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1. What is the difference between a hub and a switch?

A hub is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its job is very simple - anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. That's it. If a message comes in for computer "A", that message is sent out all the other ports, regardless of which one computer "A" is on A switch does essentially what a hub does, but more efficiently. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it, it can "learn" where particular addresses are. Initially, a switch knows nothing and simply sends on incoming messages to all ports: Even accepting that first message, however, the switch has learned something - it knows on which connection the sender of the message is located. Thus, when machine "A" responds to the message, the switches only need to send that message out to the one connection 2. What is a network? A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. Two very common types of networks include: Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)

3. What is Active Directory? Active Directory (AD) is a directory service created by Microsoft for Windows domain networks. It is included in most Windows Server operating systems. Active Directory provides a central location for network administration and security. Server computers that run Active Directory are called domain controllers. An AD domain controller authenticates and authorizes all users and computers in a Windows domain type networkassigning and enforcing security policies for all computers and installing or updating software. For example, when a user logs into a computer that is part of a Windows domain, Active Directory checks the submitted password and determines whether the user is a system administrator or normal user.[1] Active Directory makes use of Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) versions 2 and 3, Kerberos and DNS.

4. What is TCP/IP and what does it stand for?

TCP/IP is the communication protocol for communication between computers on the Internet. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. TCP/IP defines how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected to the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them. 5. What is a default gateway? In computer networking, a default gateway is the device that passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other subnets. The default gateway often connects a local network to the Internet, although internal gateways for local networks also exist. 6. What does DHCP stand for? DHCP Stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A Computer network protocol also known as Client/Server protocol. The DHCP automatically provides an IP address and other related configuration information such as the subnet mask and default gateway. 7. What is an IP Address? An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.[1] An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there. 8. What is the significance of the IP address A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address A broadcast involves delivering a message from one sender to many recipients. Senders direct an IP broadcast to to indicate all other nodes on the local network (LAN) should pick up that message. This broadcast is 'limited' in that it does not reach every node on the Internet, only nodes on the LAN. 9. What are the 3 major classes of an IP network? There 3 major classes of IP Network, i.e. Class A, B & C Class A starts from = -, Class B stars from = - Class C stars from - -

10. What is a Class D IP address? Class D range from to and is exclusively reserved for multicast groups. Multicast is a packet transmission technique by which the packets or messages are sent across a network by a single host to a multiple clients or devices. 11. What is OSPF? Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an adaptive routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). Its a link state routing protocol. 12. A user is complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do? If you are using a hub, replacing that with switches will reduce the delay in case many users simultaneously access the network, copy files etc. 2. Firewalls and antivirus softwares cause network delay. If u have some AV of firewalls installed, uninstall it and check the speed. If u find improvement u can install a better AV although that will cause delay to some extent. 3. Virus / malwares cause network delay. Reinstall the OS , use some updated AV and check it. 4. If you mean delay in Internet connectivity then you have to go for greater bandwidth. 13. What is the difference between layer 2 and layer 3 in the OSI model? Layer 2 is responsible for switching data whereas Layer 3 is responsible for routing the data. Layer3: With information gathered from user, Internet protocol make one IP packet with source IP and Destination IP and other relevant information. It can then route packet through router to the destination. Layer2: Soon after it receives IP packet from layer 3, it encapsulate it with frame header (ATM header in case of ATM technology) and send it out for switching. In case of ethernet it will send data to MAC address there by it can reach to exact destination. 14. What is the difference between a hub, switch, and router? Hub A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. Switch In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer(layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs. Router A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP.s network.

Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. 15. What is a VLAN? In computer networking, virtual local area network, virtual LAN or VLAN is a concept of partitioning a physical network, so that distinct broadcast domains are created. This is usually achieved on switch or router level. Simpler devices only support partitioning on a port level (if at all), so sharing VLANs across devices requires running dedicated cabling for each VLAN. More sophisticated devices can mark packets through tagging, so that a single interconnect (trunk) may be used to transport data for various VLANs. 16. What is the difference between TCP and UDP? 1. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, a connection can be made from client to server, and from then on any data can be sent along that connection. o Reliable - when you send a message along a TCP socket, you know it will get there unless the connection fails completely. If it gets lost along the way, the server will re-request the lost part. This means complete integrity, things don't get corrupted. o Ordered - if you send two messages along a connection, one after the other, you know the first message will get there first. You don't have to worry about data arriving in the wrong order. o Heavyweight - when the low level parts of the TCP "stream" arrive in the wrong order, resend requests have to be sent, and all the out of sequence parts have to be put back together, so requires a bit of work to piece together. 2. UDP(User Datagram Protocol). A simpler message-based connectionless protocol. With UDP you send messages(packets) across the network in chunks. o Unreliable - When you send a message, you don't know if it'll get there, it could get lost on the way. o Not ordered - If you send two messages out, you don't know what order they'll arrive in. o Lightweight - No ordering of messages, no tracking connections, etc. It's just fire and forget! This means it's a lot quicker, and the network card / OS have to do very little work to translate the data back from the packets. 17. How do you distinguish a DNS problem from a network problem? If you are able to ping to a router or switch connected to DNS server but not able to ping DNS server this is surely a problem with DNS else its problem in the network. NSLOOKUP Tool 18. What are a runt, Giant, and collision? All three are the error which occurs during the transmission. When a packet is less than 64 byte it is called runt normally occurs due to collision. Collision occurs when both interface try to transmit data. When the packet size is more than 6000 byte it is called giant it occurs due to fault in hardware or software of the sending device.

19. What is a broadcast storm? Excessive transmission of broadcast traffic in a network. Broadcast storms can be lessened by properly designing and balancing the number of nodes on each network segment. A state in which a message that has been broadcast across a network results in even more responses and each response results in still more responses in a snowball effect. A severe broadcast storm can block all other network traffic, resulting in a network meltdown. Broadcast storms can usually be prevented by carefully configuring a network to block illegal broadcast messages. 20. What is the purpose of VRRP? Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a non- proprietary redundancy protocol described in RFC 3768 designed to increase the availability of the default gateway servicing hosts on the same subnet. This increased reliability is achieved by advertising a "virtual router" (an abstract representation of master and backup routers acting as a group) as a default gateway to the host(s) instead of one physical router. Two or more physical routers are then configured to stand for the virtual router, with only one doing the actual routing at any given time. If the current physical router that is routing the data on behalf of the virtual router fails, an arrangement is made for another physical router to automatically replace it. The physical router that is currently forwarding data on behalf of the virtual router is called the master router. Physical routers standing by to take over from the master router in case something goes wrong are called backup routers. 21. What is a VPN? A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology for using the Internet or another intermediate network to connect computers to isolated remote computer networks that would otherwise be inaccessible. A VPN provides security so that traffic sent through the VPN connection stays isolated from other computers on the intermediate network. VPNs can connect individual users to a remote network or connect multiple networks together. 1-PPTP VPN (Dial-up VPN) 2-Site-to-Site 3-Point-to-Point 4-MPLS VPN VPN VPNs

22. What is a default route? A router is a device that decides where to send a data packet in order to get it one step closer to its destination, and then sends it there. In order to make this decision, the router looks at the destination address on the packet and then consults a list of rules programmed into the router by the person who set it up. If there is no explicit rule covering this packet - if the router hasn't been programmed with a rule on how to route packets to this particular destination - then the router send

the packet to the default route. 24. What is a metric? Metrics is a property of a route in computer networking, consisting of any value used by a routing protocol to determine whether one particular route should be chosen over another. 25. What is a MAC address? A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model. 26. What is ARP/RARP? ARP - Address resolution protocol (ARP) enables the packaging of IP data into ethernet packages. It is the system and messaging protocol that is used to find the ethernet (hardware) address from a specific IP number. Without this protocol, the ethernet package could not be generated from the IP package, because the ethernet address could not be determined RARP - Reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) is used to allow a computer without a local permanent data storage media to determine its IP address from its ethernet address. 27. Describe a TCP connection sequence. The connection establishment process actually accomplishes several things as it creates a connection suitable for data exchange: o Contact and Communication: The client and server make contact with each other and establish communication by sending each other message. The server usually doesn't even know what client it will be talking to before this point, so it discovers this during connection establishment. o Sequence Number Synchronization: Each device lets the other know what initial sequence number it wants to use for its first transmission. o Parameter Exchange: Certain parameters that control the operation of the TCP connection are exchanged by the two devices. 28. What is MTU? (Maximum Transmission Unit, Maximum Transfer Unit) The largest frame size that can be transmitted over the network. For example, an Ethernet MTU is 1,500 bytes. Messages longer than the MTU must be divided into smaller frames. The layer 3 network protocol, typically IP, extracts the MTU from the layer 2 data link protocol such as Ethernet, and fragments the messages into that frame size so that they can travel over the lower layer

29. What other TCP setting can you modify besides MTU to shorten packets? Change window size and max window size in the registry. Navigate HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesTcpipParameters to:

31. What is the subnet for a class C network?

34. What are RAID 1 and RAID 5? (Redundant Array of Independent Disks Mode 1) A popular disk subsystem that increases safety by writing the same data on two drives. Called "mirroring," RAID 1 does not increase performance. However, if one drive fails, the second drive is used, and the failed drive is manually replaced. After replacement, the RAID controller duplicates the contents of the working drive onto the new one. (Redundant Array of Independent Disks Mode 5) A popular disk subsystem that increases safety by computing parity data and increasing speed by interleaving data across three or more drives (striping). RAID 5 is similar to RAID 3, except that RAID 5 parity is distributed among all drives, whereas RAID 3 uses separate parity drives. 1. What is Global Catalog Server? Global Catalog server is the server which keeps the stores the details of each object created in the forest. Global Catalog is the master searchable index to all objects in forest 2. Can GC Server and Infrastructure place in single server? If not explain why? No, As Infrastructure master does the same job as the GC. It does not work together. 3. What is the size of log file which created before updating into ntds.dit and the total number of files? Three Log files Names Edb.log Res1.log Res2.log Each initially 10 MB 4. What does SYSVOL contains? SysVol Folder contains the public information of the domain replication Ex: Group policy object The information for

scripts can be found in this directory.

5. Which is service in your windows is responsible for replication of Domain controller to another domain controller. KCC generates the replication topology. Use SMTP / RPC to replicate changes. 6. How data will travel between sites in ADS replication? As determined in the site connectors 7. What is the port number for SMTP, Kerberos, LDAP, and GC Server?? SMTP 25, Kerberos 88, GC 3268, LDAP 389 8. What are Intrasite and Intersite Replication? Intrasite is the replication within the same site 9. What is lost found folder in ADS? intersite the replication between sites

It's the folder where you can find the objects missed due to conflict. Ex: you created a user in OU which is deleted in other DC when replication happed ADS didn't find the OU then it will put that in Lost Found Folder. 10. What is Garbage collection? Garbage collection is the process of the online defragmentation of active directory. It happens every 12 Hours. 11. What System State data contains? Contains Startup files, Registry Com + Registration Database Memory Page file System files AD information Cluster Service information SYSVOL Folder 12. How do you restore a particular OU which got deleted by accident? Go authoritative restore

13. What is IPSec Policy? IPSec provides secure gateway-to-gateway connections across outsourced private wide area network (WAN) or Internet-based connections using L2TP/IPSec tunnels or pure IPSec tunnel mode. IPSec Policy can be deployed via Group policy to the Windows Domain controllers 7 Servers. 14. What are different types of Group Policy? I don't think there are types of group policies???? 15. What is the order of applying Group Policy? Local Policy. Site Policy. Domain Policy. OU Policy. 16. What are the new features in Windows 2003 related to ADS, Replication, and Trust? ADS: Can more than 5000 users in the groups 17. How to edit the Schema in ADS? ADSI Edit 18. What is Domain Local, Global Group, Universal group? Domain Local Only Users with in Domain Global groups are used to grant permissions to objects in any domain in the domain tree or forest. Members of global groups can include only accounts and groups from the domain in which they are defined. Universal groups are used to grant permissions on a wide scale throughout a domain tree or forest. Members of global groups include accounts and groups from any domain in the domain tree or forest. 19. Diff between Global Check the answer above. 20. What are the different types of Terminal Services? User Mode Application Mode Universal group?

21. What does mean by root DNS servers? Public DNS servers Hosted in the Internet which registers the DNS

22. What are the different records in DNS? A Address record MX Mail Server Record NS Name Server CNAME Canonical name / Alias SOA Start of authority 23. What is a SOA record? Start of authority authorized DNS in the domain 24. How does the down-level clients register it names with DNS server? Enable the WINS integration with DNS. 25. What is RsOP? RsOP is the resultant set of policy applied on the object (Group Policy) 26. What is default lease period for DHCP Server? 8 days Default 27. What is the process of DHCP clients for getting the ip address? Discover Order Receive - Acknowledge 28. What is multicast? Multicast scopes enable you to lease Class D IP addresses to clients for participation in multicast transmissions, such as streaming video and audio transmissions. 29. What is superscope? Superscope enables you to group several standard DHCP scopes into a single administrative group without causing any service disruption to network clients. 30. What is the System Startup process? Windows 2K boot process on Intel architecture. 1. Power-On Self Tests (POST) is run. 2. The boot device is found, the Master Boot Record (MBR) is loaded into memory, and its program is run. 3. The active partition is located, and the boot sector is loaded. 4. The Windows 2000 loader (NTLDR) is then loaded.


The boot sequence executes the following steps: 1. The Windows 2000 loader switches the processor to the 32-bit flat memory model. 2. The Windows 2000 loader starts a mini-file system. 3. The Windows 2000 loader reads the BOOT.INI file and displays the operating system selections (boot loader menu). 4. The Windows 2000 loader loads the operating system selected by the user. If Windows 2000 is selected, NTLDR runs NTDETECT.COM. For other operating systems, NTLDR loads BOOTSECT.DOS and gives it control. 5. NTDETECT.COM scans the hardware installed in the computer, and reports the list to NTLDR for inclusion in the Registry under the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE_HARDWARE hive. 6. NTLDR then loads the NTOSKRNL.EXE, and gives it the hardware information collected by NTDETECT.COM. Windows NT enters the Windows load phases. 31. What is WINS hybrid mixed mode?

Systems that are configured to use WINS are normally configured as a hybrid (H-node) client, meaning they attempt to resolve NetBIOS names via a WINS server and then try a broadcast (B-node) if WINS is unsuccessful. Most systems can be configured to resolve NetBIOS names in one of four modes: Broadcast (B-node)Clients use a broadcast only to resolve names. An enhanced Bnode setting has the client use an LMHOST file as well. The hex value for this setting is 0x1. Peer-to-Peer (P-node)Clients use WINS only to resolve names. The hex value for this setting is 0x2. Mixed (M-node)Clients first use a broadcast in an attempt to resolve NetBIOS names. If this fails, they attempt the resolution via the WINS server. The hex value for this setting is 0x4. Hybrid (H-node)Clients first use the WINS service in an attempt to resolve NetBIOS names. If this fails, they attempt the resolution via broadcast. The hex value for this setting is 0x8. 32. What is Disk Quota? Disk Quota is the specifying the limits of usage on the disks. ===================================================== 1) What is different Editions of Windows 2003 server? i)Standard Edition iii)Enterprise Edition ii)Web Edition iv)Datacenter Edition


2) What is active directory? Active Directory is the directory service included in the Windows Server 2003 family. Active Directory includes the directory, which stores information about network resources, as well as all the services that make the information available and useful. Active Directory is also the directory service included in Windows 2000. 3 )What is the active directory database name and where it is located? Name : NTDS.Dit located in c:\windows\ntds\ 4)What is the expansion of .Dit ? Scalable size of NTDS in 2k3? Dit Directory Information Tree. It is scalable up to 70 TB. 5) What is schema in AD? The Active Directory schema defines objects that can be stored in Active Directory. The schema is a list of definitions that determines the kinds of objects and the types of information about those objects that can be stored in Active Directory. Because the schema definitions themselves are stored as objects, they can be administered in the same manner as the rest of the objects in Active Directory. Normally called schema object or metadata. 6) Structure of AD in 2kX? 1)Physical structure Sites ,Domain Controllers 2)Logical structures Forest, Tree, Domain, OU, object 7) What are the domain functional levels in 2k3? 1) Mixed mode 2) Native mode 3) Interim mode 8) What is Global catalog and GC server? The global catalog is the central repository of information about objects in a tree or forest. By default, a global catalog is created automatically on the initial domain controller in the first domain in the forest. A domain controller that holds a copy of the global catalog is called a global catalog server.


9) What are the functions of GC? A) It enables a user to log on to a network by providing universal group membership information to a domain controller when a logon process is initiated. B) It enables finding directory information regardless of which domain in the forest actually contains the data. 10) What is the active directory database engine name? ESE (Extensible Storage Engine) 11) What are the partitions available in AD? i) Schema partition ii) Configuration Partition iii) Domain Partition iv)Application Partition

12) What are the two types of replications? Inter-site (Site to site) and Intra-site (With in site) replications. 13) What is KCC? What is the function of the KCC? The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers. The KCC configures connection objects between domain controllers. Within a site, each KCC generates its own connections. For replication between sites, a single KCC per site generates all connections between sites.

14) What is the two trust protocols 2k3 using? Kerberos V5 and NTLM 15) What are the trust relations available in 2k3? Tree-Root, Parent- Child, Shortcut, Realm, Forest trust, External trust 16) What is the hierarchy of applying Gpo in 2k3? It is applied from parent level to child level in AD. i) Local GPO ii) GPOs linked to sites iii) GPOs linked to domains iv) GPOs linked to OUs


17) What are the protocols used on replication? RPC over IP (Used for synchronies transfer) , SMTP over IP (Asynchronies transfer)

18) What is the default time delay on replication? Intra site 15 min ( KCC automatically create the topology for Replication) Inter-site 1 hrs. Security related changes replicated immediately across sites.

19) What Different tables available in NTDS database? i) Schema table Ii) Link Table iii) Data table iv)Configuration Table

19) Where is the FRS logs stored in and what is the database engine name? c:\windows\ntfrs\jet\log, The engine used is jet database engine. Ntfrs.jdb.

20) What is tombstone object in AD? What is its life time? Any objects deleted from Active directory will not removed from Database immediately. That object is called tombstone object. The default life time for that object is 60 days. For win 2k3 SP1 180 days 21) FSMO Roles In a forest, there are at least five FSMO roles that are assigned to one or more domain controllers. The five FSMO roles are Schema Master: The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. To update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the schema master. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest.


Domain naming master

The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest.

Infrastructure Master:

The infrastructure is responsible for updating references from objects in its domain to objects in other domains. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain.

Relative ID (RID) Master:

The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain.

PDC Emulator

The PDC emulator is a domain controller that advertises itself as the primary domain controller (PDC) to workstations, member servers, and domain controllers that are running earlier versions of Windows.

For example, if the domain contains computers that are not running Microsoft Windows XP Professional or Microsoft Windows 2000 client software, or if it contains Microsoft Windows NT backup domain controllers, the PDC emulator master acts as a Windows NT PDC.

It is also the Domain Master Browser, and it handles password discrepancies. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest



Quicker Question & Answer What are the required components of Windows Server 2003 for installing Exchange 2003? ASP.NET, SMTP, NNTP, W3SVC What must be done to an AD forest before Exchange can be deployed? - Setup /forestprep What Exchange process is responsible for communication with AD? - DSACCESS What 3 types of domain controller does Exchange access? - Normal Domain Controller, Global Catalog, Configuration Domain Controller What connector type would you use to connect to the Internet, and what are the two methods of sending mail over that connector? - SMTP Connector: Forward to smart host or use DNS to route to each address How would you optimise Exchange 2003 memory usage on a Windows Server 2003 server with more than 1Gb of memory? - Add /3Gb switch to boot.ini What would a rise in remote queue length generally indicate? - This means mail is not being sent to other servers. This can be explained by outages or performance issues with the network or remote servers. What would a rise in the Local Delivery queue generally mean? - This indicates a performance issue or outage on the local server. Reasons could be slowness in consulting AD, slowness in handing messages off to local delivery or SMTP delivery. It could also be databases being dismounted or a lack of disk space. What are the standard port numbers for SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, RPC, LDAP and Global Catalog? - SMTP 25, POP3 110, IMAP4 143, RPC 135, LDAP 389, Global Catalog - 3268 Name the process names for the following: System Attendant? MAD.EXE, Information Store STORE.EXE, SMTP/POP/IMAP/OWA INETINFO.EXE What is the maximum amount of databases that can be hosted on Exchange 2003 Enterprise?


- 20 databases. 4 SGs x 5 DBs. What are the disadvantages of circular logging? - In the event of a corrupt database, data can only be restored to the last backup. ======================================================= 1. What are the Default shares in Windows Server 2003? By default, Windows automatically creates special hidden administrative shares that administrators, programs, and services can use to manage the computer environment or network. These special shared resources are not visible in Windows Explorer or in My Computer, but you can use the Shared Folders tool in Computer Management to view them. Depending on the configuration of your computer, you may see some or all the following special shared resources listed in the Shares folder in Shared Folders: DriveLetter$: Root partitions and volumes are shared as the drive letter name appended with the $ character. For example, drive letters C and D are shared as C$ and D$. ADMIN$: A resource that is used during remote administration of a computer. IPC$: A resource that shares the named pipes that you must have for communication between programs. Note that this resource cannot be deleted. NETLOGON: A resource that is used on domain controllers. SYSVOL: A resources that is used on domain controllers. PRINT$: A resource that is used during the remote administration of printers. FAX$: A shared folder on a server that is used by fax clients during fax transmission. Note NETLOGON and SYSVOL are not hidden shares but are instead special administrative shares. Generally, Microsoft recommends that you do not modify these special shared resources. However, if you want to remove the special shared resources and prevent them from being created automatically, you can do this by editing the registry.


1. Q) Can I changed password if my machinces connectivity to DC who holds PDC emulator role has been fails? A) No You cant the password. Q) i have been asked if there is set of 30 harddisk configured for raid 5 if two harddisk failed what about data A) It depends how u had configured ur RAID its only Raid5 or with with spare if its only raid 5 then in raid5 if ur 2 nos of HDD goes then ur raid is gone. Q) How Can i Deploy the Latest Patched in Pc through G.P. wihtout having the Admin Right in Pc. A) Create a batch file and place all the patches in the Netlogon, and deploy the batch file through GP to all the pcs so the same should take affect after restarting the pc. Q) In Raid 5,Suppose i have 5 HDD of 10-10 GB, After configuring the Raid how much space do i have for utilise. A) -1 out of the total (eg- if u r using 5 u will get only 4 because 1 goes for parity). Q) How Can i Resolve the Svr name through Nslookup A) what exactly u want to do, nslookup command will let u know through which server u r getting routed, (eg- c:\nslookup then u will get ur domain name to which u r getting routed. and if u want to get the name of the pc/server with the ip address then u have to give the command c:\nbtstat -a ip xx-xx-xx-xx) ======================================================= ==== 1. DHCP relay agent where to place it? Ans: DHCP Relay agent u need to place in Software Router.

Question: How many Zones in Windows 2000 server and Windows 2003 Server? Ans: In Windows 2000 there are mainly 3 zones Standard Primary zone information is written in Txt fileStandard Secondary copy of PrimaryActive Directory Integrated Information stores in Active Directory In Win2k3 one more zone is added that is Stub zone Stub is like secondary but it contains only copy of SOA records, copy of NS records, copy of A records for that zone. No copy of MX, SRV records etc.,With this Stub zone DNS traffic will be low Question: What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does Kerberos work?


Answer: Kerberos is the user authentication used in Win2000 and Win2003 Active Directory servers Kerberos version in 5.0 Port is: 88 Its more secure and encrypted than NTLM (NT authentication)

1. Which protocol is used for Public Folder? ANS: SMTP What is the use of NNTP with exchange? ANS: This protocol is used the news group in exchange. 1. What is the content of System State backup? The contents are: Boot files, system filesActive directory (if its done on DC)SysVol folder(if it done on DC)Certificate service ( on a CA server)Cluster database ( on a cluster server)registryPerformance counter configuration informationComponent services class registration database Q: What are the perquisites for installation of Exchange Server? The prerequisite are IIS SMTP WWW service NNTP .NET Framework ASP.NET Then run Forestprep Then run domainprep

Question: What is Multi Master Replication? Answer: Multi-master replication is a method of replication employed by databases to transfer data or changes to data across multiple computers within a group. Multi-master replication can be contrasted with a master-slave method (also known as single-master replication).

DFS? DFS Namespace? 1. DFS Replication. New state-based, multimaster replication engine that is optimized for WAN environments. DFS Replication supports replication scheduling, bandwidth throttling, and a new byte-level compression algorithm known as remote differential compression (RDC). DFS Namespaces. Technology that helps administrators group shared folders located on different servers and present them to users as a virtual tree of folders known as a


namespace. DFS Namespaces was formerly known as Distributed File System in Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003.

What are the four domain functional levels? Windows 2000 MixedWindows 2000 NativeWindows Server 2003 InterimWindows Server 2003 Windows 2000 Mixed When you configure a new Windows Server 2003 domain, the default domain functional level is Windows 2000 mixed.Under this domain functional level, Windows NT, 2000, and 2003 domain controllers are supported. However,certain features such as group nesting, universal groups, and so on are not available. Windows 2000 Native Upgrading the functional level of a domain to Windows 2000 Native should only be done if there areno Windows NT domain controllers remaining on the network. By upgrading to Windows 2000 Native functional level,additional features become available including: group nesting, universal groups, SID History, and the ability to convertsecurity groups and distribution groups. Windows Server 2003 Interim The third functional level is Windows Server 2003 Interim and it is often used when upgrading fromWindows NT to Windows Server 2003. Upgrading to this domain functional level provides support forWindows NT and Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. However, like Windows 2000 Mixed, it does not provide new features. Windows Server 2003The last functional level is Windows Server 2003. This domain functional level only provides support forWindows Server 2003 domain controllers. If you want to take advantage of all the features included withWindows Server 2003, you must implement this functional level. One of the most important features introducedat this functional level is the ability to rename domain controllers


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