLead, RELATION, ScInter, and Goal). Additional tests (Sharpiro-Wilks, Anderson-Darling, and Marinez-Ingelwicz) were performed on the seven non-normal variables to assess the degree of deviation from normality assumptions. Non-problematic tests revealed modest deviations from normality because structural equation modeling and factor analysis (statistical analysisl tools for this study) were not particularly vulnerable to minor normality deviations (Hair, et al, 1998). As a result, data for all 29 observed variables (see Tables 18 through 21) satisfied assumptions for multivariate statistical analysis and were deemed satisfactory, allowing the study to continue. Reliability and Validity All observed variables were multi-item constructs, measured by the MSI and ECI instruments. The ability of these instruments to measure these constructs accurately was a key concern affecting the conclusions resulting from this study. In fact, accurate conclusions depended on reliable and valid measurements of these constructs. Consequently, survey reliability (internal consistency) and validity (construct validity) required in-depth analysis and verification. This section addresses the internal consistency and validity of the 29 variables (see Tables 18 through 21) associated with

186 this research project. In addition, the section also reviews issues regarding common method variance (CMV) and the adequacy of the 49 leader-follower sample size for all observed variables. The four issues (reliability, validity, CMV, and the adequacy of the sample size) were critical to establishing the usefulness of data obtained from the ECI and MSI survey instruments. In addition, resolution of these issues defines the conditions/limitations affecting the significance and utility of the findings from this study. Reliability Cronbachs alpha () was used to assess the reliability (internal consistency) of observed variables emotional intelligence and motivation. This statistic measures the degree to which results can be replicated if a test is repeated under similar circumstances (Crocker & Algina, 1986). Tables 18 through 21 display the coefficients (italicized boldface numbers along the diagonal) for the competencies and clusters associated with the ECI and MSI instruments. Generally, reliability is a reasonable notion if the alpha coefficient exceeds 0.80. Some authors (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998) assert that values over 0.70 are acceptable, those between 0.60 and 0.70 are marginal, and those below 0.60 are unacceptable with respect to reliability. Based on the foregoing criteria, Tables 18 through 21 displayed 15 of the 29 alpha coefficients deemed acceptable, with the remaining eight in the marginally acceptable category. Reliability for six variables (RELATION, ECI, ScExter, ScIter, Goal, and MSI) was acceptable because their coefficients exceeded 0.70. While these coefficients suggested a low level of overall internal consistency, each instrument was examined independently to assess its contribution. The MSI instruments four variables (ScExter,

187 ScInter, Goal, and MSI) had acceptable reliability ( > 0.70), and two (IntrProc and Instrum) variables were marginal or nearly marginal. As a result, the MSI was deemed a reasonably acceptable instrument for measuring follower motivation. The ECI instrument was primarily comprised of unreliable variables. In fact, nearly 50% (14) of the variables had reliability coefficients that were less than 0.50. Seven variables were marginally reliable, and only two (RELATION and ECI) had coefficients exceeding 0.70. Consequently, 91% of the variables for this instrument were in the marginal to unacceptable range of reliability. As a result, the ECI was not established as a reliable instrument for measuring leaders emotional competence. Construct Validity Construct validity measures the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure. In this case, the question of construct validity concerned the degree to which the instruments accurately measured the constructs (competencies, clusters, dimensions) associated with the ECI and MSI instruments. Two questions were answered regarding the ECI instrument: (a) did the ECI instrument measure 18 competencies and 4 clusters accurately, and (b) were the competencies and clusters comprised of the underlying questions asserted by the authors of the instruments? In the case of the MSI, the question that was answered was, did the instrument measure the five dimensions of motivation accurately? Exploratory factor analysis (including principle components analysis) and confirmatory factor analysis provided answers to the questions posed.

188

Table 23 Instrument Construct Validity Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA): Divergent Validity

189
************** Factors Model ************** 1 Instrument Theory ECI Questions Aggregating Into Competencies Typea Rotation #Significant Factorsb #Theoretical Factorsc %Variance Explained Alignmentd Factor Structure FA and PCA All Not Determinable Not Determinable Not Determinable Not Determinable Not Determinable Fctrf 1
(3.9)

2 ECI Dimensions Aggregating Into Clusters FA Varimax 5 4 95.88 Poor Itemse 13, 12, 14, 7, 28, 29, and 2 2
(3.1)

3 MSI Questions Aggregating Into Competencies FA Varimax 5 5 97.53 Poor Fctrf 1


(3.4)

Itemse 6, 10, and 1

1, 16, and 21

2
(3.3)

16, 2, 12, 11, 17, 10, 4, 7, 3, and 15

3
(1.7)

30, 15, 25, 20, 29, 24, 19, and 14

3
(2.3)

4
(1.2)

3, 8, 9, 18, and 28 17, 22, 27, and 21

4
(2.2)

18

5
(1.1)

5
(1.8)

13, 14, 5, 15, 17, 8, 4, 7, 11,

190
a

PCA = Principle Components Analysis; FA = Factor Analysis


b

Number of factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 as derived from the Factor Analysis Number of factors possible based on the theory behind the test instrument. Degree to which factor loadings (from the PCA or FA) of instrument items correspond to the theory behind the test

instrument. In other words, the degree to which test items (questions) and competencies aggregate into theorized competencies and clusters.

Three exploratory factor analyses (EFA) determined the divergent validity of the instruments. The EFA was used to determine if the instruments were valid for the current research study. While the validity of the instruments was determined in chapter 3, its use in the present research study was determined when the data analysis began (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The question to be addressed was, did the data from the instruments naturally diverge into the theorized competencies, clusters, and dimensions? Table 23 displays the results of the analyses. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) results for the MSI and ECI demonstrated that each instrument seemed to diverge into the correct number of factors. Close inspection of the loadings of each factor demonstrated that items (questions) did not align with the clusters and competencies as theorized by the authors of the instruments. Consequently, the ECI and MSI instruments were preliminarily determined to have poor construct validity. In order to verify this suspicion, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed (using EQS 6.1) to determine if competencies converged into four clusters as asserted by the instruments authors. Hair, Anderson, Tathum, and Black (1998) asserted that sample sizes less than 100 would not constitute enough of a sample to reject the null hypothesis. The current research study had a sample size of 171, with 49 leader-follower groupings. CFA models did not converge at the item level. The MSI and ECI questions, as asserted by each instruments author, did not converge into the purported constructs

191 (five for the MSI and 18 for the ECI) because the correlation matrix became positivedefinite. In light of this difficulty, additional CFA models were tested. The performance of CFA, in the case of the MSI, to measure convergence of the five competencies into one MSI factor denoting follower over-all perception of the leader, occurred. Each competency was calculated as the average of the items to which it was assigned. Results of the analysis demonstrated poor fit (NNFI = 0.58, NFI = 0.48, CFI = 0.62, and GFI = 0.67) because these indicators did not exceed the preferred threshold of 0.90 (Hair, et al, 1998). Comparative Fit Index (CFI) and Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) also have a preferred threshold of .90 (Hair, et al). Table 24 details the fit of this model. The secondary CFA model for the ECI instrument generated similar results. The designing of the CFA model was to test convergence of the 18 competencies into four ECI leader clusters in which each competency calculates as the average of the items assigned to it. Results of this analysis also demonstrated poor fit (NNFI = 0.44, NFI = 0.44, CFI = 0.53, and GFI = 0.63) because these indicators did not exceed the preferred threshold of 0.90 (Hair, et al, 1998).

192

Table 24 Instrument Construct Validity Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA): Convergent Validity
MSI (5 Competencies Aggregating to a Single MSI Factor)b Index Chi-Square Normed Fit a Non-Normed Fit a CFI a GFI a n = 49
a

ECI (Averages of Items for Competencies Aggregating into 4 Clusters)c p < 0.01 NA Statistic 362.82 0.44 0.44 NA NA NA NA 0.53 0.63 NA NA NA NA NA NA df 129 NA p < 0.01 NA

Statistic 854.23 0.48 0.58

df 24 NA

0.62 0.67

NA NA

0.90 is considered the threshold for acceptable fit A CFA model did not converge at the item level. That is, MSI questions, as asserted by the instruments

author, did not converge on the five purported constructs since the correlation matrix became positivedefinite. In light of this difficulty, a second CFA was performed to measure convergence of the five competencies into one MSI factor denoting follower over-all perception of the leader. Each competency was calculated as the average of the items assigned.
c

A CFA model did not converge at the item level. That is, ECI questions, as asserted by the instruments

author, did not converge on the 18 purported constructs associated with the four ECI competencies since the correlation matrix became positive-definite. In light of this difficulty, a second CFA was performed to measure convergence of the 18 competencies into four ECI leader clusters. Each competency was calculated as the average of the items assigned.

In summary, overall exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis generated models and structures that unfavorably fit the data displayed in exhibits 1 and 2. The ECI

193 and MSI instruments did not effectively measure what they were intended to measure. Unfavorable construct validity for both instruments resulted. Common Method Variance (CMV) Common method variance becomes an issue when the same method (same survey questionnaire) used to collect information about both variables occurs. This variance can introduce bias into the research because it becomes possible for respondents to become aware of the intent of the survey. It also becomes possible, that the method as well as the proposed relationship model (Lindell & Whitney, 2001), could explain variations of the variables. Prevention of bias and variations of the variables occur by separating data collection for one variable and data collection of other variables by time and/or population (Lindell & Whitney). The accomplishment of the prevention occurred in this study by requiring leaders and employees/followers to complete different surveys, at different times. As a result, CMV was not an issue for this study. Sample Size Although a sample size of 171 was received and used for data analysis, 49 leaderfollower groups were deemed acceptable for analysis in this study. In addition, data for this sample satisfied assumptions for multivariate analysis. The adequacy of the size of this sample was assessed in terms of the statistical tests (structural equation modeling) used to derive relationships among the data. The accepted standard is that a researcher needs 10 surveys for every variable included in the statistical analysis (Hair, et al, 1998). This means that a sample size of at least 90 was needed for structural modeling of the nine observed variables (SELFAWAR, SELFMANA, SOCAWARE, RELATION, IntriProc, Instrum, ScExter, ScInter, and Goal) associated with the final model displayed

194 in Figure 12. Consequently, sample size was inadequate since collected data for only 49 leader-follower groups occurred. Statistical Analysis Parametric statistical methods analyzed data in exhibits 1 and 2 (all variables treated as continuous ratio data). Analytical techniques included preparation of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) for all possible combinations of the data presented in exhibits 1 and 2. Structural equation modeling (EQS 6.1) was used to examine structural relationships among latent variables (L_ECI and L_MSI), using 27 observed variables covering the 5 dimensions of the MSI, 4 clusters of the ECI, and the 18 ECI competencies as the measurement model. The L_ prefix signifies immeasurable latent factors in order to distinguish them from similar observed variables (ECI and MSI) calculated as the average of underlying items. Finally, the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the effects of various demographic factors on ECI and MSI as response variables occurred. Each of these analytical processes is described in the following section. Statistical hypotheses were specified as the basis for the statistical tests used in this study. Hypotheses The fundamental hypothesis (HA) in this study was that leader emotional competence and follower motivation had a statistically significant positive association. That is, a leaders use of emotional competence is related to employee/followers motivation. An implicit assumption in this hypothesis was that emotional competence was a multi-dimensional construct comprised of the leaders ability to self-manage, to be socially aware, to be self aware, and to be sensitive to relationships. An assumption that

195 five dimensions including intrinsic process, instrumental, SC-External, SC-Internal, and goal orientation characterized employee/follower motivation occurred. In order to test this hypothesis, the need for a statistical version emerged in order to determine the nature of the asserted relationship among observed and latent variables. This section discusses this hypothesis. Parametric statistical methods analyzed the data presented in exhibits 1 and 2 (all variables treated as continuous ratio data). Analytical techniques included preparation of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) for all possible combinations of the data presented in exhibits 1 and 2. Structural equation modeling (EQS 6.1) was used to examine structural relationships among latent variables (L_ECI and L_MSI), using 27 observed variables covering the 5 dimensions of the MSI, 4 clusters of the ECI, and the 18 ECI competencies as the measurement model. Statistically, the null hypothesis (HO) essentially stated the structural coefficient () relating L_ECI and L_MSI would be less than or equal to zero ( 0) at a 5% level of statistical significance (p < 0.05) within a structural equation model displaying acceptable fit statistics (NNFI, CFI, Chi Square, etc.). The alternate hypothesis (HA) asserted the relationship among the variables (L_ECI and L_MSI) would be positive ( > 0) at a 5% level of statistical significance (p < 0.05) within a structural equation model displaying acceptable fit statistics (NNFI, CFI, Chi Square, etc.). The statistical version of this hypothesis defined the nature of the statistical analysis for this project. Specifically, needed to evaluate the acceptability of this hypothesis were bivariate correleations (Pearson Product Moment), structural equation modeling, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical analysis is provided in the following section.

196 Bivariate Correlations (Pearson Product Moment) Displayed among the observed variables used in this study are the bivariate correlations (see Tables 18 through 21). Of particular interest was the correlations between the various variables (ECI) and the relationship variable (MSI) as displayed at the intersection of row 29 and column 23. The correlation between the stated variables was important because the variables represented the average of all items in each instrument and, therefore, offered a reasonable estimate of the hypothesized association. The correlation (r = -0.07, p > 0.05) was not statistically significant, and its low value (0.07) suggested the two variables (constructs) may bear little relationship to each other. The correlation (r = -0.07) at a statistical significance of 0.05 (p > 0.05) suggested that leader emotional competence (ECI) may not be a predictor of follower motivation (MSI). On the surface, this seemed to imply the hypothesized relationship was justified. Further examination of the remaining correlation coefficients revealed a more complex situation. Because many of the remaining bivariate combinations in the matrix (see Tables 18 through 21) also had significantly high correlations, a more complex multivariate relationship served to explain the asserted connection. As a result, parametric, bivariate correlation coefficients provided little direction regarding the viability of the fundamental hypothesis associated with this study. Whereas multiple regressions reveal the degree of discrepancy between variables, structural equation modeling uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess relationships between latent variables. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling do provide insight into the discrepancy between the variables, as explained in the following sections.

197 Structural Equation Modeling Structural equation modeling is a technique whereby un-definable variables (called latent variables) can be related in a manner that determines if a relationship exists among latent variables. Assigned measurement characteristics for each latent variable on which employed statistical techniques to examine or infer relationships occurred. The known measurements characteristics are the measurement model, and the relationship between known latent variables is the structural model (Figure 12).

Q16 Q11 D E F C B A 1 7 6 2 Q27 Q3 Q8 Leader Emotional Competence


(ECI or L_ECI)

Q21 Q26 Q7 Q2 Q12 Q17 Instrumental


(Instrum )

Q6 Q1

Intrinsic Process
(IntriProc)

G H I SelfAware
(SELFAWAR)

SelfManagement
(SELFMANA)

r1

Q22

r5 r4 r2

Follower Motivation
(MSI or L_MSI)

Q13 SC SC External (ScExter ) External Q18

r6 Social Awareness
(SOCAWAR)

8 9 5

4 Q4 Q9 Q28

Q23

J K L

r3

Relationship Management
(RELATION)

R Q P Q30 Q25 Q20 Q10 Goal Interest


(Goal)

SC Internal
(SCInter )

Q14 Q19

M N

Q5

Q29 Q24

Q15

LEGEND (variable names in parentheses) Measurement Model Structural Model Structural Path Coefficient r Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient A Achievement Orientation (AchOrient) B Adaptability (Adapt) C Emotional Self-Control (EmoContro) D Initiative (Initiat) E Optimism (Optimism) F Transparency (Transpar) G Accurate Self-Assessment (AccSelAs) H Emotional Self-Awareness (EmoSelAw) I Self-Confidence (SelfConf) J Empathy (Empathy) K Organizational Awareness (OrgAware) L Service Orientation (SerOrien) M Change Catalyst (ChangCat) N Conflict Management (ConfMana) O Developing Others (DevOther) P Influence (Influenc) Q Inspirational Leadership (InspLead) R Teamwork (Teamwork)

Figure 12. Structural model proposed relationship between emotional competence inventory and motivation sources inventory: The null model.

198 Figure 13 displays an EQS 6.1 structural equation model generated for the initial model depicted in Figure 12. Unfortunately, a solution failed to emerge because the measurement model was positive determinant (highly inter-correlated correlation matrix). No remedy of the emergence of unfound-solution through the removal of observed variables that caused a problem originated. The problem was likely due to the unreliable and invalid nature of the MSI and ECI instruments discussed earlier. In order to alleviate the problems, the use of the re-specified measurement model that included ECI clusters (as averages of all underlying items), and MSI dimensions (as averages of all underlying items) as the measurement model emerged. Figure 13 displays the re-specified model. Re-specification was allowable because the underlying structural model (relationship among latent variables) retained its original form.

199

Intrinsic Process

SelfManagement
(SELFMANA)

(IntriProc)

Instrumental
(Instrum)

SelfAware
(SELFAWAR)

1 = 0.16 7 =0.80* 6 = 0.84* 2 = 0.53

Leader Emotional Competence


(ECI or L_ECI)

= -0.14

Follower Motivation
(MSI or L_MSI)

3 = 0.47

SC SC External (ScExter) External

8 = 0.81*

4 = 1.00

Social Awareness
(SOCAWAR)

9 = 0.90*

5 = 0.60

Relationship Management
(RELATION)

SC Internal

Goal Interest
(Goal)

(SCInter)

LEGEND
Measurement Model Structural Model Structural Path Coefficient

FIT STATISTICS 2 = 62.15 (df = 26, p < 0.010 NFI = 0.73 NNFI = 0.75 CFI = 0.82 GFI = 0.78

* p < .05

Figure 13. Structural model re-specified relationship between ECI and MSI: The selected model. Although a solution emerged from structural modeling (using EQS 6.1), fit statistics (NFI = 0.73, NNFI = 0.75, CFI = 0.82, GFI = 0.78) did not exceed the preferred threshold of 0.90 (Hair, et al, 1998). In addition, the model had a statistically significant chi-square (2 = 62.15, df = 26, p < 0.01), implying that there were significant differences between observed data (exhibits 1 and 2) and predicted results. Additionally, the structural coefficient ( = -0.14) relating L_ECI and L_MSI was more likely to be zero and was not statistically significant. These results indicated that the hypothesized positive

200 relationship between leader emotional competence and follower motivation (as measured by ECI and MSI) was highly unlikely. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the effects of various demographic factors on ECI and MSI as response variables. This analysis was necessary in order to determine if ECI and MSI variation could be explained by demographic factors (age, years of service, gender, and education). Leedy & Ormrod (2001) asserted that one should use an ANOVA to look for differences among three or more means by comparing the variances (s2) both within and across groups (p. 278). The generation of eight ANOVA studies to evaluate the impact of gender, age, education, and years of service (YOS) on total average MSI and ECI scores (exhibits 1 and 2) resulted. Table 25 displays the results of these ANOVA studies. Six of these studies (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, as displayed in Table 25) revealed that there was no significant difference in response variable (ECI or MSI) scores among the classifications associated with the specified demographic factor. Conversely, gender and age had a statistically significant influence on associated response variables. Gender, for example, seemed to have a significant role on ECI [F = 5.14 (1, 47), p < 0.05], and age significantly affected MSI [F = 2.46 (4, 116), p < 0.01].

201 Table 25 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Effects of Demographic Factors on ECI and MSI
Statistic Response Variable (RV)1 Factor (F)1 Gender2 Edu2 Age2 YOS2 Gender2 Edu2 Age2 YOS2 #1 ECI #2 ECI #3 ECI #4 ECI #5 MSI #6 MSI #7 MSI #8 MSI

SSE1 MSE1 df1 (k, m) F1 (k, m) Fcrit p1


1

0.35 0.35 1, 47 5.14 4.06 0.03

0.03 0.01 5, 43 0.13 2.45 0.94

0.38 0.09 4, 44 1.30 2.58 0.28

0.39 0.08 5, 43 1.05 2.45 0.40

0.43 0.43 1,119 3.03 3.94 0.08

0.66 0.17 4, 116 1.15 2.46 0.34

2.06 0.41 5, 115 3.11 2.46 0.01

0.64 0.16 4, 116 1.11 2.46 0.35

Relationship between Response Variable (RV) and Factor (F) in ANOVA is as follows. Each column reflects the results of an

ANOVA where the objective is to test for differences in the RV considering each of the demographic factors. So, in the case of ANOVA #1, the analysis tested for significant differences in ECI between males and females (Gender). Shaded cells denote significant differences. Therefore, variation in ECI could be attributed to Gender

Acceptance and Rejection of Hypotheses Based on the preceding analysis, the null hypothesis (HO) was not rejected. By not rejecting the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis was not accepted. That is, the relationship between a leaders emotional competence (L_ECI) and employees/followers motivation (L_MSI) was more likely to be negative ( < 0) or zero ( = 0). In other words, there was no evidence to support the notion that a leaders use of emotional competence is related to employee/follower motivation, or the inverse. The most likely statistical conclusion is that there is no relationship because the structural coefficient was

202 near zero ( = -0.14; p < 0.05) and was not statistically significant. In addition, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient relating ECI and MSI supported this conclusion because it was near zero and insignificant (r = -0.07; p > 0.05; see Tables 18 through 21). As a result, there was no reason to accept the alternative hypothesis (HA) asserting a positive relationship between a leaders use of emotional competence and employee/followers motivation. Findings Relevant to Research Question Offered in this portion of the chapter are the findings that were relevant to data analysis of emotional intelligence and motivational scores. Presented also in this chapter are findings specific to the research question. The alpha ( = 0.05) was used for the statistical analysis, which is practical standard for research conducted involving behavioral science principles (Cohen & Cohen, 1983; Lipsey, 1990). Research Question The specific design of the research study and of the survey instruments answered the following question: Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers? The formulation of the alternative (HA) and null hypothesis answered the research question. The alternative hypothesis stated there is a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. The simple correlation analysis, (bivariate correlations, Pearson Product Moment) using a 5% level of significance (p > 0.05), of this intention resulted in a correlation coefficient of r = -0.07. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a structural coefficient of near zero ( = -

203 0.14) using the same level of significance (p < 0.05). This statistical data suggested a failure to accept the alternative hypothesis (HA). The statistical analysis suggested the probability of a correlation between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence competencies (L_ECI) and the motivational behavior of employees/followers (L_MSI) was near zero. Due to the high risk of type I error (rejecting a null hypothesis that is otherwise true) and type II error (the possibility of accepting an alternative hypothesis that is not true), the study failed to accept the alternative hypothesis. When the null hypothesis is true, it is unlikely to signify a type I error. That is, the data collected did not provide statistical evidence of a correlation between a leaders use of emotional competence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. The current research study failed to reject the following null hypothesis: H0: There is no statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. Summary Chapter 4 provided research data and results associated with the study; methods for analyzing data, reliability, and validity of survey instrumentation; and details survey measurements. There were 29 variables measured and averaged in the current research study. This chapter provided a review of the results obtained from the research question and hypothesis. The focal point of this research study was to examine if a relationship exists between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivation of employee/followers (see exhibits 1 and 2 for actual data). The correlational analysis was

204 performed using bivariate correlations, structural equations modeling, linear regression, and ANOVA. Based on the analysis of the collected data, the two variablesleaders emotional intelligence and employees/followers motivational behaviorhad minuscule relationship to one another (r = -0.07). More importantly, the statistical data proposed that leaders emotional intelligence (ECI) might not be related to employee/follower motivation (MSI). Whereas there were correlations present with ECI/gender, and MSI/age (see Table 25) there were no other conclusive correlations. The study detected significant issues relating to reliability, construct validity, and sample size. The studys results significantly affected the reliability and validity of the surveys instruments, and provided a basis for the suggestions, and future recommendations provided in chapter 5. Chapter 5 provides a synopsis of the research study, suggestions, and suitable recommendations for future research. Appropriate conjectures are made about the targeted populationleaders and employee/followersrelationships, based on the results of the surveys. Chapter 5 provided the significance of the analysis to leaders in a Northeastern transportation organization.

205 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as firstline supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. The focal point of this research study was to determine if there was a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employee/followers. This chapter presents a summary of the current study and recommendations for future research. The literature review data and the methodology used in this study were also addressed. A brief discussion of the problem, purpose research method, and limitations is also presented. This chapter is presented in three

206 sections: summary, inferences, and recommendations. In the summary section, the data to support the hypothesis and the research question is presented. The implications section provides the allegations of the data analysis as it relates to leadership. The last section provides specified recommendations that might be applicable within the given population and abroad. This chapter presents the studys conclusions and inferences for future recommendations and research. The second section presents a discussion of the studys findings, with the results of the data analysis, literature support, and support of the theoretical framework. An analysis of research questions, hypotheses, and significant findings is also presented. From the perspective of connecting leaders and employee/followers, implications for change within the transportation industry are addressed. The literature reflects modest research examining the dimension of emotional intelligence in transportation industries. There is some data concerning emotional intelligence in service industries, a phenomenon that is occurring around the country (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Although this phenomenon continues to occur, there is still a deficiency of awareness regarding the use of certain emotional competencies among leaders in organizations (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Research has shown that there is a link between organizational leaders performance problems with their employees/followers and an unfamiliarity with emotional intelligence competencies (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Research indicated that more than 80% of those individuals who are rated as top performers and who reach top levels in the organizations, were mindful of the importance of using emotional competencies (Goleman, 1998; Rushmore & Baker, 1987).

207 According to research conducted by Durbin (2000), Dulewicz and Higgs (2003), and Dunn (2004) a lack of self-awareness can potentially affect employee/follower motivation and can be associated with a decline in productivity, morale, accurate judgment, and effective decision-making. This lack of awareness of ones self, and others emotional intelligence is a current problem that emerges during research studies (Goleman, 1998). The emergence of a lack of awareness reveals that only 20% of individuals in transportation organizations possess the motivational competencies associated with emotional intelligence (Bridoux & Vandamme (2003). Therefore, organizational leaders are beginning to focus on their own awareness of emotional intelligence as well as that of others. Nevertheless, there is not enough practical information available for leaders in the transportation industry (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003). Problem, Purpose Methodology and Literature Review The problem, purpose, and review of the methodology that were used in this study are discussed to ensure readability. Chapter 1 supplied the problem that was under investigation, and the purpose of the research study. Chapter 2 provided the literature review that was based on germinal theories surrounding the study. Chapter 3 provided the methodology that was used in the study, and chapter 5 provides a reverberation of the problem, purpose, methodology, and literature review to ensure continual understanding of the research study. Problem There is a deficiency of awareness of certain emotional competencies among leaders in organizations (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). Leaders who experience unfavorable performances are linked to unfamiliarity with emotional intelligence competencies

208 (Goleman, 1998, 1998b). More than 80% of those rated as top performers and who reach top levels in the organizations are individuals who are mindful of the importance of using emotional competencies (Goleman, 1998; Rushmore & Baker, 1987). Organizational leaders cognizance of the importance of emotional intelligence might increase capital and performance and decrease recruitment cost and employee turnover expenses (Goleman 1998; Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997, as cited in Goleman, 1998; McClelland, 1999; Lam & Kirby, 2002). Bridoux and Vandamme (2003) posited that only 20% of individuals in organizations possess the motivational competencies associated with emotional intelligence. This quantitative descriptive correlational research study examined if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers in a Northeastern transportation organization.. This data might provide information that contributes to profitability. Purpose The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervised at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as first-

209 line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed. Leaders cognizance of self can influence employees/followers awareness of self and motivational behavior in organizations. Opposing views exist in organizations regarding the use of emotions. Putnam and Mumby (1993) and Fineman (1996) believed that the use of emotions in organizations could be destructive to the organizations performance. The correlational character of this study may provide leaders with empirical data for determining its effectiveness of leaders use and awareness of emotions in organizations and its relationship to the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Leaders can use the results of this research study to motivate the 80% of employees/followers who lack self-awareness, which can lead to a decline in productivity, morale, accurate judgments, and effective decision-making (Bridoux & Vandamme, 2003, Dunn, 2004; Dulewicz and Higgs, 2003). This data might provide information that can contribute to profitability. Methodology A quantitative descriptive correlational study and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to derive relationships between emotional intelligence and motivation among the data. The use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine if

210 the survey instruments (Emotional Competence Inventory and Motivation Sources Inventory) questions were aligned with the authors statements for the given research study. Summative averaging of items into dimensions, competencies, clusters, and other constructs was used in the present research study (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). The summative averaging reduced ordinal limitations associated with the five-point Motivation Sources Inventory scale. In fact, use of averages created continuous ratio data for these dimensions, competencies, clusters, and other constructs, even though some (such as the Motivation Sources Inventory) were based on ordinal data (Nunnally & Bernstein). As a result, statistical analytical data was performed using parametric methods to generate statistical conclusions. Correlational research studies provide a means to gather relevant data about a sample population, while also determining the existence of relationships among specified variables that focused on categorized areas of study. The researcher chose the correlational approach because the intent of the study was to examine the potential relationship between a leaders emotional intelligence and employees/followers motivation. The study also ascertained if relationships existed between groups of data (intervening variables). Summary of Issues and Comparison to Literature Review This section provides a summary of the statistical findings by making interpretations and comparing those interpretations to the findings in the literature review. The study used descriptive statistics and parametric statistics to interpret the studys findings. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) noted how reliable descriptive statistics and

211 parametric statistics are in answering research questions, as well as testing hypotheses in research studies. Table 26 Hypothesis: Findings Overview Hypothesis Statistically Significant No r = -0.07, p > 0.05,
employee/followers in a New York transportation organization.

HA

A statistical relationship exists between organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of

Table 26 displays the overview of the findings in order to either reject or accept the alternative hypothesis. Based on the studys findings, (r = -0.07; and p > 0.05) there was no statistically significant data to accept the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (HA) addressed if there was a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Research by McClelland (1998) and Cooper & Sawaf, 1997) revealed that there were strong correlations between emotional intelligence and promotions to leadership positions. The current research studys data suggested leaders emotional intelligence was not correlated to the motivational behavior of employees/followers. This study was concerned with the need to counteract negative emotions by being aware of ones personal emotions, which heightened emotional awareness in general (Gauldine & Thorne, 2001; Frost, 2003; Gabriel & Griffith, 2002).

212 This study failed to accept the alternative hypothesis: No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted between leaders ECI and employees/followers MSI. Bivariate correlations (Pearson Product Moment; r), structural equation modeling, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the hypothesis. Based on statistical data (r = -0.07), the data suggested the two constructs ECI and MSI were minimally related to each other (see Table 25). Data suggested that leaders emotional competence (ECI) may not be a predictor of employees/followers motivation (MSI), nor do the two variables possess degrees of relationship. Emotional intelligence has emerged as a paradigm. As paradigms emerge and continue to grow, theoretical perspectives within these paradigms emerge. Perhaps newer constructs within this paradigm are beginning to surface that could be a factor that needs to be taken into consideration when measuring emotional intelligence. The paradigmatic shift in emotional intelligence does not show signs of weaknesses within the construct; but that the field is robust enough for continued growth. Leaders awareness of emotional intelligence influences individual and organizational performance (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). This research indicates that as organizational performance increases, individual and organizational motivational performance increases as well, based on leaders awareness of self. The current researchs statistical data suggested leaders emotional intelligence was minimally correlated to employees/followers motivation, actually suggesting near zero correlation. Research has shown that when leaders in service industries possess high levels of awareness of their own emotional intelligence, their awareness provides insight into the development of self-control, awareness of others, and the ability to influence others

213 emotions in a positive manner (Bardzil & Slaski, 2003). The influence of others emotions, which is considered to be a source of individual fulfillment, can also be a temporary motivator when extrinsic motivators are used. Research indicates extrinsic motivators are temporary and have the propensity to separate those who are considered mediocre from and organization best performers (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Anonymous, 2003; Kohn, 1995). In the transportation industry, a service industry, the issues of leadership awareness and the use of emotional competencies affect followers intrinsic motivation. Organizations in the transportation industry have the propensity to use extrinsic motivators, which separates paramount enthusiasm from average enthusiasts (McClelland, 1961, 1985; Anonymous, 2003; Kohn, 1995). Although the separation of performers may be necessary for organizational leaders awareness, the current research study provides statistical data that leaders awareness of selfemotional intelligenceis not a predictor, nor is it correlated to employee/followers motivational behavior. Consequently, research has shown that building groups of people who can work together ensures that all are committed to the organizations goals (Cherniss & Goleman, 2001). A growing number of leaders are becoming aware that the phenomenon of the advancement of individuals to leadership positions is based on the individuals internal, functional skill-sets. These internal functional skill-sets, viewed as intrinsic motivators, stimulate inner growth factors of individuals and cause individuals to perform in exceptional ways (Maslow, 1998; A Caliper Publication, n.d.). Without the intrinsic motivational awareness, and/or emotional commitment, leaders and employees/followers, managers, and organizations can continue to foster stagnation in employees who have

214 resolved themselves to uncommitted roles (Eisenberger, Stinglhamber, Vandenberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002). The present study concurred with this assessment. According to the data, there was one correlation determined with regard to leaders awareness of self, and the motivational behavior of employee/followers. Data from the present study indicated a correlation between motivational behavior (MSI) and age. Data shows that, as people begin to age, their motivational level decreases, and that younger individuals have significant motivational levels. There can be many reasons for this finding, and it does coincide with Mazlows (1954) hierarchy of needs that states as one need is satisfied other needs then take precedence. The need for employment by a prospective employer is no longer necessary for those who are nearing retirement. Accordingly, the individual motivational level for employment and commitment to the organization decreases. Emotional commitment is necessary to motivational performance in organizations (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Woolridge, 2000). As was indicated in the purpose statement, the observed and latent variables were leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response). A question posed early in the research design phase was, Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers? In an effort to answer this question, this study was designed to examine the existence of a relationship between emotional intelligence and motivation. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive-level managers who supervised at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-

215 line managers [salaried], or directors) and the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The survey data was collected from 171 participants who responded to the survey questions that were created to test the research hypothesis. The research studys hypotheses were as follows: H0: There is no statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. HA: There is a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. The study was limited to leaders and employees/followers in one Northeastern transportation organization. To ensure the research study was conducted in an ethical manner, there were constraints placed on the researcher. The researcher ensured all surveys were anonymously conducted. Ethical measurespermission to participate, permission to conduct research, and human subject understandingwere considered while conducting the research study. The current research study was limited to a combination of 171 leaders and employees/followers. The limited number of leaders-employees/followers pair-grouping (49) placed further limitations on the study. The study did not include all northeastern transportation organizations as inferences, non-probability, and quota samplings were

216 used. The study limited itself to classifications of leaders as executive-level managers who supervised at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors, and two variables. Discussion of Findings Leaders emotional intelligence is essential to organizations motivational performance, and research indicates that individuals who have high-levels of emotional intelligence competencies have a better predisposition to impact and influence motivational performance (Johnson, & Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998; Lam & Kirby, 2002). Leaders are looking into what long-term motivators can be used in service industries, such as the one studied. Leaders who transform organizations are leaders who have associations with understanding and accepting ones emotions for many years. Higgs and Rowland (as cited in Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003) noted literature suggesting that transformational leaders possessed strong connections to retention. Consequently, retention is a product of possessing awareness of emotional intelligence competencies (Goleman, 1998). Leaders have concerns with hiring and retaining individuals, as sudden changes can lead to decreased productivity. The results of this study offer significant insights into present transportation leaders and employee/followers impending dilemmas that could lead to immediate action by industry leaders. According to the data in the present research study, the correlational aspect of leaders use of emotional competencies relating to employees/followers motivational behavior was in the negative numbers (r = -0.07), suggesting leaders emotional competence was minimally correlated to

217 employees/followers motivational behavior. This finding did not allow the rejection of the null hypothesis. The datas findings concurred with other researchers (Frost, 2003; Hoschild, 1983; Lama, 2003; Ashforth & Humphrey, 1995; Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994; Rapson, 1994) concerns regarding the devastation the use of emotions could have on organizational environments. Although the sample population collectively reported 171 responses, a reasonable response rate, limitations were observed on the sample size of leaders-follower groups (n=49). Hair, Anderson Tatham, and Black (1998) believed that in order to ensure an adequate sample size, a researcher needed to receive 10 surveys for every one variable included in the statistical analysis. Observed variables in this study were (SELFAWAR, SELFMANA, SOCAWARE, RELATION, IntriProc, Instrum, ScExter, ScInter, and Goal). Ten surveys for each of the variables observed indicated the need for a sample size of 90. The sample size of this study incorporated 49 leader-follower groupings, which added to a failure to accept the alternative hypothesis. The results of the research study did not necessitate the rejection of the null hypotheses. Therefore, the correlational aspects of the research provided leaders in a Northeastern transportation organization with data that sustain no correlation between organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Based on these results, leaders need to pursue other means of increasing motivational behavior because the use of emotional intelligence would not be a tool that affects this area of employee/follower improvement. Not rejecting the null hypothesis coincides with the opposing viewpoints of Putnam and Mumby (1993) and Fineman (1996), who claimed that the use of emotions in organizations could be

218 destructive to the organizations performance. These viewpoints also concur with Emmerling and Golemans (2003) notion that others believe emotions may be unpredictable and irrational, and should not be used in place of common sense and rationale. The studies findings also concurred with western belief that the use of emotions in organizations is indicative of animalistic and irrational responses (Bussm 1999; Darwin, 1962; Lazarus, 1991: Tooby & Cosmides, 1990; Mathews & Wells, 1999). Whereas data analysis did not necessitate the rejection of the null hypothesis, this factor did not mean that the alternative hypothesis was inaccurate (HA: There is a statistical relationship between organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization). Not rejecting the null hypothesis could simply be a means to indicate that the data and findings were not robust enough to provide adequate support. Replication of this study in another environment could yield different results. Reliability and validity of the surveys instruments, especially the Emotional Competence Inventory, affected the studys results significantly. The use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) determined if the instruments (ECI and MSI) questions converged into the purported competencies and constructs. The results were that neither the ECI, nor the MSI, were favorably fit for the research study. Hair, Anderson, Tatham, and Black (1998) provided a threshold for measuring the goodness of fit (0.90). The ECIs fit was found to be unfavorable (NNFI = 0.44, NFI = 0.44, CFI = 0.53, and GFI = 0.63) (see Table 24). The MSIs fit was also found to be unfavorable (NNFI = 0.48, NFI = 0.58, CFI = 0.62, and GFI = 0.67) (see Table 24). The survey instruments yielded factors similar to the numbers predicted by the authors, and the make-up (structure) of the factors

219 (items and questions comprising them) was markedly different from what the authors asserted. There may be many reasons for this conflict. The source of this conflict could be that there are different constructs materializing that indicate the instruments need to be revised in order that these emerging constructs are measured or considered. The statistical data representing the reliability and validity of the instruments for the research study added to the data suggesting a failure to reject the null hypothesis. The unfavorable fit of the research instruments weakened the purported notion that the instruments measured the constructs that needed measuring (leader emotional competency and follower motivation). Perhaps a replicated study could benefit from using a more robust measuring tool. The ECI attempts to measure a significant number of constructs (22). Consequently, a significant number of respondents are needed (10:1 rule, indicating at a minimum of 220). This number is significantly greater than what was used in the current research study (n=49 leader/follower pairs). Therefore, sample size may be a factor for future researchers. Future researchers might need to consider a significant enough sample size as not to counteract the 10:1 sampling rule (Hair, et al, 1998) and to ensure a favorable fit (a fit that determines if competencies or constructs converge as the authors indicated). Factors surrounding the current research studys failure to accept the alternative hypothesis could be attributed to the researchers theory as was outlined in previous chapters. No relationship between leaders emotional intelligence and employee/follower motivation exists in a Northeastern transportation organization. Leaders emotional competence can be one of the many important factors for motivating people, but it may

220 not be a predictor of employees/followers motivation nor is it related to employee/followers motivation. More complex structural relationships and variables can mediate the relationship between emotional competence and motivation. As such, replication of this study using another form of intelligencesocial intelligencemight produce results that are more robust. Conceivably, future researchers can replicate this study by examining attributes that emerge from emotional competence (such as servant leadership) and its influence on employees/followers as measured by employee/followers. Research indicates leaders with transformational, servant, and charismatic capabilities influence employees/followers emotional intelligence levels (Douglas, Frink, & Ferris, 2004; Barling, Slater, & Kelloway, 2000; George, 2001; Cherniss, 2000; Burns, 1978; Goleman, 1995). Motivation may not be a factor explained by the leader. Many people possess selfmotivation, and as was indicated in the data analysis, age was a predictor of motivation (see Table 25). Data (determined with ANOVA) indicated that, as people age, their level of motivation decreases (see Table 25). The motivational behavior of employees/followers, or a lack thereof, may not be related to leadership, but to factors such as age and personal endeavors. Conceivably, future researchers might replicate this study by making determinations as to why motivation decreases with the aging process and leaders influence on that aspect of motivation. Rejecting the null hypotheses would support the position that there is statistical evidence to support a relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. In opposition, this assertion was not supported by the current research study. The alternative hypotheses

221 would be accurate if the results of the study concluded that there was a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employee/followers. HA: There is a statistical relationship between an organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence (ECI) and the motivational behavior (MSI) of employee/followers in a New York transportation organization. The results of the existing research study failed to accept the alternative hypotheses. Therefore, the correlational aspects of the research could provide leaders in a New York transportation organization with data that relinquishes the use of emotional intelligence to motivate employees/followers. The results also provided leaders with information regarding what schemes or amalgamation of schemes were not beneficial in influencing individual and organizational motivation and performance. Rejecting the alternative hypotheses would support the position that organizational leaders use of emotional intelligence has no relationship to the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Other Statistical Associations Analysis of variance (ANOVA) studies detailed in the previous chapter concluded that age and gender could be factors affecting ECI and MSI, respectively. In order to study the influence of the factors surrounding ECI and MSI, linear regressions and correlation coefficients were calculated. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients were computed for all possible associations between demographic ECI and MSI observed variables. Only two statistically significant correlations emerged from this analysis. First, ECI and gender were observed to be positively associated (r=0.31, p <

222 0.05), implying that males (1) had less emotional competence than females (2). Second, MSI and age were negatively correlated (r = -0.27, p < 0.05), implying that motivation improved as age decreased and decreased as age increased. The statistical evidence that emerged from data regarding ECI/gender was aligned with Fineman (1996) and Parkins (1993) notion that men act in a rationalistic manner whereas women act in an emotional manner. Fineman and Parkin believed women were accustomed to revealing emotions, which made their display acceptable in the workplace. Men were more dominant in not revealing emotions, thereby being the prevailing gender for decision-making and, therefore, more productive in controlling mentality (Parkin). Further study of relationships between ECI/gender and MSI/age by means of linear regression confirmed this relationship. In the case of ECI, gender had a significant linear relationship, expressed as ECI = 0.20gender + 3.75. The data was statistically significant (t = 2.25, p < 0.05). Pertaining to MSI/age, MSI related to age as represented in the following equation: MSI = -0.10 age + 3.4. As with correlation coefficients, this equation and coefficient for age was deemed to be statistically significant (t = -3.05, p < 0.01). Regarding the correlation of MSI and age, this perspective is aligned with Friedmann and Havighursts (1954) assertion that there are several needs that connect individuals to a place of employment: (a) wages; (b) use of strength and brainpower; (c) innovativeness, creativity, and acknowledgment; (d) contacts and opponents; and (e) simple existence. When these needs are satisfied and individuals age, other motivational aspects take priority (Maslow, 1954). Maslows belief was that all needs are hierarchical, and as one need is satisfied, other needs then take precedence (Maslow).

223 Hierarchical needs related to the aging process. Once other needs are satisfied, as people age, the need to live a more productive life during retirement age becomes the preferred need. As needs are hierarchical, so is the aging process. The hierarchical needs are (a) the physiological set of needs; (b) the need for safety; (c) the need to be loved, or to belong; (d) the need for esteem; and (e) self-actualization. Simplistic needs become satisfied when applied meaning to places of employment and connections between individual and organizational beliefs and values exists (Fridemann, & Havighurst, 1954). Inferences and Conclusions Testing the hypothesis was necessary for determining relationships between leaders emotional competencies and employees/followers motivational behavior. Testing was also helpful in answering the research question: Is there a relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers? Hypothesis testing provided statistical data regarding a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Data emerged negating the correlational aspects between ECI and MSI (r = -0.07; p > 0.05). Twenty-nine overall variables were analyzed, latent variables (L_ECI and L_MSI) inclusively. There were no indications that leaders awareness of emotional intelligence was an interpreter of employees/followers motivation, nor were correlational aspects present between leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. The use of inferential statistics and inductive reasoning, based on quota samplings, allows researchers to conjecture or make certain predictions of the chosen population based on the statistical sample constraints placed on the population. This

224 conjecture used central tendencies such as mean, median, mode, and max, but the mean is commonly used (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). For the purposes of the research study, the use of correlation coefficients, and parametric statistics, structural equation modeling, and descriptive statisticsbivariate correlationstested the hypotheses and answered the research question. Descriptive statistics reveal the levels of correlations and an explicit view of the collected data (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). The notion of inferential statistics allowed the researcher to use a minuscule sample of the population and make assumptions about that population. Leedy and Ormrod noted, More generally, inferential statistics involve using a small sample of the population and then estimating the characteristics of the larger population from which the sample has been drawn (p. 259). Making inferences of the chosen populations perceptions, characteristics, and ideas was made possible with the assistance of the quota sampling. Consequently, Leedy & Ormrod (2001) noted the larger the sample, the better the inferences. The present study sampled 171 leaders and employees/followers (49 leader-follower pairings) While the 95% confidence level was reached of 140 samples, because of the quota sampling and the pairing of leaders and followers the sample size was not as significant of an inference of the population as a larger sample size. The sample size chosen for the present research study replicated the diversity of contemporary organizations and their representatives. The use of a quota sampling in the current research study was representative of the quota of leaders-employees/followers in a metropolitan, Northeastern transportation organization. The use of inferencesa means of generalizing using limited informationinvolved collecting voluntary data from a quota sampling of leaders and employees/followers within a chosen organization.

225 While the purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers, surveys were received from leaders and employees/followers. The typical sample size, without classifications and qualifications and designed to represent the general population of the organization, is 6,425 people throughout the Metropolitan/Long Island area of New York (http://mta.info/lirr/pubs/aboutlirr.htm). Using inductive reasoning, descriptive statistics, and parametric statistics, the survey results determined there was little or no correlation between leaders use of emotional competencies and the motivational behavior of employees/followers. Based on inductive reasoning and descriptive and parametric statistics, the inference made is that there is no evidence to support the notion that leaders emotional competence would be a predictor of employee/followers motivation, nor does the data suggest correlational aspects between the two variables in the larger population. The study suggested that leaders emotional intelligence does not correlate to employees/followers motivational behavior in the organization of choice. This notion further implies that employees/followers response is not a result of leaders awareness of emotional competencies. Implications The implications of this research study may be important to leaders who conjecture an awareness of emotional intelligence being a predictor of employee/follower

226 motivation. Leaders can use this research study to self-assess, thereby modeling emotionally intelligent competencies for employees/followers in a manner that will evoke motivational behavioral responses. This section describes implications to organizational leaders and employees/followers. While there are indications that correlations between emotional intelligence and performance exists, leaders at every level of the organizations hierarchies can use the results from this research study to locate other means of motivating the remaining 80% of employees not represented by other means of intelligence scoring. Because the current research study suggested there was no correlation between leaders use of emotional competency and the motivational behavior of employees/followers, leaders of organizations may need to consider other means of managing the deficiency of awareness of emotional competencies in organizations. Leaders may need to assess further the use of emotions in organizations and its connections to increased or decreased motivation. Implications for Organizational Leaders Effective leadership is concerned with changing environments and processes (Bass, 1990). Transformational leaders are facing challenges of envisioning, accepting, and taking action on changes as they occur (Karl, 2000). Transformational leaders have concerns with hiring and retaining individuals, as sudden changes can lead to decreased productivity. Transformational leaders use of emotional competencies in the hiring process could save millions of dollars on training and re-training. Goleman (1998) asserted that retention is a product of awareness of emotional competencies. Leaders transformational and servantcan use this research study to assess motivational behaviors that have associations to emotional intelligence.

227 This research also has the potential to influence leaders ability in intrinsically motivating employees/followers, as well as enhancing self-motivation (Lord & Brown, 2001; Lord, Brown, & Freiberg, 1999). Self-motivation is a facet of emotional intelligence. Therefore, a highly self-aware and self-motivated leader can assist in increasing employee/followers motivational performance. Furthermore, there may be indications that an effectively motivated leader can generate highly effective individuals. Whereas Carson and Perrewe (1995) posited that an arousal of strong emotions could serve to motivate individuals to levels thought unreachable, organizational leaders can use this research study to ascertain why the use of emotions in service organizations is not correlated to the motivational behaviors of their respective followers. Educational levels in the studys findings suggested that, although most of the respondents stated they attained a bachelors degree (n = 82), the second most frequent of the responses was the attainment of a masters degree (n = 50). Data suggested there were affiliations with those who actually volunteered and responded and departmental and educational pursuits and requirements. The respondents who stated the attainment of bachelors and masters degrees were some of the first to respond to the survey questions, as education is essential to them. Perhaps leaders can use this research study as a means to continue providing support for those seeking extended education in organizations, as increased levels of education correspond to increased levels of emotional awareness. Implications to Organizational Performance and Motivation Dunn (2004) noted that organizational and individual performance could decrease with the lack of awareness of emotions and their impact o motivational behaviors of employees/followers. Inaccurate decisions are made when organizational leaders do not

228 possess awareness of emotional competencies. The inaccuracy can serve as a demotivator, thereby decreasing organizational and individual performance. Conversely, leaders awareness of emotions contributed to high self-esteem, increased productivity, and strong decision-making (Carton, Kessler, and Pape, 1999). Various researchers (Goleman, 1995; 1998; Mayer and Salovey, 1999; Johnson and Indvik, 1999; Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Cherniss & Goleman, 2001) asserted that leaders awareness of emotions in organizations is an impetus to increased motivational performance. Klenke (2002) and Macaluso (2003) were instrumental in making leaders aware of the magnitude to which responsiveness to the use of emotions in organizations has on retention and morale. Conversely, Frost (2003), Hoschild (1983), Lama (2003), Ashforth & Humphrey (1995), Hatfield, Cacioppo, and Rapson (1994) have claimed that using emotions can be devastating to organizations. This devastation can produce organizational and emotional health problems that may evolve into emotional dissonance (Abraham, 1999). Implications to Gender Differences Several studies (Fineman, 1996; Parkin, 1993; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Mayer & Geher, 1996) have been conducted on gender differences regarding the use of emotions in organizations. Findings suggest that there are gender differences in levels of emotions displayed in organizations. Fineman, Parkin, Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey, and Mayer and Geher have all reported that women display higher levels of emotional intelligence in organizations. The present research study concurred with this finding. An ANOVA indicated that the ECI and gender were highly correlated (p = 0.03), and correlation coefficients implied that males had less emotional competence than females (r

229 = 0.031, p < 0.05). Perhaps leaders could use this research study to assess the gender differences in using emotions in the workplace. Implications to Theoretical Framework and Research The current research studies findings aligned with various theoretical implications and assertions. The motivational aspects found in this research study were aligned with Maslows (1954) hierarchy of needs, and the emotional intelligence aspects aligned with Gardners (1993) notion of people possessing multiple intelligences. A discussion of the impact of the findings on motivation theory and intelligence theory as well as the theoretical frameworkpreviously established in chapter 1is provided in the following section. Motivation Theory The results of the research study suggested that employees/followers motivation was not a product of leaders emotional competencies, and that the MSI negatively correlated to age. Maslows (1954) hierarchy of needs supports this phenomenon. Maslows belief was that all needs are hierarchical. When the essential needs are satisfied, other needs begin to surface, needs that are typically never classified as needs. Maslow (as cited in Shafritz & Ott, 2001) also posited, All humans have needs that underlie their motivational structure (p. 148). This statement was supported with the results of the current research study, as the needs of the aging become motivational forces that develop as age increases. This finding indicates that leaders need to find means that can continuously motivate employees/followers as the workforce ages. Leaders can use this research study to assess the intrinsic motivational behavior of employees/followers, as the results indicated leaders might not be a predictor in employee/follower motivation

230 as researchers (Stryker, 1980; Tajfel & Turner, 1986; Beach & Mitchell, 1990: Schlenker, 1985; Bandura, 1982; 1986) believe one needs to self-assess, before attempting to assess motivational behavior. Intelligence Theory The results of the research study suggested that leaders use of emotions in the organization was not a predictor of employee/followers awareness of self. This notion concurred with the work of Gardner (1993), who was instrumental in providing an understanding that people do possess more than one type of intelligencemultiple intelligencesand that perhaps the intelligence that leaders possess that motivates employees/followers is social intelligence. Social intelligence is an ability to comprehend world episodes and to respond in a manner that has positive implications to the individual and social setting (Caporael, 2001). Social intelligence provides a means to recognize ones own and others ignorance and commitments. Leaders can use the results of this research study to determine which intelligences are actual predictors of motivational behavior of employees/followers in all organizations. Recommendations The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. The research question was investigated as a means of examining if a relationship between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of

231 employees/followers existed, thereby warranting future research. The research study supported the notion that relationships between emotional intelligence and gender, and motivation and age exist, which indicates the theory was valuable for future development. Nevertheless, indications that leaders awareness of ones own emotions were not statistically significant to employees/followers motivational behavior, and may indicate there is no need for further development. Because the majority of findings in this research study were statistically insignificant, this study alone does not address many of the questions surrounding leaders awareness of emotional intelligence and its influence on employees/followers motivational behavior. The study does provide a basis for future research by building a knowledge base specific to transportation leadership, emotional intelligence, and motivation. According to Van Roohy and Viswesvaran (as cited in Emmerling & Goleman, 2003), research was conducted examining the correlational and predictive validity of emotional intelligence compared to intelligence quotient in organizational settings. Intelligence quotient was more of a predictor of organizational and individual behavior than emotional intelligence (Emmerling & Goleman). Perhaps this research indicates certain aspects of emotional intelligence cannot be a predictor of influences such as motivational behavior. The researcher recommends replicating this study using another type of intelligence, such as leaders social intelligence and its influence on employees/followers motivational behavior. Leaders can use the data from this research study to make hiring decisions that are intrinsically inclined and that will assist in eliminating costs associated with stagnation and unmotivated workforces.

232 As the deficiency of awareness regarding the use of certain emotional competencies among leaders in organizations continues (Goleman, 1998; 1998b), there is a need to explore further the influence leaders emotional competencies has on employees/followers motivational behavior. One venue for future research should include exploiting the use of more robust instruments for measuring emotional intelligence. The instrument should allow for a minute number of surveys to debunk the notion of 10 surveys for every variable measured (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black (1998). It is recommended that future researchers broaden the scope of the study to include other service industries such as the sales industry. Goleman (1995), DeeterSchmelz & Sojka (2003) asserted that in sales organizations, the best performers are those who have associations with emotional intelligence factors, such as self-awareness. This increase in sales performance was directly related to self-motivation (Hastings, Kiley & Watkins, 1998). It is recommended that future researchers eliminate the use of employees/followers as a product of leaders emotional intelligence by using the same survey to assess leaders and employee/followers. Instruments that assess emotional intelligence and motivation should be developed to accommodate various aspects of intelligences and sources of motivation. As was discussed in chapter 1, this study may provide empirical substantiation for the efforts used by organizational leaders to add to individual and organizational motivational performance. The knowledge achieved from this study will help researchers to understand the use of emotional intelligence in organizations, and its influence on the way leaders lead

233 others and themselves, and might affect the development of leaders (Stock, 2001). The findings from this study can be applied to many organizational environments where the hierarchical levels are similar. Although this study focused on one Northeastern transportation organization, the methodology and the surveys used can be applied to other organizations with similar settings. The findings of this research could increase the body of knowledge and might prepare organizational leaders to achieve increased motivational performance from current and prospective employees. While this study focused on a particular segment of the transportation industry, it is recommended that future researchers expand the methodologies used in this study to other venues of the transportation industry with similar classifications to determine if analogous findings exist in other surroundings. Perhaps this can integrate additional variables into the equation, such as predictors of emotional intelligence and motivation on age, gender, and years of service. Summary Organizational leaders awareness of emotional intelligence is essential to future endeavors of continual motivation and productivity. Leaders have significant influence over the continued success of organizations, yet there is still not enough interest in the significance of recognizing emotions in organizations. As a result, gender-related emotions are prevalent in organizations. There is statistical evidence that women rated higher in possessing emotional competencies than men. Conversely, men are still the most powerful decision makers, and this disparity is potentially due to an inability to show emotions in the workplace. The notion of displaying emotions in organizations is being researched continuously. Leaders need to understand that, barring gender

234 differences, top performers are those who can understand their own emotions and use that understanding in a manner that facilitate others awareness of their emotions. This quantitative descriptive correlational research study examined the potential relationship between two distinct, yet remotely similar characteristics. Data suggested there was no relationship between a leaders use of emotional intelligence and the motivational behavior of corresponding employee/followers in a Northeastern transportation organization. The findings suggested zero correlational aspects between leaders emotional competence and employee/followers motivation, but a positive correlation was indicated between ECI and gender, and a statistically negative correlation was indicated between MSI and age. While coexisting in the 21st century with transformational leaders, organizational leaders and heads of corporations are facing ethical challenges attributed to leaders not possessing awareness of the importance of emotional intelligence in organizations. The ongoing challenge for leaders will be to provide an environment in which those who serve to transform the organization can coexist with those who possess Machiavellian type leadership characteristics. The ultimate challenge will be to accept the phenomenon of emotional intelligence as a means to motivate those who are not self-motivated. To this challenge, this study is committed.

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274 Appendix A ECI (Emotional Competence Inventory) Permission


Dear Colleague, Thank you for your interest in the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). You have been approved to do research using the ECI, and your research contribution is greatly appreciated. Attached you will find four documents: 1. ECI 2.0 360 Version.doc - This is a copy of the ECI 360 rating booklet. You may print or copy this document as needed for your research. 2. ECI 2.0 Self Version.doc - This is a copy of the ECI Self rating booklet. You may print or copy this document as needed for your research. 3. ECI 2.0 Scoring Instructions.doc - This document contains the instructions necessary for you to calculate the ECI 2.0 scores. The scoring instructions document is a bit outdated, but conceptually the scoring is the same. 4. ECI 2.0 Scoring Key.doc - This contains the scoring key (list of items for each competency and cluster) for the ECI. Use this document to create variables in your statistical program for each ECI competency and cluster scores. We look forward to hearing about your results. Please mail us a copy of your research paper or publication when completed to the following address: Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay Group McClelland Center for Research 116 Huntington Ave. Boston MA 02116 Sincerely, Fabio Sala (See attached file: ECI 2.0 360 Version.doc) (See attached file: ECI 2.0 Self Version.doc) (See attached file: ECI 2.0 Scoring Instructions.doc) (See attached file: ECI 2.0 Scoring Key.xls) ---------------------- Forwarded by Fabio Sala/BOSTON/US/HAYGROUP on

275
04/07/2004 11:40 AM --------------------------From: Erin McGrath on 04/06/2004 10:17 AM To: cc: Subject: ECI Research proposal, and Resume Fabio Sala/BOSTON/US/HAYGROUP@HAYGROUP

Erin M. McGrath Program Coordinator, Accreditations Hay Resources Direct Phone:617.927.5018 Fax:617.927.5008 ----- Forwarded by Erin McGrath/BOSTON/US/HAYGROUP on 04/05/2004 02:38 PM Katrina Brown <katrinabrown@email.uophx.edu> on 04/05/2004 11:58:01 AM To: cc: "'ei@haygroup.com'" ei@haygroup.com "'kdbrown@lirr.org'" <kdbrown@lirr.org> ECI Research proposal, and Resume

Subject:

276 Appendix B Permission to Use Motivation Sources Inventory

277 Appendix C Letter of Introduction Dear managers/leaders, first line supervisors, and direct reports of managers/leaders and first line supervisors: I am a doctoral candidate at University of Phoenix working on a research project as part of my degree requirements. You are being asked to participate in an anonymous study concerning some thoughts and feelings that you have in relation to yourself, your work, and your interactions with others. It is hoped that the results will contribute to a better understanding of various factors related to leaders, managers, and workers; their positions and suppositions; their emotional intelligence; and motivational behavior. To be eligible to participate in this study, you must be a first line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first line managers (salaried), directors, and executive level managers. To be classified as a leader you must supervise at least five individuals who may be a combination of first line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first line managers (salaried) and directors. You must be a full-time employee of the Long Island Rail Road Transportation Organization. Additionally, you will be required to sign an Informed Consent Agreement, Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study form prior to receiving survey packets. The study questionnaire contains numerous brief statements that address different factors that could be related to your work as a first line supervisor, assistant supervisor, first line manager (salaried), director, and executive level manager. There are no time limits to complete the survey, but it should take about 35 minutes to complete the entire questionnaire. Please answer each statement as honestly as possible, and remember that

278 there are no right or wrong answers. I ask that you be sure to complete all of the demographic questions. Completed surveys should be returned no later than _________________________. The completed forms can be returned, at your discretion, in the enclosed stamped self-addressed envelope, via inter-office mail, or by sending, an e-mail to either address listed below please reference survey packet included in subject heading and my name, Katrina Brown). Your responses will be kept anonymous and confidential; there will be no individual results reported in the finalized version of the study, only cumulative results. Responses from all participants will be combined for statistical analysis. You are free to withdraw from this study at any time by not returning the questionnaire to the researcher. If you would like to receive a copy of the results of this study, place your name, address on the attached postcard, and return it to the researcher. To ensure anonymity of all participants, please return the postcard separatelydo not return the postcard in the same envelope as the survey. If you have any questions, you can call me at XXX-XXX-XXXX. Thank you for your participation. Respectfully, Katrina Brown Katrinabrown@email.uophx.edu/ KDB0904@aol.com,.

279 Appendix D Informed Consent Agreement


Information Necessary for Possible Subjects Prior to Receiving Informed Consent To Participate in Research Project Analysis of factors that may serve to increase motivation, thereby increasing performance. Introduction: Katrina Brown, A Doctoral Learner at the University of Phoenix has been given permission by XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXs Vice President of Operations to conduct a research study at XXXXXXXXXXXXX on aspects that may serve as a means to increase awareness of emotions, and motivation, thereby increasing performance. This research will incorporate those who are classified as first line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first line

managers (salaried), directors, and executive level managers.


Participant: I, _____________________________________, an independent representative of the Long Island Rail Road, have volunteered to participate in this research study. My participation in this study is strictly voluntary, and my participation or non-participation will not be reported to managerial, leaders or executive personnel. I understand that: 1. I may refuse to participate and/or withdraw at any time without consequences to employment.

2. I have the right to be made aware of the nature and purpose of the research, which is to examine emotional intelligence by leaders and its impact on motivation of employees/followers, thereby influencing performance.

3. Research records and participants lists will be confidential. Records will be kept in a secure location at the primary researchers home. These records will be shredded and discarded by the primary researcher when the researchers academic committee accepts the research paper.

280
4. Personal anonymity will be guaranteed. Every effort will be taken to protect my privacy and maintain confidentiality of the information acquired from my participation in the study. I will not be identified in any publication resulting from this study.

5. Results and research data will be used for presentation and publications.

6. I have the right to be informed of whom to contact if I have any questions or concerns: Katrina Brown has explained this study to me and answered my questions. If I have any other questions or research related issues, she can be reached at 631-841-3738, or 212643-5147 (Company).

There are no other concurrences, written or verbal, related to this study beyond those articulated in this consent and confidentiality form. I, the undersigned, understand the above explanation; have had a chance to ask any questions, and have had those questions answered. I give my consent to my voluntary participation in this research.

281 Appendix E Informed Consent to Participate in Research Study


I have read the above information, or it has been read to me. Any questions I had concerning content and explanation of all wording have been satisfied. By signing this letter, I am thereby volunteering to participate in this research study. I have been informed that I will be handed a copy of this signed consent for my records. ___________________________________________ Participants Signature _______________________ Date

I certify I have explained the nature of the research study, using understandable language. I have answered all questions and will readily avail myself to answer any additional questions at any time during the research study. I have established that the participant understands the information as it is provided. ________________________________________ Primary Researcher Signature ________________________ Date

Instructions for Completion of Emotional Competence Inventory

282 Appendix F Instructions for Completion of Emotional Competence Inventory/Emotional Competence Inventory Instructions: The following statements reflect work-related behaviors and relationships. Think about the interactions youve had with your co-workers (particularly those that you nominated to rate you) over the last several months, and use the scale below to indicate how frequently youve shown each behavior listed below. It should take you less than 20 minutes to complete this questionnaire. Each item in the questionnaire describes a work-related behavior. Think about how youve behaved over the previous several months. Then, use the scale below to indicate how frequently you have exhibited each behavior. An example survey item: Please carefully respond to each survey item below.
Don't Item Never Rarely Sometimes Often Consistently know You listen to others carefully when they are speaking

In the above example, fill in the circle that best indicates how frequently you exhibited this behavior. For example, if you never carefully listen to others when they are speaking then fill in, Never. If you infrequently listen carefully to others, then fill in, Rarely. If you

283 listen carefully to others about half of the time, then fill in Sometimes. If you listen carefully most of the time, then fill in Often, and if you listen carefully very frequently (i.e., all the time or nearly all the time) and consistently, then fill in Consistently. Please try to respond to all of the items. If for some reason an item does not apply to you or you have not had an opportunity to exhibit any particular behavior then choose, Dont know. Thank you for your participation.
Please carefully respond to each survey item below: Don't Item Never Rarely Sometimes Often Consistently know You recognize the 1 situations that arouse strong emotions in you You have mainly positive 2 expectations You initiate actions to 3 create possibilities You anticipate obstacles 4 to a goal You are reluctant to 5 change or make changes You have a sense of 6 humor about yourself In a group, you 7 encourage others' participation

284
You give constructive 8 feedback You adapt ideas based 9 on new information You set measurable and 10 challenging goals 11 You solicit others' input You take calculated risks 12 to reach a goal You believe the future 13 will be better than the past You give directions or 14 demonstrations to develop someone You look for feedback, 15 even if it is critical You reflect on underlying 16 reasons for feelings Makes self available to 17 customers or clients You publicly state everyone's position to 18 those involved in a conflict You relate well to people 19 of diverse backgrounds

285
20 You make work exciting You are defensive when 21 receiving feedback You bring up ethical 22 concerns 23 You listen attentively You stay composed and 24 positive, even in trying moments 25 You lead by example You act on your own 26 values even when there is a personal cost You know how your 27 feelings affect your actions You air disagreements or 28 conflicts 29 You inspire people You apply standard 30 procedures flexibly 31 You have presence You monitor customer or 32 client satisfaction In a conflict, you find a 33 position everyone can endorse

286
You engage an audience 34 when presenting You state need for 35 change You advocate change 36 despite opposition You get impatient or 37 show frustration You recognize specific 38 strengths of others You understand informal 39 structure in the organization You behave calmly in 40 stressful situations You personally lead 41 change initiatives 42 You get from key people You understand the 43 organization's unspoken rules 44 You keep your promises You understand historical 45 reasons for organizational issues You take personal 46 responsibility for meeting

287
customer needs You acknowledge 47 mistakes You present yourself in 48 an assured manner You handle unexpected 49 demands well You articulate a 50 compelling vision You are not politically 51 savvy at work You seek ways to 52 improve performance You acknowledges your 53 own strengths and weaknesses You can see things from 54 someone elses perspective You believe yourself to 55 be capable for a job You cut through red tape 56 or bend rules when necessary You stay positive despite 57 setbacks 58 You develop behind-the-

288
scenes You persuade by 59 appealing to peoples' self interest 60 You act impulsively You do not cooperate 61 with others You doubt your own 62 ability 63 You avoid conflicts You match customer or 64 client needs to services or products You establish and 65 maintain close relationships at work You hesitate to act on 66 opportunities You provide on-going 67 mentoring or coaching You are aware of your 68 own feelings You change overall 69 strategy, goals, or projects to fit the situation You seek information in 70 unusual ways

289
You are attentive to 71 peoples' moods or nonverbal cues 72 You learn from setbacks

Copyright 1999 Hay Acquisition Company I, Inc. (by assignment from McBer and Company, Inc.) Developed in collaboration with Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., and Richard E. Boyatzis, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, xerography, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Hay/McBer.

290 Appendix G Demographics Questionnaire Education: H.S.____ Assoc.____ B.S./B.A.____ M.S./M.A.____ Doctorate____

Gender:

Male_____ Female_____

Age:

18-25____ 26-30____ 31-35____ 36-40____ 41-50____

51-60____

61+____

Years of Service: Months_______/Years______ Department Affiliation: _________________________

291 Appendix H Postcard Results Request Results of the Research Study Aspects that may serve as a means to increase the awareness of emotions and motivation, thereby increasing performance in leaders, managers, supervisors, and direct reports, will be shared with leaders of departments. Copies of results will also be made available to all participants of the research study. If you would like to have a copy of the results mailed directly to your home, please return this postcard after completing the following information:

NAME:_____________________________________________

ADDRESS:______________________________________________

To maintain anonymity as a participant in this study, please Do Not Return This Postcard With Your Survey.

292 Appendix I Informed Consent Permission to Use Premises

293 Appendix J Letter of Collaboration University of Phoenix Letter of Collaboration among Institutions Date: October 1, 2004 To: Office of the Provost/Institutional Review Board University of Phoenix This letter acknowledges that Long Island Rail Road is collaborating with Ms. Katrina Brown enrolled in the Doctoral program at University of Phoenix in conducting the proposed research. We understand: The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational research study, using the Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999; Hay/McBer Group, 2000), the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, 2003), chi-square and t-test statistical analyses, and structural equation modeling was to examine if a relationship exists between a leaders emotional intelligence and the motivation of employees/followers. This inquiry was performed by surveying the emotional intelligence of 120 leaders (classified as executive level managers who supervise at least five first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], or directors) on the motivational behavior of 480 employees/followers (classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers [salaried], and directors) in a metropolitan New York transportation organization. The study examined the relationship between observed and latent variable, leaders emotional intelligence (assessing how leaders handle themselves and others) and observed and latent variable, employees/followers motivation (a desire that elicits a preferred response), and the intervening variables of age, gender, and years of service in the transportation organization were controlled and analyzed.

294

295 Appendix K: Internal Review Board Approval Letter

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD On behalf of Dr. Craig Swenson, Chair of the Institutional Review Board, your doctoral research proposal has been reviewed and deemed exempt. Your progress report for this study is due one year from the date identified below. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF LEADERS AND MOTIVATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF EMPLOYEES By Katrina Brown Dr. Bill Pepicello Bill Pepicello Vice Provost of Academic Affairs School of Advanced Studies University of Phoenix University of Phoenix
(February 2005)

296 EXHIBIT 1 Data Revealing ECI Construct


Construct/Variablea 5 6 7 3.25 4.00 5.00 3.50 3.00 4.50 3.50 3.00 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.50 3.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.00 3.50 4.25 5.00 3.75 4.00 5.00 4.75 4.25 4.75 5.00 4.50 5.50 4.50 3.00 4.50 4.50 3.00 4.50 4.25 3.75 4.50 4.25 3.75 4.50 4.50 3.00 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.75 4.50 4.25 3.00 4.00 4.50 4.25 3.75 4.00 4.75 4.50 4.25 3.25 3.25 4.25 4.25 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.75 4.50 3.75 4.00 5.25 3.75 4.00 5.25 4.25 4.75 4.50 4.25 3.75 4.50 4.25 3.75 4.50 3.25 3.50 4.75 3.75 3.50 5.25 3.25 4.00 4.75 2.25 3.75 5.00 4.25 4.50 5.50 2.25 3.75 5.00 3.00 4.50 5.00 3.50 3.50 4.00 4.50 3.50 4.75 3.50 3.25 4.25 4.75 3.50 4.75

1 5.00 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.50 3.75 3.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 3.75 3.75 4.50 4.50 3.75 4.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.75 4.75 3.50 4.50 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.00 4.25 4.75 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.00 3.00 4.50 3.75 4.50
a

2 3.50 3.75 3.75 4.00 3.50 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.00 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.50 5.00 4.50 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.50 3.50 3.75 4.50 4.50 2.75 3.75 3.00 3.25 4.00 3.25 4.00 3.00 3.50 3.25 3.50

3 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.25 3.75 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.50 4.75 5.25 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.50 5.00 5.00 4.50 5.00 5.00 4.50 4.50 5.00 4.50 4.50 4.75 4.25 4.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.25 4.00 5.00 4.00 5.00

4 4.33 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.83 4.25 3.83 3.83 3.92 3.92 3.92 4.00 4.33 4.67 4.83 4.17 4.08 4.17 4.17 4.08 4.58 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.17 4.92 4.75 3.92 4.42 4.42 4.25 4.25 4.42 4.58 4.58 3.83 4.08 3.92 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.42 3.33 4.33 3.67 4.33

8 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.00 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.50 4.00 4.50 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.50 4.50 3.75 4.00 3.75 4.25 5.00 4.25 4.50 4.00 4.25 3.75 4.25

9 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.00 3.75 4.25 5.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 3.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.25 3.25 4.25 3.50 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.00 3.75 3.75 4.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.50 3.25 4.50

10 3.50 4.00 4.00 3.25 4.25 3.25 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 3.75 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.75 4.75 3.50 3.00 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.00 3.50 3.75 3.25 4.25 3.25 4.25 3.00 4.00 3.50 4.00

11 3.92 3.83 3.83 4.04 3.92 4.04 4.00 4.00 4.04 4.04 4.04 4.08 4.13 4.50 4.88 4.04 4.04 4.00 4.00 4.04 4.04 4.29 4.29 4.29 4.29 4.29 4.29 3.67 4.00 4.29 3.54 4.38 4.38 4.17 4.17 4.38 4.21 4.21 3.83 4.00 3.88 3.71 4.71 3.71 4.17 3.63 4.25 3.58 4.29

: See Table 21 for a description of the Construct/Variable classifications

297 EXHIBIT 1 Data Revealing ECI Construct continued


12 4.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 3.25 3.25 3.25 4.00 3.25 4.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.25 4.25 3.25 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.50 4.50 3.50 4.50 3.50 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.50 4.50 3.50 4.50
a

13 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.25 4.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.25 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.75 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.50 4.00 5.00 4.00 5.25 5.25 4.75 4.75 5.25 4.50 4.50 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.50 3.50 4.50 3.75 4.50

14 3.75 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.00 4.00 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.25 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.75 4.50 5.00 3.75 4.75 4.75 3.75 3.75 4.75 4.25 4.25 3.25 4.25 3.50 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.75 3.75 4.50 3.75 4.50

15 4.33 4.42 4.42 4.58 4.08 4.58 4.00 4.00 3.67 3.67 3.67 4.17 4.17 4.92 4.75 4.50 4.50 4.08 4.08 4.50 4.67 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.50 3.92 4.75 3.67 4.75 4.75 4.33 4.33 4.75 4.42 4.42 3.58 4.33 3.75 4.25 4.33 4.25 4.42 3.58 4.50 3.67 4.50

Construct/Variablea 16 17 18 3.75 3.75 4.25 4.50 3.50 3.75 4.50 3.50 3.75 3.75 2.50 4.25 3.75 3.75 3.50 3.75 2.50 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.50 4.25 3.75 3.50 4.75 3.75 3.50 4.75 3.75 3.50 4.75 3.75 3.50 3.75 3.50 4.25 4.50 3.75 4.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 5.00 4.50 5.00 4.25 3.75 4.25 4.25 3.75 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.00 4.25 3.75 4.25 4.00 3.25 3.75 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.50 3.75 3.25 4.50 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.00 3.25 3.25 5.00 4.25 4.50 5.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 4.50 4.75 4.75 4.50 4.75 5.00 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.00 4.25 4.25 4.00 4.25 3.25 3.50 4.00 4.25 3.50 3.50 4.00 3.50 3.25 4.50 3.00 4.25 5.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.00 4.25 3.75 3.75 3.25 4.50 3.50 4.25 4.75 3.50 4.75 3.50 3.25 4.00 4.75 3.50 5.00

19 3.75 3.75 3.75 4.00 3.50 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.75 5.00 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.25 3.75 3.75 4.25 3.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.25 3.25 4.50 3.50 3.75 3.75 3.25 3.25 3.75 4.00 4.00 3.50 4.25 3.25 3.50 4.25 3.50 4.00 2.75 4.00 3.00 4.00

20 4.25 3.50 3.50 4.50 3.50 4.50 3.75 3.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.50 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.50 3.75 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.25 3.50 4.75 3.25 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 3.50 3.50 3.25 3.00 3.25 4.00 3.75 4.00 4.75 3.50 4.50 3.50 4.50

21 4.75 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.50 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.75 4.25 4.75 4.75 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.25 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.75 4.75 4.75 5.25 4.00 4.75 4.25 5.00 5.00 4.75 4.75 5.00 4.50 4.50 5.25 4.25 5.00 4.50 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.75 4.75 4.25 4.75

22 4.08 3.92 3.92 3.88 3.75 3.88 3.92 3.92 3.92 3.92 3.92 3.92 4.25 4.50 4.67 4.33 4.33 4.17 4.17 4.33 3.96 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.67 4.67 4.67 3.88 3.92 4.67 3.58 4.50 4.50 4.42 4.42 4.50 4.08 4.08 3.79 3.79 3.71 3.96 4.46 3.96 3.96 3.88 4.38 3.58 4.42

ECI 4.11 4.03 4.03 4.11 3.88 4.11 3.94 3.94 3.92 3.92 3.92 4.03 4.21 4.60 4.78 4.24 4.22 4.10 4.10 4.22 4.21 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.57 4.57 4.57 3.96 4.11 4.57 3.64 4.49 4.49 4.29 4.29 4.49 4.26 4.26 3.78 4.00 3.81 3.97 4.53 3.97 4.18 3.65 4.35 3.61 4.38

: See Table 21 for a description of the Construct/Variable classifications

298 EXHIBIT 2 Data Revealing MSI Construct