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Lowland Development in Indonesia

Bandung August 2011

F.X. Suryadi UNESCO-IHE Delft, the Netherlands

Proposed contents
Background information: Tides, li it i t i h d l Tid salinity intrusion, hydrology, hydraulics, topography Land suitability and water management zoning Data collection M th Mathematical modelling ti l d lli GIS application

Source: Rahmadi, 2011

Lowlands in Indonesia

Area of Lowlands No. Location Tidal (ha) 6.604.000 8.126.900 1.148.950 1 148 950 4.216.950 Inland (ha) 2.766.000 3.580.500 644.500 644 500 6.305.770 Total (ha) 9.370.000 11.707.400 1.793.450 1 793 450 10.522.720

Developed Lowland Areas (Cultivated Areas) Tidal (ha) 691.704 694.935 71.835 71 835 Inland (ha) 110.176 194.765 12.875 12 875 23.710 Total (ha)

1. 2. 3. 3 4.

Sumatera Kalimantan Sulawesi Papua

801.880 889.700 84.710 84 710 23.710


20.096.800 13.296.770






The natural fluctuation of the water levels may allow gravity drainage and in certain areas gravity (tidal) irrigation of lowlands; Top layers are mainly clays, suitable for agriculture development; d l Rainfall amount and distribution are adequate for agriculture; If drainage measures are taken, upland crop cultivation will be possible.

Constraints: Inadequate water management and related hydraulic infrastructure; Inadequate operation and maintenance of the water management systems; ; Need for lowland conservation; Insufficient institutional capability and farmer participation; Need for development priority priority.

Multi disciplines approach Hydraulics; Hydrology; Soil science; Agronomy; Geology and soil mechanics; G l d il h i Ecology; Economy; Environmental science

Tides des
Attraction force amongst celestial bodies: month, g earth, sun and other planets
Fc Path of earth Fa



Tides: earth-moon
Water surface without forces




Water surface with forces r earth moon

Fa = f (m1* m2)/r2 ( 1* 2)/

Several different tides

M2 and S2: principal tides (direct influence of attraction force), 2 for semi diurnal and S for sun and M for moon Declination tides (corrections on the principal tides): K2, K1, K2 K1 O1, P1 Elliptic tides (correction to the orbits of moon and earth): N2 Shallow water tides (entering shallow water, shape will ( g , p change): M4, MS4

Tidal constants analysis

Tidal constants: amplitude and phase Tidal analysis: Admiralty method; y ; Least square method. Water level tidal prediction (Wl): Wl= S0 + i Cos (i t i) S0 = mean sea level; p p ; i = amplitude i component; i = phase i component

Character of tides

f-number f= f (K1+O1)/(M2+S2) f < 0.25, semi diurnal 0.25< f < 1.5, mixed mainly semi diurnal 1.5< f < 3.0, mixed mainly diurnal f > 3 0 diurnal 3.0,

S Salinity intrusion y us o
Two types: Mixed; Stratified Depends on: Tidal range; Upstream discharge; Geometry of the system.

Salinity i t i S li it intrusion

High tide

Upstream discharge

Low Lo tide Extreme conditions: Low tide salinity intrusion High tide salinity intrusion Spring tides, d S i tid dry season

Rainfall run off

Two different sources: Run off from upper area; Run off on the related area For the design purposes, two different conditions should be checked: W t season: drainage and flood Wet d i d fl d protection systems; Dry season: crop water requirement, salinity intrusion, flushing.

Topography and reference level

Hydro-topography H d h Defined as the field elevation in relation to high river or canal water level at the nearest open water or intake point

water level land elevation

The identification of hydro-topographical categories the first step in delineating water management zones


average high water level wet season average high water level dry season

<= 0.50 m

category A

category B

category C

category D

Hydro-topography category A t
Can be flooded by the tides at least 4 or 5 times during a 14-day neap-spring tide cycle in both the wet and the dry season. These y p ; areas are situated mostly in depressions or close to river mouths;

category B
Can be flooded by the tides at least 4 or 5 times during a 14-day neap-spring tide cycle in the wet season only;

category C
Cannot be regularly flooded during high tide; the groundwater table may still be influenced by the tides. Dry food crops and tree crops are often better suited to these lands than rice;

category D
Are entirely above tidal influence. Dry food crops and tree crops are best suited to these areas areas.

Tidal lowland hydro-topography

Hightide Wetseason(WS)

< 50cm

Highttide Dryseason(DS)

Fieldscanbeflooded atleast45times duringneapspring tidecycleinthewet seasonsonly Lowtide Low tide WS Fieldscanbefloodedat least45timesduring neapspringtidecycle bothinthewetanddry seasons

Fieldscannotberegularly floodedduringhightides. g g Thegroundwatertable maystillbeinfluenced (< 50cmfromground level)

Fieldscannotberegularly floodedduringhightides. Thefieldsareentirely abovetidalinfluence above tidal influence (> 50cmfromground level)

Lowtide DS






Hydro-topography with and without land subsidence (0.5 cm/year) & sea level rise of 2 mm/year

Water management in lowland areas

at two levels: On-farm water management. In field level, which determines directly the environment in which the crops grow or other landuse; M i system water management. Th primary Main The i objective of the main system is to keep the water level and the water quality as appropriate as possible q y pp p p in relation to the agricultural use.

Objectives of on-farm water management

Drain excess rainwater from the fields; Prevent excessive weed growth (water layer on the field for rice); Prevent water quality deterioration (acidity control), leaching and flushing; g g; Ensure sufficient water for the crops; Prevent salt-water intrusion.

Objectives of main system water management j y g

Primary secondary and tertiary canals Primary, Tertiary and secondary canals may be provided with water control structures The main system may also have other objectives, such objectives as transportation and domestic water supply

Lowland development:
Urban; Rural

Case Study: Tl Telang 1 for rural or agricultural development; f l i lt l d l t Palembang City Urban Drainage System

Hydraulic boundary conditions

Tidal fluctuation
2,2 2 1,8 1,6 w ater level [m M + SL 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 48 96 144 192 240 288 time [hrs] 336 384 432 480 528 576

Run off: lowlands and uplands

Type of water management systems

Traditional system Fork system

Grid system

Combined system

Soil issues
Soil ripening; P t soils; Peat il Acid sulphate soils and muck soils.

Pyrite oxidation and rainfall water 4FeS2 + 15O2 + 2H2O

pH can b l be lower than 4 h

2Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 H2SO4

Water management for rice

a. Water retention rice field canal

water level

inundation depth 0 0.15 m

b. Regular drainage/leaching rice field canal

drainage depth 0.10 0.25 m water level

c. Tidal irrigation rice field canal

water level

W e Water management components ge e co po e s

Percentage of open storage (canals, g p g ( retention basins); Dikes; Outlet structures (gravity or pumping system); Water level outside; R i f ll and run off Rainfall d ff

Pumping station

Archimedes pump in Kinderdijk, the Netherlands

Drainage is required
After excessive rainfall; Before fertiliser application; When the quality of the soil and water deteriorates.

Water management zoning in tidal lowlands

Orthophoto/leve ling Basemap Satellite image Soilproperties,Rainfall andGWL

DigitalElevationModels SeaLevelRise









Watermanagement zoning i


ProposedWaterManagement Zoningforwetanddryseason

Lowland L l d development in South Sumatra

Telang II

Growth of Jakarta, from 1972-2005 (Source: Bappeda of J k t 2009) B d f Jakarta,


Sea level rise (IPCC, 2007) and land subsidence (IPCC

DKI Jakarta Ja a a



polders that have to be constructed because the existing urban area became too low, mainly due to subsidence. Lay out that was gradually developed in the old city; d ll d l d i h ld i polders that were reclaimed by private project developers. These areas are generally well developed and have a rational lay out

60 50
Rainfall Depth(mm)

Rainfall-duration curve
Tr=2yr Tr=5yr Tr=10yr Tr=25yr Tr=50yr Tr=100yr 0 500 1000 Duration(minutes) 1500

40 30 20 10 0

Rainfall depth-duration curve for Delfland

200 175
Ra ainfall Depth(mm)

150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 500 1000 Duration(minutes) 1500

Tr=2yr Tr=5yr Tr=10yr Tr=25yr Tr=50yr Tr=100yr

Rainfall depth-duration curve for Jakabaring, Palembang 42

Dua ops tanggul lepas pantai Jakarta ua opsi a ggu epas pa a Ja a a



Effect of reclamation on water level along a river

New water level

Original water level

New coastline

Original coastline

Land use zoning system in urban development

Double Degree MSc on Integrated Lowland Development, Planning management, the first diploma awarding 2009 Pl i t th fi t di l di

MSc thesis s related to sea level rise and land subsidence thesiss

PhD study: Sumi, UNSRI, 2011

Next course
Land suitability and water management zoning i Data collection Mathematical modelling GIS application

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