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Amber Warren Dr.

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May 24, 2012 Anatomy & Physiology Infertility Research

In any fertility work-up, both male and female partners are tested if pregnancy fails to occur after a year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Male infertility may be due to a decrease in sperm count, sperm being blocked from being released or sperm that does not work properly. Male infertility can be caused by any of the following -Environmental pollutants, Being in high heat for prolonged periods, Birth defects, Heavy use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine, Too little or too much hormones, Impotence, Infection, Older age, Cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation , Scarring from sexually transmitted diseases, injury, or surgery, Retrograde ejaculation, Smoking, Use of certain drugs, such as cimetidine, spironolactone, and nitrofurantoin. Female infertility may occur when a fertilized egg or embryo does not survive once it sticks to the lining of the womb (uterus), the fertilized egg does not attach to the lining of the uterus, and the eggs cannot move from the ovaries to the womb, or the ovaries have problems producing eggs. Female infertility may be caused by any of the following-Autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), Cancer or tumor, Clotting disorders, Diabetes, Growths (such as fibroids or polyps) in the uterus and cervix, Birth defects that affect the reproductive tract, Excessive exercising, Eating disorders or poor nutrition, Use of certain medications, including chemotherapy drugs, Drinking too much alcohol, Obesity, Older age, Ovarian cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Pelvic infection or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), Scarring from sexually transmitted infection or endometriosis, Thyroid disease, too little or too much hormones. Blood and imaging tests will be done for both female and male for a diagnoses. In women they will run Blood tests to check hormone levels, including progesterone and follicle stimulating hormone, Checking body temperature first thing in the morning to check if the ovaries are releasing eggs, FSH and clomid challenge test, Hysterosalpingography (HSG), Pelvic ultrasound, Laparoscopy, Luteinizing hormone urine test (ovulation prediction), and Thyroid function tests. Tests in men include Sperm testing and Testicular biopsy.

Treatment depends on the cause of infertility in either the male or the female. It may consist of Education and counseling, Fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), Medicines to treat infections and clotting disorders, or Medicines that help the woman grow and release eggs from the ovaries. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a womans egg and a mans sperm in a laboratory dish. IVF is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This means special medical techniques are used to help a woman become pregnant. In vivo fertilization there is a fertilization of a ripe egg within the uterus of a fertile donor female, rather than in an artificial medium, for subsequent nonsurgical transfer to an infertile recipient. IVF been successfully used since 1978. IVF and Vivo fertilization are most often tried when other, less expensive fertility techniques have failed. Most infertility problems are not hereditary except for a history of premature menopause in a mother or sister which could be significant as it could be a genetic predisposition, as is a history of chromosomal abnormalities in the family.f