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ly, the close relationship between the proximity of energy Energy it is an essential resources to the potential ingredient for socio-econousers coupled with the high mic development and econocost of conventional energy mic growth. The objective of sources have led to a consithe energy system is to providerable interest in the devede energy services. Energy A. S. Sambo lopment and application of services are the desired and renewable energy resources. useful products, processes or Although research and deveAbubakar Tafawa Balewa indeed services that result lopment activities are still University, P .M.B. 0248 from the use of energy, such being seriously undertaken in as for lighting, provision of Bauchi, Nigeria various aspects of renewable air-conditioned indoor climaenergy utilisations, a number te, refrigerated storage, transof the technologies have since been shown to be feasible and portation, appropriate temperatures for cooking etc. The ready, for adoption into the economy. These technologies are energy chain to deliver these cited services begins with the very suitable for the rural areas of Nigeria (Sambo, 1991). collection or extraction of primary energy, which is then It is now universally accepted that fossil fuels are finite converted into energy carriers suitable for various end-uses. and it is only a matter of time before their reserves become These energy carriers are used in energy end-use technologies exhausted. Estimates of reserves of fossil fuels all reach the to provide the desired energy services (Sambo, 1997). same conclusion. Extended use of these reserves, worldwide, From the foregoing, it is clear that energy is an essential in the current manner will continue for no more than some input to all aspects of modern life. It is indeed the lifewire of decades to come. The need for supplementary or even alterindustrial production, the fuel for transportation as well as for natives that ideally will be non- depletable energy sources the generation of electricity in conventional thermal power have since been recognised. These non-depletable sources plants. The situation was such that nations were complacent are replenishable and are also referred to as renewable enerwith the oil dominated scenarios of the 1950s and 1960s gy sources as they are available in cyclic or periodic basis. during which time regular and reasonably cheap supplies These include: Solar energy which has an estimated worldwere available. However, oil producing countries caused a wide average power potentials of 24W per square metre of world-wide reaction by deciding to increase the prices of the earth's surface (assuming 10% efficiency); hydropower, crude oil in the early seventies. Of course, the oil-rich counmajor sources of which are still underdeveloped, has an estitries like Nigeria recorded tremendous economic gains. On mated potential of the range 2-3TW with an annual output of the other-hand, those developing nations that did not have oil 10,000-20,000TWh but is only available in certain areas of were subjected to serious economic problems as they sudthe world; also available in limited areas of the world are denly found themselves utilising, in some cases, up to 50% of wind energy and biomass (Considine, 1977). their foreign exchange earnings for importing petroleum proThe purpose of my presentation is to highlight the role of ducts or crude oil in order to sustain their oil-based industries renewable energy for the rural development of Nigeria. The and public utilities (Sambo, 1992). paper will review the current level of the use of renewable Currently a high proportion of the world's total energy energy systems and thereafter put forward necessary policy output is generated from fossil fuels such as oil and coal. In measures that are essential in order to promote the use of the general, the quest for an option to conventional power technologies. Section 2 of the article will look at some major schemes for extension to remote and rural locations of deveenergy issues in Nigeria. Sections 3; 4; 5; and 6 will respecloping countries like Nigeria arises from the high costs assotively focus on renewable energy resource availability in ciated with the extensions, as well as the maintenance, of the Nigeria; renewable energy for rural development; applicapower grid system to rural areas. The costs of grid extensions tions of renewable energy in Nigeria; necessary measures for will vary widely from country to country and will be heavily promotion of renewable energy. The conclusions made are dependent on the system used, the length of connection requipresented in section 7. red, the type of topography, the usage pattern and the load factor of the supply point (Charters, 1985). More specifical-

1. Introduction

Renewable Energy For Rural Development : The Nigerian Perspective

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2. Some Major Energy Issues In Nigeria The major energy issues in Nigeria can be conveniently categorised as inefficient energy utilisation, inefficient and unreliable energy supply system, environmental concerns, energy financing, inadequate technological capabilities in the energy sector and weak institutional framework (World Energy Council, 1993). However before discussing these issues there is need to consider the current energy consumption patterns of the country.

(c) Industrial sector Mains electricity from NEPA dominates the energy supply for the industrial sector. This is supplemented by electricity generating sets that are fueled by automotive gas oil (diesel). High and low pour fuel oils are used in textile, cement and brick manufacturing plants. The foregoing is for large industries which are mostly located in the big cities and towns. For the small towns and villages, the bulk of the small - scale industries are operated on diesel generators for bakeries, small - scale steel works, small - scale ceramic/pottery works etc. In these localities other small-scale activities like handicraft, weaving etc. are based on human power. (d) Transport sector In the transport sector, prime motor spirit (petrol) is the major fuel for saloon cars and the "small buses". For lorries, trucks and rail transport the predominant fuel is automotive gas oil (diesel) while for air transport the fuel is aviation kerosine. It has been estimated that 74% of the petroleum products demand of Nigeria is for the transport sector with only 19% for the industrial sector. Of the amount of fuel consumed in the transport sector, 50% is absorbed by passenger transport by air. (e) Services sector In remote rural areas, human power is used for water lifting from wells while in the big villages and many towns, diesel powered pumping systems are relied upon to lift water from boreholes. Hospitals and health centres in rural areas rely on both REB-generated electricity and diesel generators for lighting, sterilising of appliances as well as for storage of drugs and vaccines. Use is made of fuelwood and to a lesser extent LPG, for cooking. The situation in the health centres is very much the same in boarding schools, barracks and prison houses.

Energy Consumption Patterns


In 1991 the Sokoto Energy Research Centre, at the instance of the Energy Commission of Nigeria, carried out a survey of 55 Local Government areas in Niger, Kano, Katsina and Sokoto States as well as in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The report of that survey (Sambo, 1991) as well as the report of similar surveys carried out in other parts of the country can be summarised as follows: (a) Agricultural sector Human and animal power provide the bulk of the energy requirements for agricultural production. An assessment of the energy unit adopted, that is manhours, showed that sharp variations exist in the magnitudes of the manhour figures from place to place. Evidence of use of petroleum products for agricultural production has been recorded. This, though small when compared with human and animal power, is significant because it showed the use of motorized irrigation pumps and diesel powered tractors for mechanised agricultural activities. (b)Household sector Fuelwood was found to be the predominant energy source in the household sector with about 70 - 80% of households depending on it as their cooking fuel in both the remote villages and the towns. The consequence of this to the natural environment is that unchecked felling of trees to provide the fuelwood requirements will exacerbate desert encroachment, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility problems. In the interim it would not be practical to stop the use of fuelwood rather the short term solution is the adoption of efficient wood-burning stoves together with the widespread establishment of fast growing trees. In the long term one would suggest the introduction of other fuels like LPG, kerosine and smokeless coal briquettes to replace the use of fuelwood. Kerosine is the predominant energy source used in the rural areas for lighting. There is strong evidence of the use of small quantities of kerosine to assist the quick commencement of combustion of fuelwood. This is in addition to its use in the urban centres as a cooking fuel. The predominant type of lantern used, is the wick-type which does not produce a good level of luminosity. The third energy type in terms of significance in the household sector is electricity which is mostly limited to state and local government headquarters and some big towns. Most of the electricity in the rural areas is provided by the State Rural Electricity Boards.

Inefficient Energy Utilisation


Presently, energy utilization in Nigeria is far from being efficient. Apart from the direct loss due to energy wasted, using energy inefficiently has three major implications in Nigeria. These are: (a) The investment in some energy supply infrastructure is far in excess of what the energy demand is; (b) The environmental problems associated with energy utilization are more aggravated due to large energy consumption; and (c) Excessive energy consumption adds to the costs of goods produced especially in energy intensive industries like cement, steel works and refineries. The potential for energy savings is substantial in the three most energy consuming sectors of the economy namely household, industry and transportation. In the household sector, for example, there is considerable energy loss due to the use of inefficient traditional three stone stoves with efficiencies of between 5 to 12%. Efficiencies three times that can be obtained. In the household sector substantial savings can be made by simple switching over from incandescent bulbs to fluorescent lamps. In the industrial sector energy audit stu-

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dies have shown that up to 25% of energy consumption can be saved by adopting simple house keeping measures. Such measures include putting off electrical machinery on no-load condition, plugging steam leaks and avoiding material wastages. In the transport sector, major savings can be realised by emphasising mass transit schemes. The major barriers militating against the adoption of more energy efficient practices in Nigeria can be identified as follows: (a) Lack of awareness of the potential and importance of energy efficiency; (b) Lack of skilled manpower to carry out energy audit studies; and (c) Lack of awareness of potential alternatives such as renewable energy technologies.

Combustion of fossil fuels, especially in the transport and industry sectors, contributes greatly to air pollution in cities. A major air pollution that poses health hazards to both dwellers of the cities and rural areas is the long exposure to smoke from biomass combustion in poorly ventilated kitchens. Major water and soil contamination are reported from time to time which arise from oil spillages in the oil producing areas of the country. Dams for hydropower have been noted to periodically cause flooding of agricultural land upstream while at the same time the dams cause destruction of the ecology downstream.

Other Issues
The other important issues include poor energy financing, low technical capabilities in the energy sector and weak institutional framework. The energy sector is a large consumer of national resources, demanding large capital expenditures, skilled manpower and steady foreign exchange outflows. Almost invariably, energy financing has been the exclusive prerogative of government whose own capacity to finance new investments is inadequate. Low technical capacity is responsible for the nation's inability to manufacture components of power plants as well as to maintain the various units of the energy sector. The main problem with institutional framework in the energy sector is the fact that the linkages between the various energy institutions are rather weak.

Inefficient and Unreliable Energy Supply System


In electric energy supply efficiencies of existing thermal plants are low. They are as low as 12% whereas efficiencies of up to 40% are attainable with modern technologies. Also substantial electricity is lost during transmission and distribution. These losses are sometimes more than 30% of the total electricity generated. Apart from these inefficiencies the reliability and availability of existing installed electric generation system is low. There is the serious problem of power unreliability over the years such that most industrial establishments and upper income households instal very expensive generating sets amounting to over half of the total installed grid capacity. This constitutes huge economic losses to the Nigerian economy. The major factors contributing to the above unreliability and inefficiency in the power sector are: (a) Frequent breakdown of generating plants and equipment due to inadequate repairs and maintenance; (b) Lack of foreign exchange to purchase needed spare parts on time (c) Obsolete transmission and distribution equipment which frequently breakdown (d) Lack of skilled manpower; as well as (e) Inadequacy of basic industries to service the power sector. In the petroleum sector, production, marketing and distribution system are often inadequate, inefficient and costly. On the production side, refinery capacity utilization is generally low largely due to operation and maintenance problems.

The Need to Re-address Our Priorities


An analysis of the country's energy resource base will clearly show that the nation stands to benefit immensely by ensuring that petroleum products are made to last for as many years to come as possible so they continue to serve as revenue earners and also to enable fuelling of the industrial sector for as many years to come as possible. This can only be realized after the adoption of as many energy types as possible within the energy mix of the country. The clear and practical approach is to adopt the renewable energy sources of solar, biomass, wind energy and small-scale hydropower plants for as many applications as possible. This approach is supported by the fact that all or at least two renewable energy sources are available in all parts of the country, the technology for their use is mostly simple and for which the capacities exist; their use does not require the heavy financing mentioned in 2.5 above and they are not associated with serious environmental implications. As a matter of fact these considerations were long thought of and brought to bear by the Federal Government which established, amongst others, two energy research centres for research and development in renewable energy.

Environmental Concerns
The major environmental problems related to energy production, distribution and consumption are deforestation, air and land pollution as well as flooding. Excessive fuelwood consumption arises due to population growth, low technical efficiency of the traditional three stone stoves and the lack of adoption of other sustainable cooking methodologies. These contribute to deforestation which is a very serious issue because of the important roles forestry resources play in the ecosystem. They serve as sinks for carbon dioxide, maintain diverse plants and animal life and also regulate the flow of water. Their loss, as mentioned earlier, leads to soil erosion, desert encroachment and loss of soil fertility.

3. Renewable Energy Resource Availability In Nigeria

For the purpose of this presentation the renewable energy sources that will be considered are hydro, solar energy, biomass and wind energy. Hydro Essentially, hydropower systems rely on the potential energy difference between the levels of water in reservoirs,

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dams or lakes and their discharge tail water levels downstream. The water turbines which convert the potential energy of water to shaft rotation are coupled to suitable generators. The hydropower potential of Nigeria is very high and hydropower currently accounts for about 29% of the total electrical power supply. The first hydropower supply station in Nigeria is at Kainji on the river Niger where the installed capacity is 836MW with provisions for expansion to 1156 MW. A second hydropower station on the Niger is at Jebba with an installed capacity of 540 MW. An estimate (Aliyu and Elegba, 1990) for rivers Kaduna, Benue and Cross River (at Shiroro, Makurdi and Ikom, respectively) indicates their total capacity to stand at about 4,650 MW. Estimates for the rivers on the Mambila Plateau are put at 2,330MW. The overall hydropower resources potentially exploitable in Nigeria is in excess of 11,000MW. The foregoing assessment is for large hydro schemes which have predominantly been the class of schemes in use prior to the oil crisis of 1973. Since that time, however, many developed and developing countries have opted for smallscale hydropower with appreciable savings made over the otherwise alternative of crude oil. It should be noted that hydropower plants that supply electrical energy between the range of 15kW to 15MW are mini-hydro while those supplying below 15kW are normally referred to as micro-hydro plants (Sambo and Taylor, 1990). Indeed small-scale (both micro and mini) hydropower systems possess the advantage, over large hydro systems, that problems of topography are not excessive. In effect, small hydropower systems can be set up in all parts of the country so that the potential energy in the large network of rivers can be tapped and converted to electrical energy. In this way the nation's rural electrification projects can be greatly enhanced.

Solar energy technologies are divided into two broad groups namely solar-thermal and solar photovoltaics. In solar thermal applications, solar energy, as electromagnetic waves, is first converted into heat energy. The heat energy may then be used either directly as heat, or converted into 'cold', or even into electrical or mechanical energy forms. Typical such applications are in drying, cooking, heating, distillation, cooling and refrigeration as well as electricity generation in thermal power plants. In solar photovoltaic applications, the solar radiation is converted directly into electricity. The most common method of doing this is through the use of silicon solar cells. The technique was first observed in 1939. Its development had been closely tied to the space programme of the western world. The power generating unit is the solar module which consists of several solar cells electrically linked together on a base plate. On the whole the major components of a photovoltaic system include the arrays which consist of the photovoltaic conversion devices, their interconnections and support, power conditioning equipment that convert the dc to ac and provides regulated outputs of voltage and current; controller, which automatically manages the operation of the total system; as well as the optional storage for standalone (non-grid) systems. In recent times, the commercial viability of photovoltaic systems have been recognized and concerted international efforts in research and development have led to increase in efficiency and reliability as well as reductions in cost.

Biomass
Biomass energy refers to the energy of biological systems such as wood and wastes. Biomass energy is an indirect form of solar energy because it arises due to photosynthesis. The biomass resources of Nigeria can be identified as wood biomass, forage grasses and shrubs, residues and wastes (forestry, agricultural, municipal and industrial) as well as aquatic biomass. Wood, apart from being a major source of energy in the form of fuelwood is also used for commercial purposes in various forms as plywood, sawnwood, paper products and electric poles. For energy purposes, Nigeria is using 80 million cubic metres (43.4 x 109 kg) of fuelwood annually for cooking and other domestic purposes. The energy content of fuelwood that is being used is 6.0 x 109MJ out of which only between 5 - 12% is the fraction that is gainfully utilized for cooking and other domestic uses. Although the biomass availability as at 1973 was put at 9.1 x 1012 MJ, it is expected that the overall biomass resource availability at present is lower than the 1973 figure. This is largely due to the demand of wood also for construction and furniture industries in addition to its use as an energy source. As for forage grasses and shrubs, estimates show that 200 million tonnes of dry biomass can be obtained from them and this comes up to 2.28 x 106MJ of energy. For crop residues and wastes, estimates of the 6.1 million tonnes of dry biomass that are produced annually leave residues whose energy content approximate to 5.3 x 1011 MJ.

Solar Energy
Solar energy is the most promising of the renewable energy sources in view of its apparent limitless potential. The sun radiates its energy at the rate of about 3.8 x 1023 kW per second. Most of this energy is transmitted radially as electromagnetic radiation which comes to about 1.5kW/m2 at the boundary of the atmosphere. After traversing the atmosphere, a square metre of the earth's surface can receive as much as 1kW of Solar power, averaging to about 0.5 over all hours of daylight. Studies relevant to the availability of the solar energy resource in Nigeria (Sambo, 1986; Sambo, 1988; Sambo, Doyle, 1986; Doyle and Sambo, 1988; and Folayan, 1988) have fully indicated its viability for practical use. Although solar radiation intensity appears rather dilute when compared with the volumetric concentration of energy in fossil fuels, it has been confirmed that Nigeria receives 5.08 x 1012 kWh of energy per day from the sun and if solar energy appliances with just 5% efficiency are used to cover only 1% of the country's surface area then 2.54 x 106 MWh of electrical energy can be obtained from solar energy. This amount of electrical energy is equivalent to 4.66 million barrels of oil per day. Figure 1 shows a map of Nigeria with the annual average global solar radiation in the country.

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Estimates made in 1985 give the number of cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs as well as poultry birds as 166 million. These produce 227,500 tonnes of animal wastes daily which come to 2.2 x 109 MJ taking the calorific value of animal dung to be 9,800 MJ/tonne. Animal residue can be converted to biogas and estimates show that this is of the order of 5.36 x 109 m3 which has an energy content amounting to 2.93 x 109 kWh.

- Processing and storage of agricultural products - Drying C. Community Needs - Hospitals, Clinics - Schools - Barracks, prison houses etc. D. Industrial/Commercial Needs - Small to medium industries - Business establishments (shops, banks, restaurants, bakeries etc).

Wind Energy
Wind is a natural phenomenon related to the movement of air masses caused primarily by the differential solar heating of the earth's surface. Seasonal variations in the energy received from the sun affects the strength and direction of the wind. The ease with which aeroturbines transform energy in moving air to rotary mechanical energy suggests the use of electrical devices to convert wind energy to electricity. Wind energy has also been utilised, for decades, for water pumping as well as for the milling of grains. A study on the wind energy potentials for a number of Nigerian cities shows that the annual wind speed ranges from 2.32 m/s for Port Harcourt to a figure of 3.89 m/s for Sokoto (Sambo, 1987). The maximum extractable power per unit area, for the same two sites was estimated as 4.51 and 21.97 watts per square metre of blade area, respectively. And when the duration of wind speeds greater than 3 m/s is considered than the energy per unit area works out as 168.63 and 1,556.35 kWh per square metre of blade area, again for PortHarcourt and Sokoto. Although use of wind energy for water supply has been known and used for hundreds of years, in recent times efforts have been directed largely towards the use of wind power for the generation of electricity and in the past twenty years or so rapid changes in technology have occurred and major wind powered generating plants have been installed, especially in the rural areas of the developed countries. 4. Renewable Energy Systems For Rural Development

Basic Principles for Design of Renewable Energy Systems


Due to the large variety of biomass devices the basic concepts for their design also vary widely. This is largely due to the nature of biomass itself as discussed in section 3.3 above. Accordingly this section will focus attention on solar and wind energy principles only. A. Basis for Design of Solar Energy Systems The utilisation of solar heat collection systems for producing electrical or mechanical power using thermodynamic heat engines has been confirmed to be technically feasible and a large number of real life systems have been constructed in several countries. However, the use of solar energy for power production, and for the development of both small and large scale solar thermal power systems, the actual costs of energy are high and for the systems cannot compete in heavily populated urban cities or areas serviced by a central or national grid electrical power distribution system. However, in most rural areas where the costs associated with providing power may be five to fifty times of those in metropolitan areas, solar thermal power generation schemes are already cost effective. The essential parts of any solar thermal power generating scheme are as follows: - A means of solar energy collection - Provision of suitable thermal/mechanical converter and mechanical/electrical converter - A method of storing energy for use in non-solar or low solar periods The available solar collector systems may be broadly classified as flat-plate and concentrating collectors. Concentrating collectors which are usually employed for high temperature applications often require serious attention for their operation. The more straight forward arrangement is the flatplate collector which is more appropriate for rural areas. The basic components of flat-plate solar collectors are an absorbing surface which receives insulation and an air duct one side of which is formed by the absorber to reduce losses from the absorber and insulation. For applications requiring high air or liquid flow, an air fan or liquid pump is used to blow air or liquid through the collector. Factors affecting the amount of useful energy absorbed by the absorber plate of a flat-plate collector are: level of insulation, angle between incident insolation and the absorber plate surface, the solar absorptivity of the cover material.

In this section of the paper it is intended to cover the energy needs in rural areas as well as the basis for design of solar and wind energy systems.

Energy Needs in Rural Areas


In general, the energy needs in the rural and semi-urban areas of Nigeria can be categorized as follows: A. Domestic Needs - Cooking - House lighting - Domestic water pumping and distribution - Television and radio powering - Water heating - Refrigeration B. Agricultural Production - Water pumping and distribution for irrigation - Operation of various agricultural equipment or implements

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Indeed flat-plate collectors are well adapted to applications requiring low to medium temperature rise of the working fluid, such as in crop drying, water heating, and vapour absorption refrigeration systems. The use of flat-plate collectors in crop drying and water heating have been found to be more cost effective when compared with conventional methods using gas, oil or electric heaters. Solar crop dryers and solar water heaters are highly recommended. As mentioned in section 3.2 the direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity is achieved through the use of solar cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline or amorphous silicon and are usually mounted in a solar cell module to produce reasonable peak power output level under conditions of maximum solar radiation. The direct current (d.c.) output voltage per cell is typically of the order of 0.5 volts and the output current is governed primarily by the cell area and intensity of the sunlight. The modules may be wired together to form solar cell arrays designed to match the power, voltage and current requirements. The output of a module is well matched to the task of battery charging since it is the current rather than voltage that varies with solar radiation intensity. The d.c. power from solar module can be used to power lights, electric motors and other resistive loads. Most systems employ a voltage regulator to protect the battery and load appliances from excessive over-voltage conditions. This regulator is connected between the battery and the array and dissipates any excess energy when the battery bank is fully charged. A d.c. circuit also includes a blocking diode between the array and the battery to prevent a current flow at night from battery to the solar photovoltaic module array. Alternating current (a.c.) power is now most commonly used as in addition to lights and other resistive loads, it is required to power the cheap induction electric motors found in a wide variety of appliances. To produce a.c. power from the d.c. solar cell output an inverter is placed in the circuit before the load. Such an inverter will produce a wave form approximating a sine wave with varying degrees of distortion depending on the quality and cost of the inverter chosen. In general, inverters should be carefully chosen to match, closely, the power demand of the load. B. Basis for Design of Wind Energy Systems The use of wind energy to provide power for a host of purposes has been known to man for hundreds of years especially for water pumping. In recent times, efforts have been directed towards the use of wind power for the generation of electricity and in the past twenty years or so rapid changes in technology have occurred and major wind powered generating plants have been installed, especially in rural areas. All wind generators convert the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical power at some rotating shaft and then, if so desired, to electrical power through a generator. Generally, commercial wind machines can be classed as small ranging from a few watts to 10kW, medium from 10-60kW, and large from 60kW-300kW. In addition, there are some very large machines with power outputs in excess of 1MW at several sites throughout the world.

Modern aerogenerators that produce a.c. electricity come in two basic types - horizontal or vertical axis machines. Most of the available commercial machines are of the horizontal type, and the number of blades chosen for these machines is a compromise between high self starting ability (indication of good performance at low wind speeds) and good efficiency at higher operational seeds. Some vertical axis machines are now commercially available, but they generally have lower conversion efficiencies than their horizontal axis counterparts. Vertical axis machines have the advantages of the ability to operate with wind from any direction, and reduced power costs as the heavier equipment items such as gearbox and transmission can be ground mounted. At any location of choice it is possible to compute the maximum power output from a wind turbine by knowing the average wind speed distribution and the technical characteristics of the wind system prescribed. 5. Applications Of Renewable Energy Technologies In Nigeria

In Nigeria, as a result of research and development activities that have been undertaken in our Universities and Polytechnics a large number of renewable energy systems and devices have been developed and a good number are indeed ready for adoption into the national economy. A report compiled by the Sokoto Energy Research Centre in 1991 (Sambo, 1991) provides details of the technologies that were developed at the Centre and which were ready for adoption into the economy. A more comprehensive compilation of the status of renewable energy technologies is the book "POTENTIALS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATION IN NIGERIA" which was published in May 1997 by the Energy Commission of Nigeria.

5.1 Major Applications of Renewable Energy Systems


A. Solar Energy There are many solar thermal systems especially solar water heaters and solar dryers in use in many parts of the country. Solar cookers, solar stills, solar chicken brooders and solar thermal refrigerators developed by research centres and confirmed to be of practical applications. However solar photovoltaic applications have wider current installation in the country and these include solar photovoltaic water pumping systems, solar powered vaccine refrigerators as well as telecommunication repeater stations that are powered by solar photovoltaics. There are also solar photovoltaic power plants that are providing electricity to entire villages and also others that are powering on stand-alone basis, some specific projects such as rural health centres television viewing centres. B. Biomass Many versions of efficient wood-burning and charcoal stoves have been developed and are being used in many parts of country with the overall objective of curtailing the amount trees that are perennially cut to provide fuelwood and char-

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coal. Biogas digesters, which are capable of producing biogas that could be used for domestic and industrial uses, have been developed in many parts of the country. C. Wind Energy Wind energy used to be relied upon in the 1950s and 1960s for provision of water in many locations of the northern part of the country. However this was largely abandoned when the development of petroleum products reached advanced stages. The development of the Poldow wind pump in Bauchi using locally available materials is surely a move in the right direction. Of course it should be mentioned that there a few modern wind water pumps in some parts of the country. There is also one wind electricity generator currently supplying electricity from wind energy at Sayya Gidan Gada in Sokoto State.

F. Storage of Vaccines and Drugs Photovoltaic power components have also been shown to adequately provide the electricity for refrigerators and deep freezers in which vaccines and drugs can be safely stored without loosing their potencies. G. Street Lights and Traffic Controllers Photovoltaic modules have been used to provide uninterrupted electricity during the day and night for traffic controllers in city centres. With the use of storage batteries they have also been shown to power street lights continuously without the power outages commonly associated with the mains supply. H. Improved Wood-Burning Stoves Clay-based improved cookstoves, of various designed, have been developed and these conserve the amount of fuelwood consumed by up to 50%, lead to faster cooking and with the attachment of chimneys they allow for organised exit of smoke and consequently reduce smoke inhalation. I. Production of Biogas With biogas digesters, which are typically constructed from sheet metal or empty drums and fed with slurries of animal dung they can produce biogas and after 2-3 days. This gas which has a reasonable content of methane is combustible and can be relied upon for the production of gas for domestic cooking. It can also be used for powering internal combustion engines for electricity generation in rural areas. J. Wind for Electricity Generation In Nigeria, for quite some time, only laboratory trials have been made in the area of using wind for electricity generation. Such trails have been made with models of three-bladed aeroturbines and the results obtained indicate the potential for stand-alone utilisation especially in the Sahelian zone as well as the coastal areas of the country. Recently, however, an increasing number of wind water pumping sets and wind electricity conversion systems have been installed. K. Electricity from Microhydro Systems The generation of electricity from numerous waterfalls and rivers in the form of microhydro plants for integration into the national grid as well as for stand-alone utilisations, in remote locations, is a system that has been shown to be viable.

Renewable Energy Technologies Ready for Local Adoption


A large number of renewable energy devices have been developed by Nigerian researchers in various parts of the country (Sambo, 1991). These devices which are ready for incorpation into the economy especially for rural areas include (pictorial representation of these systems are provided in the appendix): A. Solar Cookers These are box-type arrangements where most local dishes can be cooked within one hour under average sunshine conditions. B. Solar Water Heaters The heaters which are based on flat-plate collectors with appropriate storage units can produce water at temperatures of up to 80oC will find applications in hospitals, hotels, industry and private residences and are capable of significant reduction of electricity bills. C. Solar Dryers Both portable cabinet dryers, for individual private use, as well as large-scale units, for community utilisation, have been developed. The dryers which typically attain temperatures of up to 60-70C are suitable for drying a variety of agricultural produce. D. Solar Stills Solar stills are designed to produce distilled water from brackish water and will be useful for hospitals, industry and laboratories. When sized appropriately they can provide for the needs of comprehensive health centres of semi-urban localities. E. Water Pumping Many workers have demonstrated the use of photovoltaic solar modules for pumping water from wells and boreholes especially in rural areas for providing the water requirements of entire communities. Photovoltaic powered pumps can also be employed for irrigation purposes.

Renewable Energy Systems Installed for Community Utilisation


Over the past 13 years the Energy Commission of Nigeria, some state governments, the Education Tax Fund and a few other organisations have sponsored the installation of many pilot renewable energy systems for use by various communities. All the projects under reference have been executed by the Sokoto Energy Research Centre and quite a number of them are in Niger, Cameroun and Chad Republics. Table 1 shows the list of 11 such projects on electrification while Tables 2 and 3 respectively provide data on 17 photovoltaic water pumping and 14 solar thermal/biogas systems.

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TABLE 1: LIST OF PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRIFICATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY SOKOTO ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE

S/N TYPE OF APPLICATION 1. ELECTRIFICATION 2. ELECTRIFICATION 3. COMMUNICATION & ELECTRIFICATION 4. COMMUNICATION & ELECTRIFICATION 5. COMMUNICATION & ELECTRIFICATION 6. COMMUNICATION & ELECTRIFICATION 7. ELECTRIFICATION 8. ELECTRIFICATION 9. ELECTRIFICATION 10. ELECTRIFICATION 11. ELECTRIFICATION (WIND ENERGY)

LOCATION DATE OF INST. SERC 1992 Kwalkwalawa 1994 1 Div. Hq. Kaduna 1998 3 Mechanized Brid. Kano 1999 Giginya Barracks Sokoto, 1999 Minna Barracks 1999 Agbashi Nassarawa. 1999 UDUS, City Campus, 2002 UDUS, NUNET, 2002 School for the Deaf, Kaduna, 2003 Sayya Gidan-Gada 1998

POWER RATING IN kW 4.5 7.2 1.5 1 1 1 2.5 1.5 2 5 5

TYPE OF INVERTER 1 Nos of 2.5kW 4 Nos of 2.5kW 2 Nos of 1.kW & 500W 2 Nos of 500W 2 Nos of 500W 1 No. of 1kW 1 No. of 3kW 1 No. of 1.5kW 1 Nos of 2kW 2 Nos of 3kW 2 Nos of 2.5kW

SPONSOR Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Education Tax Fund Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto Education Tax Fund Energy Commission

TABLE 2 : LIST OF PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY SOKOTO ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE

S/NLOCATION SPONSOR & DATE 1. Mech. Workshop, UDUS (1992) 2. Kalgo ((Binji) 1995 3. Ruggar Kijo (Yabo) 1996 4. Yar Tsakwa (Rabah) 1997 5. Falale (Gummi) 1998 6. Bukkuyum (Zamfara State) 7. Danzabuwa (Kano) 1998 8. Nangere (Yobe) 1997 9. Gumel (Jigawa) 1998 10. Kadar Tsaka (Sokoto) 1999 11. Birnin Tsaba (Zamfara) 12. Kuruwa (Sokoto) 1998 13. Achida (Sokoto) 1999 14. Kebbe (Sokoto) 1999 15. Goronyo (Sokoto) 1998 16. F. G. C. Kwali, Abuja (Feb., 2003) 17. Students Hostel UDUS (Feb., 2003)

TYPES OF MODULES SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 ARCO M90 ARCO M60 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 ARCO M90 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 SEIMENS M55 Isofotons M55 Isofotons M55

TOTAL 42 79 65 70 22 75 71 70 70 80 70 69 110 40 52 52 60

HEAD IN METERS(m) 35 18 20 20 35 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 18 20 20 20

DISCHARGE in m3/day Energy Commission Sokoto State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. Zamfara State Govt. Zamfara State Govt. Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Zamfara State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. Sokoto State Govt. ETF ETF

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TABLE 3 : LIST OF SOLAR THERMAL & BIOGAS SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY SOKOTO ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE

S/N TYPE OF PROJECT 1.Improved Wood Stove 2.Multi-booster Forage Solar Dryer 3.Multi-booster Forage Solar Dryer 4. Biogas Plant 5. Biogas Plant 6. Solar Water Heater 7. Improved Wood Stove 8. Biogas Plant 9. Biogas Plant 10. Biogas Plant 4 Nos 11. Biogas Plant 12. Biogas Plant 13. Biogas Plant 14. Biogas Plant

LOCATION & DATE Danjawa (Sokoto), 1988 NAPRI (Zaria), 1996 New-Bussa & Yauri, 1997 NAPRI (Zaria), 1996 Zaria Prison, 1998 UDUTH (Sokoto), 1997 Zaria, Sokoto, Kebbi & Zamfara Prisons, 1998 Mayflower Sch. Ikene (Ogun State), 2001 Ojokoro, Lagos, 2001 Mega-chad Maiduguri, 2003 Maiduguri, 2000 Chad Republic, 2003 Cameroun, 2003 Niger Republic, 2003

SIZE OF PROJECT/ CAPACITY 200 Nos 2 tonnes/day 1 tonne/day 20m


3

SPONSOR Fed. Min. of Sci. & Tech. Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission Energy Commission University of Maiduguri Al Amin Daggash Mega-Chad Project Mega-Chad Project Mega-Chad Project

20m3 1000 Litres 150-200 Nos 20m3 20m3 20m3 20m 8m3 8m
3 3

8m3

6. Necessary Measures For Promotion Of Renewable Energy For Rural Development Of Nigeria With the availability of renewable energy resources in all parts of the country and the existing level of development of systems and devices in the nation, there is the urgent need for all of us to adopt practical measures that will systematically introduce various renewable energy technologies into the economy. Apart from the policy measures that will promote the introduction of technologies based on individual renewable energy sources there is also the need to adopt an integrated approach to sustainable energy development. This is in recognition of the fact that conventional energy sources will continue to serve the transport and industrial sectors of the economy.

- the introduction of regulatory measures to encourage and protect local capabilities. (b) Biomass The policy outlined above for solar energy also applies here. Further it should be emphasized that fuelwood consumption rate should be significantly reduced. Strategies for this are: - the adoption of efficient wood - burning stoves - systematic cultivation of fast growing trees needed to facilitate the regeneration of forests - the active introduction of biogas digesters to cater for the cooking energy needs of especially large households and institutions like boarding schools, hospitals, barracks, prison houses etc. - the development of alternative technologies to supplement wood both as a domestic energy source and also as a building/furniture material. (c) Wind Energy The policy and strategies for solar energy are also applicable here. Additionally, the policy should emphasize the exploitation of wind energy for rural water supply and also for electricity generation. That is to say the additional strategies are: - aggressive drive to optimize the components of wind water pumping and electricity generation and - to de-emphasize diesel powered water pumps wherever the wind speed will allow wind water pumping.

Policy Measures for the Various Renewable Energy Technologies


(a) Solar Energy The thrust of the policy here should be the incorporation of solar energy devices into as many spheres of the economy as possible. The strategy for this include: - continuous active support of research and development activities to cater for site specificity of designs for all parts of the country. - support of demonstration and pilot projects to ensure that the general public become aware of the potentials of solar energy technologies which will as well assist in creation of markets for solar energy systems - the provision of financial incentives to encourage the use of solar energy systems particularly in rural areas where the greatest potential exist

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(d) Hydropower The policy here is for the nation to manage its water resources for the development of its hydro - electric potentials and for other uses. The policy should focus more on microhydro plants. The additional strategy includes the initiating and updating of data on the potentials of small - scale hydroplants and the preparation of inventories for their locations.

Integrated Approach to Sustainable Energy Development


While section 5.1 above is aimed at policies to enable the adoption of renewable energy technologies, this section will focus on what is necessary in order to address the general energy issues raised in section 2. The agenda for solving these general energy problems include the promotion of rational and efficient energy use, to guarantee energy security for the rural populace, to create an enabling environment to attract investments in the energy sector, the integration of environmental considerations into energy development plans and the strengthening of technical capacities in the energy sector. (a) Promotion of rational and efficient energy use To achieve a more rational and efficient energy utilization we must ensure that wastages in energy use are reduced, energy efficiencies of major energy supply systems are improved considerably and a more energy efficient development path is pursued. For these to be realised the following strategies are required: - creation of awareness for the benefits of energy savings in all sectors of the economy. - encouraging households to shift to more energy efficient fuels such as LPG to kerosine in place of fuelwood. - promoting the use of improved cooking stoves. - providing incentives for energy intensive industries to invest in industrial energy efficiency measures and human resources development in the area of energy conservation. (b) Provision of energy security for rural dwellers One of the major needs of rural dwellers is the energy they consume for subsistence and because they lack access to commercial fuels like petroleum products and electricity they depend largely on traditional fuels mainly fuelwood, charcoal and agricultural residues. In order to provide the energy needs of rural dwellers, especially in the Sahelian zone of the country, the following measures are necessary: - continued afforestation programme - setting up of community based woodlot programmes - accelerated rural electrification schemes - promotion of energy efficiency practices. (c) Creation of enabling environment to attract investment in the energy sector Investment requirements for the conventional energy sector is large and it is clear that government will not be able to solely finance the sector as has been the case in the past. Hence private sector participation is necessary. Therefore, there will be need to attract foreign investment in the sector.

The needed attractions include the serious improvement in the financial performance of the conventional energy supply companies as well as the existence of conducive investment environment. On the whole, attention of private sector investment will call for: - reviewing existing energy pricing to allow for good returns on investments; - easing the difficulties in the procurement of foreign exchange - promoting energy conservation and efficiency measures in all sectors of the economy; - maximising the operating performance of existing energy supply infrastructure. (d) Integration of environmental consideration into energy development plan Because of the strong energy - environment linkage it is important to integrate the policies affecting the two sectors for sustainable development. This can be done by incorporating environmental considerations during the planning and execution stages of large conventional energy projects. The requirements for this include: - improving forestry management by strengthening the institution charged with monitoring forestry resources; - incorporating environmental impact assessment for all major energy projects; - internalizing the external cost in pricing energy products - designing and enforcing guidelines for monitoring the environment. (e) Strengthening technical capacities in the energy sector Two major steps are required here. These are firstly, the offering of specialized training and development of sound technical education in the educational system and secondly, to ensure that the available pool of human resources are given the opportunities to "learn - by - doing". Another requirement for strengthening technical capabilities is the strengthening of research, development and demonstration activities in the energy sector. Of course the acquisition of technology developed elsewhere and adapting them for use in Nigeria is a key element here. We can therefore list the strategies for strengthening technical capacities as follows: - provision of technical support services needed for the effective training of personnel - subsidizing the cost of technical education - mobilizing local expertise and involving them in the planning, designing and construction of energy projects so they can "learn - by - doing". - provision of adequate funding for energy research, development and demonstration activities.

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7. Conclusions Nigeria is blessed with abundant resources of fossil fuels as well as renewable energy resources. There is the urgent need to encourage the evolvement of an energy mix that will emphasize the conservation of petroleum resources in such a manner that will lead to their continued exportation for foreign exchange earnings for as many years to come as possible. The adoption of renewable energy technologies especially for rural development will surely lead to reduced internal consumption of petroleum products. The major advantages of the renewable energy technologies include the simplicity of the technologies, ease of maintenance as well as their enhanced environmental friendliness over fossil fuel systems. There is clear evidence of the use of renewable energy technologies at the moment. However there is the necessity to increase the use of the system especially for rural development. In this regard there is the urgent need for more support of research, development, demonstration and diffusion activities in the existing research centres as well as identified groups in other institutions. Indeed energy extension outfits will have to be established. While the existing research centres should be supported adequately to carry out quality research and development activities, the energy extension centres should be mandated to carry out demonstration and diffusion activities. In view of the apparent reluctance of local entrepreneurs to adopt the mature and proven renewable energy systems for mass production and subsequent commercialization there is need to actively promote the training of local craftsmen on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of appropriate energy end - use devices. After such training programmes soft loans could be made available to the craftsmen so they can commence the production and subsequent sale of the devices. All the aforementioned policy measures and implementation strategies to promote the use of the sustainable energy systems and practices can only be realised with strengthened energy institutions. In this regard there is the need to identify organisations or offices at states and local government levels that will be charged with the responsibilities of ensuring the full implementation of projects and programmes of the Energy Commission of Nigeria at the grassroots levels. Of course the much awaited National Energy Policy for the country should be approved and released by the Federal Government.

References
Aliyu, U. O. and Elegba, S. B. (1990): 'Prospect for small hydropower development for rural applications in Nigeria', Nig. Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol.1,Pp.74 - 86. Boyle, G. (1996): Renewable Energy-Power for a Sustainable Future. Oxford University Press Charters, W.W.S. (1985): Solar and Wind Power Technologies for Remote Applications. CSC Technical Publication Services No.187, Commonwealth Science Council. Considine, D.M. (Ed) (1977): Energy Technology Handbook. McGrawhill Book Company. Doyle, M.D.C. and Sambo, A.S. (1988): 'Correlation of diffuse solar radiation with air mass', Solar and Wind Technology, Vol.5(1), Pp.99 - 102. Energy Commission of Nigeria (1997): Potentials for Renewable Energy Application in Nigeria. Gilspar Col. Ltd., Lagos. Folayan, C.O. (1988): 'Estimate of global solar radiation bound for some Nigerian cities', Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy, Vol.7, Pp.36 - 48. Sambo, A. S. (1997): Energy options for sustainable national development: Resources, issues, and the position of renewable energy technologies, University Inaugural Lecture delivered on 17th January, 1996, Published as Inaugural Lecture Series No. 1, ATBU Ceremonies, 1997.

Sambo, A.S. (1986): 'Empirical Models for the correlation of global solar radiation with meteorological data for northern Nigeria', Solar and Wind Technology, Vol.3(2), Pp.89 - 93. Sambo, A. S. (1987): 'Wind energy assisted solar electricity generating schemes for the rural areas of Nigeria', Large Scale Systems in Developing Countries (Ovuworie, G.C., Onibere, E.A. and Asalor, J.O. (Eds.)), Pp.45 - 160, Joja Educ. Research and Pub. Ltd. Sambo, A. S. (1988):'The measurement and prediction of global and diffuse components of solar radiation for Kano in Northern Nigeria', Solar and Wind Technology, Vol.5(1), Pp. 1 - 5. Sambo, A. S. (1991): Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. Documentation of Solar Energy Systems Developed and Ready for Mass Production. Sambo, A. S. (1992): 'Renewable energy resources in Nigeria', Energy Issues in Nigeria: Today and Tomorrow (Seriki, O.A. and Adegbulugbe,A.O.(Eds.)), Pp.36 - 62, Gilspar Press. Sambo, A. S. and Doyle, M. D. C. (1986): 'Estimation of the global and diffuse components of solar radiation for some Nigerian cities', Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy, Vol.5, Pp.16 - 24. World Energy Council (1993): Energy for Tomorrow's World. St.Martins Press Inc., New York.

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