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Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 Frank D. Felker Grand Canyon University: BIB 355 October 09, 2011

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 Analyzing the Sentences Greet saints |all the in Christ Jesus Brothers send greetings \T |who are with me \h \e

Saints send greetings |All (of) the | (to) you especially those who belong | to Caesars household Grace (be) with spirit--------Amen. \T |of the Lord Jesus Christ |your \h \e

Analyzing the Paragraph Theme of the paragraph: Saints (disciples/brothers/elect) greet one another in the name of Jesus Christ and receive the grace of our Lord. (Main theme) | All saints/brothers | | (result) | | (introductory) greet | receive greetings in Jesus Christs name | | the grace of Jesus Christ (be) with your spirit | | Greet all of the saints

Outline of the Epistle to the Philippians 1. Introduction 1: 1-11

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 a. Thanksgiving and prayer for the church 2. Pauls news of himself a. Christ is preached 1) Pauls chains advance the Gospel 2) Motives for preaching, good and bad b. To live is Christ, to die is gain 1) Joy in faith 3. Conduct of the Philippian Church a. Call to unity 1) Having a Christ-like attitude b. Working out salvation 1) Being blameless and pure 4. Joy in believing a. Beware of Judaizers b. Knowing Christ 1) Profit and loss in knowing Christ 2) Pressing on to the goal a) Unity in following Pauls example 5. Rejoice in giving a. Exhortation for unity and agreement 1) Rejoice in the LORD b. Joy in noble and pure thoughts c. Pauls thanks for gifts 1) Strength through Christ 6. Final Greetings (Outline of the designated passage) a. Greetings from all of Pauls companions b. Greetings from Caesars household c. Spiritual blessing of the grace of Jesus Christ Theological Implications of Philippians 4: 21-23 1: 3-11 1: 12-26 1: 12-20 1: 12-14 1: 15-19 1: 20-26 1: 25-26 1: 272: 18 2: 1-11 2: 6-11 2: 12-18 2: 14-18 3: 14: 1 3: 2-6 3: 74: 1 3:7-11 3:124: 1 4: 2-20 4: 2-20 4: 4-7 4: 8-9 4: 10-20 4: 13 4: 21-23 4: 21 4: 22 4: 23 3:174: 1

This passage has only a few theological connotations. It presents Pauls beliefs in the love and brotherhood in God and of the Christian church. In his reference to the household of Caesar, it indicates his belief in Jesus admonition to spread the Good News of salvation to all people and

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 supports the reasoning that Gods salvation is meant for everyone, Jew and Gentile alike; this work should be accomplished regardless of personal circumstances. It also supports Jesus Christ as the Son of God. It is a closing greeting and salutation to a very much loved congregation. Paul closed all of his epistles on a personal note and Philippians is no exception. Literary Aspects of the Epistles to the Philippians Genre

In context, this letter is both instructional and advisory. It is written as one family member to others in a family that is loved and respected. Paul passes on personal news of his own situation in prison and thanks the members for their support. Much like a father, he asks the other members of the family to stand together in unity for the sake of doctrine. Literary Character Paul has several areas he wants to cover. Through it all, the letter is informal, yet informative and intense. The warnings are not given as edicts or orders but, rather, as an advocate. These are people that he has faith in but he wants them to protect themselves in all possible ways. It is obvious that he is pleased with his own accomplishments in Caesars household while a prisoner. He advises, gives thanks for their service to himself, and passes on his own pleasing, personal information. Figures of Speech In speaking of the Judaizers, Paul refers to them as dogs; a reference to his low opinion of them as being unclean and despicable. He also speaks of them as being mutilators of the flesh. This is in reference to their insistence upon following Jewish law and also the circumcision, demanded by Jewish law. Paul also speaks of pressing on and running for the prize. These are allusions that he had used often, here and in letters to other churches. It was always his contention that followers of Christ needed to treat their lives as an athletic event; a race or fight that needs the utmost effort, will, and concentration to win through to their own personal salvation. Important Words Study (in the Greek), Philippians 4: 21-23 Brothers (adlphs): Several definitions are offered in Strongs Concordance. The most fitting would be; (6) persons united by a common interest: And if ye salute your brethren only, what do you more than others do? Do not even the publicans do so? (Mt. 5: 47); (7) persons united by a common calling. (Strong, J., 2001, p. 5 [Greek Dictionary of the New Testament])

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 Grace (charis): Grace is defined in Strongs Concordance as; a graciousness of manner or act of spirituality; especially the divine influence upon the heart, and it reflection in the life; including gratitude, favor, and thanks. It is equal to an acceptable benefit, gift, graciousness, joy, and liberality. (Strong, J., 2001, p. 270 [Greek Dictionary of the New Testament]) Greet (aspazmai): According to Strongs this word signifies to draw to oneself; hence, to greet, salute, welcome, it also signifies embraced to bid farewell. A salutation or farewell was generally made by embracing. (Strong, J., 2001, p. 45 [Greek Dictionary of the New Testament]) Saints (hagii): This word is defined; (2) It is used of men and things in so far as they are devoted to God. (2a) Indeed, the quality, as attributed to God, is often presented in a way which involves divine demands upon the conduct of believers who are called hagii, saints, sanctified or holy ones. (3) This sainthood is not an attainment, (3a) it is a state into which God, in grace, calls men; yet (3b) believers are called to sanctify themselves (3b1) consistently with their calling, (3b2) cleansing themselves from all defilement, (3b3) forsaking sin, (3b4) living a holy manner of life. (Strong, J., 2001, p. 3 [Greek Dictionary of the New Testament]) Spirit (pnuma): The Greek, pnuma, denotes; a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy

or figuratively a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principal, disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, demon or (divine) God, Christs spirit, the Holy Spirit: Spirit, Holy Ghost, Spirit (of the Lord), human (spirit) and is equal to life, spiritual, spirituality, wind. Pneumatikos always connotes the ideas of invisibility and of power. It does not occur in the Old Testament or in the Gospels. (Strong, J. 2001, p. 205 [Greek Dictionary of the New Testament]) Historical Environment Surrounding the Epistles to the Philippians Philippi, in Eastern Macedonia was located on the Via Egnatia in Eastern Macedonia. It was designated a Roman colony in 42 B.C.E and received its name from Philip II of Macedonia. The city was a medical center and generated, at least a portion of, its wealth from gold mines in the surrounding mountains. Its greatest growth came when it became a Roman colony. (Myers, A. [Ed.], 1996) The church was founded c. 50 A.D. during Pauls second missionary journey. (Acts 16: 12-40) Philippi was possibly the home town of Luke, a doctor and traveling companion of Paul

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23 and Timothy, Pauls protg. The church had its share of suffering. Paul, who loved the church deeply, was naturally concerned. It was possible also, that there may have been some leanings

toward a doctrine of perfectionism. And, there was the added threat of the arrival of the Judaizers. Still, Paul rejoiced over the churchs progress. Paul wrote his Epistle to the Philippians in c. 6163, while a prisoner. (Alexander, D. & Alexander, P. [Ed.], 1983) Main Issues Contained in the Epistle to the Philippians Pauls main purpose when he began this letter was to give advice and encourage the church; and to also give a call to unity of purpose. He also had personal news he wanted to impart. It is possible that Paul received news of the encroachment into the church of the Judaizers, while engaged in the process of writing. It then became imperative to give warning to his beloved disciples in the church. (Life Application Study Bible, NIV, 2005) Summary of Philippians 4: 21-23 The Epistle to the Philippians was written by Paul (in Greek) from prison. Paul had several reasons for writing. He wanted to explain why he was sending Epaphroditus back. He wanted to thank the church for the gifts they had sent him. He wanted to encourage and advise unity. Further, he wanted to warn them against Judaizers. He also wanted to point out his inroads in preaching to Caesars household. (Alexander, D. & Alexander, P. [Ed], 1983) At first glance it does not appear so; but Paul, in verses 21-23, has encapsulated a large portion of the Epistle. He indicates their unity in a call to brotherhood and greetings. He once again brings attention to converts in Caesars household. He relates to them their spiritual bond in Jesus Christ. In the last verse he reminds them of our Lords grace and spiritual indwelling. Paul says much in just a few words of closing. Application of the Epistle to the Philippians in Todays World The Unchanging Word of God The Bible deals with elements in human nature; elements unchanged throughout time. People who inhabited the biblical era had aspirations and failings that are easily identifiable today. Even the faults of the heroes of those days are not glossed over. They are displayed in an honest light of reality. The Bible is unchanging because God is unchanging. Judaizers We might not be faced with the Judaizers of the early church; we are, however, faced with our own Judaizers. These are the ones who persist in advocating legalistic interpretations of worship. They would prefer us to follow church doctrine, dogma, and law as opposed to Gods

Module 8Exegesis on Philippians 4: 21-23

will and commandments. Just as Paul admonished the Philippians, we must stand in resistance to all things not of Gods preference, nature, and will. False Teachers and Preachers In his letter, Paul tells of those who preach out of selfish ambition, envy, and rivalry and also of those who preach out of goodwill and love. These types are as prevalent today as they were then, if not more so. We must, at all times, be aware of and discerning of these. It is vitally important for us to defend ourselves against the former and to cherish the latter. Unity United we stand, divided we fall is a sentiment for all ages. If we are united in love, faith, and devotion to the doctrine laid down by our Lord, Jesus Christ, we are able to overcome all obstacles. Divided, we fall as easy prey to Satans power. Evils strength lies in the division and disassembling of the bride of Christ, Gods church. Words of God for Today Finally, we must run for the prize and fight the good fight. We need to treat our faith as if it were a matter of life and deathbecause it is a matter of life and death. But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body. (Philippians 3: 20-21, NIV) Give all praise and glory to the LORD God of creation. Amen Resources Alexander, D. & Alexander, P. (Ed.) (1983), Eerdmans Handbook to the Bible, Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans Publishing Company Holy Bible (2005), Life Application Study Bible, NIV, Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishing, Inc. & Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Myers, A. (Ed.) (1996), Eerdmans Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company Strong, J., LL.D, S.T.D. (2001), The New Strongs Expanded Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers