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EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN

UNIT 1

Course Contents EMBEDDED COMPUTING- Microprocessors, embedded design process, system description formalisms. Instruction sets- CISC and RISC; CPU fundamentalsprogramming I/Os, co-processors, supervisor mode, exceptions, memory management units and address translation, pipelining, super scalar execution, caching, CPU power consumption. EMBEDDED COMPUTING PLATFORM- CPU bus, memory devices, I/O devices, interfacing, designing with microprocessors, debugging techniques., Program design and analysis- models of program, assembly and linking, compilation techniques, analysis and optimization of execution time, energy, power and size. PROCESSES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS- multiple tasks and multiple processes, context switching, scheduling policies, inter-process communication mechanisms. HARDWARE ACCELERATORS- CPUs and accelerators, accelerator system design., Networks- distributed embedded architectures, networks for embedded systems, network-based design, Internet-enabled systems. SYSTEM DESIGN TECHNIQUES- design methodologies, requirements analysis, system analysis and architecture design, quality assurance.

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Reference Books: 1. Wolf, W. Computers as components- Principles of embedded computing system design. Academic Press (Indian edition available from Harcourt India Pvt. Ltd., 27M Block market, Greater Kailash II, New Delhi110 048.)

RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING UNIT 1 Course Contents Evolution of programmable devices: Introduction to AND-OR structured Programmable Logic Devices PROM, PLA, PAL and MPGAs; Combinational and sequential circuit realization using PROM based Programmable Logic Element (PLE); Architecture of FPAD, FPLA, FPLS and FPID devices. FPGA Technology: FPGA resources - Logic Blocks and Interconnection Resources; Economics and applications of FPGAs; Implementation Process for FPGAs Programming Technologies Static RAM Programming, Anti Fuse Programming, EPROM and EEPROM Programming Technology; Commercially available FPGAs - Xilinx FPGAs, Altera FPGAs; FPGA Design Flow Example Initial Design Entry, Translation to XNF Format, Partitioning, Place and Route, Performance Calculation and Design Verification. Technology Mapping for FPGAs: Logic Synthesis - Logic Optimization and Technology Mapping; Lookup Table Technology Mapping - Chortle-crf Technology Mapper, Chortle-d Technology Mapper, Lookup Table Technology Mapping in mis-pga, Lookup Table Technology Mapping in Asyl and Hydra Technology Mapper; Multiplexer Technology Mapping - Multiplexer Technology Mapping in mis-pga. Logic Block Architecture: Logic Block Functionality versus Area-Efficiency Logic Block Selection, Experimental Procedure, Logic Block Area and Routing Model and Results. Routing for FPGAs: Routing Terminology; Strategy for routing in FPGAs; Routing for Row-Based FPGAs - Segmented channel routing, 1-channel routing algorithm, K channel routing algorithm and results.

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Reference Books: 1. FPGA Based System Design by Wayne Wolf published by Pearson Education 2. Digital System Design Using Programmable Logic Devices by Parag K Lala published by BS publications 3. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays by Stephen Brown published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

MICRO-ELECTRONICS UNIT 1 Course Contents INTRODUCTION TO VLSI, circuits Asics and Moore's Law. Microelectronic Design, Styles, four phases in creating Microelectronics chips computer Aided Synthesis and Optimization. Algorithms Review of Graph Definitions and Notations Decision and Optimization Problems, Shortest and Longest Path Problems, Vertex Cover, Graph, Coloring, Clique covering and partitioning Algorithms Boolean Algebra and Representation of Boolean Functions, binary Decision diagrams. Satisfiability and cover problems. HARDWARE MODELING: Introduction to Hardware Modeling Language, State Diagrams. Data flow and Sequencing Graphs. Compilation and Behavioral Optimization Techniques. Circuits Specifications for Architectural Synthesis Resources and constraints. Fundamental Architectural Synthesis Problems Temporal Domain Scheduling Spatial Domain Binding Hierarchical Models and Synchronization Problem. Area and performance estimation-Resource Dominated circuits and General Circuits. SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS: Model for Scheduling Problems, Scheduling without Resource, Constraints-Unconstrained Scheduling ASAP Scheduling Algorithms Latency. Constrained Scheduling. ALAP scheduling. Under Timing Constraints and Relative Scheduling with Resource Constraints Integer Linear Programming Model, Multiprocessor Scheduling, Heuristic Scheduling Algorithms (List Scheduling). Force Directed Scheduling. TWO LEVEL COMBINATION LOGIC OPTIMIZATION: Logic Optimization Principles-Definitions, Exact Logic Minimization, Heuristic, Logic Minimization, and Testability Properties Operations on Two level logic Cover-positional Cube Notation, Functions with Multivolume inputs and list oriented manipulation. Algorithms for logic minimization. INTRODUCTION TO VHDL: VHDL History and capabilities program Structure of VHDL Entity, Architecture and package Declarations. Basic Language Elements, Identifier, Data objects, Data Types and Operator Behavioral Modelingprocess variable Assignment, Signal Assignment and Wait Statements. Assertion Loop, if, case and next Statement Block and concurrent Assertion statements structural specifications of Hardware-inverter, Nand Gate Models, Comparator and Test Bench Modeling.

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