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Author Year Title 1 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Dr. Yunus Adeleke Dauda, Waidi Adeniyi Akingbade and Hamed Babatunde Akinlabi

2010 Strategic Management Practice and Corporate Performance of Selected Small Business Enterprises in Lagos Metropolis
Cross sectional survey, with structured questionnaire Random sampling Sample size: 140 Data analysis: Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation and descriptive statistics

Strategic management practices enhance both organizational profitability and company market share. Strategic management practices and performance/growth in other industries. Is it probable that strategic management may not be needed in other industries?

Author Year Title Methodology 2 Findings

Anastasia A. Katou 2008 Measuring the impact of HRM on organizational performance Survey (questionnaire) Sample size: 600 firms Sampling technique: stratified

Literature Gaps

What other factors add up to HRM outcomes to ensure efficient and effective linkage between HR policies and performance? The level of influence of specific mediating factors on the effective implementation of HRM policies. 1

HRM policies directly influence HRM outcomes such as collective skills, attitudes, and behaviors, and thus, indirectly through HRM outcomes improve organizational performance. HRM policies are significantly, positively and directly related to organizational performance. The study assumes that HRM policies are influenced by business strategies.

Author Year Title Methodology 3 Findings

Literature Gaps

Andersen, Torben Juul 2000 Strategic Planning, Autonomous Actions and Corporate Performance Survey (both questionnaire and interviews) Probability, multi-stage, stratified, and simple random sampling techniques. Data analysis: descriptive statistics and correlation; multiple regression, Strategic planning is important and enhances performance in all the industrial settings. Autonomous action is effective among firms operating in dynamic and complex industries. Strategic planning processes are essential to good performance in all industrial environments and should not be ignored. The relevance of both strategic planning processes and autonomous action within a specific industry, and their complimentary levels.

Author Year Title Methodology 4 Findings

Robert M. Arasa, Evans O. Aosa and Vincent N. Machuki 2011 Participatory orientation to strategic planning process: Does it Pay? Survey (questionnaire) Population: insurance companies Correlation analysis Employee participation in strategic planning process is embraced across firms studied. Participatory orientation to strategic planning does influence the realization of strategic planning outcomes. There is a relationship between employee participation and firm performance.

Literature Gaps

The influence of other stakeholder groups (primary/secondary) on strategic planning and its expected outcomes. Need to carry out research in other service sub-sectors (besides insurance).

Author Year Title Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Jon C. Phillips and Dr. H.Christopher Peterson July 29, 1999 Strategic Planning and Firm Performance: A Proposed Theoretical Model for Small Agribusiness Firms. Secondary sources: review of related literature. There is empirical support for a link between strategic planning and the performance of firms. Analyze performance by obtaining financial performance data from the owners of small agribusinesses. Difficulty in quantifying independent variables of the proposed framework.

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Methodology

6 Findings

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Jehad S. Aldehayyat and Naseem Twaissi March 22, 2011 Strategic Planning and Corporate Performance Relationship in Small Business Firms: Evidence from a Middle East Country Context Survey (questionnaire) Population: all (105) registered stock exchange small industrial firms. Sample = population Data analysis: Spearmans correlation Companies give less importance to internal scanning; more interested in external scanning (issues). There is relatively little focuses on the use of strategy techniques; the most used technique is financial analysis. There is high level of line management participation in strategic activities. Middle management participate in strategic activities but less in choosing strategic proposals. All strategic planning dimensions and overall strategic planning had a significant relationship with corporate performance. A study is needed to confirm if truly the analysis of world-wide competitive trends is related to smaller companies as concluded by the research Need to use a more indirect approach to collect data since data obtained for variables were self-reported and not obtained from independent source.

Author Year Title

Amin Mohammadi Almani and Majid Ghanbarinejad Esfaghansary 2011 Strategic Planning: A Tool for Managing Organizations in Competitive Environments
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Methodology

Findings

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Secondary sources: review of related literature. Strategic planning provides a framework for steering operations in the desired direction over the future Strategic planning is a powerful tool for organizations to cope with an uncertain future Organizations using the principles of strategic planning are by far in better condition in marketing, profitably and beneficiation. Organizations that embrace strategic planning are better able to pursue growth opportunities in a time of crisis. Strategic planning is undergoing a resurgence is simply because many organizations have realized that the uncertainty of the current environment is precisely the reason why an organization should proceed with strategic planning. Does not address the different techniques to plan strategically. Does not consider mediating mechanisms linking strategic planning and performance; it only confirms that a strategy is panacea for uncertain environments. How?

Author Year Title Methodology

Findings

Alev M. Efendioglu and A. Tugba Karabulut April 2010 Impact of Strategic Planning on Financial Performance of Companies in Turkey Survey (with questionnaire) Cross-sectional study. Probability, stratified sampling technique. A large number of domestic and foreign firms in our sample have a strategic process in place; considered a very important organizational activity, and an annual event. Local firms in our study have increasingly adopted the techniques and tools of strategic planning more commonly employed by foreign firms. They have increasingly involved their top management in the process, allocated more resources to it, and incorporated greater formality into the process. Over time the importance of organizational process in Turkish firms have come to more closely resemble those of foreign firms. Only few issues addressed during strategic planning have effects on firms performance; The two activities/components that strongly correlates and impacts organizational performance are involvement of top management in the process and having a mission statement.
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Literature Gaps

Planning techniques used;


Pervasiveness of the process in service organizations;

Author Year Title Methodology

9 Findings

Literature Gaps

Ilesanmi, O. A. 2011 The Impact of Strategic Planning on the Performance of Nigerian Banks Secondary data; Data analyzed using regression model; Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) used for interpretation; Strategic planning is constantly being engaged at UBA Plc and is being carried out majorly by the senior management periodically. The setting of good corporate missions and objectives are important in the strategic planning process. The strategic planning process is susceptible to externalities and uncertainties in the economy but contingency plans are always put in place to cushion the effects. There is no absolute universally recognized format for strategic planning or in determining its variables but for the purpose of this study, the total assets of UBA Plc were used to suffice. The overall benefits of strategic planning on UBA Plc are increased profits and turnover, customer patronage, market leadership and strong brand identity. That performance at UBA Plc is usually determined by the impact of the companys strategic planning system. other variables (besides assets) which contribute to the performance indices should be identified and measured.

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Author Year Title Methodology

Ramli Bahroom, Latifah Abdol Latif and Rosila Abu Zarin 2009 Strategic Planning Practices at a Malaysian Private University: The OUM Experience Secondary sources: review of related literature. Descriptive more of a report
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Findings

Strategic planning is an effective tool in plotting the direction of an institution; Strategic innovation and tinkering with the strategic plan is an essential strategy to ensure that the institution survive in the current erratic and turbulent higher education business. Strategic planning should be flexible enough to allow for continuous improvements brought about by highly uncertain future environment.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title 11 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Stephen M. Bainbridge 2000 Employee involvement in workplace governance post-collective bargaining. A retrospective on Selznicks law, society, and industrial justice. Literature review. Analysis: multiple regression Employee participation in workplace governance today takes place through the various forms of participatory management that serve mainly as a way for managers to extract information from employees and prevent workers from shirking.

Author Year Title Methodology 12 Findings

C. Chet Miller and Laura B. Cardinal

1994
Strategic Planning and Firm Performance: A Synthesis of More than Two Decades of Research

Literature Gaps

Literature review Strategic planning to positively affect firm performance. Who have concluded that planning does not generally benefit performance appear to have been incorrect. Variation in planning-performance relationships is explained best by methods variables. Strategic planning affects performance more strongly in large firms than in small firms. Samples of large firms exhibit stronger planning-performance correlations than samples of small firms. Does not seem to mention the challenges of strategic planning.

Author Year Title Methodology

13 Findings

Literature Gaps

Robert M. Grant 2003 Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment: Evidence from the Oil Majors Exploratory Comparative case study (interviews) Strategic planning continues to play a central role in the management systems of large companies. The study points to a process of planned emergence in which strategic planning systems provided a mechanism for coordinating decentralized strategy formulation within a structure of demanding performance targets and clear corporate guidelines. Planning systems foster adaptation and responsiveness, with limited innovation and analytical sophistication. Strategic planning practices have changed substantially over the past two decades in response to the challenges of strategy formulation in turbulent and unpredictable environments. Strategic planning processes have become more decentralized, less staff driven, and more informal, while strategic plans themselves have become shorter term, more goal focused, and less specific with regard to actions and resource allocations. Strategic planning has become less about strategic decision making and more a mechanism for coordination and performance managing. Focused on theorizing operations and not on mediating mechanisms to achieve ends.

Author Year Title Methodology 14 Findings

Atif Hussain June 6, 2009 Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to Improve Quality and Performance of ASKARI BANK: A Case Study in PAKISTAN Survey (with questionnaire through intranet) Data analysis: BSC_Designer Software; used cross tabulation Respondents from all locations have affirmed managements positive response towards two-way communication i.e. listening to concerns of employees and encouraging socialization amongst staff members. Respondents have shown rare/sometime holding of staff meetings by their supervisor. Respondents see their career development and growth opportunities with the Bank, particularly staff who have joined us within last two years are fairly optimistic about their career growth within the bank. Almost 50% believed they are well paid. 7

Respondents have shown a very good understanding of our core values (Commitment, Integrity, Fairness, Teamwork and Service) in principle and in practice.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology 15 Findings

Literature Gaps

Keith W. Glaister, Omer Dincer, Ekrem Tatoglu, Mehmet Demirbag, Selim Zaim 2008 A causal analysis of formal strategic planning and firm performance: Evidence from an emerging country Postal survey Sample frame derived from the database of the Istanbul Chamber of Industrys 500 largest Turkish manufacturing companies and the database of companies quoted on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. Using LISREL causal modeling the moderating effects of a set of contingency factors on the relationship between formal strategic planning and rm performance were investigated. A strong and positive relationship was formed between formal strategic planning and rm performance, which tends to conrm the arguments of the prescriptive strategic management literature. The test results also verify the moderating roles of environmental turbulence, organization structure and rm size on the strategic planning-performance link. Need to employ qualitative data gathering techniques to obtain rich data due to the subtlety and complexity of strategic planning. Incorporation of qualitative performance measures, in addition to nancial measures would enrich our understanding of the planning-performance relationship.

Author Year Title 16 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Keith W. Glaister, Omer Dincer, Ekrem Tatoglu, Mehmet Demirbag 2008 A comparison of strategic planning practices in companies from the UK and Turkey Survey Structured mail questionnaire. Contrary to expectations, it appears that Turkish firms rather than UK firms are more favorably disposed to strategic planning. The exception to this is the adoption and use of a range of tools/techniques of strategic analysis, which are more regularly employed by UK firms than by Turkish firms. Investigate the relationship between firms views on the strategic planning process and their use of strategic planning techniques. 8

Examine the relationship between strategic planning and organisational performance.

Author Year Title Methodology 17 Findings Literature Gaps

Ian Sadler and Richard Gough 2004 Applying a strategic planning process to several supply chain partners Strategic operations and logistics planning (SOLP) process was used. It involves researchers facilitating many meetings of the planning team in an action research setting at their premises. Combining knowledge from operations strategy and socio-technical systems (STS), participant observation and semi-structured surveys are used to obtain rich data. Carrying out the process twice at a heavy fabrication business (HFB) in Australia demonstrated that a team of chain managers can formulate strategic operations plans for a complete heavy industry chain. Extensive support, in the form of worksheets and facilitation, is important to formulation and extent of implementation of the plans. A case is made that assistance is probably necessary for full implementation of those plans. Whilst limited to cases in a heavy manufacturer, the research could be carried out among a range of medium-sized supply chains.

Author Year Title 18 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Bianca Groen, Mirthe van de Belt, Celeste Wilderom 2012 Enabling Performance Measurement in a Small Professional Service Firm Process-consultation type of action research design. The effects of this intervention were assessed by means of document analysis, participant observation, and individual/group interviews. The enabling PMS development process helped the firm deal with three challenges common to small PSFs: (1) it increased employees understanding about how to apply the firms strategy, (2) it led to greater knowledge exchange among employees, and (3) it enabled them to create new knowledge. This studys results suggest the type of intervention used for developing an enabling PMSthat has already been shown to be effective in large firmsmay also be useful for small PSFs.

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Author Year

Donald Chrusciel 2011 9

Title Methodology

Findings Literature Gaps

Environmental scan: influence on strategic direction After dening the environmental scan, its usefulness was explored from the perspective of a single case study public institution FM organization. Once the information is captured, the potential analysis and value was discussed. The environmental scan is seen as a valuable tool in the FM organization to solicit input from both the institutions administration and the customer community leaders. Through this analysis, the FM organization can refine its strategic direction by determining what it is doing well, what it should investigate doing, and what it should consider to stop doing. The single case study does raise the issue of generalizability. Need to explore other industries.

Author Year Title Methodology

20 Findings

Literature Gaps

Nicholas O'Regan, Abby Ghobadian 2006 Formal strategic planning: The key to effective business process management? Random sample methodology based on a directory available from a reputable commercial firm. Data gathered by means of survey questionnaire; five-point Likert type scale with a response of , 1 indicating that an item received no emphasis, and 5 indicating an item received strong emphasis. Wilcoxon test Opinion research. The perceived key strategic planning process barriers are related to implementation taking longer than anticipated, followed by unanticipated problems and external factors. Implementation barriers were experienced by a greater extent by low performing firms than by high performing firms, even though differences are statistically insignificant. High performing firms tend to focus on the implementation of the strategy planning process, whereas in low performing firms there is a greater degree of uncertainty and a lower degree of confidence. The results indicate that all eight barriers/problems to the implementation of strategic planning were experienced by both firm types. However, non-formal strategic planning firms indicated a greater emphasis on each barrier than formal strategic planning firms, which implies that formal planning helps in meeting the problems to a limited extent. Formal and non-formal planning firms experience similar implementation problems. Theres a mixed picture and a lack of consensus as regards the impact of formal planning on the minimization or elimination of the barriers to the deployment of strategic planning: further research recommended. Need to augment qualitative with quantitative data. 10

Author Year Title Methodology

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Findings

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Enrique Minarro-Viseras, Tim Baines, Mike Sweeney 2005 Key success factors when implementing strategic manufacturing initiatives Questionnaire-based survey. Personal interviews and case studies. Practitioners focusing their attention on the KSFs identified are more likely to succeed. Once these factors have been identified, the value of benchmarking project management methodologies then comes from drawing attention to those tasks that are key to the success of the implementation of SMIs. A project managers individual qualities and skills are the most critical factor for the success of the implementation of a SMI. The success of project management in the strategic manufacturing field is very much dependent on the human side of a project. Organisations facing the successful accomplishment of a SMI must focus their efforts in ensuring the availability of resources and convincing employees of the criticality of the initiative. Project management critically contributes to the success of the implementation of SMIs. A successful project management methodology for the implementation of SMIs would emphasise the use of project quality, cost and time management processes. Test the validity of the findings of this research by seeking practitioners judgment using a different research method and a different research design. Use a different sample of companies in order to confirm the universality of our results. Study individual manufacturing sectors in order to report any alterations in the order of criticality of the factors.

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Author Year Title Methodology Findings

William A. Drago, Christine Clements 1999 Leadership characteristics and strategic planning Survey (with questionnaire). Randomly selected respondents. Generally, leadership characteristics studied, including power/control, creativity and people/dependence, 11

Literature Gaps

were strong predictors of planning intensity and most planning tools considered, with the exception of longterm objectives. Where planning intensity, or the emphasis placed on all direction-setting tools, was relatively indifferent to specific leader characteristics (all leader characteristics were significant predictors), individual directionsetting tools tended to be stressed by leaders with different characteristics. Those leaders strong on people/dependence stressed mission/vision, short-term objectives and action planning. Leaders strong on power/control emphasized direction-setting tools that provided the greatest specificity including short-term objectives and action planning. Leaders strong on creativity stressed mission/vision, a longer-term and broadly focused direction-setting tool. To determine if the relationships noted in this study are similar in a wider range of firms. The limited number of items used to assess leader characteristics suggests the possibility of other important characteristics that may effect the use of planning and specific direction-setting tools. Use of various direction-setting tools in the planning process is only one of many important dimensions of the planning process. Further research is necessary to determine if leader characteristics are associated to other dimensions as well.

Author Year Title Methodology 23 Findings

Literature Gaps

Ral Len-Soriano, Mara Jess Muoz-Torres, Ricardo Chalmeta-Rosale 2010 Methodology for sustainability strategic planning and management Literature review The methodology can be easily implemented at companies with a minimum of computer resources, but managers play a key role in its success, since they are the responsible for providing the necessary environment for overcoming such an important change. To successfully carry out a project aimed at developing and implementing a SBSC, it is essential to have a step-by-step methodology that directs the development and implementation processes. The methodology has only been applied once and their results will only be able to be analyzed after a long time. Meanwhile, more implementations have to be performed to test and improve the different steps and tools until the methodology can be considered definitive.

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Author Year Title Methodology 24 Findings

Willem Salet, Johan Woltjer 2009 New concepts of strategic spatial planning dilemmas in the Dutch Randstad region case study-based theoretical review of types of metropolitan planning, drawing on original policy documents and interviews with relevant policymakers. It is shown that the answer to addressing the challenges of development planning at the city-regional level is not primarily to enlarge the steering powers of regional planning per se, but to broaden its strategic network capacity through enlarging the coordinative and communicative intelligence of the intermediate regional planning bodies. This allows better responsiveness to the evident transformation processes within spatial development planning as such, with a growing emphasis on a strategic element within it. This, again, is more in line with the changeability of urban space.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology 25 Findings

Literature Gaps

Manuela Pardo-del-Val, Clara Martnez-Fuentes, Salvador Roig-Dobn 2012 Participative management and its influence on organizational change Literature review Questionnaire sent by post and by e-mail to a sample of companies, who fulfilled the requirement of employing more than 50 people, and who had recently faced a change process. Data suggest that participative management might be giving the members of the organization the necessary tools to question aspects that could endanger changes, thus considering participation as a knowledge broker that sheds light along the change process through the increase of resistance to change sources. This research might help practitioners to look at resistance to change from a positive point of view, therefore, participation might be considered a tool to show potential weaknesses and help change agents to improve change outcomes. Level/amount of participation must be considered.

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Author Year Title

Mott Linn 2008 Planning strategically and strategic planning 13

Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Literature review The paper discusses and gives examples to illustrate why an institution does not need to go through an intricate strategic planning process. A laborious process is not needed to plan a librarys strategic direction. Empirical study is needed for confirmation.

Author Year Title Methodology

27 Findings

Mostafa Jazayeri, Danture Wickramsinghe, Tharusha Gooneratne 2011 Convergence versus divergence of performance measurement systems: Lessons from spatial variations Scenarios are drawn from two case studies: BAE Systems (a large UK manufacturing company) and Alpha (a medium-sized Sri Lankan manufacturing company). The data were collected through in-depth interviews and documentary sources. An internal culture change programe led to a business value scorecard (BVS) in BAE Systems, and an external knowledge diffusion programe gave rise to a balanced scorecard (BSC) in Alpha. The culture change programme was facilitated by a particular institutional logic resulting in a successful BVS practice. In contrast, at Alpha, the BSC project was externally imposed, although it was designed with the blessing of the owner-manager. This triggered internal controversies and the workforce became unreceptive. Consequently, attention was diverted to other management fads such as total quality management, Six Sigma, and enterprise resource planning but these were also short lived.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title 28 Methodology Findings

Andrew Booth 2006 Counting what counts: performance measurement and evidence-based practice The paper presents a selective review of key writings in evidence-based library and information practice (EBLIP) for reference to performance measurement. The paper finds that performance measurement may variously be viewed as one small, but essential, stage of EBLIP or an overarching approach to utilization of data of which research-derived evidence is a single
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source. Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology 29 Findings Literature Gaps

Matthew J. Giblin, George W. Burruss 2009 Developing a measurement model of institutional processes in policing. First and second-order confirmatory factor analyses are performed on secondary data originally collected in a 1997 national survey of law enforcement agencies about their approach to community policing. The results showed a refined model of institutional processes including three constructs professionalization, publications, and mimesis. A construct indicated by funding measures does not seem to be consistent with other institutional pressures. The research made use of available data and existing measures not explicitly constructed for the purpose of theory testing.

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Methodology 30

Findings Literature Gaps

Shun-Hsing Chen, Hui-Hua Wang, King-Jang Yang 2009 Establishment and application of performance measure indicators for universities. A literature analysis was conducted and European, American and Taiwanese education evaluation indicators were used to develop the PMIs. Data were collected from the following sources: US-MBNAQ; US News & World Report; two renowned US education journals; UK University Committee Reports; UK-CVCP/UGC; three renowned UK education evaluation newspapers, opinions from the Ministry of Education and submissions from scholars in Australia and Taiwan. A total of 13 scholars were invited to participate in the literature review and analysis, which employed Delphi methods. The indicators included 18 measurement dimensions, and 78 PMIs were developed. Applying these PMIs resulted in the creation of key performance indicators and a balanced scorecard (BSC) of performance measures. In addition, BSC represented a self-evaluation performance indicator that universities could use to achieve the objective of performance management.

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Author Year Title

Methodology 31

Findings

Samer Khasawneh 2011 Human capital planning in higher education institutions: A strategic human resource development initiative in Jordan A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over five dimensions (i.e. planning, analyzing, organizing, directing, and monitoring). Based on participants perceptions, the higher education institutions under study have a strong level of HCP. Examples of HCP include identifying sources of relevant employment and workforce data, establishing competency models, training internal talent, updating and ensuring the accuracy of all job descriptions, and establishing organizational learning practices that encourage employees to engage in lifelong learning. The results also indicate that there are no significant differences in assessing the status of human capital planning based on the gender of participants and their university affiliation. However, significant differences were detected based on type of position only on the planning and monitoring dimensions in favor of department chairs.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology 32 Findings Literature Gaps

Akinyele Samuel Taiwo and Fasogbon Olufunke Idunnu 2007 Impact of Strategic Planning on Organizational Performance and Survival A survey technique was used with the administration of questionnaires to 100 respondents (of which 80 was retrieved) comprising of both the senior and junior staff in various First bank branches in Lagos metropolis. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Also, T-Test and Chi-square statistical methods were used in testing the hypotheses using the SPSS. Strategic planning enhances better organizational performance. Strategic planning intensity is determined by managerial, environmental and organizational factors. There is a link between strategic planning and organizational survival. It has well been established that there is a positive correlation between strategic planning and performance. What is left, then, is a look at the mediating mechanisms.
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Author Year Title 33 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Juha Kettunen 2005 Implementation of strategies in continuing education Literature review The balanced scorecard. The strategy of focus combined with the strategy of cost-efficiency is applicable for higher education institutions. These strategies can be adjusted, for example, to profitable growth in continuing education.

Author Year Title Methodology 34

Findings Literature Gaps

Swee C. Goh 2012 Making performance measurement systems more effective in public sector organizations Literature review. It reviews literature on public sector performance management and measurement and develops a conceptual framework to explain how public sector performance measurement systems can be made more effective in light of the research evidence. Paper suggests that three important factors need to be considered in the effective implementation of a performance measurement system in the public sector. They are managerial discretion, a learning and evaluative organizational culture and stakeholder involvement. These three factors are discussed and its impact on performance measurement is explored.

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Author Year Title Methodology

Zahirul Hoque 2008 Measuring and reporting public sector outputs/outcomes: Exploratory evidence from Australia Exploratory study: literature review.
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Findings Literature Gaps

Texts and contents from archival sources such as published annual reports and department web sites provided insightful and interesting findings. The paper reveals that performance measurement systems design as a central thrust to the subject government departments strategic planning and management framework. Furthermore, content analyses of the data indicate a clear linkage between the recently introduced managing for outcomes framework and performance measurement practices of government departments.

Author Year Title

Mattias Elg 2007


The process of constructing performance measurement method of analysis used for this work is based on three empirical studies
The main argument for using performance measurement is that it creates possibilities for managers to gain knowledge about what is going on within the organization and direct future behaviour. The effectiveness of such a knowledge creation process is partly dependent on local circumstances of how information is being created. In large scale performance measurement systems we can expect that several people are involved in constructing information. These people are either directly involved or have indirect influence over the construction process. Different motives and cognition play an important role as information is shaped and reshaped from the collection of raw data until its final usage in management settings. The research field is provided with an alternative view of what it means to work with performance measurement. This includes decomposition of the traditional mechanistic view of performance measurement.

Methodology

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Findings

Literature Gaps

How should the organization set up and design the system if they acknowledge this constructive aspect? Are there ways in which organizations can assess the quality of the data? Are there steps in the construction process which severely interfere and make decision making out of date? Can we find some specific leverage in the performance measurement system which enhances learning?

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Author Year Title

Anders Bordum

2010
The strategic balance in a change management perspective
The paper revisits the development of strategic management and contains a rational reconstruction of core assumptions relevant to managing change. In the first section, the historical origin of strategic managements approach to change is rationally reconstructed. The next sections analyze and interpret core assumptions underlying the strategic management approach to planning and change. The next section explicate the conceptual strategic hierarchy showing that developments in strategy make theories of planning and control more abstract and complex, but nevertheless preserve the idea of planning and control as a demand for strategic balance. The last section inserts this discussion into a change management framework pointing to a practical paradox emerging and addressing a possible solution. It is argued that a practical paradox emerges between the time horizon inscribed in concepts of strategic management and planning and the empirical demands to it under the pressures of high frequency change.

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Methodology

Findings Literature Gaps

When is it possible to design and manage a balanced strategic change process under conditions of rapid high-frequency change

Author Year Title Methodology

Marko Kohtamki, Sascha Kraus, Markus Mkel, Mikko Rnkk

2012
The role of personnel commitment to strategy implementation and organisational learning within the relationship between strategic planning and company performance.
Using data from 160 small and medium-sized Finnish IT companies, the authors conduct an Mplus-analysis

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Findings

To implement strategies successfully, companies need capabilities to develop these strategies in such a way that their personnel will commit to implementing them and that strategy will steer employees behaviour in the intended direction.
The findings indicate that participative strategic planning positively affects personnel commitment to strategy implementation, which thereby increases company performance. However, according to the analysis, participative strategic planning does not impact organisational learning, although organisational learning does have a positive impact on company performance. The results of this study are generalisable to a dynamic industry context of small and medium-sized IT-firms operating in a small open economy, such as that of Finland.

Literature Gaps

Second, the data are cross-sectional; therefore, the results should also be tested using a longitudinal research setting. Finally, we also believe

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that further research should continue our search for variables mediating or moderating the relationship between participative strategic planning and performance.

Author Year Title Methodology 39

Nico Nieboer

2011
Strategic planning process models
Case studies have been held among six Dutch non-profit landlords. These case studies included interviews with both policy staff and staff responsible for individual investment projects. In the Dutch non-profit housing sector, models based on principles of strategic business planning and similar models have been applied to structure and to systematise decision making about investments in the housing stock. These models, however, appear to be unsuccessful in their impact on actual investments in estates or buildings. The main weakness is that these models implicitly suppose a vertical, top-down implementation of policies, whereas policies are also formed by other strategies, beliefs and motives in the organisation, either documented or undocumented. The research is confined to the Dutch non-profit housing sector. However, similarities of the findings with other policy implementation studies suggest that the implications for strategic planning models also apply in many other non-profit sectors and maybe even in commercial sectors.

Findings

Literature Gaps

the applicability of the results is limited because the fieldwork is based on a small number of organisations in one sector

Author Year Title 40 Methodology

Kitprem Veskaisri; Peng Chan; Dennis Pollard 2007

Relationship Between Strategic Planning and SME Success: Empirical Evidence from Thailand
Survey research design with questionnaire Pilot study for reliability
Age and education level of the SME decision maker are positively correlated with the decision to use strategic planning Neither the gender of the SME decision maker nor the age of the SME business is related to the decision to use strategic planning. Education level has the strongest influence on the decision to use strategic planning while the age of the respondent is also a significant factor. It does not matter how long the small business has been using a written strategic plan because the results show that this is not significantly correlated with any of the growth variables.

Findings

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Literature Gaps

Growth variables have not been extensive. Identify other growth variables that could influence the relationship between strategic planning and firm performance mediating variables.

Author Year Title Methodology 41 Findings

Lori l. Silverman 2000

Using real time strategic change for strategy implementation


Review of related literature. Strategic planning carries with it many inherent challenges; the amount of time required to develop, deploy and implement the plan as well as align people around its breakthrough strategies. There are a variety of large group intervention methods that can assist organizations in addressing these challenges. These methods require the active support and involvement of senior management in order to be successful. they require the use of a design team to develop the what and how of the specific event based on a clearly defined goal statement. Need to empirically test conclusions.

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology

Alexandra L. Lerner 1999

A Strategic Planning Primer for Higher Education


Review of related literature Universities are driven to engage in a strategic planning process by a variety of forces: increasing demand for higher education concurrent with a decline in government funding, changing student demographics, and a need to compete with the emerging models of higher education while keeping the essence of a traditional comprehensive university. Challenges facing higher institutions: decrease in government funding; increase in demand for higher education; changing demographics; keeping elements of a traditional model; lack of consensus in state government; and economic transformation. Benefits of strategic planning makes it a tool for the university to find its competitive advantage and place within the environment. Need to empirically test conclusions.
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42 Findings

Literature Gaps

Author Year Title Methodology

Anders McIlquham-Schmidt 2010

Appraising the empirical evidence of the relationship between strategic planning and corporate performance
Literature review: presented the results of three different types of integration methods on a collection of 88 studies of the relationship. The integration methods used are two qualitative (voting method classification) and one quantitative (meta-analysis). Voting method 1 - face-value: The result of the face-value analysis shows that the general perception in the strategic planning literature - that there is a positive relationship between strategic planning and corporate performance - is valid; there is strong support for a positive relationship between strategic planning and corporate performance but the analytical methodology (or lack of such) strongly questions the validity of the result. Voting method 2 - statistical significance: there is still some support for a positive relationship between strategic planning and corporate performance but it is not as strong as the one found in the face-value analysis. The meta-analysis showed at the overall level that there is a positive relationship between strategic planning and corporate performance but it also showed that the relationship is very weak. There are some problems with using the results of the face-value analysis since it is based upon authors own interpretation of the results and excludes any consideration of statistical significance. Other performance measures be applied to ensure consistency in conclusions, since lack of progress in strategic planning research field is attributed to problems with the application of appropriate techniques.

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Literature Gaps

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Author Year Title Methodology Findings

Janet Moore

2005
Seven recommendations for creating sustainability education at the university level: A guide for change agents
Through a series of workshops using a value focused thinkingframework, a small team of researchers engaged a large number of stakeholders in a dialogue about sustainability education at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. Recommendations were compiled from workshop data as well as data from 30 interviews of participants connected with decision-making and sustainability at UBC. The recommendations include infusing sustainability into all university decisions, promoting and practicing collaboration and transdisciplinarity and focusing on personal and social sustainability. Other recommendations included an integration of university plans, decision-making structures and

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evaluative measures and the integration of the research, service and teaching components of the university. There is a need for members of the university community to create space for reflection and pedagogical transformation.

Literature Gaps

More research is needed that focuses on transformation, alternative pedagogy and new kinds of organizational and evaluative structures; What does it mean to have a process (or a classroom) that encompasses sustainability? Focus on the short and long-term impacts of community service learning and integrated community-university partnerships related to sustainability initiatives.

Author Year Title

Ana Ladeiras, Antnio Mota, Jorge Costa

2010
Strategic tourism planning in practice: the case of the Open Academy of Tourism
The case study presented in this paper is based on an academic/industry project, launched to support the practical learning of strategic tourism planning and the strategic management of tourism destinations by MBA students. The Open Academy of Tourism, a partnership between the Institute of Tourism, and the Portuguese National Association of Tourism Regions, was created to support the development of strategic plans for Portuguese tourism regions, while allowing students to test and fine tune a model for strategic planning and managing tourism destinations. To better understand the applicability of this model, 13 case studies based on the same number of strategic plans were developed. The paper reveals that the effective management of any tourist destination can be enhanced by following a carefully developed tourism strategy which contemplates the involvement of all stakeholders. It also demonstrates that academia can work closely together with public tourism organisations to develop meaningful plans of action for destinations.

Methodology 45

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Author Year Title 46 Methodology Findings

Maria Manuela Pereira, Nuno Filipe Melo

2012
The implementation of the Balanced Scorecard in a school district: Lessons learned from an action research study
Qualitative study: action research approach was used to develop a BSC, help to implement changes and reflect about the outcomes.

BSC can overcome some weaknesses of Portuguese schools, in the area of strategic management. The implementation of the BSC had mixed results. Implementation of the BSC in the AEX School District was constrained by the limits of the current levels of autonomy granted to non-higher 23

Literature Gaps

education public schools. Impossible to make generalizations from a single intervention.

Author Year Title Methodology

Susana Elena-Prez, Ozcan Saritas, Katja Pook, Campbell Warden

2011
Readyfor the future? Universities' capabilities to strategically manage their intellectual capital

The paper reviews recent literature both on conceptual issues and experiences in relation to foresight and intellectual capital. The paper presents an ongoing project focused on the development of a vision for the future of the higher education system in Romania and a frame to differentiate Romanian universities. As the Romanian case study shows, a foresight exercise together with a strategic management approach following an IC model, could be useful for policy makers to place HE in a wider context and highlights some of the key issues of the future of the HE sector. A framework for mapping and differentiating universities based on IC approaches and its three main pillars (human, structural and relational capital) will be a key to support decision-making processes the construction of the long-term vision and of the strategy through public dialogue will answer, among other things, the need to correlate the educational offer to the demands of the labour market and will contribute to the structuring of the development of human capital, one of the key elements of the IC, able to assure the economys long-term competitiveness

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Author Year Title

Sarah McNicol

2005
The challenges of strategic planning in academic libraries

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The research consisted of a literature and documentation review, followed by interviews with academic library directors and senior institutional managers. There was also a survey of all UK HE libraries. The key issues which need to be addressed by academic libraries in terms of strategic planning are: the involvement of library staff; communication of library aims and plans externally; level of active involvement in institutional and departmental planning; evaluation and target setting; and involvement in more difficult institutional aims such as income generation and widening participation. The response to the various activities of this research project indicate the lack of interest in outcomes assessment within the academic library sector. There is little rigorous evidence in this area to inform library professionals.

Author Year Title Methodology

Ni Putu S.H. Mimba, G. Jan van Helden, Sandra Tillema 2007

Public sector performance measurement in developing countries: A literature review and research agenda
Based on a review of prior literature, the paper develops understanding of the demand for and supply of performance information in developing countries, and of changes in this area. The paper argues that public sector organisations in developing countries are likely to face an unbalanced position, i.e. disequilibrium between the demand for and supply of performance information. More precisely, the public sector reforms which are partly stimulated by a growing involvement of some stakeholders lead to an increasing demand for performance information but, because of the low-institutional capacity and the high level of corruption, this increasing demand is not always followed by a sufficient supply of performance information. This leads to an unsatisfied demand position. The paper concludes with an overview of issues related to PSPM in a developing country context that require further investigation..
public sector performance measurement

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Author Year Title

E. Tapinos, R.G. Dyson, M. Meadows

2005
The impact of performance measurement in strategic planning

Methodology 50

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A large scale survey was conducted online with Warwick Business School alumni. The questionnaire was based on the Strategic Development Process model by Dyson. The questionnaire was designed to map the current practice of strategic planning and to determine its most influential factors on the effectiveness of the process. All questions were close ended and a seven-point Likert scale used. The independent variables were grouped into four meaningful factors by factor analysis (Varimax, coefficient of rotation 0.4). The factors produced were used to build regression models (stepwise) for the five assessments of strategic planning process. Regression models were developed for the totality of the responses, comparing SMEs and large organizations and comparing organizations operating in slowly and rapidly changing environments. The results indicate that performance measurement stands as one of the four main factors characterising the current practice of strategic planning. This research has determined that complexity coming from organizational size and rate of change in the sector creates variation in the impact of performance measurement in strategic planning. Large organizations and organizations operating in rapidly changing environments make greater use of performance measurement. This research is based on subjective data, therefore the conclusions do not concern the impact of strategic planning process elements on the organizational performance achievements, but on the success/effectiveness of the strategic planning process itself.

Author Year Title 51 Methodology Findings Literature Gaps

Juha Kettunen

2006
Strategic planning of regional development in higher education

Literature review The balanced scorecard approach is used to provide a general framework to communicate the strategy. The approach is useful in accomplishing the strategic themes and objectives. Empirical evidence is needed to support conclusions.
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Spender, J. C. and Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen, Why Competitive Strategy Succeeds and with Whom (2010). Huggins, R. and Izushi, H. (2010) Competition, Competitive Advantage, and Clusters: The Ideas of Michael Porter, Oxford University Press. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2106007 Freeman, R. Edward and McVea, John, A Stakeholder Approach to Strategic Management (2001). Darden Business School Working Paper No. 01-02. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=263511 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.263511 Moore, Mark H., The Public Value Scorecard: A Rejoinder and an Alternative to 'Strategic Performance Measurement and Management in NonProfit Organizations' by Robert Kaplan (May 2003). Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations Working Paper No. 18. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=402880 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.402880 Bhagat, Sanjai and Bolton, Brian J., Corporate Governance and Firm

SUMMARY OF LITERATURE Year Title Methodology

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Performance (June 2007). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1017342 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1017342 Raggio, Randle D. and Leone, Robert P., The Theoretical Separation of Brand Equity and Brand Value: Managerial Implications for Strategic Planning (March 3, 2006 ). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=894109 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.894109 COSKUN, Ali, Using the Balanced Scorecard in Strategic Performance Management: A Survey on Turkish Manufacturing Companies (Stratejik Performans Ynetiminde Performans Karnesi Kullanimi: Trkiye'deki Sanayi Isletmeleri Uzerine Bir Arastirma). Muhasebe Bilim Dnyasi Dergisi, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 127-153, March 2006. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=979612
Kampanje, Brian Phiri, Twenty Years after Balanced Scorecard (July 6, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2099830 Hawn, Olga and Ioannou, Ioannis, Do Actions Speak Louder than Words? The Case of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) (July 6, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2101775 Armstrong, J. Scott, Strategic Planning and Forecasting Fundamentals. THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK, Kenneth Albert, ed., New York: McGraw Hill, 1983. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=649097 Shamsuddoha, Mohammad, Sustainable Growth: Combining Ecological Issues into Strategic Planning (December 2, 2005). Advances in Mining Technology and

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Management, IIT, Kharagpur, India, November 30-December 2, 2005. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1302271 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1302271 Nevries, Pascal, Kornetzki, Timo and Weide, Gonn K., Characteristics of the Strategic Planning Process and the Relevance of Management Accounting: Evidence from German Dax30 Companies (2006). AAA 2008 MAS Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1004091 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1004091 Rosenfarb, Noah B., Enhancing Performance and Increasing Profits with Strategic Planning. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=446940 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.446940 Rohrbeck, Ren and Bade, Manuel , Environmental Scanning, Futures Research, Strategic Foresight and Organizational Future Orientation: A Review, Integration, and Future Research Directions (June 9, 2012). ISPIM Annual Conference 2012, Barcelona, Spain. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2080448 Lowder, B. Tim, Strategic Thinking and Strategic Planning: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle (June 14, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1418793 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1418793 Gkliatis, Ioannis P. and Koufopoulos, Dimitrios N., Strategic Planning Practices in the Greek Hospitality Industry: Empirical Findings from the Greek 5-Star Hotels (May 14, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1605187 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1605187 Ketokivi, Mikko and Castaer, Xavier, Strategic Planning as an Integrative Device (2004). Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 49, pp. 337365, 2004. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1687641 Koufopoulos, Dimitrios N., Gkliatis, Ioannis P., Argyropoulou, Maria and Zoumbos, Vasilios Thomas, Strategic Planning Approaches in Greek SMEs (June 3, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1619872 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1619872

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Zomorrodian, Asghar, New Approach to Strategic Planning: The Impact of Leadership and Culture on Plan Implantation via the Three Cs: Cooperation, Collaboration and Coordination (March 4, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1777307 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1777307 Allen, Craig H. , Future Ports Scenarios for 21st Century Port Strategic Planning (December 3, 2011). 79 J. Transp. L. Logist. & Poly 89-137 (2012). . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1967856 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1967856 Reddy, Amarender A., Strategic Planning for Profitable Egg Production in India (December 31, 2010). World Poultry, pp. 16-17, March 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1733023 Mattelaer, Alexander T.J. and Studies, Institute for European, The Strategic Planning of EU Military Operations - The Case of EUFOR TCHAD/RCA (December 8, 2010). Institute for European Studies Working Paper No. 5/2008. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1577775 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1577775 Armstrong, J. Scott, Review of Corporate Strategic Planning (April 1, 1990). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1941462 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1941462 Campuzano, Lydia Guadalupe and Seteroff, Sviatoslav Steve, A Dynamic Approach to Strategic Planning: Concept for Investigation (February 15, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1553400 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1553400 Leon, Ramona Diana, Towards Strategic Planning An Epistemological Perspective (June 16, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1865958 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1865958 Krishnamurthy, Prabhakar, Social Forecasting Relevance in Strategic Planning for Corporate Sector (June 29, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1632506 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1632506

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Oboreh, Jacob Snapps and Umukoro, Francis George, An Empirical Investigation into the Effects of Strategic Planning and Satisfaction in Small Firms in Nigeria (April 27, 2011). Sacha Journal of Policy and Strategic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-8, April 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1824627 Leon, Ramona Diana, Strategic Planning An Analytical Perspective (June 15, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1865127 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1865127 De Ruijter, Paul A., Alkema, Henk and Stolk, Saskia, How Strategic Planning Can Help Us Get Through the Present World Crisis (February 1, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2038171 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2038171 Christ, Margaret H., Emett, Scott A., Summers, Scott L. and Wood, David A., The Effects of Preventive and Detective Controls on Employee Performance and Motivation (April 6, 2011). Contemporary Accounting Research, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1489918 Singh, Sanjeet, Sharma, Gagan Deep and Cheema, Harman Deep, A Study of Effect of Performance Appraisal on the Organization and the Employee (March 29, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1852017 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1852017 Presslee, Adam, Vance, Thomas W., Webb, Alan and Jeffrey, Scott, The Effects of Reward Type on Employee Goal Setting, Goal Commitment and Performance (January 11, 2011). AAA 2011 Management Accounting Section (MAS) Meeting Paper; CAAA Annual Conference 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1656517 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1656517 John, Jessy, Relevance of Employee Development Plans in Employee Performance Management (October 23, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1711647 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1711647 Bae, Kiu-Sik, Chuma, Hiroyuki, Kato, Takao, Kim, Dong-Bae and Ohashi, Isao, High

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Performance Work Practices and Employee Voice: A Comparison of Japanese and Korean Workers. IZA Discussion Paper No. 4956. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1631091 Andries, Petra and Czarnitzki, Dirk, Small Firm Innovation Performance and Employee Involvement (December 1, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2109277 Okantey, Peter Carlos , The Impact of Design on Non-Profit Organizations and Employee Performance (April 30, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2049036 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2049036 Groen, Bianca A.C., Wouters, Marc J.F. and Wilderom, Celeste, How is Employee Participation in Developing Performance Indicators Related to Employee Job Performance? Agency vs. Self-Determination Theory (August 15, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1909726 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1909726 Bartel, Ann P., Freeman, Richard B., Ichniowski, Casey and Kleiner, Morris M., Can a Workplace Have an Attitude Problem? Workplace Effects on Employee Attitudes and Organizational Performance (January 28, 2011). Labour Economics, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1772885 Dittrich, Dennis Alexis Valin and Kocher, Martin G., Monitoring and Pay: An Experiment on Employee Performance Under Endogenous Supervision (January 11, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1755002 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1755002 Okantey, Peter Carlos , The Impact of Design on Non-Profit Organizations and Employee Performance (April 30, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2048855 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2048855 Podsakoff, Philip M., Ahearne, Michael and MacKenzie, Scott B., Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Quantity and Quality of Work Group Performance (1997). Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. 262-270, 1997. Available at SSRN:

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Corporate Performance: A Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, (1972-1992) (August 14, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1452718 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1452718 Hofmann, Christian and Reichmann, Steffen, Organizational Structure, Aggregation of Performance Measures, and Incentives (August 16, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1659915 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1659915 Faia Correia, Manuela, Campos Cunha, Rita and Scholten, Marc, Organizational Change and Performance: The Moderating Role of Human Resource Management Centrality (April 7, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1804871 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1804871 Salim, Islam Mohamed and Sulaiman, Mohamed Bin, Impact of Organizational Innovation on Firm Performance: Evidence from Malaysian-Based ICT Companies (August 6, 2011). Business and Management Review, Vol. 1, No. 5. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1906131 Jelinek, Ronald, Ahearne, Michael, Mathieu, John and Schillewaert, Niels, A Longitudal Examination of Individual, Organizational, and Contextual Factors on Sales Technology Adoption and Job Performance (January 1, 2006). Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 7-23, 2006. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1582980 Muterera, Jonathan, Leadership Behaviors and Their Impact on Organizational Performance in Governmental Entities (March 29, 2012). OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 19-24, 2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2031053 Ryu, Sangyub, Emergency Management and Organizational Performance: Evidence from Hurricane Rita (March 24, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1577964 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1577964 Khalique, Muhammad, Nassir Shaari, Jamal

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Abdul, Isa, Abu Hassan Bin Md and Ageel, Adel, Role of Intellectual Capital on the Organizational Performance of Electrical and Electronic SMEs in Pakistan (September 2, 2011). International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1921304 Tronconi, Claudia and Vittucci Marzetti, Giuseppe, Organizational Capital and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence for European Firms (November 25, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1505974 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1505974 Backes-Gellner, Uschi, Schneider, Martin R. and Veen, Stephan, Effect of Workforce Age on Quantitative and Qualitative Organizational Performance: Conceptual Framework and Case Study Evidence (February 28, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1773023 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1773023 Khan, CPA, M. D. Habib-Uz-Zaman, Halabi, Abdel Karim and Khan, Md. Rashidozzaman, Non-Financial Performance Measures Organizational Performance Relationship in the Bangladeshi Firms: The Moderator Role of Environmental Uncertainty and Corporate Culture (November 28, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1965612 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1965612 Hoq, Mohammad Ziaul and Chauhan, Ajay Amarsingh, Effects of Organizational Resources on 373 Organizational Performance: An Empirical Study of SMEs (April 2011). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 373385, April 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1851428 Perkmann, Markus, Neely, Andy D. and Walsh, Kathryn, How Should Firms Evaluate Success in University-Industry Alliances? A Performance Measurement System (May 17, 2010). R&D Management, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 202216, March 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1609746 Burney, Laurie L. and Widener, Sally K., The Effects of Perceptions of Performance Measurement Characteristics on the Workforce

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(August 7, 2009). AAA 2010 Management Accounting Section (MAS) Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1445571 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1445571 Khan, Khurram and Shah, Attaullah, Understanding Performance Measurement Through the Literature (December 30, 2011). African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 5, No. 35, pp. 13410-13418, December 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1983404 Mohamed, Ehab K. A. , Multidimensional Performance Measurement in Islamic Banking (2010). Global Journal of Business Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 47-60, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1871234 Schachter, Hindy Lauer, Towards a More Democratic Performance Measurement (2009). APSA 2009 Toronto Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1450680 Meyer, Matthias, Waldkirch, Rdiger W. and Zaggl, Michal A. , Relative Performance Measurement of Researchers: The High Impact of Data Source Selection (August 1, 2011). Hamburg University of Technology Research Paper No. 5. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1959411 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1959411 Choi, Willie, Hecht, Gary and Tayler, William B., Strategy Selection, Surrogation, and Strategic Performance Measurement Systems (July 4, 2012). Forthcoming, Journal of Accounting Research. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1910383 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1910383 Triantafylli, Androniki A. and Ballas, Apostolos A., Aligning Strategy and Performance Measurement Systems in the Service Sector Companies: The Greek Example (May 1, 2010). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1829507 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1829507 Payer-Langthaler, Silvia, Duller, Christine and Feldbauer-Durstmller, Birgit, Performance Measurement in Family Firms: Evidence from Austrian Medium- and Large-Sized Companies

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(April 23, 2012). International Journal of Strategic Management, Forthcoming . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2044759 Spigelman, James J., Quality in an Age of Measurement: The Limitations of Performance Indicators (November 28, 2001). Quadrant, Vol. 46, No. 3, p. 9, 2002. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1809557 Xi, Kangwu Kenneth, Integrating the Global with the Local: Performance Measurement in Multinational Corporations (2011). Transnational Corporations Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2019710 Khan, CPA, M. D. Habib-Uz-Zaman, Halabi, Halabi Karim and Ahmed, Rafiuddin, The Roles of Degree of Competition and Types of Business Strategies in Adopting Multiple Performance Measurement Practices: Some Reflections from Bangladesh (November 9, 2011). Research in Accounting and Emerging Economies, Vol. 10, pp. 201-232, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1957126 Singh, Sanjeet, Sharma, Gagan Deep and Sharma, Rajesh, Effect of Employee Involvement in Business Organisation (April 13, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1852018 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1852018 Muller, Alan R. and Krussl, Roman, The Value of Corporate Philanthropy During Times of Crisis: The Sensegiving Effect of Employee Involvement (April 5, 2011). Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 103, No. 2, 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1803474 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1803474 Eidenmueller, Horst G. M. , Hornuf, Lars and Reps, Markus, Contracting Employee Involvement: An Analysis of Bargaining Over Employee Involvement Rules for a Societas Europaea (January 4, 2012). ECGI - Law Working Paper No. 185/2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1979487 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1979487 Jones, Derek C. and Kato, Takao, The Effects of Employee Involvement on Firm Performance:

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Evidence from an Econometric Case Study (September 2003). William Davidson Institute Working Paper No. 612. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=445440 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.445440 Bainbridge, Stephen M., Employee Involvement in Workplace Governance Post-Collective Bargaining (October 13, 1999). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=183869 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.183869 Colvin, Alexander J.S. , Peer Review Procedures: Employee Involvement in Dispute Resolution. AoM Conflict Management Division 2002 Mtgs. No. 12530. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=324262 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.324262 Addison, John T., The Determinants of Firm Performance: Unions, Works Councils, and Employee Involvement/High Performance Work Practices (June 2005). IZA Discussion Paper No. 1620. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=738103 Wolf, Elke and Zwick, Thomas, Reassessing the Productivity Impact of Employee Involvement and Financial Incentives (April 1, 2008). Schmalenbach Business Review, Vol. 60, April 2008. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1280863 Freeman, Richard B., Kleiner, Morris M. and Ostroff, Cheri, The Anatomy of Employee Involvement and its Effects on Firms and Workers (December 2000). NBER Working Paper No. w8050. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=254011 Chi, Wei, Freeman, Richard B. and Kleiner, Morris M., Adoption and Termination of Employee Involvement Programs (January 2007). NBER Working Paper No. w12878. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=960452 Jones, Derek C. and Pliskin, Jeffrey L., The Effects of Worker Participation, Employee Ownership and Profit Sharing on Economics Performance: A Partial Review (November 1988). Levy Economics Institute Working Paper No. 13. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=191169 or

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1445636 Dodangeh, Javad, Mojahed, Majid and Nasehifar, Vahid, Ranking of Strategic Plans in Balanced Scorecard by Using Electre Method (August 7, 2010). International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 269-274, August 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1721470 Banker, Rajiv D., Chang, Hsihui and Pizzini, Mina, The Judgmental Effects of Strategy Maps in Balanced Scorecard Performance Evaluations (October 2009). AAA 2010 Management Accounting Section (MAS) Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1456489 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1456489 Pollanen, Raili and Xi, Kenneth Kangwu, The Use of Balanced Scorecard Measures in Executive Incentives and Firm Performance (January 6, 2011). CAAA Annual Conference 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1736265 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1736265 Jauregui, Kety Lourdes and Santana, Martin, Corporation Jos R. Lindley: Balanced Scorecard Implementation (December 15, 2008). Revista Universidad y Empresa, Vol. 7, No. 15, pp. 11-46, Julio-Diciembre, 2008. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1514445 Dodangeh, Javad, Yusuff, Rosnah Mohd and Jassbi, Javad, The Best Selection of Strategic Plans in Balanced Scorecard Using MultiObjective Decision Making Model (February 4, 2011). African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 681-686, February 4, 2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1776502 Dodangeh, Javad, Yusuff, Rosnah Mohd and Jassbi, Javad, Best Selection of Strategic Plans in Balanced Scorecard Using Goal Programming Model (December 29, 2010). International Conference On Quality, Productivity And Performance Measurement (ICQPPM09), 2009. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1732370 Khan, CPA, M. D. Habib-Uz-Zaman, Halabi,

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Abdel Karim and Masud, Mohammad Zakaria, Empirical Study of the Underlying Theoretical Hypotheses in the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Model: Further Evidence from Bangladesh (November 9, 2011). Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 45-73, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1957129 Arafat, Wilson, Waluyo, Eko and Prabantarikso, Raden Mahelan, Corporate Governance Strategy Execution with Balanced Scorecard Approach: The Most Comprehensive Framework for 360 Degree CG Internalization in Indonesia (June 20, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1867906 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1867906 Guthrie, James and Yongvanich, Kittiya, Balanced Scorecard Practices Amongst Thai Companies: Performance Effects (2009). Pacific Accounting Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 132-149, 2009. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1742573 Guthrie, James and Farneti, Federica, Italian and Australian Local Governments: Balanced Scorecard Practices A Research Note (2008). Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 4-13, 2008. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1743843 Kampanje, Brian Phiri, Twenty Years after Balanced Scorecard (July 6, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2099830

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A dialectical approach to strategic planning


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RO Mason - Management Science, 1969 - JSTOR ... However, see also Suppes (25), Osgood (22) and Miller (21). Page 3. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO STRATEGIC PLANNING B-405 lem of developing a corporate strategic plan. ... At least two different theories can be employed. ...

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