Anda di halaman 1dari 43

Centimeter

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 mm

Inches

illll
1.0 '

w_1112-----8 111112_--=_5 u=lilIl_

lilil "
_

Iltllg

IIII1_ IIIIIg IIIII '--4

-_

"_

_"0_4

RPPLIED HI:INUFI::ICTURED I::IT_MSTI::INDI:IRDS TO

u_

<_,_

WATER PERMEABILITY AND RELATED ROCK PROPERTIES MEASURED ON CORE SAMPLES FROM THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN USW GU-3/G-3 AND USW G-4 BOREHOLES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA
by Lennart A. Anderson

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Open-File Report 92-201

Prepared in cooperation with the NEVADA OPERATIONS OFFICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-92NV 10874)

Denver, Colorado

MASTER
E;',.,3"f'RIBUTION OF THIS DocuMENT J ,1 IS UNLIMITED

U.S. DEPARTMENT

OF THE INTERIOR Secretary

BRUCE BABBITT,

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Gordon P. Eaton, Director

DISCLAIMER
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Thisreportis preliminaryndhasnotbeenreviewedorconformity a f withU.S.Geological Survey editorial standards ndstratigraphic a nomenclature. Theuseoftrade, roduct,ndustry, p i orfirmnames for is descriptiveurposes nlyanddoesnotimplyendorsement p o bytheU.S.Government.

For additional information write to:

Copies of this report can be purchased from:

Chief, Hydrologic Investigations Program U.S. Geological Survey Yucca Mountain Project Branch Earth Science Information Center U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports Section Box 25046, MS 421 Box 25286, MS 517 Denver Federal Center Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Denver, CO 80225

Contents Page

Abstract Introduction Figure Density, Density, Samples Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Density, Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 7 8 9 i0 Ii 2 3 4 5 6 1

................................. ............................... ................................. Porosity, Porosity, and and Resistivity Resistivity Measurements Values Of the .............. USW GU-3/G-3 Borehole

1 1 3 4

................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................ Porosity, and Resistivity Values for USW G-4 Borehole Samples . .

4 6 7 8 9 i0 ii 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 Values ................. 27 36

................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. ................................. Measurements .........................

Permeability Figure Figure Figure Figure Summary Figure Figure Appendix: References 12 13 14 15

................................. ................................. ................................. .................................

.................................. 16 17 ................................. ................................. Tables Cited of Rock-Property

..........................

iii

Water

permeability from the Yucca

and

related

rock

properties and Nevada

measured USW G-4

on

core

samples

Mountain Nevada

USW GU-3/G-3 Test Site, by

boreholes,

Lennart

A.

Anderson Survey 80225

U.S. Geological Denver, Colorado ABSTRACT

Core were water to

samples for the permeability

from bulk as

the part

Yucca of a of

Mountain grain Yucca

USW density, Mountain

GU-3/G-3 geologic as a

and

USW

G-4

boreholes and designed containment

measured determine

density,

porosity, site

resistivity, investigation for the

comprehensive

suitability

of high-level drill sites observed Crater drilled 914.7 core. alignment Dry and laboratory The Flat to meter a

radioactive so as to be Tuff, depth level. study paired of Lithic of Two which samples borehole.

waste products. representative of units Tuff, meters and hundred oriented of and the Ridge hundred two were and twenty were

The cores the major Paintbrush Tuffs. G-4 samples USW six sample Older

were selected at the lithologic variations Tuff, USW borehole were drilled Calico GU-3/G-3 penetrated used in from to the a the common Hills was to the Tuff,

within

stratigraphic 1533.8

the

pairs and

axially

perpendicular

of

the

saturated on the exists can in to core core in usually mineral be from

bulk

density,

grain

density,

and

porosity that of show

measurements

were made uniformity Where bulk disparities inequalities pairs the values,

samples principally to the textural and mineral are different, be attributed the to 0 content. along referred virtually grain to Electrical plane as (<.02 the

establish character data

a reasonable the sample pairs. that the than on axis to of sample rather vertical 200

densities

density porosity transverse horizontal

variations to to the over

resistivity plane.

measured

tended drill ranging

lower

herein

Permeability millidarcies,

microdarcies)

also indicate a preferential individual tuff units. Of 58 percent of the horizontally than sample of same their lower resistivity

flow the 67

direction along the horizontal plane of the sample pairs from the USW GU-3/G-3 borehole, core had a higher permeability Only a from the in and i0 G-4 similar the USW vertical Despite possibly plane and water so or so oriented vertical In those plugs and counterparts. core demonstrate sample pairs 24 the the for in the the percent welding implied both but all of correspondence. process bedding current the are along path pore duration the

oriented vertically

percent of the 67 permeability/resistivity borehole, plugs the as produced to flow. tuffs 65 percent exhibited non-bedded an provide as a

pairs did the relationship. the of horizontal the pore and particles with ash-flow

this

permeability/resistivity tuffs, structure less tortuous flow within

character interconnecting continuous

Permeability unconsolidated

decreases

non-welded repositioned

network rock. rock

as to impede the continued direction initially restores maximum value.

flow of water through the permeability of

Reversing flow to its original

INTRODUCTION

Permeability Mountain fluid USW conductivity

measurements GU-3/G-3 and USW attributable

have G-4 to

been the

made matrix 1

on to

core of the

samples turfs

from

the

Yucca of within

boreholes

determine

relative

levels

encountered

the

respective

boreholes. diameter, study by

The removed Anderson,

samples

were

in

the

form

of

cylinders, used were flow sample or

2.54 in

cm a

in length and rock property collected conditions. was about in 3.0

from larger volume core originally 1984. Wherever possible, samples vertical volumetric of for_he density, and horizontal centers of the open fractures measurement. and porosity were to

pails in order to simulate The distance between the cm. not Because all samples bulk of the were

pairs

orientation suitable grain

structural

incompetence, Dry and

saturated

density,

also of the the

made

on the sample core in terms understanding Electrical determine _ock and Resistivity permeability Yucca blocks the i). bedded boreholes Mountain The Nevada the its in

pairs to determine the of texture and mineral of permeability was of can measured the to (Brace, of 1986), in are of Yucca under the

variability content as found the paired of as on

in the hcmogeneity a possible guide amongst core maximum an sample samples flow path of water

differences preferential direction be used

pairs. specifically through flow. the the to

resistivity orientation correspondence itself a rock of Mountain, (Carr and Test blocks within is Site consist Also the currently for

current

sometimes 1977). a the the study

estimator

composed others, (NTS) shown

series is Topopah to

of

northerly adjacent Spring SW the The of the identify

aligned to the Quadrangle, ash-flow GU-3/G-3 Nuclear USW

structural southwest Nevada and and Waste underground USW of border ash-fall G-_ Yucca Storage of (figure

located

nonwelded Mountain as

densely of

welded

tuffs.

locations complex. part

geologic Nevada suitable

character

Illvestigations repositories As the

(NNWSI) project designed to radioactive waste products. designation implies, USW

letter being GU-3

GU-3/G-3

refers

to

two to

boreholes of the a depth data from GU-3 of a

with G-3 location. 1533.8 obtained single The

displaced approximately was drilled to 806.1 Because borehole

30 meters meters and

north-northwest G-3 continued as the rock having

meters. on the continuous

of their close proximity, core have been treated

property originated

drillhole. sequence, borehole, Castellanos lithology, hereafter (1984). and Topopah Crater Flat Tram (Carr and other descriptions as G-3, order, of of the the are the pertaining taken from borehole the

stratigraphic

to the USW GU-3/G-3 work of Scott and penetrated the Calico the The

referred to In descending Spring Tuff, Members composed

the Tiva Canyon Hills Tuff; the and in

Paintbrush Prow Pass and Older

Tuff; Member, Tuffs.

Bullfrog Member, rocks are Miocene The stratigraphy, USW cored but G-4 to thin a (G-4) depth

the age

Member; Lithic Ridge and others, 1984). miscellaneous by of penetrating the Member of were

Tuff;

lithology, have of in of been 914.7 the the bedded

and

details Spengler the Crater the and same

pertaining Chornack, section Tuff. in

to 1984. described A Tuff both was G-

borehole 4 was for G-3

described meters Tram Pah tuff Member Canyon

terminating section Several

Flat

relatively

Paintbrush

also identified. boreholes. The principal of flow use of to evaluate

intervals

penetrated

purpose the tuff path the texture

of for

the water and within

investigation A secondary migration horizontally variations the paired 2

was through

to the

determine was pore sample as deduced to

the test spaces

matrix for of the A in from grain a rock third

permeability preferential through goal mineral was the

samples.

objective oriented against samples,

vertically

pairs.

permeability

differences

content

and

density resistivity flow ?ath

and

porosity of the that

measurements. samples of in water and order flow.

A to

fourth

goal

was if

to

measure preferential

the current

determine

the

follows to

According

Winograd

Thordarson,

1975,

water

movement

through

the Tuff Calico

densely welded is by means of permeability Hills Tuff believed through to the is and be pore

Tiva Canyon and primary (cooling) considered the three poorly connections

Topopah Spring and secondary negligible in of the Crater therefore, the rock. With

Members of fractures. these Flat the

the Paintbrush Interstitial the are is in

to be Members of

tuffs. Within Tuff fractures water movement that, knowledge

connected,

ground

primarily the

latter group, and meteoric potential necessitated Density, The made is for

matrix permeability water infiltration radioactive waste the determination and which in resistivity density, Anderson,

is a in the

factor Yucca

in both Mountain of

ground water environment, matrix of the

migration the

transport by means of the permeabilities _easurements porosity, 1981. (GD); and and

permeability available samples.

porosity, manner described in

resistivity of saturated

measurements bulk density

were (SBD);

Values

dry bulk (_), were SBD bulk the =

density (DBD); calculated as Ws/Vb, where Ws

grain density follows: is the weight

water-accessible

porosity,

of

the

saturated difference water. temperature. the of sample.

sample

and

Vb

is and is

the Wsp,

volume weight by

of the sample of the sample the density where of Wd

as determined suspended in the is water dry o is at

by the distilled ambient of

between Ws The difference

divided DBD

= Wd/Vb,

the

weight the

GD = Wd*o/(Wd temperature. = (Ws -

- Wsp),

where

density

distilled

water

at

ambient

Wd)/Vb. are presented to grams of frequency four-electrode using sample in megagrams cubic samples, of i00 sample length per cubic meter (g/cc). with a 14.5 ohm-m was measurements tap (Mg/m^3) which is

Density numerically The water, digital converted by the

units

equivalent

per the

centimeter saturated hertz and using holder.

electrical was LCR to equation measured meter

resistance at and a a

Hewlett-Packard Resistance caliper

resistivity

diameter

p = _11
where @ is the sample resistivity and A and 1 in are ohm-meters, the R is the electrical and length of the

resistance in ohms, sample, respectively. Density, porosity, and but used it t!]e was in

cross-sectional

area

and

resistivity

values

of

the

USW

GU-3/G-3 were the by not single Anderson,

borehole made on 1984. in the fluid suited

samples the of

Horizontal same drill and sample core miner_l

vertical on rock the Grain the of

permeability sample pairs property important groundmass density and 4

measurements drilled study to as a test from for reported factor in data

rather

specimens

Therefore, through

considered

variations controlling are best

texture flow to that

content samples.

porosity

purpose. however, acquired listed density the Density differences the paired are as values as high primarily The difference differences alteration example the of sample in

In

the

process

of

obtaining bulk density, respectively).

grain

density

and

porosity

data, were are bulk within rock. of of result density the the also

dry and (figures Table 1 plots

saturated 2 and 3, in the on

values The bulk density water and

for the core sample density and to units that values saturation textural be

samples values expected

Appendix. the the and mineral in each range degree between

Dry of of

density

saturated within are most

demonstrate depending in welding, points within

borehole

variations data

stratigraphic indicate Mg/m^3), dry bulk

content, illustration

changes. but locall3, density daLa

Examination )ulk disparities caused

in close agreement 0.22 Mg/m^3 can be by porosity density in the are a

(within 0.02 found in the

differences. values the large 201.3 grain reported m plotted content cause with sample depth. density in of in the be the pair The than may figure sample higher mineral vertically the horizontal was 2.58 1984, 4 indicate pairs. to porosity very Where little small tuff. occurs sample The a has value on the a An within

grain

mineral evident,

attributed

clay/zeolite non-welded

commonly relatively the higher from

associated

dissimilarity oriented sample. Mg/m^3,

substantially volume

larger

measurement

Anderson,

approximately midway smaller samples. It phenocrysts, described vertical The shown in

between the 2.709 and is likely that thinly

2.493 Mg/m^3 values layered, relatively and been high in Table to

obtained dense

possibly pyroxene (3.2-3.6 Mg/m^3) Scott and Castellanos, 1984, have so sample 5 vary as to produce its values function unusually listed of the

biotite (2.9 incorporated grain 2 in density. the

Mg/m^3) as into the

sample paired in figure

porosity as a

Appendix tuffs

and have

degree

which

the

been welded. conversely, ruffs. content evident of the liscernable no one other. sample In that

Low porosities are the higher porosities that the grain density all in the virtually porosity pattern in recorded the

associated relate to data between individual

with densely-welded tuffs and, non-welded and ash-fall bedded a sets same rather of plots. between sample uniform sets is mineral it the seems cause in than that the are no samples porosity paired There paired higher samples,

indicate these density a

between disparities

variations porosity

the

bulk

differences

orientation

demonstrates

consistently

Resistivity Table 2 in the

values Appendix

determined and plotted

for

all in

available 6. the

samples The lower higher

are

listed

in are correlate

figure

resistivities

associated with densely welded tuffs with ash-fall and non-welded ruffs. Seventy sample pairs were included

whereas

resistivities

in

the

resistivity

study.

Of

thence,

44

horizontally percent) than

oriented samples the resistivity

had resistivities of their vertical

lower (by more counterparts.

than ten In contrast, equal 1 to

only 6 vertically oriented horizontal counterparts. in resistivity. less and is or no at than The 3 slightly Keller resistivity layered flow exhibit tuffs for

samples had The remaining of entire 1966, than According Test Site the the

resistivities 20 sample set. the and imply

less than their pairs were essentially varies from

coefficient

resistivity sample

anisotropy

Frischknecht, always rock. Nevada the less

state to are the

that Winograd data 5

longitudinal (vertical) Thordarson, that some

(horizontal) resistivity 1975, level of non-sorted for the and ash-

transverse

bedded bedding.

characteristically

Nevertheless,

Figure

2.

Dry

bulk

density oriented

values

for

USW

GU-3/G-3 as a

horizontally function of

and sampling column are

vertically depth. bedded

samples

plotted

The unlabeled ash-fall tuffs

intervals in the stratigraphic (Scott and Castellanos, 1984).

SATURATED

BULK
"z

DENSITY

Stratigraphic

1.s

2.0

(Mg/'m")

2.s

s.o
i

Column

_',

oI .............. , .......................... . ,.......................... J


kI
4

Tiva Canyon Member

' L_. L_

200

t .......

-,

_)

] Topopah Member

Spring

_-D Od __l

v_ O
400

1 4
t ---_
-t

_-_z _a_. [
,,,,,,,,,_

__g.a_!L_._o L_ __j L'.-'_t !___


Prow Member 600 --_ ............................................ Pass

r,.n @

Bullfrog Member

EL. _-D
L_

I--

E
T CL. LJ L"D

800

................ -------:.----:----:-=-.::-=:_ <


L i l...J _ I_ ' .<_ : LD

Tram Member

1000

C_..t_-_

-%
::_
V d._,-V

,-x,,_.o

..............................................
_1 ......................................
Lithic Ridge

'12o o

1400

_x7

Tuff

_
1 600 ,--, ............... ,-.....r---,----_- ...... .... ,....... ....... _- ,....... , 'r '---, . --,,

6i de ;:}iYii;
.........................

usw ou-s/o-s
Figure 3. Saturated vertically depth. bedded bulk density values samples for plotted USW as GU--3/G-3 a function horizontally of sampling column are and oriented The unlabeled ash-fall turfs

intervals in the stratigraphic (Scott and Castellanos, 1984).

Figure

4.

Grain density values for oriented samples plotted unlabeled ruffs intervals (Scott and in

USW GU-3/G-3 as a function stratigraphic 1984).

horizontally of sampling column are

and vertically depth. The bedded ash-fall

the

Castellanos,

_
10-310-210

PERMEABILITY (microdarcies)
-1 10 0 10 _ 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5

St ra t ig ra p h i c Column

o.-_ _....... ...... _....... _ ...._........"-___ .......


V" (+_ V .

_v-S_a__-'-------------_--n -_::::-J Pah Canyon U_ _ 1.1_

Member

POROSITY (percent)
0 10 20 30 40 50

Strafigraphic Column

C I_'_L-----_----L----_----L--_-----J------J_

] Member _ Tiva Canyon -r

i, b ,, I--T bO

200

Topopah

Spring

:D Hm < n

......... v
'D T,' hr, nzontal plugs

:1
Member

_)

vertical "_0i:7 _ _ "_--_O

plugs Calico Prow Hills Pass Tuff

1/z ,,

soo
,-... _n

.....

Me m ber

Bullfrog Member

b_ ::D

E
ZC o_ w rm

800
.........._V Tram Member 1000

--J
<1: l-<_ r_ (D

'

1200

Lithic Tuff

Ridge

1 400

Older

Turfs

16 0 0

.... _-

, ----r ----_-

_'_-f-

USW GU-3/G-3

Figure

5.

Porosity oriented unlabeled tuffs

values for USW GU-3/G-3 horizontally and vertically samples plotted as a function of sampling depth. intervals in tLe stratigraphic column are bedded (Scott and Castellanos, 1984).

The ash-fall

RESISTIVITY (ohm-meters)
101 102 103 104

S1rafigraphic Column

V ..........

Tiva Canyon Member

1 I LL i,

v.....:_ :::;ii/ :
200 _--OV _J4"b 400
/"

I
--, J Topopah Spring u3 rYi3 k-m

l _

Member

z
n
,

-,'7 horizontal vertical plugs plugs 0

_]
.4

Calico Prow Member

Hills Pass

Tuff /

,_i _

600

q ....................... "4 Bullfrog Member i, ZD P-

r_ (D "----" t _-[1_ Ld

800

< __j
b_ rY Ld F-< CD

"_ ": 1000

Tram Member

/i::: : V

1200

v.._

15"

Figure

6.

Resistivity oriented

values samples

for plotted

USW as

GU-3/G-3 a function

horizontally of sampling column

and are

vertically The ash-fall bedded

depth.

unlabeled intervals in the tuffs (Scott and Castellanos,

stratigraphic 1984).

i0

preferential principally curren_ of the flow

pore in the through

alignment horizontal the rock might have

has

developed along a

following of path flow an

deposition enhanced may also the to be

of an

the

tuffs,

plane. be expected

Evidence discreet to

electrical indicator matrix. the others, of the the of Yucca that of with tuff the with the rock estimate

direction

water

through data

Several permeability 1968). The introduced, contribution rock. Mountain these rock. regard samples. Density, Bulk Table tables Dry 3, There

investigators

utilized with on water minerals amount in the of less factor mineral any be

resistivity

of a specific calculation is highly high is a are saline, ion sufficient a

rock based pore

good results (e.g., Brace and a knowledge of the conductivity which may clays in is add and sufficient to the zeolites sections, of the for the rock, this to in to suppress the resistivity consider

exchange

turfs, minerals Without to

particularly knowledge of

welded content at unreliable

contributing the products,

controlling correlating

resistivity particularly _et of

alteration would

attempt

resistivity

permeability

therefore

judged

porosity, and and are and grain included saturated

and

resistivity values

values for the

for G-4

USW

G-4

borehole samples in

samples are listed 4. The in

density and in the

borehole are listed

porosity

resistivity Appendix. density for are in values within 9). same the data

values

Table

bulk

plots

are

shown

in from but the

figures

and

8,

respectively. Tuff and the Paintbrush more evident. comparable essentially sample The values sample pattern Topopah within sample Spring values

Density values Crater Flat Tuff deviations Grain indicating the same varying density that (figure in

the paired virtually values for each The manner the sample porosity as

samples the same, between individual set plot the bulk the

the Calico within the sample pairs pairs content i0) shows

Hills are is paired

Tuff,

density

sample mineral (figure densities.

are

porosity data indicates occur within the interval with is established some exceptions, a few by sample values within

the greatest defined by the percent. orientation a is porosity As

differences the Topopah correspondence with the G-3 the

in paired sample Spring Member. between samples there determined paired is no the for

Elsewhere,

in

porosities

Spring core. Possibly, the Topopah Spring Tuff pair Member porosities. (Spengler and minimize

random distribution responsible for the cavities 1984), presence of are such however,

of lithophysal cavities differences observed in within samples within the Topopah taken the the were

Lithophysal Chornack, the

common

so as to measured

deliberately core.

cavities

Resistivity figure In only Ii. Of resistivities 3 other pairs produced are more likely increases adds a pore to divergence structure with the in

values the more 30 than

determined sample i0 pairs paris percent did

for

the

G-4 than

sample 19 their result

pairs

are

plotted

in cores sample had

measured, higher the opposite

vertically occur.

oriented Eight

horizontal

counterparts.

sample

essentially to be the increased of paired developed

the same welding, the during

same when the current the

resistivities. less than i00 lower flow welding porosity path The process

Sample ohm-m. and horizontal is

pair resistivities As resistivity smaller so pore as to to be size produce of the the

tortuosity

nonuniformly believed

sample

resistivities.

alignment

Ii

ii,

....

it

'

' ........

_'

'....If

ii ii' iii ,'i

DRY BULK DENSITY (Mg/m)


I .0 I .5 3 2.0 2.5

Slraligrophic
r.olLJrn n

-'

L7..,.<Z) _--

]iva Canyon Member

"_ i

100

o .......... I ............ ........


I

Member Pah Canyon

L,_ i, _-'D. HI O0 D rY

200 <7 horizonfal pluqs O vertical plugs 300

_xV _/'_x , O

Topopah Member

Spring

z
< EL / L j Calico Hills Prow Pass Member Tuff b b_ ZD H_<[ _J LI_ Bullfrog Member rY w < C12

m
L.

400

_o

_. I

500

b.J 600

1 700 '

800

900

Tram Member

J"

Figure

7.

Dry

bulk

density

values

for

USW

G-4

horizontally of

and

vertically The ash-fall

oriented unlabeled tuffs

samples plotted as a function intervals in the stratigraphic and Chornack, 1984).

sampling depth. column are bedded

(Spengler

12

SATURATED .5
0

BULK

DENSITY 2.5 5.0

Stratigraphic

2.0

(Mg/m
_, _

..................................L...........L........ _

.....L__,..__L_............ five Canyon _i

1 O0

Pah

Canyon I,

Member 200 _. ','0 [opopah Member Spring

pu_ V3 n rY I---

300
.' .,,\

<

D_

.--.
60

400

_0
_____

I E ksJ 600 _ Prow Pass u_ I-< _J LL Member Bullfrog t_d F-Or" (._) Tram 900 1 I
X,i/

500

<

OV vertical horizontal plugs plugs

Calico

Hills

Tuff

%
700

Member

_,._

800

Member

c_<

Figure

8.

Saturated vertically depth. bedded

bulk

density

values samples intervals (Spengler

for plotted

USW as

G-4 a

horizontally function of

and sampling column are

oriented The unlabeled ash-fall tuffs

in the stratigraphic and Chornack, 1984).

13

GRAIN 2.0 2.2

DENSITY 2.6 2.8 3 0

Sfrafigraphic Column

(Mg/m) 2.4

I00 Oi

'

'

[_1 '--11_

....

1 i_[ ]iva Pah Canyor//, ]Member MemberCanyon

_ __ u_
EL

200

_. .

[opopah Member

Spring

I bO _ rY ED
Z

30O

<
13_

400
(b

'"

"_

horizontal vertical

E
_._

500

plugs p'ugs ,

Calico

Hills Tuff -_
'

CL t_d C_Z 600 Prow Member Pass n IJ_ t-F-

700 Bullfrog Member


B00

<[
_..I i,

rY b_J
F--

< Of
LP

Tra m 900 Member

1000

---

'

'

I USW

' 0-4

'

'

Figure

9.

Grain density values for USW G-4 horizontally and vertically oriented samples plotted as a function of sampling depth. The unlabeled intervals in the stratigraphic column are bedded ash-fall tuffs (Spengler and Chornack, 1984). 14

POROSITY (percent)
0 10 20 30 40 50

Stra]igraphic Column

t 4

_k

.[ Member _, Tiva Canyon

i Li

100

C__)
_7,

. --

J j J
-4

Member Pah Canyon

I, L.u
D t--

200

iO

" -1 Topopah O vertical plugs _7 horizontal plugs " . " 1 ] W4 Member Spring 0'3 Z) t-Z ry <

500

_,.

,-. _
o

4o o

\\o\v

_
j _ Calico Hills Tuff

Ji

500 b--k_ 600

V -t _

_ -

Prow Pass _'Member I


1 1

i,
__

700

--

-I

F-<
.._J

I
._
-

u_
Ct2 uJ of (._)

I Bullfrog 4 j , Member

800

J
4 J

<

go0

4 Tram 4 Member
4 4 4

1 1000 ' r , _ ' T , r..... _....... t

USW

G- 4

Figure

i0.

Porosity samples intervals (Spengler

values

for

USW

G-4

horizontally of sampling column are

and

vertically

oriented

plotted as a function in the stratigraphic and Chornack, 1984).

depth. bedded

The unlabeled ash-fall ruffs

15

RESISTIVITY (ohm-meters)
101
......

Stratigraphic Column
104
..........................................

102
.L__.j___J_ J. J.._. j L ........

103

.4___,.-_-L._4._LJ. 4-uL_.___ _J,_._-4_ __L.L_L J.. tJ.,

0 v
100 '7_ j_ O' MVI

-"n-_d--(::-O;_o_n ....... : 4:)


__M__e__m_m b e__r_ r ........................ ; Pah Canyon Member L_

t 200 ]opopah Member Sprin 9 _ D b--

_z
300

o;

<_ Q_

P-

400

v . 0//
Calico Hills Tuff

_V'

8
I _-CL Ld E3

5oo
_) horizontal vertical plugs plugs ? [ 600 'I Prow Pass Member

LL

1
i i1 O-_ y'_

"0
Bullfrog Member

-J L.
0::: Ld

800

1
1 USW O- 4
Figure ii. Resistivity oriented unlabeled fall tuffs values for USW G-4 horizontally samples plotted as a function intervals in the stratigraphic (Spengler and Chornack,

1
and vertically The ashsampling depth. column are bedded

of

1984).

16

principal horizontal resistivity. Permeability Water holding nominally of 50 psi Water made of (t) a flow to and fixed

reason plane.

for the preponderance Microfractures may

of also

lower resistivities affect the anisotropy

in

the in

Measurements permeabilities of in figure at i00 through to effect water (k) the available The samples enclosing were or measured using pressure driving principal of The the was pressure axis. were rate timed

cell

shown

12.

confining

maintained was forced was the of

psi while distilled the sample along reach of (V) equilibrium flow through from k = duration a 1.6 the

water under a the line of its before on mm a series permeability. diameter

permitted

readings flow was

determine volume permeability

capillary

calculated

equation

_VI/tAPA, fluid in pascal-sec; AP is the net A and 1 Units of of the

where

is

the

viscosity

of

the

pore

pressure are the the conversion Figure time data

difference cross-sectional 1 darcy 13 shows observed were core sample. a =

across the length of the sample in area and length of the sample, are * in 108 cm^2 cm^2 but expressed and in Daniel, 0.981 (Olsen

pascals; and respectively. darcies 1981). by

permeability

equation

use

flow The m

the for

rather rapid decrease in permeability most nonfractured moderately to densely using The the horizontal plot in plug is the taken initial for the for the reversed from open-circle decline set

with respect to welded tuffs. the of USW hour three a few hours. the initial GU-3 and 355.5 half at measurements hours The series

obtained

depth

which

demonstrate

steep

permeability decrease was then one and

first next and

of water flow. a much slower measurements first reading of measurements The particles decrease move

Permeability rate. Water taken over a

continued to flow direction period of of about

three-quarter from

was approximately but the rate in of so permeability clay-sized as to

the same as decline was with time close spaces reversal, is or

determined greater. believed to restrict the rock. demonstrated the

to

be

caused walls. migration

by

the through

redistribution the capillaries measurements, in to

particles

clinging of

pore water

These

effectively

connecting the pore obtained during flow

The second series of a more rapid decline loosely leaching increase layers walls. has on with or attached

permeability with time suggesting the pore walls, had been dislodged According mobility of removal the of to Olsen because and of holding a to J-13 permeant time, water either

that particulate matter, either by mechanical or Daniel, expansion the other 1981, of particles than leaching diffuse to the may double pore

processes. particle because To

cements

determine

effect

distilled

water

permeability with respect water collected from the approximately 6.2 km that J-13 water would waters, follows greater distilled water were the the plot reversed in east be flow

the sample was dried and well located in Jackass (figure composition obtained. stages and i). to The appears

resaturated Flats,

of the similar by the plot in

G-3 borehole in chemical was early the

In the expectation the original pore curve to essentially indicate with its a pore made with pore

marked

triangles with time

decline water.

permeability The permeability change with

time than the measurements of a rock in chemical balance unless particles within the

would show no free to move.

spaces

17

ill

_ "_

IV///] :IIII//IIIIIi/II/I :lTlliliiillllll

!,,

,,.,...

VI,_//////IS, _
k TEFLON SLEEVE

""_

Figure

12.

Diagram of measurements. water flow

the

stainless [_teel sample Porous teflon spacers, through driving capillary the rock. the pressure, tube is

holder T, are S, of to

used for designed under i00 and measure

permeability to direct

uniformly Pc, and The through

sample, Pd, used

confining 50 psi, the rate of

pressure, respectively. water flow

18

1O0

............ ,..........., ......

,............. _ ........ ,................. ,, ...........

1
0

'

L....

........

[ ..........

"

4.

TIME (hours)

Figure

13.

Plot demonstrating USW GU-3 sample open circles, closed circles flow. the Water serzes of

a from

decrease the 355.3

in m

permeability depth. The water made J-13 by

with time for the initial run, shown as with the permeant. a reversed well

by

was made represent from the permeabil_ty

with distilled measurements Nevada Test values 19 Site

The water

water

produced

denoted

triangles.

The initial and in

conclusion permeabilities the chemical

drawn

from

the

three

sets

of

measurements

is

that

the

are reproducible character of the with time pore spaces. the more impediment sample was noted would for at a It

despite permeants rate seems to

differences in flow direction used. In each instance the by the number of that the longer dislodged through impervious samples thereby the to rock. water mobile water is

permeability particles forced Possibly migration The listed shown the constituting

decreases within the the an this with

dictated apparent become movement totally other

ehrough

rock

particles become several

increased time as

water

particular

measured. are value to the in final

permeabilities in the Appendix only one on were was of each

measured for as Tables 5 was sample The up For whereas,

the and to the

G-3 and G-4 borehole samples 6, respectively. Where one It was time normally when the only in the decrease the samples with time the practice small tables in

is repeat

measurement noted.

taken. second some in

measurement

changes is

permeability permeability with time two orders demonstrated

value other

listed

determination. negligible, magnitude. the smallest and the possibly welded pore the

samples

permeability exceeded of its

instances,

decrease

The non-to-poorly welded decline in permeability its larger tuff samples although value same internal were most some throughout low

generally as a result

higher porosity moderate-to-densely movement maintained period. The samples purposes, 1 microdarcy. between various exceptions maximum have within

pore dimensions. The affected by particle permeability the entire samples measurement

spaces

essentially

or been As

initial plotted indicated

permeability in figures less in figure 14 than

values and a

determined 15, wide respectively. were range of

for

the

G-3 a

and value

G-4 of exist the

For assigned

plotting

permeability sample pairs, stratigraphic aligned to this

values within units. plugs observation

1 microdarcy 14, tuff sample higher Some

permeabilities between the by pairs, but many

the individual Where a core generally can be had noted.

members, and is represented permeabilities, of to are the be of

horizontally in permeability occurrence of smaller differences The G-4

larger

discrepancies The of

between an unequal in the

sample pairs orientation sample pair of the

are believed or distribution permeabilities flow in is G-3 path figure evident, samples,

caused by the microfractures. the result the rock matrix. to those the of

differences in

possibly

tortuosity permeability

through 15 are

sample 14. Tuff A

values

similar

shown the

in figure Paintbrush horizontally vertically with the small. the 555 agreement. sample depth all

great Members.

deal

of scatter As with the are The

particularly in the permeabilities those are

aligned plugs aligned plugs. densely welded exceptions interval same

more often Paintbrush in which the

higher than Tuff samples pore of Tuff several exceed the are

determined for the usually associated are extremely within pairs from better of their vertical the 770 m vertical Below

tuffs

dimensions

With few to 770 m In permeability horizontal

the permeabilities of the Crater Flat interval that there of are the

sample in much sample.

that

examples those of

exceeding sample

horizontal

permeabilities

counterparts. Two textural of the sample and pairs were of from the USW to GU-3 pore borehole, but diameter a as having virtually in Model 0.006 the their the use 9010, having forces same

compositional porosimeter. invading

properties The pore

differing

somewhat

permeabilities, a mercury capability

subjected

measurements Micrometrics small as

through microns,

instrument, diameters

20

PERMEABILITY (microdarcies)
10-310-210 0 -I 100 101 102 103 104 105

S t ra t ig ra p h ic Co lu mn

...._.,,I ...... _,,.4_._._.u_L._._ _.,_., ,.,_L..L_._L_.___L_u*.I_,._ ............................................. 7, ,'.%_) V .... _ ........... _'D::Tiva Canyon U_ U_

Member

_4:___._ 2oo .7._>_____::=:-_o C_:_._;...... .


( V

............................
O r) Topopah Spring

z t't':_
I--

__j _T.'-_-_ :z:-:=--:=__b , ,7 400 F ........................... :Z:_............ . C_X,.


": V 0 horizontal vertical plugs plugs ,_;p-4_D -0 =::&---_---:--=---_ 600 __-m_---_______._ V "_" _co "> )..... ..... '" - -.---V-,_ _7 . S(. 4_. --_-4-3

Calico Prow

Hills Pass

Tuff

a.. iJ

Me m b e r

Member Bullfrog

E3 u-UI--

E
-r Fn_ ILl I:D

BOO

C_, '-'_-_-_
" ..... :Trarn Member _:_--K)

..j
u_ rr uJ I-0

1000

1200

'

L.ilhic Tuff

Ridge

1400 16 00

_-_-_Z) --T,_-T=_,_-'_-_-,_--_-_--

.... _r-_m--_,_.,r--,

] -

Older

Turfs

USW GU -3 / G-3

Figure

14.

Initial of

(maximum) and depth. bedded

permeability vertically The ash-fall unlabeled tuffs

values oriented

for samples

USW in

GU-3/G-3 plotted the as a function 1984). stratigraphic

horizontally sampling are column

intervals (Scott and

Castellanos,

21

PERMEABILITY_ i a; i _ ,m.cro......,'c,es,
10-310-210 -1 100 101 102 103 104 105

Stratigraphic Co lu mn

Member

........
100

....--.
-'_)

V" V .
.

..... _N_I-_/ ......... 'ri_on.%_7on:i 7_-r.771r -N i_


P(]h Canyon LI.. =) Member Topopah Member Spring
II

200

V Y---_--<C-__ .....................
_ .....

"_ ) __(/ __.__--_ "O

I 03 :::3 II
Z

300

.............. ...___._

<

.-.

400

" --"-_--O..... ',7

__-',2'
Calico Hills Tuff

E
t-n

500

( _
"('J,7 Prow Pass Member i1

600

700

-i ]

V horizontal plugs ('J vertical plugs

(_ Bullfrog Member

800 --,
,,

(-/-_2

_ ____z__" /.."r---_7

_U.. rr ILl I---

l-

Tram Member

rr<

<d
7" '.J_<J'U' 7
;

9001

1000

t.........'T-,,-,_,-_ '"_"T-"""'"_

-"-,"T-'-'"'"r

__'_T__""_ -

_.t ..............................................

USW G -4

Figure

15.

Initial

(maximum)

permeability

values as the

for

USW

G-4

horizontally of sampling column are

and

vertically oriented depth. The unlabeled bedded ash-fall ruffs

samples plotted intervals in (Spengler and

a function stratigraphic

Chornack,

1984).

22

mercury

into

the

pore

spaces

of

rock

at

sequentially computer as shown of a

stepped controlled in figures mercury

pressures

up

to A

a maximum of 30,000 psi. of the analysis, produces general been description provided Figure from plots samples the are percentage averaging 16 355.5 of 0.025 exceed by of Johnson the

The instrument printouts of operating (1979). the (Topopah porosity pore

is data

and, as part 16 and 17. has

principles

porosimeter

illustrates m the depth total

diameter Springs of the

distribution Member rock. tightly Very Despite of With few the minor pore the

within Paintbrush pore structures striking as implied is impermeable plug was mode spaces

samples Tuff) diameters

taken as the a

variations,

essentially microns diameters

the

same for of each 0.i

depicting sample. microns.

clustered

within similarity by

the in

pore dimension, density of the 0.01 have are microdarcies) a

porosity, samples, whereas of

and in the the vertically the 95 microdarcies, but

mineral content aligned plug oriented in the the

the grain (less than to paths flow

horizontally horizontally

determined the are

permeability

vertical pore The a more

obviously

discontinuous, so as to on figure

sufficiently flow

interconnected resistivities path for Figure the in

facilitate 16 are also as well

water transport. indicative of as fluid. plot inference except plug from of is

indicated accommodating

electrical

_urrent

from

17 is a pore 140.6 m depth figure as are 16. the are Average samples a consequence, determined contrast

diameter distribution which supports the The other pore less have between pore diameter for than total 140.6 listed diameter welded higher for the the properties

of

Topopah Spring samples made based on the data in for each plug microns m depth of the is virtually and indicating interval, uange the of permeability

shown

distribution each is the

identical resistivity. that and, the as

0.091 355.5 In view minor

those

permeabilities. number m plugs

permeabilities permeability However, horizontal the flow permeability

samples of

measured,

significance.

the higher permeability plug suggests that paths of within the the welded rock

and lower the continuity matrix is

resistivity determined for the and possibly the tortuosity of a major factor in controlling the

turfs. SUMMARY

Two drilled USW Test drilled core drilled Spring was G-4

hundred from boreholes Nye selected from the

and core

twenty samples located

six

plugs, to Of in site within meters, Tuff; an

2.54 from these, axial so as each the the

cm the

in Yucca

length

and

diameter, USW of paired of Canyon GU-3/G-3 the

were and Nevada samples The major G-3, Pass, Topopah the

obtained adjacent core drill

Mountain boundary were

southwest two and to be hundred

Site,

County, original at of the

Nevada. the

perpendizular representative unit. Tiva Tuff; the

orientation. Borehole and Prow the

lithologic to

variations a depth of

observed 1533.8 Paintbrush

stratigraphic Calico Hills

intersected Flat deep,

Members

Bullfrog, and Tram Members of the Crater Older Tuffs. Borehole G-4, 914.7 meters Tram Member of the Crater Flat Tuff. With content bulk Low dependence porosities porosities higher few exceptions, the plots upon are closely associated indicate the paired grain samples. follows rather than with intervals density The the

Tuff; Lithic penetrated

Ridge Tuff; and only to within the

data pattern inverse and

indicates of of porosity changes ruffs.

uniform shown within

mineral on the the a rock. the

between density

variation

demonstrating ruffs whereas

textural

compositional welded of non-welded

silicified

23

2O w --J -.,0 c 15
W

USW GU-3 : GD : 9.9 2.560

355,3V

u
(-,)

rY O_ n_

10

p ::: 1120 k = 0

F-- 13_ Z (._9

10 PORE

1 DIAMETER (microns)

0.1

0.01

2 0

,...................

.__ ........................................

L.,J :D _"D"-15 J C u G: (u O C.L EL "_J 10 _._j < _ p- Q:: Z (D


Ld

USW GU-3 -94 GD : 2.559

355.3H

/', -- 685 k =95

I0 PORE

I DIAMETER (microns)

0.I

0.01

Figure

16.

Pore diameter distribution determined for the vertical (top) and horizontal (bottom) plugs obtained from the USW GU-3 355.3 m core sample. Property values listed for each sample are porosity, 9, in percent; grain density, GD, in Mg/m^3; resistivity, @, in ohmm; permeability, k, in microdarcies; and average pore dimension, APD, in microns.

24

L_ 25 __j _ 0 c u L.,_I _rY (b 0 0.. CL J <I: t--Z :_ <:[ Or" (_9 rY 20

USW GU-3 c/, = GD : p 15 : 17.7 2.538 4.35

140,6V

k = 380 APD : 0,0908

10

t_ cl c12

z_

. ......
10 1

Ill,,..,..,, ,I ,,lJ IIIl. JI l.


0.1 0.01

PORE DIAMETER(microns)
30 L_ _0 > L_ n.0 CL .__1 <[ __ Z ,--C _ o _ o_ _ <[ rY (..9 kxJ D_ 5 15 USW OU-3 25 <,5 = 20 Ob = t,, 17.9 2.533 335 140.6H _

k = 940 APD : 0.0909

10 t__ CY 0

I , I ....
10 1

llh,,.,,.,, PORE DIAMETER(microns)

iJ I
0.1

ill

I|

llll

I l,li
0.01

Figure

17.

Pore sample.

diameter

distribution (bottom) plugs values

determined obtained listed for from

for each

the sample

vertical GU-3 are

(top) 140.6 porosity, m

and core 9,

horizontal

the

USW

Property

in percent; grain m; permeability, APD, in microns.

density, GD, in k, in microdarcies;

Mg/m^3; and

resistivity, average pore

@, in ohmdimension,

25

Two

sample

pairs

were of

examined the as

for

their

pore

size

distribution

expressed

as a percent fraction the higher permeabilities microfractures. virtually and both the and the which the same resistivity water and rock the welding was The

total pore volume. expected in rocks and and pore vertical dimensions of rock.

The higher porosity pair had free of clays, zeolites, and components but of differed each in pair had permeability if that plane were

horizontal

porosity

indicating the importance current flow through the are elongated anisotropic. would the which there cause is circumstance no and In

pore continuity Sowers, 1981, the tuff pores it might in However, the will be

in controlling states that be directional anticipated

particles permeability process normally for

oriented, welded

a particle ready

alignment explanation. 39

horizontal exceptions

experienced.

encountered Of lower samples. amongst correspondence within the conduction resistivity Similarly, resistivity horizontally no correlation. permeabilities alignment vertically to take on to tendency lower

the 67 G-3 resistivity Only the

sample pairs and higher of the oriented

measured, permeability sample pairs samples.

demonstrated a correspondence in the horizontally oriented a similar sample correspondence pairs indicated Nineteen

of

seven

showed

vertically

no

between resistivity samples occurs by means through and of and the pore waters. in both pairs permeability the higher 28 sample

and permeability suggesting of surface conduction rather Two the taken sample vertical from pairs and the proved horizontal borehole, in 20 to

current flow than by ionic be equal in directions. the of the and the a in 5 show lower

G-4 occurs

permeability

correspondence

aligned samples, Clearly, the higher in the to conducive bedding develop along

3 in the vertically resistivities are horizontally oriented water the pore plane and their

oriented typically samples than ruffs there of rock

samples, lower and confirming that are is greater layers. found not

pore

more a

current Although during horizontal

flow

the a or

oriented

samples. aspect an the

ash-flow formation, structure of the

considered

apparently continuity

interconnected

tortuosity

26

Appendix: Table I.

Tables Density samples was not

of

Rock

Property obtained USW for

Values on vertically and horizontally Leader (-) oriented indicates core sample

values

from the suitable

GU-3/G-3 borehole: measurement.

Sample depth in meters (feet)

Dry Bulk Density ---Mg/m^3 ...... Vert. Hor.

Saturated

Bulk Mg/m^3

Density ...... Hor.

Grain Density Mg/m^3 --Vert. Hor.

Vert.

16.6 29.4 48.4 63.3 78.4 93.2 113.1 132.7 140.6 168.4 175.6 186.1 201.3 217.6 233.2 251.7 269.5 282.0 292.0 321.9 338.1 355.5 369.9 384.7 399.7 457.9 499.3 508.1 520.3 552.9 569.2 583.1 597.1 612.3 632.6 643.3 660.8 672.2 688.0 705.8 718.5 733.9 752.6 768.8 781.2 798.0

( (

54.2) 96.3)

2.266 2.192 2.295 2.307 2.303 2.250 (-) 2.125 2.088 2.138 2.186 2. 196 2.141 2.279 2.153 2.325 2.304 2.276 2.300 2.321 2.339 2.307 2.314 2.299 1.689 1.463 (-) 1.737 1.870 1.451 1.587 1.595 1.543 (-) 1.798 2.217 2.089 2.315 2.332 (-) 2.379 2.361 2.448 2.261 1.622 1.901

2.192 2.181 2.305 2.303 2.308 2.289 1.392 2.122 2.079 2.131 (-) 2. 143 2.144 (-) (-) 2.326 (-) 2.268 2.290 2.325 2.325 2.318 2.318 2.295 1.649 1.439 1.643 1.725 1.871 (-) 1.724 (-) (-) 1.605 (-) 2.219 2.097 2.321 2.332 2.352 2.383 2.365 2.428 2.283 (-) (-) 27

2.355 2.309 2.371 2.378 2.378 2.343 (-) 2.295 2.265 2.276 2.305 2. 305 2.351 2.366 2.285 2.391 2.411 2.372 2.387 2.423 2.427 2.406 2.340 2.329 1.962 1.809 (-) 2.054 2.132 1.838 1.916 1.920 1.887 (-) 2.097 2.351 2.270 2.405 2.417 (-) 2.449 2.433 2.503 2.367 1.941 2.125

2.311 2.300 2.378 2.375 2.383 2.364 1.801 2.292 2.258 2.272 (-) 2. 277 2.284 (-) (-) 2.392 (-) 2.363 2.386 2.476 2.411 2.412 2.341 2.326 1.936 1.797 1.997 2.047 2.133 (-) 1.995 (-) (-) 1.930 (-) 2.352 2.276 2.408 2.419 2.432 2.452 2.437 2.489 2.380 (-) (-)

2.487 2.483 2.484 2.482 2.489 2.480 (-) 2.561 2.538 2.482 2.481 2. 465 2.709 2.496 2.479 2.490 2.579 2.518 2.520 2.584 2.564 2.560 2.377 2.370 2.322 2.238 (-) 2.544 2.535 2.368 2.363 2.364 2.352 (-) 2.564 2.561 2.549 2.544 2.549 (-) 2.559 2.544 2.590 2.529 2.383 2.449

2.489 2.475 2.487 2.481 2.495 2.476 2.355 2.557 2.533 2.480 (-) 2. 476 2.493 (-) (-) 2.490 (-) 2.506 2.532 2.587 2.544 2.559 2.372 2.370 2.313 2.240 2.545 2.544 2.537 (-) 2.366 (-) (-) 2.378 (-) 2.559 2.553 2.542 2.552 2.556 2.559 2.547 2.585 2.527 (-) (-)

(158.8) (207.5) (257.0) (305.7) (370.9) (435.2) (461.1) (552.3) (576.0) (610.3) (660.3) (713.8) (765.0) (825.6) (884.1) (925.0) (957.7) (1055.8) (1108.9) (1165.9) (1213.2) (1261.8) (1310.9) (1501.8) (1637.7) (1666.7) (1706.6) (1813.5) (1866.9) (1912.7) (1958.4) (2008.4) (2075.0) (2110.0) (2167.5) (2204.9) (2256.8) (2315.0) (2356.7) (2407.2) (2468.5) (2521.5) (2562.4) (2617.5)

Table 811.1 832.6 845.0 859.1 874.5 888.3 910.4 915.9 933.5 949.8 963.3 986.3 1009.4 1024.5 1040.0 1056.1 1070.5 1085.4 ii01.0 1115.6 1165.5 1177.2 1192.8 1207.5 1222.2 1237.4 1253.2 1268.0 1283.4 1299.1 1314.6 1329.6 1344.5 1392.6 1420.7 1435.3 1450.0 1469.1 1482.0 1497.2 1517.7 1527.4

(continued) (2660.5) (2730.9) (2771.7) (2817.7) (2868.2) (2913.6) (2986.1) (3004.1) (3062.0) (3115.4) (3159.6) (3235.0) (3310.7) (3360.3) (3411.2) (3463.9) (3511.2) (3560.2) (3611.3) (3659.3) (3822.7) (3861.2) (3912.3) (3960.5) (4008.9) (4058.7) (4110.6) (4159.0) (4209.5) (4261.0) (4311.8) (4361.0) (4409.9) (4567.8) (4659.9) (4707.9) (4755.9) (4818.6) (4860.8) (4910.7) (4977.9) (5009.8) 1.915 1.752 1.858 1.887 1.941 2.098 2.191 2.203 2.233 2.210 2.090 2.392 1.860 1.955 1.930 1.917 1.942 1.981 2.041 2.057 2.335 (-) 1.891 1.882 1.921 1.900 1.988 1.978 (-) 1.935 2.002 2.099 (-) 2.100 2.075 2.134 2.024 2.001 2.027 2.088 2.086 2.328 1.608 1.774 1.876 1.890 1.956 2.072 2.160 2.250 2.228 2.193 2.067 2.387 1.933 1.985 1.953 1.890 1.995 2.025 2.088 2.092 2.097 2.096 2.004 2.087 1.924 1.802 2.043 1.992 2.062 1.920 1.999 2.092 1.996 2.186 2.137 2.182 (-) 2.036 2.066 2.102 2.066 2.107 2.127 2.063 2.132 2.148 2.181 2.282 2.347 2.348 2.369 2.336 2.255 2.454 2.121 2.181 2.160 2.143 2.160 2.194 2.219 2.225 2.437 (-) 2.148 2.141 2.160 2.135 2.197 2.201 (-) 2.161 2.214 2.298 (-) 2.288 2.264 2.306 2.233 2.207 2.225 2.242 2.276 2.403 1.938 2.077 2.144 2.150 2.191 2.270 2.328 2.384 2.365 2.325 2.241 2.447 2.173 2.204 2.179 2.124 2.200 2.224 2.251 2.255 2.296 2.258 2.216 2.259 2.176 2.076 2.228 2.210 2.250 2.158 2.220 2.297 2.213 2.338 2.301 2.338 (-) 2.226 2.247 2.247 2.259 2.273 2.431 2.543 2.562 2.553 2.555 2.572 2.596 2.577 2.584 2.528 2.502 2.550 2.516 2.528 2.506 2.477 2.482 2.516 2.484 2.473 2.601 (-) 2.545 2.541 2.523 2.483 2.513 2.545 (-) 2.498 2.543 2.621 (-) 2.585 2.558 2.577 2.559 2.521 2.528 2.469 2.574 2.516 2.401 2.543 2.562 2.556 2.559 2.583 2.596 2.596 2.583 2.527 2.503 2.539 2.542 2.541 2.524 2.466 2.510 2.528 2.494 2.500 2.617 2.502 2.544 2.521 2.572 2.482 2.508 2.546 2.538 2.520 2.567 2.631 2.548 2.577 2.555 2.584 (-) 2.513 2.523 2.460 2.560 2.526

28

Table

2.

Resistivity horizontally Leader (-)

and

porosity

values

obtained

on

vertically

and

oriented indicates

core sample

samples fzcm the was not suitable

USW GU-3/G-3 borehole. for _,easurement. Porosity (percent) Vert. Hor.

Sample in

depth (feet)

Resistivity (ohmVert. meters) Hor.

meters

16.6 29.4 48.4 63.3 78.4 93.2 113.1 132.7 140.6 168.4 175.6 186.1 201.3 217.6 233.2 251.7 269.5 282.0 292.0 321.9 338.1 355.5 369.9 384.7 399.7 457.9 499.3 508.1 520.3 552.9 569.2 583.1 597.1 612.3 632.6 643.3 660.8 672.2 688.0 705.8 718.5 733.9 752.6 768.8 781.2 798.0 811.1 832.6

( (

54.2) 96.3)

5780 2340 4840 4240 2910 1270 (-) 465 435 610 615 700 105 795 520 1060 410 510 430 3690 1320 1120 790 2280 115 55 (-) 75 115 60 55 45 50 (-) 95 330 150 435 595 (-) 930 700 4200 460 70 45 95 65 29

2100 1810 4660 1600 2090 1240 25 310 335 260 (-) 350 270 (-) (-) 1415 (-) 520 400 1080 715 685 415 975 95 55 40 65 105 (-) 50 (-) (-) 30 (-) 300 125 360 510 735 915 545 1280 490 (-) (-! 40 60

8.9 11.7 7.6 7.0 7.5 9.3 (-) 17.0 17.7 13.9 11.9 10.9 20.9 8.7 13.1 6.6 10.7 9.6 8.7 10.2 8.8 9.9 2.6 3.0 27.3 34.6 (-) 31.7 26.2 38.7 32.8 32.5 34.4 (-) 29.9 13.5 18.0 9.0 8.5 (-) 7.1 7.2 5.5 10.6 31.9 22.4 21.2 31.1

11.9 11.9 7.3 7.2 7.5 7.5 40.9 17.0 17.9 14.1 (-) 13.4 14.0 (-) (-) 6.6 (-) 9.5 9.6 i0.i 8.6 9.4 2.2 3.2 28.7 35.7 35.4 32.2 26.3 (-) 27.1 (-) (-) 32.5 (-) 13.3 17.8 8.7 8.6 8.0 6.9 7.1 6.1 9.6 (-) (-) 33.1 30.2

(158.8) (207.5) (257.0) (305.7) (370.9) (435.2) (461.1) (552.3) (576.0) (610.3) (660.3) (713.8) (765.0) (825.6) (884.1) (925.0) (957.7) (1055.8) (1108.9) (1165.9) (1213.2) (1261.8) (1310.9) (1501.8) (1637.7) (1666.7) (1706.6) (1813.5) (1866.9) (1912.7) (1958.4) (2008.4) (2075.0) (2110.2) (2167.5) (2204.9) (2256.8) (2315.0) (2356.7) (2407.2) (2468.5) (2521.5) (2562.4) (2617.5) (2660.5) (2730.9)

Table 845.0 859.1 874.5 888.3 910.4 915.9 933.5 949.8 963.3 986.3 1009.4 1024.5 1040.0 1056.1 1070.5 1085.4 ii01.0 1115.6 1165.5 1177.2 1192.8 1207.5 1222.2 1237.4 1253.2 1268.0 1283.4 1299.1 1314.6 1329.6 1344.5 1392.6 1420.7 1435.3 1450.0 1469.1 1482.0 1497.2 1517.7 1527.4

(continued) (2771.7) (2817.7) (2868.2) (2913.6) (2986.1) (3004.1) (3062.0) (3115.4) (3159.6) (3235.0) (3310.7) (3360.3) (3411.2) (3463.9) (3511.2) (3560.2) (3611.3) (3659.3) (3822.7) (3861.2) (3912.3) (3960.5) (4008.9) (4058.7) (4110.6) (4159.0) (4209.5) (4261.0) (4311.8) (4361.0) (4409.9) (4567.8) (4659.9) (4707.9) (4755.9) (4818.6) (4860.8) (4910.7) (4977.9) (5009.8) 90 90 ii0 165 460 425 555 350 300 i000 70 55 45 75 60 55 55 50 285 (-) 65 45 55 65 90 55 (-) 85 65 20 (-) 25 40 55 45 90 50 75 25 450 75 70 90 90 195 315 245 225 115 790 65 35 55 50 55 55 155 40 35 55 45 50 45 45 I00 45 60 65 35 225 35 40 45 55 (-) 95 40 60 25 60 27.5 26.1 24.0 18.4 15.6 14.5 13.6 12.6 16.5 6,2 26.1 22.7 23.0 22.6 21.8 21.3 17.9 16.8 10.2 (-) 25.7 26.0 23.9 23.5 20.9 22.3 (-) 22.5 21.3 19.9 (-) 18.8 18.9 17.2 20.9 20.6 19.8 15.4 19.0 7.5 26.8 26.0 23.6 19.8 16.8 13.3 13.7 13.2 17.4 6.0 24.0 21.9 22.6 23.3 20.5 19.9 16.3 16.3 19.9 16.2 21.2 17.2 25.2 27.4 18.6 21.7 18.7 23.8 22.1 20.5 21.7 15.2 16.3 15.6 (-) 19.0 18.i 14.6 19.3 16.6

3O

Table

3.

Density

values

obtained the for

on

vertically

and Leader

horizontally (-) indicates

oriented sample

core was

samples from not suitable Sample in depth (feet) Dry

USW G-4 borehole. measurement. Density ...... Hor. Vert. Saturated

Bulk

Bulk Mg/m^3

Density ...... Hor.

Grain

Density --Hor.

meters

---Mg/m^3 Vert.

Mg/m^3 Vert.

18.0 27.7 85.5 101.3 119.0 167.2 183.7 203.8 226.4 250.4 266.9 285.9 324.5 377.8 415.1 511.7 555.7 570.3 584.1 602.4 619.6 649.8 665.2 679.4 700.6 712.4 726.1 742.7 755.5 769.4 785.9 804.1 821.5 829.1 861.7 871.0 895.9 908.5

( (

59.0) 90.8)

2.350 2.270 2.245 2.106 2.211 (-) 2.102 2.141 2.292 2.232 2.310 (-) 2.098 2.342 1.999 1.611 1.698 1.823 2.049 1.625 1.641 1.811 1.712 1.660 1.926 1.912 2.052 1.940 1.934 1.985 2.112 2.304 1.829 1.790 1.758 2.048 2.096 2.211

2.338 2.219 2.207 2.207 (-) 2.228 (-) 2.273 2.291 2.202 (-) 2.256 2.292 (-) 1.643 1.580 1.709 1.807 2.058 1.628 (-) 1.828 1.719 1.717 1.920 1.923 2.050 1.933 1.973 2.000 2.120 2.285 (-) 1.768 1.763 2.059 2.109 2.104

2.406 2.350 2.368 2.273 2.329 (-) 2.268 2.289 2.369 2.342 2.411 (-) 2.265 2.431 2.149 1.920 2.039 2.115 2.239 1.951 1.958 2.053 1.983 1.977 2.183 2.174 2.261 2.192 2.187 2.218 2.298 2.412 2.068 2.017 2.041 2.256 2.288 2.359

2.399 2.294 2.345 2.342 (-) 2.344 (-) 2.368 2.369 2.324 (-) 2.365 2.384 (-) 1.944 1.909 2.047 2.106 2.245 1.955 (-) 2.054 1.994 2.011 2.179 2.182 2.260 2.187 2.212 2.228 2.303 2.399 (-) 2.009 2.041 2.264 2.295 2.291

2.491 2.469 2.560 2.529 2.506 (-) 2.518 2.514 2.484 2.507 2.568 (-) 2.518 2.571 2.351 2.332 2.579 2.576 2.530 2.412 2.401 2.389 2.349 2.429 2.591 2.591 2.595 2.592 2.588 2.590 2.596 2.582 2.403 2.316 2.450 2.587 2.595 2.596

2.489 2.470 2.560 2.551 (-) 2.522 (-) 2.513 2.484 2.509 (-) 2.531 2.523 (-) 2.348 2.354 2.579 2.576 2.533 2.419 (-) 2.361 2.373 2.430 2.591 2.596 2.595 2.593 2.593 2.592 2.596 2.580 (-) 2.329 2.442 2.589 2.593 2.587

(280.4) (332.3) (390.3) (548.4) (602.6) (668.6) (742.5) (821.2) (875.5) (937.6) (1064.5) (1239.2) (1361.5) (1678.4) (1822.8) (1870.7) (1915.8) (1976.0) (2032.4) (2131.2) (2181.8) (2228.5) (2298.0) (2336.8) (2381.6) (2436.1) (2478.0) (2523.7) (2577.7) (2637.5) (2694.6) (2719.5) (2826.2) (2856.8) (2938.6) (2979.8)

31

Table

4.

Resistivity and porosity of vertically and horizontally oriented core samples obtained from the USW G-4 borehole. Leader (-) indicates sample was not suitable for measurement. Resistivity (ohm- meters) Vert. Hor. Porosity (percent) Vert.

Sample depth in meters (feet)

Hor.

18.0 27.7 85.5 101.3 119.0 167.2 183.7 203.8 226.4 250.4 266.9 285.9 324.5 377.8 415.1 511.7 555.7 570.3 584.1 602.4 619.6 649.8 665.2 679.4 700.6 712.4 726.1 742.7 755.5 769.4 785.9 804.1 821.5 829.1 861.7 871.0 895.9 908.5

( 59.0) ( 90.8) (280.4) (332.3) (390.3) (548.4) (602.6) (668.6) (742.5) (821.2) (875.5) (937.6) (1064.5) (1239.2) (1361.5) (1678.4) (1822.8) (1870.7) (1915.8) (1976.0) (2032.4) (2131.2) (2181.8) (2228.5) (2298.0) (2336.8) (2381.6; (2436.1) (2478.0) (2523.7) (2577.7) (2637.5) (2694.6) (2719.5) (2826.2) (2856.8) (2938.6) (2979.8)

1560 1480 1350 460 355 (-) 195 205 iii0 505 580 (-) 195 595 370 40 40 55 125 40 45 150 85 50 70 ii0 165 85 60 70 285 770 50 345 90 130 180 390

1170 990 635 420 (-) 290 (-) 570 700 435 (-) 240 520 (-) 190 35 40 50 115 35 (-) ii0 70 55 65 80 95 80 90 60 145 360 (-) 240 95 115 150 155

5.7 8.1 12.3 16.7 11.8 (-) 16.8 14.8 7.7 Ii.0 i0.i (-) 16.7 8.9 15.0 30.9 34.2 29.2 19.0 32.6 31.6 24.2 27.1 31.6 25.6 26.2 20.9 25.2 25.3 23.4 18.6 10.7 23.9 22.7 28.2 20.8 19.2 14.8

6.0 7.5 13.8 13.5 (-) 11.7 (-) 9.5 7.8 12.2 (-) 10.9 9.1 (-) 30.0 32.9 33.7 29.8 18.8 32.7 (-) 22.6 27.6 29.3 25.9 25.9 21.0 25.5 23.9 22.8 18.4 11.4 (-) 24.1 27.8 20.5 18.7 18.7

32

Table

5.

Water oriented Leader

permeabilities core (-) samples indicates

measured obtained sample

on was

vertically the USW not in suitable microdarcies Horizontal 9.90 -

and for

horizontally borehole. measurement.

from

GU-3/G-3

Sample in

depth (feet) ( ( 54.2) 96.3)

Permeability Vertical 0.67 1.61 0 0 0.94 0.82 155000 420 380 8.32 4.60 2.0 200 2.37 0.70 0.13 72.4 0.15 0.96 0 0.42 0 0.057 87.3 0.015 0.48 420 340 - 8.38 - 3.90 0.69 195 0.75 0.75 0

range

meters 16.6 29.4 48.4 63.3 78.4 93.2

8.95 0.68 0.91 0 3.62 60000

0 1.31 85.8 1.56 3.72 126000 74400

(158.8) (207.5) (257.0) (305.7) (370.9) (435.2) (461.1) (552.3) (576.0) (610.3) (660.3) (713.8) (765.0) (825.6) (884.1) (925.0) (957.7) (1055.8) (1108.9) (1165.9) (1213.2) (1261.8) (1310.9) (1501.8) (1637.7) (1666.7) (1706.6) (1779.6) (1813.5) (1866.9) (1912.7) (1958.4( (2008.4 (2075.0) (2110.0) (2167.5) (2256.8) (2315.0) (2356.7) (2407.2) (2468.5) ( 2521.5) (2562.4) (2617.5) (2660.5) (2730.9) (2771.7)

113.1 132.7 140.6 168.4 175.6 186.1 201.3 217.6 233.2 251.7 269.5 282.0 292.0 321.9 338.1 355.5 369.9 384.7 399.7 457.9 499.3 508.1 520.3 542.6 552.9 569.2 583.1 597.1 612.3 632.6 643.3 660.8 688.0 705.8 718.5 733.9 752.6 768.8 781.2 798.0 811.1 832.6 845.0

1420 - ii00 940 - 885 9.20 (-) (-) 550 (-) (-) 0 (-) 8.80 15.1 0 59.3 9.80 1.80 1.02 6.35 1.86 7610 26300 42000 9180 2190 95.0 82.1 135 20.3 I0000 39200 45800 i0100 2280 (-) (-) 37.8 (-) (-) 103 (-) Ii.i 370 1.47 0.93 5.20 0 1.37 1.14 7.17 120 6.21 680 370 10.8 199 0.55 0.65 0.99 22.3 14.1 0.021 10.4 215 7.04

reversed 2.75 0 5410 31300 52000 9150 2440 235000 160 39.3 13.0 15.0 (-) 11300 248 170 0 0 2.06 1.14 0.17 7.46 395 0.21 36200 670 720 31200 600 715 33 2.82 380 1.83 5150 24600 49000 8440 2270 200000 145 31.8 8.76 12.5 10700 190 86.3 0.05

flow

7.11 (-) 255 8.36 905 480

Table 859.1 874.5 888.3 910.4 915.9 933.5 949.8 963.3 986.3 1009.4 1024.5 1040.0 1056.1 1070.5 1085.4 1101.0 1115.6 1165.5 1177.2 1192.8 1207.5 1222.3 1237.4 1253.2 1268.0 1283.4 1299.1 1314.6 1329.6 1344.5 1392.6 1420.7 1435.3 1450.0 1469.1 1482.0 1497.2 1517.7 1527.4

(continued) (2817.7) (2868.2) (2913.6) (2986.1) (3004.1) (3062.0) (3115.4) (3159.6) (3235.0) (3310.7) (3360.3) (3411.2) (3463.9) (3511.2) (3560.2) (3611.3) (3659.3 (3822.7) (3861.2) (3912.3) (3960.5) (4008.9) (4058.7) (4110.6) (4159.0) (4209.5) (4261.0) (4311.8) (4361.0) (4409.9) (4567.8) (4659.9) (4707.9) (4755.9) (4818.6) (4860.8) (4910.7) (4977.9) (5009.8) 140 - 130 98.5 - 96.7 9.59 - 7.63 1.44 - 1.20 16.5 - 15.6 2.45 - 1.04 0.53 - 0.45 2.08 0.58 - 0.32 8.10 - 4.0 3.34 - 2.81 2.20 - 1.06 13.5 - 2.0 1.73 - 1.14 370 - 140 0.58 - 0.53 1.68 - 1.02 0.22 (-) 0.78 - 0.44 3.0 - 1.44 5.25 - 1.32 265 - 154 5.94 - 1.56 0.71 - 0.52 (-) 322 - 285 17.9 - 4.55 (-) (-) 2.59 - 0 130 - 102 3.34 - 3.0 14.7 - 13.5 319 - 275 2.11 - 0.81 45.0 - 30.1 3.21 - 0.35 27.5 - 15.0 98.2 - 99.1 140 - 131 48.5 - 20.0 5.40 - 5.40 28.0 - 8.18 2.82 - 2.88 0.90 - 0.69 1.50 - 0.63 1.19 - 0.39 6.04 - 5.88 8.54 - 1.95 1.07 - 1.04 2.04 - 1.50 5530 - 4910 10.9 - 5.30 15.5 - 9.0 3.86 - 2.71 107 - 55 0.28 - 0.35 0 0 15.6 - 11.9 80 - 62 4.9 - 1.5 16.1 - 1.90 48.0 - 1.35 188 - 133 43.1 - 22.2 29.7 - 0.20 30.8 - 5.86 9.58 - 4.80 30.3 - 9.62 8.30 - 4.30 (-) 265 - 220 1.52 - 1.25 18.1 - 10.3 62.8 - 20.0 8.84 - 8.36

34

Table

6.

Water

permeability oriented indicates

values core sample

in

microdarcies

measured

on

vertically

and

horizontally Leader (-) Sample in depth (feet)

samples from the was not suitable range in microdarcies Horizontal

USW G-4 borehole. for measurement.

Permeability Vertical

meters

18.0 27.7 85.5 101.3 119.0 167.2 183.7 203.8 226.4 250.4 266.9 285.9 324.5 377.8 415.1 460.8 511.7 555.7 570.3 548.1 602.4 619.6 649.8 665.2 679.4 700.6 712.4 726.1 742.7 755.5 769.4 785.9 804.1 821.5 829.1 861.7 871.0 895.9 908.5

( (

59.0) 90.8)

0 0 61.0 (-) 52.5 235 0 3.50 0 (-) 97 0 2.5 595 14.6 4190 2480 70.0 120 51.4 36.2 43.2 650 1640 2220 365 4190 7120 2900 12.7 2.34 (-) 850 27.9 46.5 26.0 18.0 585 23.6 38.6 21.5 15.3 565 10.8 3970 1930 52.0 Ii0 45.4 32.6 33.5 525 1490 2070 345 4060 6950 2700 ii.I 1.40 90.6 0 (-) 45.5 210 62.0 44.5

135 88.5 920 185

(-)

54.0 1.05 510 185 5820 0.06 0.46 3.40 1.31 267 18.2

(280.4) (332.3) (390.3) (548.4) (602.6) (668.6) (742.5) (821.2) (875.5) (937.6) (1064.5) (1239.2) (1361.5) (1511.4) (1678.4) (1822.8) (1870.7) (1915.8) (1976.0) (2032.4) (2131.2) (2181.8) (2228.5) (2298.0) (2336.8) (2381.6) (2436.1) (2478.0) (2523.7) (2577.7) (2637.5) (2694.6) (2719.5) (2826.2) (2856.8) (2938.6) (2979.8)

7180 (-) 0.62 305 6.60 (-) 1.45 313 19.1 (-) (-) 7680 4600 26.1 22.3 (-) 70.7 210 32.0 2310 3210 520 4110 6310 2630 340 21.4 85.8 7530 120 56.5 55.2 290 (-) -

97.0

7460 4540 26.0 12.7 38.9 184 22.1 2020 3140 450 4020 5480 2330 18.0 5.90 6.80 6780 89.1 44.3 43.3 230

35

REFERENCES Anderson, L.A., 1981, UE25a-I borehole, Report 81-1338,

CITED

Rock property analysis of core samples from the Yucca Mountain Nevada Test Site, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File (NNA.870406.0031) core samples from Test Site, Nevada:

36 p.

Anderson, L.A., 1984, the Yucca Mountain U.S. Geological

Rock property measurements on large-volume USW GU-3/G-3 and USW G-4 boreholes: Nevada Open-File Report 84-552, 39 p.

Survey

(NNA.870323.0195) saturated Research,

Brace, W.F., and Orange, A.S., 1968, Electrical rocks during fracture and frictional sliding: v. 73, no. 4, p. 1433-1445. (NNA.940304.0150) Brace, W.F., 1977, ical Research, Permeability from resistivity v. 82, no. 23, p. 3343-3349.

resistivity changes in Journal of Geophysical

and pore shape: (NNA.940304.0151)

Journal

of Geophys-

Cart, W.J., Byers, F.M., and Orkild, relations of Crater Flat Tuff and U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Carr, M.D., Wadell, S.J., Vick, G.S.,

P.P., 1984, Stratigraphic and volcano-tectonic some older volcanic units, Nye County, Nevada: Report 84-114, 42 p. (NNA.870518.0075) Stock, J.M., Monsen, S.A., Harris, A.G., Cork,

B.W., and Byers, F.M., 1986, Geology of drillhole UE25p#1 Tertiary rocks near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada: U.S. File Report 86-175, 87 p. (HQS.880517.2623) Keller, G.V., pecting: Johnson, G.R., and Frischnecht, Pergamon Press, F.C., Oxford,

- A test hole into preGeological Survey Open-

1966, Electrical methods in geophysical prosNew York, Toronto, p. 35. (HQS.880517.3113) G.R., Olhoeft, petrophysics lab-

G.R., 1979, Textural properties, in Hunt, G.R., Johnson, Watson, D.E., and Watson, Kenneth, initial report of the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 789, p. 67-74.

oratory:

(NNA.910212.0107)

Olsen, R.E., and Daniel, D.E., 1981, Measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine-grained soils, in Zimmie, T.F., and Riggs, C.O., eds., Permeability and groundwater contaminant transport: American Society for Testing and Materials, Special Technical Publication 746, p. 18-64. (NNA.910212.0109) Scott, R.B., volcanic Nevada: and Castellanos, M., 1984, Stratigraphic and structural relations of rocks in drill holes USW GU-3 and USW G-3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-491, 121 p. (NNA.890804.0017)

Sowers, G.F., 198], Rock permeability or hydraulic conductivity - an overview, in Zimmie, T.F., and Riggs, C.O., eds., Permeability and groundwater contaminant transport: American Society for Testing and Materials, Special Technical Publication 746, p. 65-83. (NNA.940316.0052) Spengler, R.W., and Chornack, M.P., 1984, Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of volcanic rocks in core hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-789, "77 p. (NNA.890804.0012) Winograd, I.J., and Thordarson, William, 1975, Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical framework, south-central Great Basin, Ne,/ada-California, with special reference to the Nevada Test Site: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 712-C, 126 p. (NNA.870406.0201) 36
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: [994 - 573-19_ / 80049 REGION NO. 8

"I"I