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REPUBLIC OF COLUMBIA

bogota

TRANSPORTATION FOR THE PEOPLE


BY ABDUL MONIR, S.I.B

WHERE IS
REPUBLIC OF

COLUMBIA
ACTUALLY ?

AND WHERE IS BOGOTA ?

Bogota is the capital, and the largest city of Columbia .

demographic

GDP Annual % (2010)


9.2 7.5 5.5 4.3

1Mil

Buenos Aires

Sao Paolo

Mexico City

Bogota

inhabitants, 15% of Columbia population Covers an area of

7 Million

GDP ANNUAL % FOR Bogota (2010) = 4.3%

1.2
149 hab/ha 156 hab/ha

Million private vehicles

37,414 Ha

High densities (310 Hab/Ha)


250 hab/ha 306 hab/ha 310 hab/ha

Bogota urban population x50 during 100 years time


222 hab/ha

1538-1912

1912-1939

1950

1970

1990

2008

Transport sector
Car ownership is low, one car : 9 inhabitants

Congestion problems
Increasing reliance on automobile Lack of institutional capacity in the city government

of motorized trips are by bus

71%

Low level of investment


Problems in legislation

26,0000 old buses, operated by large number of owner operators and mini-companies

Evolution of

bogota
Transport planning and policies

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

MULE TRAM

ELECTRIC TRAM

10

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

MULE TRAM

ELECTRIC TRAM

10

1880

1900

1920
26

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

FIRST BUS

51

MULE TRAM

ELECTRIC TRAM

10

1880

1900

1920
26

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

FIRST BUS

51

FIRST ELECTRIC BUS

MULE TRAM

ELECTRIC TRAM

10

1880

1900

1920
26

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

FIRST BUS

51

FIRST ELECTRIC BUS

MULE TRAM

CURRENT BUS

ELECTRIC TRAM

TRANSMILENIO
10

1880

1900

1920
26

1940

1960

1980 2000

84

FIRST BUS

51

FIRST ELECTRIC BUS

MULE TRAM

CURRENT BUS

1980

The Bogotans were calling the city un enfierno means a living hell !

1995

3,300 murders
1400 traffic deaths

Transportation system infamous for taking four hours to commute from south to north

ANALYSTS AGREED THAT THE MAIN CAUSES OF THE SEVERE CONGESTION IN BOGOTA IS THE LACK OF CAPABLE instituition TO PLAN, BUILD, OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THE CITYS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.

I dont judge the success of a city by how many people own cars but I judge that city by how many rich people take the bus
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Elected mayor of Bogota in 1998

1998

To make people to use public transport in Colombian capital & vision for a better city Penalosa scheme an integrated mobility strategy

What is the strategy ?


Everything starts with Transmilenio

I dont judge the success of a city by how many people own cars but I judge that city by how many rich people take the bus
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Elected mayor of Bogota in 1998

1998

To make people to use public transport in Colombian capital & vision for a better city. Penalosa scheme an integrated mobility strategy

What is the strategy ?


Everything starts with Transmilenio Addition to main bus lines

I dont judge the success of a city by how many people own cars but I judge that city by how many rich people take the bus
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Elected mayor of Bogota in 1998

1998

To make people to use public transport in Colombian capital & vision for a better city. Penalosa scheme an integrated mobility strategy

What is the strategy ?


Everything starts with Transmilenio Addition to main bus lines

Ciclo Rutas (path ways for cyclist)

I dont judge the success of a city by how many people own cars but I judge that city by how many rich people take the bus
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Elected mayor of Bogota in 1998

1998

To make people to use public transport in Colombian capital & vision for a better city. Penalosa scheme an integrated mobility strategy

What is the strategy ?


Everything starts with Transmilenio Addition to main bus lines

Ciclo Rutas (path ways for cyclist)


A system of pedestrian walkways

I dont judge the success of a city by how many people own cars but I judge that city by how many rich people take the bus
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Elected mayor of Bogota in 1998

1998

To make people to use public transport in Colombian capital & vision for a better city. Penalosa scheme an integrated mobility strategy

What is the strategy ?


Everything starts with Transmilenio Addition to main bus lines

Ciclo Rutas (path ways for cyclist)


A system of pedestrian walkways Create metrovivienda land bank

MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM BY BUSES - TRANSMILENIO

traffic congestion is never solved by building roads


Enrique Pealosa Londoo

What is TRANSMILENIO ?
A concept borrowed from Curitiba, Brazil An innovative bus rapid system

Little of Transmilenio
_____________________

= 100,000

Opening in 2000, Phase 1 of Transmilenio was the first functioning mass transit system for the city

daily passengers along a busy 40-km road axis 36,000 persons per direction per hour the TransMilenio buses are running three times as fast as a typical New York bus, which equals 28 km an hour

2005 system had expanded to 4 lines stretching 55 km


Plans call for Transmilenio covering 400 km of dedicated busways and serving 5.5 mil passengers per day Creating a functional, livable, and sustainable city

TRANSMILENIO elements

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus 93 % drop in bus accidents

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus 93 % drop in bus accidents 98 % passenger approval rating & higher property value along busway corridor

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus 93 % drop in bus accidents 98 % passenger approval rating & higher property value along busway corridor

21 % of transmilenio riders are former car drivers

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus 93 % drop in bus accidents 98 % passenger approval rating & higher property value along busway corridor

21 % of transmilenio riders are former car drivers

40 % drop in air pollution level

transmilenio
Success graph

32 % reduction in average travel time by bus 93 % drop in bus accidents 98 % passenger approval rating & higher property value along busway corridor

21 % of transmilenio riders are former car drivers

40 % drop in air pollution level

transmilenio

Success graph
32 % decline in average commuting time

Ciclorutas bogota bike path networks

I believe that providing quality sidewalks and protected bikeways on all roads is a basic element of democracy
Enrique Pealosa Londoo

About ciclorutas
Most extensive and comprehensive network of bike paths 350km protected bike ways, Embellished with landscaping

A mesh concept

Funded largely by rejecting urban highways and an expensive rail system

Why ciclorutas ?

Mixed land use pattern

Why ciclorutas ?

Mixed land use pattern

Simple & effective way to use city finances to create a transport system that benefit people

Why ciclorutas ?

Mixed land use pattern

Simple & effective way to use city finances to create a transport system that benefit people

Why ciclorutas ?
Promoting
Transportation

equality

Network hierarchy

Main Network
connects the main centres of the city in a direct and expeditious manner

Secondary Network
leads riders to the main network

Complementary Network
It consists of additional bike paths that are required to complete the mesh system

ciclorutas elements

Ciclorutas would not be successful . . .

Ciclorutas would not be successful . . . without city policies

Ciclorutas would not be successful . . . without city policies


Pico y placa - License tag system Raised taxes on gas and parking Installing bollards along the roads Car-Free Day Main streets are closed for seven hours on Sunday huge ciclovia Mission Bogota Transmilenio bus system

Bicycles use quintupled in the city

300,000 to 400,000 trips made daily by bicycle

ciclorutas impacts
Benefit those living in the poorer southern part of the city

Spend family time together by cycling on car-free day

Metrovivienda housing for the poor

putting housing near stations helps the citys poor by killing two Birds
using one stone providing improved housing and public transport services Enrique Pealosa Londoo

Before metrovivienda
Between 1961 & 2001, 6500 Hectares of land were illegally occupied 375 000 slum residences have been illegally built in 1 433 different clandestinos

few public services and limited availability of public transport


18% of urban land consumed 22% of the population lived in informal settlements in 2000
clandestinos

Average daily commute time for residents of Bogotas informal housing is more than 2 hours

metrovivienda

land banking / poverty-alleviation : blending affordable housing and affordable public transport

introduced in 1999
the city acquires plots in open agricultural areas at relatively cheap prices, plats and titles land provided with public utilities, roads and open space 2005 3 of 4 metrovivienda projects have been built near one of transmilenio terminuses number of jobs reachable in an hour s travel time - increased by threefold

Acquisition of land well in IMPORTANT ASPECT advance of the arrival of OF METROVIVIENDA Transmilenio service PROJECT

Acquisition of land well in IMPORTANT ASPECT advance of the arrival of OF METROVIVIENDA Transmilenio service PROJECT
ENABLED THE ORGANIZATION TO ACQUIRE LAND BEFORE PRICES ARE INFLATED BY ARRIVAL OF TRANSMILENIO

Acquisition of land well in IMPORTANT ASPECT advance of the arrival of OF METROVIVIENDA Transmilenio service PROJECT
ENABLED THE ORGANIZATION TO ACQUIRE LAND BEFORE PRICES ARE INFLATED BY ARRIVAL OF TRANSMILENIO

STUDY SHOWED THAT THOSE RESIDING CLOSE TO TRANSMILENIO STATIONS PAYING HIGHER MONTHLY RENTS

Acquisition of land well in IMPORTANT ASPECT advance of the arrival of OF METROVIVIENDA Transmilenio service PROJECT
ENABLED THE ORGANIZATION TO ACQUIRE LAND BEFORE PRICES ARE INFLATED BY ARRIVAL OF TRANSMILENIO

STUDY SHOWED THAT THOSE RESIDING CLOSE TO TRANSMILENIO STATIONS PAYING HIGHER MONTHLY RENTS
METROVIVIENDA KEEPS PRICES AFFORDABLE FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLD

Acquisition of land well in IMPORTANT ASPECT advance of the arrival of OF METROVIVIENDA Transmilenio service PROJECT
ENABLED THE ORGANIZATION TO ACQUIRE LAND BEFORE PRICES ARE INFLATED BY ARRIVAL OF TRANSMILENIO

STUDY SHOWED THAT THOSE RESIDING CLOSE TO TRANSMILENIO STATIONS PAYING HIGHER MONTHLY RENTS
METROVIVIENDA KEEPS PRICES AFFORDABLE FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLD MORE AFFORDABLE TRANSPORTATION

METROVIVIENDA IS AN EXAMPLER OF ACCESSIBILITY-BASED PLANNING IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY


IMPROVED ACCESS TO JOBS, SHOPS AND SERVICES

REDUCING THE JOINT COSTS OF WHAT OFTEN CONSUMES 2/3 OF THE POORS INCOME : HOUSING AND TRANSPORT

What is the Future for bogota transport system ?

Bogota target :
Become a model development for developing countries
Column1
Public Transport (buses different from Transmilenio) 6% 3% 42% Transmilenio Walking

15%
16% 18%

Car
Others Bike

The current city administration has launched an ambitious program to create a new business and operational scheme of public passenger transport :

Collective transport

Transmilenio

the Integrated
Public Transport
System (SITP)
Man behind sitp : mayor samuel moreno

SITP
subway
Commuter

Rail
system Future stages

Road transport

STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION

STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE I
Preparation for implementation of the SITP

PHASE II
Gradual implementation of the operation. Upon completion of Phase 1.

STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE I
Preparation for implementation of the SITP

PHASE II
Gradual implementation of the operation. Upon completion of Phase 1

STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE I
Preparation for implementation of the SITP

PHASE II
Gradual implementation of the operation. Upon completion of Phase 1

PHASE III
Integrated operation of SITP

STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE I
Preparation for implementation of the SITP

PHASE II
Gradual implementation of the operation. Upon completion of Phase 1

PHASE III
Integrated operation of SITP

PHASE IV
Integration with rail modes

Bogota transport awards


the first ever winner of the Sustainable Transport Award (2005)
: TransMilenio Bus Rapid Transit System : the citys commitment to integrating bicycle infrastructure with mass transit : redefining and reclaiming public space for its citizens

El Final gracias

Cervero, r. (2005) . Progressive transport and the poor : bogotas bold step forward Despacio, a. (2008). Bogota : edging back from the brink. Sustainable transport / winter 2008 Ho, Susan. (2007). Bogota bikeways : a network supported by policies and transmilenio. Green design and the city, transportation paper Ardila, A. and menckhoff, g. (2008). Transportation policies in bogota, columbia. Building a transportation system for the people. Transportation research record 1817, pg 130-131 Ingram, r. (2011). This is not a bus. Brunswick issue 4, summer 2011 Saavedra, n.s. (2009). The evolution of transportation planning in bogota. Universidad nationale de columbia, traffic and transport research program. Pg 2-44 Ardila, a. (2005). Study of urban public transport conditions in bogota, columbia. The world bank group and ppiaf Transmilenio s a informa (2010). Transmilenio s a informa [online] available at http://www.transmilenio.gov.co/WebSite/Default.aspx. accessed on 25th november 2011

references

references

Bogota new transit system (2011). New york times [online] available at http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2009/07/10/world/0710BOGOTAindex.html. accessed on 26th november 2011 The Integrated Public Transportation System- SITP, will bring Quality of Life (2011). Bogota positiva, bogota city hall. Available at http://www.bogota.gov.co/portel/libreria/php/ xframedetalleportalEng.php?id39428&patron01.28. accessed on 27th november 2011 Eckerson jr, c. (2007) Ciclovia: A Moving Experience in Bogota, Colombia. Streetsblog.org [online] available at http://www.streetsblog.org/2007/12/03/ciclovia-a-movingexperience-in-bogota/. Accessed on 26th november 2011 sustainable cities , a part of danish architecture centres (2010). Bogota : more bikes and busses, fewer cars. Sustainable cities [online] available at http://sustainablecities.dk/ en/city-projects/cases/bogota-more-bikes-and-buses-fewer-cars. accessed on 25th november 2011 Ospina, a. and mosquera, v. (2007). Historia del transporte publico en bogota [online] available at http://www.museovintage.com/transporte/index.php. accessed on 26th november 2011