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# INTRODUCTION

TO

## STATISTICAL METHODS & DATA ANALYSIS

What is Statistic?
Statistical Method and Data Analysis

A branch of mathematics, taking and transforming numbers into useful information for decision makers

Methods for processing & analyzing numbers Methods for helping reduce the uncertainty inherent in decision making

## Decision Makers Use Statistics To:

Present and describe business data and information properly Draw conclusions about large groups of individuals or items, using Why use Statistic? information collected from subsets of the individuals or items.
Statistical Method and about a Make reliable forecasts Data Analysis business Page 2 activity

Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics comprises the statistical methods dealing with the collection, tabulation and summarization of data, so as to present meaningful information They are simply a way to describe our data Collecting and describing data Collect data Statistical Survey Method o e.g. Present data o e.g. Tables and graphs Characterize data o e.g. Sampleand Data Analysis Statistical Method mean =
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Inferential statistics Statistical inference, on the other hand, consists of the methods involved with the analysis and interpretation of data that will enable the statistician to develop meaningful inferences about the data

Statistical Method

Drawing conclusions and/or making o decisions concerning a population based only on sample data Estimation o e.g.: Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight Statistical Method and Data o Hypothesis testing Analysis o e.g.: Test the claim Page 4the that

Type of Data

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Sample

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Parametric

Non Parametric

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## What is a Statistical Hypothesis?

A statistical hypothesis is an assertion or conjecture concerning one or more populations. The truth or falsity of the assertion is never known with absolute certainty unless we examine the entire population. Due to time and cost considerations, this option is rarely feasible.

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## Tests of Hypotheses 9 Standard Steps

1. Define the problem objective 2. Formulate a null and alternative hypothesis 3. Decide if the problem will be evaluated with a one-tail or two-tail test 4. Determine proper sample size to be taken. 5. Determine the appropriate statistical test to use. 6. Choose a critical value of a test statistic reflecting the degree of uncertainty that can be tolerated (alpha risk). 7. Compute the calculated value of the test statistic from the sample information 8. Compare the calculated value of the test statistic to the

## Statistical Method and Data Analysis

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Define the Problem Objective KNOW what you want to Tests of Hypothesesprove (or disprove) BEFORE you do any data collection! Start by completing the following sentence: I am trying to prove that Formulate the Null and Alternative Hypotheses The null (H0) and alternative (H1 or Ha) hypotheses are developed from the problem statement. The problem statement (what you are trying to prove) becomes the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis becomes what you are trying to disprove

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## Tests of Hypotheses Determine Whether You

Need a 1-Tail or a 2-Tail Test ?

This is easy --- once you have formulated your Alternative Hypothesis.

## One Tail Tests

If a test is established to determine whether a new population value is SMALLER or LARGER than the old population value, the risk of making an error in accepting Ha is placed on only one end of the distribution: Ho: NEW OLD Ho: NEW OLD Ha: NEW < OLD Ha: NEW > OLD

## Statistical Method and Data Analysis

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Tests of Hypotheses
One Tail Tests

If a test is established to determine whether a new population value is SMALLER or LARGER than the old population value, the risk of making an error in accepting Ha is placed on only one end of the distribution: Ho: Ha:
NEW NEW

<

OLD OLD

Ho: Ha:

NEW NEW

>

OLD OLD

## Statistical Method and Data Analysis

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Tests of Hypotheses
Two Tail Tests

If a test is established to determine whether a new population value is DIFFERENT than the old population value, the alpha risk is divided into two parts: Ho: Ha:
NEW NEW

OLD OLD

Tests of Hypotheses

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