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THE MAHABHARATA
OF
KRISHNA-DWAIPAYANA VYASA

TRANSLATED
INTO

ENGLISH PROSE.

Published and Distributed chiefly gratis

BY

PROTAP CHANDRA ROY

ADI PAR

VA.

CALCUTTA

BHARATA

PRESS.

No. 367, Upper Chitpore Road,


1884.
(The
right of tmnslalion
is

rmrvcd.)

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

Introductio7i.

PAGE.
Sauti's arrival at the wooJs of Naimisha
.

The

desire of the Rishis to hear the


,

Mahabharata

2
ib.

Invocation to Isana

The order

of creation
tiie

3
Bharata
5
to

Vyasa's desire to publish

The Graud-sire comes

him

Ganesa undertakes to write the BhS-rata


Sauti's praise of the Bharata
,

6
ib

Dhritarashtra's lamentations
Sanja}a's consolations to Dhritarashtra
.

10
17

Sauti's eulogies on the study of the Bharata

19 21

The

history of

Samantapanchaka

Explanation of terms indicating the divisions of an

army

22

Parva Sangraha,

Summary

of the contents of the Eighteen

main Parvas

23

Pausya Parva.
Curse on Janamejaya

45
it

Measures adopted by him to evade


Story of the sage

ib ib

Dhaumya
.

Story of Aruni
Story of

46
,

Upamanyu

ib

Story of Veda

51
ib

Story of Utanka

Story of Paushya

53
59

Utanka's arrival at Janamejaya's court

His incitement of Jiuiamejaya against Takshaka

60

PaiUoma Parva.
The Rishis wait
for

Saunaka

60
61

Genealogy of the Bhargava raae


Story of Puloma
.
.

62 64

Story of the birth of Cbyavana


Bhrigu'a curse on Agui
^
,

ib

11

CONTENTS,
PAGE.

Hymn

to Agnl

b}*

Brahma
.

History of

-Rtiru

68

Story of the

Dimduva

70

Astika Parva.
Story of Jaratkaru
Birth of Astika
.

73
76

History of Kadru and Vinata

77

Ocean The wager between Kadru and Vinata


Churning
of the

78

84
ib

Kadru's curse on the snakes

Kadru and
see the

Vinata go to see Uchchaisravas,

and
85

Ocean

Birth of Gadura

87

Hymn
Wrath

to

Gadura
and the appointment of Aruna
.

88 90
92
95 96

of the Sun,

as his charioteer

Hymn

to Indra

by Kadru

Gadura's inquiry as to the cause of his bondage

Gadura Of Kasyapa and Gadura Story of the Elephant and the Tortoise Bad omens are seen by the gods and their preparation
devisee
.

means

to bring the

Amrita

97 98
102

for battle

Battle of the gods with Gadura

107
109
ib

Gadura takes Of Gadura and Vishnu

away

the

Amrita

The mutual grant


obtaining the

of boons

110
Gadura's
ib

Conversation of Indra with Gadura and

name

of

Suparna

Indra steals the Amrita from the snakes

112
ib

The

cleaving of their tongues


of the

Enumeration

names of the chief serpents


,

113 114
115
116

Asceticism of Sesha

Sesha obtains boons from Brahma


Consultation of the snakes on the subject of their

mother'a curse

CONTENTS.

Ill

PAGE.

The snakes bring up Jaratkaru


Parikshit's hunt
.

120
121
124<

,
.

The

curse on Parikshit

Conversation between Sringin and Samika

125

Despatch by Samika

of a disciple to Parikshit
in the court of Parikshita
.

126
ib

Speech of Gaurmukha

Parikshit takes counsel of his ministers

127
128

Conference of Kasyapa and Takshaka

Kasyapa

desists on receiving

money from Takshaka,


. .

from going to Parikshit's court

129
131
ib

Death

of the king in consequence of Takshaka's bite

Installation of

Janamejaya

as king
,

History of Jaratkaru

132
136

His marriage
Birth of Astika
Janaraejaya's

140
146 147
148

vow

to celebrate

the snake
.

sacrifice

Preparations

for the sacrifice

Falling of the snakes into the sacrificial


Astika's arrival at the sacrifice

fire

152

Staying of the sacrifice

..

159

AcUvansavatarana Parva.
Short history of the Paaliva anl Kara princes
Story of king tJparichara
.

164
171 172

Description of the Indraddhaja festival

Origin of GlriicS and the king's marriage with her

Story of Adrika
Story of Satyavati
.

...
.

174
175
176
ib

The meeting of Parasara with Satyavati , Birth of Dwaipayana History of Animandavya Histories of Kama, Vasudeva, Satyaki, Kritavarman, etc The revival of the Kshatriya order from the Brahmanas The over-burdened Earth goes to Brahma
. .

177
178
ib

181

183

The gods

are enjoined to be incarnate

"

,.

184

IV

CONTENTS.

Sambhava Parva,
PAGE,
Brief account of the origin of gods and
creatures on earth
.

all
.

Birth of Bhrigu, and the genealogy of


(unrighteousness)

Genesis of the animals, etc

Previous

liistory of

Jarasandha, and others

Origin of Drona, Kripa, Dhritarashtra, Yudhishthira,

and others
Story of Dushmanta

History of Draupadi, Kunti, and Madri


.
.

.... ....

185

Adharma
.

191 192

194

197
201

205

He

sees Sakuntala

.
.

212

Birth of Sakuntala

213 217 219

Espousal by Dushmanta of Sakuntala

y
,

Sakuntala gives birth

to

a son

She goes

to

her husband's

home
Dushanta

220
ib

No

recognition of her by

Her disappearance and the aerial voice Dushmanta recovers his lost wife and son
,

226 227
ib

,
,

Installation of

Bharata in the kingdom

Account of the race of Prajapati


Story of Pururavas

Story of Nahusha

....
.

228
229

*
.

.
,
.

230
ib

Story of Yayati

Destruction of Kacha by the Danavas

234
iib

Sukra

brinors

back Kacha into

life

He

is

killed

and revived a second time


.

235 237
241

Curse on wine by Sukra

Sharmishtha throws Devayani into a well

Her

rescue therefrom by Yayati

242
246

Sarmistha becomes the maid-servant of Devayani


Yayati again sees Devayani
.

,
.

247 250
252
ib ib

Yayati's marriage with Devayani

Yayati marries Sharmishtha in secret

Sharmishtha gives birth


Yaykti

to three sons

Devayani sees Sharmistha's sons, and becomes jealous


is

cursed by Sukra

254

CONTENTS.

PAGE
Piiru takes

upon

liimself the decrepitude of hia father

Yayati takes back his decrepitude, and installs Puru


on the throne

Descendants of the ciu'sed Yadu and others


Ascension of Yayati to heaven
,

His

fall til

ere from

Yayati sees Ashtaka and others

He

re-ascendeth to heaven

Short history of the Paurava race


Story of Mahabhisa Story of Pratipa Birth of Shantanu

Marriaofe of Shantanu with Gano-a

History of the incarnation of the

Story of Shantanu
Installation of

Bhisma

Sliantanu sees Satyavati and

Devavrata asks of Dasaraja his daughter on behalf


of his father

Devavrata receives the appellation of Bhisma

.... .... ... .... ....

.
,

257
259

260
261

264
ib

*
,

277

278
288

290
291

293
294!

Vasus

298
301
ib

as the heir-apparenb
is

enamoured of her

S03
305
heaven
ib

Shantanu begets offspring on Satyavati and goes Vichitravirya obtains the kingdom Bhisma carries away the daughters of the king
.

to

306 307
308
311
ib

of Kashi from their

Saydmvara
.

Bhisraa's encounter with the invited

monarchs
.

Death

of Vichitravirya

Conversation between Bhisma and Satayavati Story of Jamadagni


Story of Utathya
.

....
^
. ,

313
ib

Story of Dirghatamag

314 317
321

Satyavati relates to Bhisma the birth of Vyasa

Origin of Dhritarashtra and others


History of Gandhari
.

328
329

History of Pritha
Origin of

Kama
of

Sayamvara

Kunti

Marriage of Pandu aod Madri

....
. . ,

330 332
334

v5

Contents.
FAGE

Pandu'a retreat into the forest

I
,

336 337
339
342;
ib

Marriage of Vidura

Gaadhari brings

forth a

hundred sons

The names

of the

hundred sons
.

,
.

Jjiyadratha marries Duhshala

How PSudu

slew a Brahmana The curse on Pandu

in the shape of a

deer

343:
345^

Pandu's lamentations

^
.

346

His retirement

iiito

the

woods with
to

his wives

34S
351

Pandu enjoins upon Kunti The story of VyushiiasAva

beget offspring by others


..

^ ^

353
356
359'

Origin of the institution of marriage


Births of Yudhishthira and the rest

Death Madri

of

Pandu

....
, .

36T
369'

sacriftees herself

on the funeral pyre of Pandu

Yudhishthira and

his brothers

come
.

to

Hastinapore
,
.

ib

Funeral obsequies of

Pandu

372

Sports of the Kurus and the Pandus

374

Bhima Bhima

is

poisoned by Duryodliana

37&
ib
379'

goes to the region of the

His return from the region of


Origin of Kripa and Kripi

History of

Drona

Drona becomes the preceptor of the Kurus and the Pandus The princes begin to learn the use of arms
.

...
.
,

Nagas the Nagas

381

382
391

392
ib

Arjuna's exceptional proficiency

. .
.

Story of Ekalavya

393 396
396
399 406 408

Drona

tries his pupils

Arj una obtains the weapon called jBra/iia-sAira


Trial of the princes

Duryodhana

installs

Kama

....
.

on the throne of
.

Anga

Invasion of Panohala by the Kauravaa

Arjuna takes Diupada captive and delivers him into the


hands of
his preceptor
, .

412
ib

Drona

sets

Daupada

free

.
.

Installation. of

Yudhishthira as the heir-apparent

413 416

Counsels of Kanika the politician

CONTENTS.

VU

Jatugriha Parva.
PAGE.
Intrigues of

Duryodhana and Sakani

425

The exile of the Pandavas to Varanavata Duryodhana takes counsel with Purochana
Vidura'e speech unto Yndhiehthira

430
ib

433

The arrival of the Paniavas Burning of the house of lac


Fiiglit of the

at
.

Varanavata

434 438
ib

Paodavas

to the forest

Hidhnva-hadha Parva.
is inspired with desire on seeing Bhima Bhima encounters Hidimva and slays him Bhima goes to kill Hidimva and is dissuaded

Hldirav,

447
451

by Yudhishthira

454 456
ib

Hidirava takes Bhima


Birth of Ghatotkacha

with her
.

Vak-a-hadka Parza.

The Pandavas dwell

in.

Ekachakra Ekachakra
the wail of the

459
ib

Life of the Pandavas at

Bhima and Kunti hear


and
Speech
Speech
his wife
of the
.

Brahmana
*
.

460
461

Brahmana
.

of his wife his

,
.

462
465

Speech of

daughter

Converse of Kunti with the Brahmana

467

Bhima's vow to

slay the

Rakshasa Vaka
his food
.

470
472

Bhima goes

to

Vaka with

He

fights with

and slays Vaka

Return of Bhima dragging the body of Vaka


to the

town-gate

Concourse of the citizens


Arrival of the

the body of the Rakshasa

Brahmanas

where the Pandavas dwelt


Story of Bharadwaja

Drona obtains all the weapons of Rama Drupada celebrates a sacrifice to obtain a sou
.

.... ....
.

473
474
ib

in the

morning

to see

of the town at the house


.

475
576

477
481

VUl

COXTENTS.
PAGE.

son arises from the sacrificial

fire

482
ib

Origin of Dnipadi

Dhrishtadyumna learns the use of arms

483

The PanJavas set out for Pauchala Their meeting with Vyasa

484
ib

On

the

way they meet with the Gandharv a Angara parna


486 487 488
gifts with Arj

on the banks of the Ganges


Fii'ht with the

Gandharva
na

The Gandharva's defeat The Gandharva exchanges


Story of Taj)ati

489
492

King Saravarana

sees Tapati

493
494
495

Disappearance of Tapati
Tapati'a reappearance

Tapati relates her history

496

She again disappears


Story of Vusishtha
Story of Viswamitra

497
498

Marriage of Samvarana and Tapati

500
.

501

Viswamitra attempts
Vasishtha's

to carry

away by

for ce

cow named Nandini

502

Viswamitra'

discomfiture at the hands the mlcchcha host

sprung from the different parts of the cow's body

503 504
505

His ascetic austerities Shaktri curses king Kalmashapada


with a Raksbasha

certain Brahmana asks the king for meat The king gives him human flesh to eat The king cursed by the Brahmana The Raksasha-possessed king devours Vasishtha's sons The Rishi resolves to kill himself

....
to

be possessed

506
"

507
ib ib

508
509

Speech of Adrishyanti
Vaahishta with his daughter-in-law sees Kalmashpala

Kalmashapada
His intention

is

freed from the curse

Birth of Parashara
Story of Kartavirya

of destroying all the worlds

....
.

510
ib

512
ib
ib

CONTENTS,

PAGE.

The pergecution of History of Aurva

the Bhrigu race


.

513
514

Origin of the vadava

fire

517 518 519


521
ib

Parashara celebrates the Rakshasa sacrifice


Pulastya and others stop
it
. .

Vashishta begets a son upon king Kalmashapada's wife

The Pandavas take leave of Angaraparna They appoint Dhaumya as their priest

522

Saiuayamvara Parva.

The Pandavas

see

Vyasa on

their

way

to

Panchala

522

Arriving at Panchala they dwell in the house of a potter


Description of Draupadi's

524
ib

Swayamvara
came
to

Enumeration of the princes that Krishna recognises the disguised Pandavas

the Siuayamvara 527


.

529

The

discomfiture of the kings in stringing the

bow
,

530
ib
ib

Kama is

declared ineligible to bend the


desist from stringing the
.

bow

The kings

bow
,
.

Arjuna goes towards the bow The Brahmanas dissuade him

ib

531

Arjuna strings the bow and

hits the

mark
,

532

The

wrath of the invited kings

533 534
ib ib

The kings attempt to slay Drupada Arjuna and Bhima prepare for fight Krishna's recognition of them
.

'.

Arjuna

fights with

Kama
at this

and defeats him

536

Bhima

fights

with Shalya and overthrows him


. .

537
ib

The kings wonder


Krishna

iiiduces the

monarchs

to

abandon the

fight
.

538
ib ib

Arjuna and Bhima depart with Draupadi


Kunti's anxiety
.

Conversation of Kunti -with Yudhishthira

539
ib Jb

Yudhishthira asks Arjuna


Arjuna's reply
.

to

marry Draupadi
. .

Rama and Krishna visit the Pandavas Dhrishtadyumna comes secretly to the abode of the potter 541 The Pandavas talk on different subjects after having
.

540

taken their meals

ib

CONTENTS,

Taivahika Parva.
Dliiishtadyumna haviug heard the talk of the Paiulavas

informs Drnpada of

it

on his return

543

Drupada sends

a priest to the Paadavas

",

544
545
ib

Speech of Yudhishthira Arrival of Drupada's messenger there

The Pandavas go
Drupada

to the house of

Dfupada

546

interrogates the Pandavas with the view of


,

ascertaining their identity

547
548
ib

Yudhishthira's reply

Drupada's joy there-ab

His vow

to restore the

Pandavas
marrying his daughter

ib

Drupada expresses
to

his intention of
*

Arjuna

549
ib

Drupada's conversation with Yudhishthira


Arrival of Vyasa

550
, .

Story of Jatila

551
ib ib

Kunti's expression of opinion

Speech of Vyasa thereon

Account

of the sacrifice of

the gods at the Naimishia forest 552

The gods

see a golden lotus


,

653
.
.

Indra sees a female

ib

ludra interrogates the female

ib

He

sees a

young man

at play with a

young lady

ib

Indra and the young

man

interchange questions
ib

and answers
Indra
sees the former Indras

554
ib

Vyasa's speech

Account

of the origin of

Valarama and Keshava


555
ib
as

from a couple of Narayana's hairs


Prior history of the Pandavas and Draupadi Gifted with divine vision Draupada sees the Pandas
in their native forms

556

Former
Speech

history of
of

Draupadi
to

557
ib

Vjaea

Drupada

Preparations for the nuptials

558
ib

The

h\

meneal uesembly

CONTENTS,

3ti

PAGE
"Consecutive marriages of the five

Kunti

blesses

Draupadi

Krishna sends dower

....
.
.

558

559

560

Vidurdgatnana Parva.

Duryodhana hears

of the marriage of the


it
.

Pandavaa

561

Vidura acquaints Dhritarashtra with

562

Conference of Duryodhana and Dhritarashtra

563
565

Kama's speech
Bhisma's speech
Drona's speech

567 568

Kama's reply
Speech of Vidura''
Speech of Dhritarashtra
Vidura's departure for Panchala

570
ib

673
ib

He

sees the

Pandavaa
to

574
,
-,

Speech of Vidura

Drupada

ib

Drupada's reply

Speech of Vasudeva
of Krishna

Return of the Pandavas

Speech of the citizens on seeing the Pindavas The Pandavas take half of the kingdom and enter

.... ....
.

Rajyalav<i Parva.
.

575
ib

to flastina with the Consent

576
ib

Khandavaprastha

577
ib

The building
Arrival of

city its description Krishna and Valar^ma return to Dwaraka


of the

679
ib

Narada

at the house of the


.

Pandavas

Story of Sunda and Upasunda

The Pandavas bind themselves with


of

Draupadi

....
at

581

a rule in respect

590

Arjunavanavasa Parva,
The
lives of the

Pandavas

Khandavaprastha

591

Arjuna

violates the rule for rescuing the kine of a



.

Brahmana
Arj ana's voluntary exile

592 593

Xll

CONTENT.
PAGE,

Marriage of Arjuna with Ulupi

,'

595 598
599

Arjima obtains Chitrjlngada

He

rescues
tirtha

some Apsaras from


at

Arjuna sees Krishna

.....
.

a curse at the Pancha-

They both go
Arjuna goes

to the

Raivataka mountain

of pleasure
to

Dwaraka with Krishna, and puts up


,
.

....
Prabhasha
.

602
ib
at the

for

purposes

house of the latter

603

Suhhatlrdharana Parva.

The

festival called

Vrishnandhaka on the Raivataka


.

mountain.

603
604?

Arjuna sees Subhadra there

He

forcibly carries

away Subhadra
to fight

606
ib

The Vrishnis prepare

with Arjuna and

finally desist

Harandhara^d Parva.
Arjuna returns with Subhadra
Draupadi's speech to Arjuna
to
,

Khandavaprastha
. .

608

609

Krishna and Valarama and others come


prastha with dowers
.

to
.

Khandava.

ib

The

festivitie3 at

Indraprashta on the arrival of the


. .

Vrishnis and Andhakas

610
612
ib

Birth of

Abhimanyu
sons of Draupadi

He
The

learns the art of arms


five

613

Khmidava-daha Parva The administration


of

Yudhis-hthira
to sport in the
.

614 615
ib

Krishna and Arjuna goes


Sports of the females

woods
.

Arrival of Agni in the guise of a

Brahmana
.

616 617
ib

His

suit with

Krishna and Arjuna

Anecdote

of

Swetaki

Varuna

furnishes Krishna and Arjuna with cars,

the
.

discus,

and the bow Gandiva

624 628

Escape of Aswasena from the buruiug Khauiava

CONTENTS,

XUl

Fight of Badra and Arinna

",

PAGE 631*
ib
ib

Fight of Krishna and Arjuna with the celestials Defeat of the gods , ,
,

Indra desists from fight


Conflagration of

ib
,

Khandava

632

Flight of the Asura

Maya

63^
ib ib

Approach of Agni towards Maya Arjuna protects Maya ^


Story of the Rishi Mandapala
Austerities of
.

to

consume him
,

635
,

Mandapala

ib-

he was deprived of the merit of his devotions Speech of the gods to Mandapala
j

Why
He

ib
ib

assumes the form of a bird

^
,
,
,

636
ib

His

hymn

to

Agni

Bestowal of a boon on him by Agni


History of his four sons
.

637 638
646;

Grant of boons by Indra

to

Arjuna and Krishna

FLMIB,.

^rsT^

f^^

^n lii ^^^w.

m^^ '4rht:

f^^^^ w^^tK^ fk^fk^ fk^j ftfiT^ w^^


^fir^^t ^^ tf^' ft?rm ^* 5qfPC Ttc[ ftiilf^
TTSTT

T^t

ftm ^t^^
HRf('[
n

^Tiirfc^i?

T
Several

RE F AC E.
"

persons of note and personages even in high rank,

sympathising with the objects of the


lya,"

Datavya Bharat Karj^a-

have from time to time recommended to


if

me

that the

Ma-

habharata,

translated into English, would, to quote the senti-

ments of the Right Honorable the Marquis of Hartingtou,


as conveyed to

me

in Mr. Rost's letter

of the
all

6th of October,
the Indiau news-

1882, and published at the time in nearly


papers, " supply a

want long

felt

and be a

real

boon to the ever-

increasing band

of students of Indian history

and archaeology."

These recommendations exactly falling in with the views entertained by me from some time past, have been taken into
earnest consideration.
glorious inheritance.

The ancient

literature

of India
Prof.

is

our

In his letter to

me

Max

Miiller

remarks,
native

" I

expect the time will come Avhen every educated

will

be as proud of his Mahabharata and Ramayana as

Germans

are of their Nibelunge, and Greeks,even

of their Homer."
vanity, that

modern Greeks, The vanity is excusable, if it were only persuades a Hindu to seek the means of placing this

splendid inheritance of his before the eyes of foreign nations,


of foreigners particularly

who from
it.

their culture are capable of

appreciating and understanding


successful,

But such an endeavour,


It
is

if

may

not satisfy vanity alone.

really fraught

with results of the utmost importance to the cause of historical

and
all

philological research, in fact, to the cause of

Knowledge

in

her principal departments.

Apart from
inscrutable

all these,
it is

there

is

another consideration the imto exaggerate.

portance of which
its

difficult

Providence in

wisdom has linked the destiny of this country with that of an island in the remote west which, though unable
has, nevertheless, a splendid present,
still.

to boast of a bright past,

and,

if

signs are to

be trusted, a more glorious future

England, however, by her wise administration of this her richest and most extensive dependency, has already ceased to be regarded in the light of a conquering power bent only upon
self- aggrandisement

at

the expense of the children of the

soil.

Untrue

to the traditions of

Empire and the

instincts

of their

own

better nature, individual Englishmen might


;

now and

tlicn

advocate the policy of repression

but,

thank God, force has

long ago ceased to be regarded as an efficacious instrument in


the Government of two hundred million of

human

beings.

In

her gracious Proclamation,


liberties,

constituting

the Charter of our


tlie

the Queen-Emjaress of India enunciates

noblest

principles of government, and confesses to her determination of

founding her rule npon the love and gratitude of the people.
Occasional lapses on the part of those in authority
rnifdit

under her

produce temporary

irritation,

b^t the two races are daily


-th-s

approaching each other with fraternal feelings as best befit


children of the

same mother.

Instead of looking upon the contliose inautliority

quered people as outer barbarians,

over

them

always manifest a sincere desire to enter into their feelings and

understand their aspirations by personal converse and, what is certainly nTore efficacious in this line, -by a study of -their
national literature.
Professor Monier Williams in his preface to
translation

Dr. H. H. Milman's metrical

of Kcdo-jjahhycmct,
its
firsfc

remarks,

"

Now

that our

Indian Empire has passed

great climacteric,
constitution, the
Civil Service
Its
*

and vast changes are being effected in


value
*

its

of Sanskrit *

to

all

preparing for the

cannot be insisted on too forcibly.


is

relations to'the

spoken languages

not

its

only attraction.

The study

of Latin bears closely on Italian,

and yet

if

the

empire of Italy belonged to this country, Y/e should not attach

more importance
because,
in fact,

to proficiency in Latin

the people

community
religion,

of character

than we do at present, who now speak Italian have little with the Romans who once spoke Latin.
of
thoug-iit,

Tlieir tastes,

customs,

habits

laws, institutions,
in India the lapse

and literature are

all different.

But

of centuries causes little disturbance in the habits and


ter

charac-

of the people, iiowever numerous and violent And again, " How is it, then, that revolutions. "

the political

knowing
]

all

this.

Englishmen, with

two hundred million of


less

Indian

fellow-subjects,

have hitherto paid


"

attention to the study

of this language, than


interests in the East
'

other nations

who have no

material

Since

the

time,

however,

that

tlie

Professor wrote, some-

been done towards encon raging the study of Sanskrit by the Civil Servants of India. It isa matter of regret, howwhile ever, that tlie little that is acquired under compulsion
tiling has

in course of training

for

the

first

test

or the

Departmental

examinations,
ill

is

rarely improved from a love of knowledge


c<aiiso,

after

life.

The
is

however,

is

not far to seek.

The
nearly

study of Sanskrit
insuperable in

attended with
cas-e

difficulties that are

tiie

of

tJie

over-worked Indian

official.

the
if

Unless blessed with linguistic faculties of an exceptional nature, little leisure that the Indian official might command, even
wholly devoted to the acquirement of Sanskrit, can scarcely
results.viz,,

produce desirable
tions of the

Viewed
for

also in the

light of a

mean

to-an end, the end,

of understanding the wishes

and

aspira-

Indian races

purposes of better government,

the study of Sanskrit

may be

dispensed with

if all

that

is

contained in

tlie

great Sanskrit works of antiquity becomes

obtainable by Englishmen through the

medium

of translation.

Any

effort,

therefor-e,

that

is

mad'e towards unlocking


to

Yiijnyavalkya, Vyasa and Valmiki, iu India,

Manu and Englishmen at home or

can not but be regarded as a valuable contribution to

the cause of good government.

With regard
as
wri'^ers of

to the

Mahabha'rata in particular, on which,


scholars,

remarked by Oriental

Aryan poets and prosesucceeding ages have drawn as on a national bank


its-

of unlimited resources, I amfiilly persuaded that the usefulness


.of

such

a translation and

gratuitous

distribution in India

and Europe (America also has been included at the suggestion of my friends) would recommend- itself to the patriotism of xay countrymen without the need of any eloquent elaboration.
.It is

impossible to suppose that the liberality of

my

country"

m-en could have

been exhausted by supporting the


a period of seven years- only.
cost,

Bharat

Karyalya

"

for

The English
After

.translation

will

at a

rough estimate, Rs. 100,000.

my

experience of the

li>berality ef
it be,

my

countrymen, this

sum,
I pur-

apprently large though

seems^ to

me

to

be a

trifle.

pose tlierefore ta publish an English translation of the Maliabharata- in

month I3'

parts of

]0 forms each, octavo, demy, the

nrst part of Avhich

is

issued herewith.

The present

edition shall consist of

1250

copies.

250 copies

are intended for distribution in India free of all charges,

among
out

the gentry, the aristocracy, and reigning chiefs

300 among

Indian

officials

of the

higher ranks
the savants
(

250

for distribution

of India, chiefly

among

of

Europe and America.

200 copies must be reserved

as experience has taught

me )

for

making up losses caused to recipients by negligence and in transit. The remaining 250 copies shall be charged for at Ss 50 and
SrS 65 per copy

inclusive of postal costs,

Rs 50 being payable
shall,

by persons in India and Rs 65 by those in Europe and America.


It
is

needless to say that the selection

of recipients

in

regard to the present publication, rest entirely with the Karyalaya.

Any

person desirous of taking a copy, but whose


list,

name

may

not be entered in the free


list

may,

if

he

likes,

have his

iiame registered in the

of those to

whom

the aforesaid 250

copies are to be supplied for

Rs 50 or 65

a copy. In case, however,


copies
or

of sheer inability on the part


supplied,
as long as
is

of these,

available, at

Eb 12
It is

may even be Rs 25 according as


be very

the address

Indian or foreign.

needles, however, to

say that this


limited.

last class of recipients

must

necessarily

Since the foundation of the

'

Datavya Bharat Karyalya,"


therefore,

not a single copy of any of with


for price.

its

publications has ever been parted

The present departure,

from the Kar-

yalya's uniform practice, in regard to at least

250 copies of the

projected publication, requires a word of explanation.

During

the
"

last

seven years I have found a few gentlemen evincing


in accepting in
gift the

some reluctance
Bharata

publications of the

Karyalya, " although this latter is


is

no institution beof the persons

longing to any private individual but

rather a national con-

cern supported by a nation's patriotism.

Many
to

evincing such delicacy are too important to be overlooked in the


distribution of our publications.
cially that

It

is

meet

their case espe-

250 copies of the proposed translation are reserved.

These gentlemen
out of India.
is

might
far

easily
is

accept copies now, on pay-

ment, which, as stated above,

Rs 50

in

India and
"

Rs 65

So

as

the

"

Bharata Karyalya,

however,

concerned; gentlemen taking copies on

payment

of the above

sum'?,

without being looked upon as purchaserSj will be regarded

as donors to the

Karyal

ya.

Although in the

collection

of

funds necessary for

the
is

accomplishment of the present scheme,

my

chief reliance

upon my own countrymen,


support,
if

yet

in

an undertaking of
failure.

this

nature the Bharat Karyalya can not very well refuse outside only to make an insurance against
the

The

Editor of
"

Sind

Gazette,

in

reviewing the

Karyalya's

prospectus issued in March

last,

remarked " there are many

Natives and Europeans of culture


favorable light in

who

will view the


it

scheme
itself

"in the highly


" to
*'

which

presents

men so fessor Max


Rs

unlike as the Marquis of Hartington and


Muller,

Pro-

both of

whom
sum

have given

it

their

warm

" support.

The

translation will cost the


is

Bharat Karyalya some


even so influental and

"
" "

100,000, and this

a large

for

wealthy a body to expend on such an object.

But

so brilliant

an instance of
effect

intellectual charity
at the

is

certain to
it

attract outto

" side support, and,


*'

same time,

ought

have the
**

of swelling the member-roll of the Society.

While

thanking the European Editor most sincerely for his kind words
in reference to

my

scheme, I would observe that

if

that sche-

me

is

rightly appreciated in

Europe and America,


(actively,
if

I should not

be justified in not accepting any


made, or even in not seeking
to ensure success.
fulness either,
is,

offer of aid that is voluntarily

need be) contributions


its

Literature, in respect of

demand
in

or use-

more than anything cosmopolitan concern. The productions

else

the world, a

of

genius are the


lived as

common
Germans
Hindus

inheritance of the world.


as for

Homer

much

for

Greeks, ancient or modern,


or Italians.

Englishmen or Frenchmen,
for

Valmiki and Vyasa lived as much

as for every race of

men

capable of understanding them.

SHORT HISTORY OF THE DaTAVYA BhARAT KaRYALYA,


ITS

ORIGIN

AND OPERATIONS.

Impressed from

my

very youth with the desire of render-

ing the great religious works of India easily accessible to ray

countrymen from a hope that such a

step, if accomplished,

would, to a certain extent, counteract the gFowing scepticism

and

irreligion of the age, I nursed the wish for years in secret,

my

resources having been quite disproportionate to

the

grand-

eur of the scheme.

The occupation
toil,

to

which I betook myAfrer some

self Avas that of a Book-seller

and general Agent.

years

of unremitting

I achieved a success in

my

business

which, in the face of the keen competition of the times, I


could consider as in every respect
fair.

I secured a

competence

upon which,
extent of

if

liked,

could retire.

But without doing

anything of the kind, I resolved to carry out, of course to the

my

means, the scheme I Imd always nursed regardI soon brought out

ing the great Sanskrit works of antiquity.

an edition

in Bengali of the

Mahabharata, the great epic of


living

Vyasa, a perfect storehouse of religious instruction im])arted not by dry precepts but enforced by the history of

men,

princes

and warriors, sages and hermits,

in fact,

of

every specimen of humanity that can interest

man
took
I

in general.

My

edition

consisted of 3,000
to

copies,
it.

and

it

me

little

more than seven years


a copy, taking
although a
all

complete

The

price

fixed

for

circumstances into consideration, was Rs 42.


before
certain

little Avhile

dishonest recipients

of

Babu Kaliprasanna Singha's


sold their copies for
IjLs

edition of the

same work
tlie

Babn

Kaliprasanna Singha having distributed his edition gratis) had

60 ta 70 per copy in

open market. need not

little after

my

edition had been brought out, I was afflicted


details
it

by a domestic calamity with the


acquaint the reader.
I
Suffice

of which

to

say

that

for

some time

was

like

one demented.
tried

On

the advice of friends and physi-

cians,

the

effect

of a

temporary separation from old


disorder
of the
nerve.^^

sights and scenes.

But mine was no

that a

change of climate or scene could do


"

me any

good,

Mme

Mas

mind

diseased, a rooted sorrow to be plucked

from

the memory," and I stood in need of "some sweet oblivions nr>tidote to cleanse the stuffed bosom of that perilous stuff which

weighs upon the heart." My pui-poseless wanderings could be of no avail. At length I mustered determination enough to
forget

m.y sorrows.

The

desire that I

had

all

along cherished

of doino- something in

my humble way
by a

towards counteracting

the

progress

of irreligion

circulation

amongst

my

coun-

trymen of the o-reat religious works of ancient India, and which

had been only temix)rarily suspended during my affliction, Besides, during my returned to me with renewed vigor.
purposeless

wanderings through the Mofussil, I met with vari-

ous perssns in humble

knov/n by
of

stations of life to whom I Avas well my previous publication of the Miihabharata, many whom gave me to understand that my edition of the Mahaall

bharata though cheap in


of persons of their class.

conscience,

was

still

out of the reach


edi-

They regretted that no cheaper


thirst.

tion could be brought out to satisfy their

Pondering
homewards.

upon

all

these circumstances,
to

retraced

my way

Coming back
complete,
ot

my

office, I

took stock and found that after the


less

sales ali'eady effected,

about one thousand copies, more or


I

the Mahabharata
I

had brought out, remained in


for

my hands My only
dence.

unsold.

had nobody to provide

in

the world.

daughter had been disposed of


that time

in

marriage and

she was happy with her husband 2>ossessing a decent indepen-

By

had

also

secured, from the profits of

my

concern, a

sum

tliat

could secure

me

a competence for the


I thought, for

rest of

my

days.

Now

was the the time,

making

an attempt towards even a partial accomplishment of the de-

The thousand copies of the sire I had all along cherished. Mahabharata that I had in my hands I began to distribute
gratis amongst

my

countrymen.
however,
soon became a failure,
of recipients.

My
I

ill-digested project,

was not very discriminate

in the selection

My

simplicity was taken advantage of by a number of persons

whom I should not have trusted. These obtaining copies from me gratis began to sell them for price in the market. Experience made me wise, but the wisdom came too late. The copies I had in my hands had all been exhausted.

It

was at

this

time that I began to mature some plan wherea

by the

desire I cherished could be carried out without designing

persons being able to

take

any

undue advantage.

After

much

deliberation,

I succeeded in forming a plan

which when

submitted to

my

friends

was

fully

approved of by them.

The

details of this plan will appear from the sequel.

My plan

being matured, I resolved to bring out a second

edition of the Mahabharata, the whole intended for gratuitous


distribution, subject, of course, to proper restrictions. I selected

the Mahabharata in particular, for more reasons than one.


editions of the

The

Mahabharata brought out under the auspices of

the Maharaja of Burdwan and the late Babu Kali Prasanna


Singha, and distributed gratis, had comprised a few thousand
copies utterly inadequate to satisfy

the public demand.

The

manner
ded the

also in

which these copies had been distributed preclu-

possibility of the great

body of Mofussil readers being


It would seem, besides,

benefitted to any considerable extent.

that such gratuitous distribution by the Maharaja of

Burdwan
had

and Babu Kali Prasanna Singha by


tended more
ancient literature of India.

its

very

insufficiency

to tantalize the public than allay its thirst for the

In view, therefore, of
of our Father-land, of
pride
in

tliis

thirst for the

ancient literature

thirst that could not

but inspire feelings


that were

every patriotic bosom,

feelings also

particularly gratifying to me on account of the anxiety I had entertained at the sight of the growing irreligiousness of a portion of my countrymen, I resolved to establish a permanent

Institution

for the

gratuitous distribution of the great

reli-

gious works of ancient India.

In this connection, as offering a


itself

ground of
I

utility that

would recommend

more

generally,

may again quote Professor Max Muller. now the only means of saving your Sanskrit literature from Many books which existed one or two inevitable destruction. centuries ago, are now lost, and so it will be with the rest, unless
"is

" Printing " says he,

you establish Native Printing

Presses,

The

fruit

then of
"

my

resolution has

and print your old texts." been the " Datavya


an
suns

Bharata Karyalya.

I felt, from the

beginning, that such

institution, to be successful, would require large funds.

The

I could devote to the purpose would be quite inadequate.


I was

Bub
is

persuaded that of

all

countries in the

world, India
in Avhich

pre-eminently the land of charity.


charity exhibits
itself

The modes
in
is

her

might not be

accordance with the

dictates of the political

economy that

now

in

vogue in the
its

West.

But

of the

measure of that charity and. of


question.
I

disin-

terested character, there could be no

was persua-

ded that an appeal to


sands at the beck of

my

countrymen giving away their thouthe accomplishment of schemes


to be responded to
is
.

officials for

of doubtful utility, could not

fail

Such

an appeal was made, and with what success


the public.
"

already before

am

particularly glad

to see, "
all

again remarks

the Professor quoted above, "that you do

that you are doing


is

with the help of your own countrymen.


to go to work.
"

That

the right
is

way

For the success achieved small credit

due to

me.

The credit belongs almost whollj' to my countrymen. The " Datavya Bliarat Karyalya " has, within the course of
distributed

the last seven years, printed and gratuitously


editions of the
tion comprising

two

Mahabharata
nearly

in

Bengalee translation, each edicopies.

3,000

The

fourth

edition of

the M.'diabharata (the third of the series for gratuitous distribution) has been
is

completed.

copies
in

commenced and will take some time before ib One edition of the Harivansa comprising 3,000 has been exhausted. The Ramayana also has been taken
is nearlj/

hand and

completed, the text of Valmiki publish-

ing along with the translation. Roughly estimated, the"Bharafc

Karyalya" has distributed up to date

nearly Nine

thousand
together,

copies of the Mahabharata and the Harivansa taken

and that number would swell to Eighteen thousand, when the


fourth edition of the Mahabharata and the
first

edition of the

Ramayana

(both diglot; will be complete.


consists of about 1,033

A single

copy of the

Mahabharata

forms, octavo,
;

demy

single copy of the Harivansa, 112 forms

and a single copy of


result,
"

the Ramayana, 578 forms.


of the operations
of the

The Arithmetical
"

therefore,

Bharat Karyalya

has been that


gratui-

1,37,83,500 separate printed forms liave been

already

tously distributed and in coarse of distribution.

10

Leaving aside the arithmetical results of the Karyalya's operations, it might be fairly presumed that the genuine de18,000 copies of the sacred books of India represents a degree of interest taken by the people in the history of patriotic to their past that is certainly not discouraging

mand

for

hearts.

So far as I myself am concerned, I would consider amply repaid if my exertions have contributed in myself the least towards withdrawing any portion of my country-

men and country-women


literature of the

from a perusal of

the sensational

present day in which, under the pretence

of improvement,

the plots and situations of fifth-rate French


vitiating

novels are

introduced,

the manly Aryan taste, and


behind.
If

leaving

no substantial instruction

the publica-

tions of the

some extent readers of


tliy

Bharat Karyalya have succeeded in withdrawing to this class of literature from the unhealit is

excitement for Avhich alone

sought, and turning

them

to

contemplate the purity of Aryan society, the immutable

truths of
warriors,

Aryan philosophy, the chivalry


in the

of

Aryan princes and


examples of

the masculine morality that guides the conduct of

men even
loyalty,

most trying

situations, the bright

constancy, and love, which the Aryan poet describes

with a swelling heart, the end of those publications has at least been partially achieved. May I indulge the hope that my

countrymen, even as they


influences
in

now

are,

be preserved from foreign


I also indulge the

their manners,

and

may

hope

that

my

countrymen continue to look upon Vyasa and Valmiki


!

with feelings of proper pride

PROTAP CHUNDRA ROY.


Datavya Bharata Karyalya,

TRANSLATORS PREFACE,
The object of a translator shoukl ever be to hold the mirror up to his author. That being so, his chief duty is to represent, so far as practicable, the manner in which his
author's ideas have

been expressed, retaining,

if possible,

at

the

sacrifice of idiom

and

taste,

all

the peculiarities of his


well.
is

author's imagery
translations

and of language

as

In regard to

from the Sanskrit,

nothing

easier than to dish

up Hindu ideas so as to make them agreeable to English taste. But the endeavor of the present translator has been to give in
the following
great

pages as

literal

a rendering as possible of the


there
ig

work of Vyasa.

To

the purely English reader

much

in the following pages that will strike as ridiculous. Those

unacquainted with any language but their own are generally


very exclusive in matters of
taste.

Having no knowledge of
in

models other than what they meet with


tion
ever,

their

own

tongue,

the standard they have formed of purity and taste in composi-

must necessarily be
would ill-discharge
he sacrificed

narrow one.
his

The

translator,

howre-

duty
to

if for

the sake of avoiding

ridicule

fidelity
is,

the original.

He must
him.

present his author as he

not as he slioidd

he to please the

narrow

taste of those

entirely

unacquainted with

Mr.

Pickford, in the preface to his English translation of the Mahtc

Viva Charita, ably defends


even at the
sacrifice of

a close

adherence

to the original

idiom and taste against the claims of

what has been


introduced.

called

'*

free translation"

which means dressing

the author in an outlandish garb to please those to

whom

he

is

In the preface Niti Satakavi and


says,

to his classical

tr;inslation of Bhartrihari s

Vairagya-Satakam, Mr.
in

C.

H.

Tawney

" I

retained

am sensible that, much local coloring

the

present

attempt, I have

For instance, the idea of worit

shipping
occurs

the feet of a god or great man, though

frequently

in Iiidi in literature,

will undoubtedly move the laughif

ter of Englir^hmen

unacquainted with Sanskrit, especially

thev

happen

to

belong to that claPS of renders who rivet their


blind
to

attention on the accidental and remain

the

ssseuual.

But

certain'

measure

of fidelity to the original,


is

even

at the

risk of

making

oneself ridiculous

better

than the studied

dishonesty which characterises so


poets."

many

translations of oriental

We

fully subscribe to the above, although, it

must be

observed, the censure conveyed to


last indicated is rather

the

class

of translators

undeserved, there being nothing like


" in their

a " studied dishonesty

efforts

which proceed only

from a mistaken view of their duties and as such betray only

an

error of the head but not of the heart.

THE MAHABITARATA.

AD

P AR V

A.

Section

1.

Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the most exalted male being, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word success be uttered.
!

Om

Ugra-srava, the son of Lomaharshana, surnamed Sauti, well


versed in the Puranas, bending with

humility one day ap-

proached the great sages of rigid vows, sitting at their ease

who

had attended the twelve

years' sacrifice of

Saunaka, surnamed
ascetics,

Kulapati, in the forest of Naimisha.

Those

wishing to

hear his wonderful narrations, presently began to address

him

who had thus

arrived at that recluse abode of the inhabitants of

Having been entertained with due respect by those holy men, he saluted those Munis (sages) with joined palms, even all of them, and inquired of the progress of Then all the ascetics, being again seated, the their asceticism. son of Lomaharshana humbly occupied the seat that was assigned
the forest of Naimisha.
to him.

Seeing that he was comfortably seated and recovered


E-ishis,

from fatigue, one of the


him,
"

beginning the conversation, asked


lotus-leaf-eyed Sauti,

Whence comest

thou,
?

and where

hast thou spent the time

Tell me,

who ask

thee, in full ?"

Accomplished in speech, Sauti, thus questioned, gave, in the midst of that spacious assemblage of contemplative Munis, a full

and proper answer, in words consonant with their mode of life. Sauti said: "Having heard the diverse sacred and wonderful

stories

composed in

his

Mahabharata by Krishna-Dwaipayana,
by Vaisampayana at the Snakesage Janamejaya and in the
son
of Parikshita
;

and which were recited


sacrifice

in full

of the high-souled royal

presence also of that chief of princes, the

having wandered about, visiting many sacred waters and holy


shrines, I

journeyed to the country venerated by the Dwijas

(twice-born) and called Samantapanchaka, where formerly were

MAHAP.HARATA,

fought the battles between the children of

Kuru

and Panda.,
Thence,

and

all

tho chiefs of the

land

ranged on either

side.

being anxious to see you, I


reverend sages,
blessed,
all

of

am come into your presence. Ye whom are to me as Brahma ye greatly


;

who

shine in this place of sacrifice with the splendour


fire
;

of the solar

ye who have performed ablutions and are

pure
fed

ye who have concluded the silent meditations and have


holy
fire
;

the

and ye who are


shall

sitting without care


?

what,

ye Dwijas, (twice-born)

I repeat

Shall

I recount the

sacred stories collected in the


religious

Puranas containing precepts of


profit, or "
?

duty and of worldly

the acts of illustrious

saints

and sovereigns of mankind


Rishis replied
:

The

"

The Purana,

first

promulgated by the

great Rishi Dwaipayana, and which after having been heard both

by the gods and the Brahmarshis was highly esteemed, which


and
division, possessing subtile

is

the moat eminent narrative that exists diversified both in diction

meanings
is

logically combined,

embellished from the Vedas,


elegant language,
it

a sacred work.

and Composed in
is

includeth the subjects of other books. It

elucidated by other Sastras,


four Vedas.

and comprehendeth the sense of the

We

are desirous of hearing that history, also called

Bharata, the holy composition of the wonderful Vyasa, which


dispelleth the fear of evil, just as it

was cheerfully recited by the


?"

Rishi Vaishampayana, under the direction of Dwaipayana himself,


at tbe snake-sacrifice of Raja
:

" Having bowed down to the primordial Sauti then said male being Isana, to whom multitudes make offerings, and who who is the true incorruptible one, is adored by the multitude who is both a nonimperceptible, eternal Brahma, perceptible,
;
;

Janamejay

existing and an
verse verse
;

existing-non-existing being

which

is

the uni-

and

also distinct
is

from the existing and non-existing uni;

who

the creator of high and low


;

the ancient, exalted,

inexhaustible one

who
all

is

Vishnu, the beneficent and benefi-

cence

itself,

worthy of

preference, pure

and immaculate
all

who

is Hari, the ruler of the faculties,

the guide of

things mo-

veable and immoveable

I will declare the

sacred thoughts of

the illustrious sago Vyasa, of marvellous deeds and worshipped here by all. Some bards have already published this history,

ADI PARVA.
some are now teaching it, and after promulgate it upon the
others, in like

o manner,
will here-

earth.

It

i3

a great source of
the

knowledge, established throughout

the three regions of

world. It is possessed by the twice-born both in detailed and compendious forms. It is the delight of the learned for being

embellished with elegant expressions, conversations


divine,

human and

and a variety of poetical measures. it was destitute of brightness and light, around in total darkness, there came into and enveloped all being, as the primal cause of creation, a mighty egg, the one inexhaustible seed of all created beings. It is called Mahadivya,
"In this world, when

and was formed at the beginning of the Yuga, in which, we are told, was the true light Brahma, the eternal one, the wonderful and inconceivable being present alike in all places the invisible and subtile cause, whose nature partaketh of entity and nonentity. From this egg came the lord Pitamaha, Brahma,
;

the one only Prajapati

with Suraguru and Sthanu

so

Manu,

Ka, and Parameshti


sons of Daksha.

also

Pracheta and Daksha, and the seven

Then

also

appeared the twenty-one Prajapatis,

and the man of inconceivable nature

whom

all

the Rishis

know

so the Visiua-devas, the Adityas, the Vasus, and the twin Asiui-

nas

the Yakshas, the Sadhyas, the Pisachas, the Guhyakas,


Pitris.

and the

After these were produced the wise and most

holy Brahnarshis, and the numerous Rajarshis distinguished by

every noble quality.


air,

So the waters, the heavens, the

earth, the

the sky, the points of the heavens, the years, the seasons,

the months, the fortnights, called Pakshas, with day and night
in due succession.

And

thus were produced

all

things which

are

known to mankind. "And what is seen in

the universe, whether animate or inwill,

animate, of created things,


after the expiration of the

at the end of the

world,

and

Yuga, be again confounded. And, at


all

the

commencement

of other Yugas,

things will be renovated;

and, like the various fruits of the earth, succeed each other in

the due order of their seasons.

Thus continueth perpetually


all

to

revolve in the world, without beginning and

without end, this

wheel which causeth the destruction of

things.

"The gencratiop

ol

Devas. as a brief example, was thirty-

ft

MAHABHARATA.
The sons

three thousand thirty-three hundred and thirty-three.


of Div were Brihadbhanu,

Chakshush, Atma, Vibhavasu, Savita,

Richika, Arka, Bhanu, Ashabaha, and Ravi.


of old,
latter

Of

these VivasM-ans

Mahya was
had

the youngest whose son was Deva-brata.

The

for his son, Su-brata,

who, we learn, had three sons,

Dasa-jyoti, Sata-jyoti,

and Sahasra-jyoti, each of them produ-

cing numerous offspring.

The

illustrious

Dasa-jyoti had

ten

thousand, Sata-jyoti ten times that number, and Sahasra-jyoti


ten.

times the number of Sata-jyoti's offsprings.


of the

From

these

are descended the family

Bharata

the family

of Tayati
also

Kurus, of the Yadus, and of and of Ikshiuaku also of all


;

the Rajarshis.

Numerous

were the generations produced,

and very abundant were the creatures and their places of abode,the mystery which is threefold, the Vedas, Yoga, and Vijnana,-

Dharma, Artha, and Kama, also various books upon the subject of Dharma, Artha, and Kama, also rules for the conduct of mankind, also histories and discourses, with various srutis

which having been seen by the Rishi Vyasa are here in due order mentioned as a specimen of the book.
all of

"The Rishi Vyasa published

this

mass of knowledge in both


It
is

a detailed and an abridged form.


in the world to possess the detail

the wish of the learned

and the abridgment.


initial

Some

read the Bharata beginning with the

mantra

(invocation)

others with the story of Astika, others with Uparichara, while

some Brahmanas study the whole.


their

Men

of learning

display

various knowledge of the institutes in

commenting on the
it,

composition.

Some
its

are skilful in explaining

while others in

remembering

contents.

"The son of Satyavati having, by penance and meditation,


analysed the eternal Veda, afterwards composed this holy history.

And when

that learned Brahmarshi of strict vows, the noble


offspring of Parasara,

Dwaipayana Vyasa,
est of narrations,

had finished

this greatit

he began to consider how he might teach


acquainted with the
in

to his disciples.

And

the possessor of the six attributes, Brahma,

the world's preceptor,

anxiety of the

Rishi Dwaipayana, came


latter

person to
the
saint,

the place

where the
the

was,

for

gratifying

and benefitting
all

people.

And

Avhen

Vya^a,

surrounded by

the

tribes of

ADI PARVA,
Munis,

'5

saw him, he was surprised

and standing with joined

palms, he bowed and he ordered a seat to be brought.

And Vyasa

having gone round him who


that distinguished seat,

is

called
it
;

Hiranyagarbha seated on

and being commanded by Brahma Parameshti, he sat down near the seat, full of affecttion and smiling in joy. Then the greatly glorious Vyasa, adstood near

dressing Brahma Parameshti, said, poem hath been composed which is

'

divine

greatly respected.

Brahma ,by me a The mysexplained

tery of the Veda, and what other subjects have been

by me

the various ritual of the Vedas and of the Upanishads


;

with the Angas

the

compilation of the
after

Puranas and history

formed by
past,

me and named
and future
;

the three divisions of time,

present,

the determination of the nature


;

of decay, death, fear, disease, existence, and non-existence


description of creeds and of the various

modes of

life
;

rules for

the four castes, and the import of

all

the Puranas

an account
;

of asceticism and of the duties of a religious student


sions of the sun

the dimen-

and moon, the

planets, constellations,
;

and

stars,

together with that of the four ages

the Rik, Sama, and Yajur

Vedas

also the

Adhyatma
;

the sciences called Nyaya, Orthoepy,


;

and treatment of disease and human,


for particular

charity and Pasupata

birth, celestial

purposes

also a description of places

of pilgrimage and other holy places

of rivers, mountains, forests,


;

and the ocean


;

and the kalpas the art of war the different kinds of nations and language and what is the nature of the manners of the people and the all;

of

heavenly

cities

pervading
"

spirit

all

these have been represented.


is

But, after

all,

no writer of

this

work
'

to be found

on earth.

'

Brahma

said:

esteem thee,

for

thy knowledge of divine


I

mysteries, before the

whole body of celebrated Munis distinlives.

guished for the sanctity of their


revealed the divine word, even from

know thou

hast

its

first

utterance, in the

language of truth.
wherefore
it

Thou hast
be a poem.

called thy present

work a poem,
even as the

shall

There

shall

be no poets whose

works may equal the descriptions of


the domestic Asrama.
for the

this

poem,

three other modes, called Asramas, are ever unequal in merit to

Let Gancsa be thought


'

of,

Muni,

purpose of writing the poem,

"
.

MAHABHARATA.
Sauti
said,
"

to his

own

abode.

Brahma having thus spoken Then Vyasa began to call to


was no sooner thought
of,

to Vyaaa, retired
his

remembrance
fulfil

Ganesa.

And

Ganesa, obviator of obstacles, ready to

the

desires of his votaries,

than he repaired
he had been
:

to the
saluted,

place where Vyasa was seated.

And when

and was seated, Vyasa addressed him thus


!

'

guide
'

of the

ganas

be thou the writer of the Bharata which I have

formed in

my

imagination, and which I

am

about to repeat.
:

" Ganesa,
will
for

upon hearing

this

address, thus answered

'

become the writer of thy work, provided my pen do not And Vyasa said unto that divia moment cease writing.
' '

Wherever there be any thing thou dost not comprehend, Ganesa having signified his assent, cease to continue writing. proceeded to write ; and Vyasa by repeating the word Om and, by way of diversion, he knit the knots of compobegan sition exceeding close by doing which, he dictated this work
nity,
'
!

according to his engagement.


"I

am

(continued Sauti) acquainted with eight thousand eight

hundred

verses,

and so

is

Suka, and, perhaps, Sanjaya. Muni, no one

From
to

the mysteriousness of their meaning,

is able,

this day, to penetrate those closely knit difficult slokas.

Even the

omniscient Ganesa took a

moment

to

consider

while Vyasa,

however, continued to compose other verses in great abundance.


"

The wisdom

of this

work, like unto an

instrument for

appl3dng coll}Tium, hath opened the eyes of the inquisitive


world,

blinded by the darkness of

ignorance.

As the sun
the ignorance

dispelleth the darkness so doth the


religion, profit, pleasure

Bharata by

its discourses on

and

final release,
its

dispell

of men.

As the

full

moon by

mild light expandeth the buds

of the water-lily, so this Puran,

by exposing the light of the Sruti hath expanded the human intellect. By the lamp of history, which destroyeth the darkness of ignorance, the whole mansion

of the

womb

of nature
is

is

properly and completely illuminated. of which the chapter of contents


is
;

"This work

tree,

the seed; the divisions called

Pauloma and Astikaare


the trunk
;
;

the root

the part called

Samhhava
knots

is

the books called Sabha


the book called

and Aranya are the roosting perches


the
knitting
;

Arani

is

the books called

Virata .and

Uchjoga

ADI PARY4.
tile pitli
;

7
;

the book named Bhiskma, the main branch


;

the book

called

flowers
titled

the book called Kama, the fair Drona, the leaves the book named Salya, their sweet smell the books enthe book called Strl and Aishika, the refreshing shade
; ; ;

Santi,

the mighty
;

fruit

the

book called Awamedha, the


an epitome

immortal sap

the book denominated Asramavasihet,, the spot


;

where

it

groweth

and the book called Mausala,

is

of the Vedas and held in great respect by the virtuous Brahmans.

The

tree of the Bharata, inexhaustible to

mankind

as the clouds,

shall be as a source of livelihood to all distinguished poets."

Sauti continued, "I will

now speak

of the undying flowery

and

fruitful productions of this tree, possessed of taste,

pure and pleasant

and not to be destroyed even by the immortals. Formerly, the spirited and virtuous Krishna Dwaipayana, by the injunctions
of Vishma,

the

wise son of

Ganga and

of his

own mother,

became the father of three boys, who were like the three fires, and having thus raised by the two wives of Vichitra-virya up Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura, he returned to his recluse
;

abode to prosecute his religious


"It

exercises.

was not

till

after these

were born, grown up, and depar-

ted on the supreme journey, that the great Rishi Vyasa published the Bharata in this the region
Bolicited

of

mankind

when being

ed his

by Janamejaya and thousands of Brahmans, he instructand disciple Vaiaampayaiia, who was seated near him
;

he, sitting together with the

Sadasyas, recited the Bharata,


sacrifice,

during the intervals of the ceremonies of the


repeatedly urged to proceed.

being

"Vyasa hath

fully

represented the greatness of the house


of Gandhari, the

of Kuril, the virtuous principles

wisdom of

Vidura, and the constancy of Kunti.


also described

The noble Rishi hath

the divinity of Vasudeva, the rectitude of tbe

sons of Pandu, and

the evil practices of the sons and parti-

sans of Dhrita-rashtra.

"Vyasa executed the compilation of the Bharata, exclusive of the episodes, originally in twenty-four thousand verses and so much only is called by the learned as the Bharata.
Afterwards he composed an epitome in one hundred and
verses, consisting of the introduction

fifty

with the chapter of con-

8
tents.

MAHABHARATA,
This he
it

first

taught to his son Suka

and afterwards
possessed of the

he gave

to others of his disciples

who were
Of

same

qualifications. After that

he executed another compilation,


these, thirty
;

consisting of six hundred thousand verses.

hun-

dred thousand are known in the world of the Devas

fifteen

hundred thousand

in the world of the Pitris

fourteen hundred

thousand among the Gandharvas, and one hundred thousand Narada recited them to the Devas, in the regions of mankind.

Devala to the

Pitris,

and Suka published them


;

to

the

Ganda

harvas, Yakshas,
recited

and Rakshasas

and in
all

this

world they were

by Vaisampaj^ana, one of the

disciples of Vyasa,

man

of just principles and the first

among

those acquainted with

the Vedas.

Know

that

I,

Sauti, have also rejaeated one

hundred

thousand

verses.
is

"Darjodhana
trunk; SakiLni

a great tree formed of passion,

Kama

is its

is its

branches

Dusshasana, its full-grown fruit


its roots.

and

flowers;
"

and the weak-minded Raja Dhrita-rashtra,


is
;

Yiulhish-thira
is its

a vast

tree,

formed of religion and virtue


its

Arjiuia

trunk

Bhima-sena,
fruit

branches
;

the two sons of


its

Madri are

its full

grown

and flowers

and

roots

are

Krishna, Brahma, and the Brahmanas.

"Pandu, after having subdued

many

countries

by

his

wisdom

his abode with the Munis in a certain where he brought upon himself a very severe misfortune for having killed a stag coupling with its

and prowess, took up


forest as a sportsman,

mate, which served as a warning for the conduct of the princes


of his house as long as

they lived.

Their mothers, that the

ordinances of the law might be


to
their

fulfilled,

admitted as substitutes

embraces the gods Dharma, Vayu, Sakra, and the divinities the twin Aswinas. And when their offsprings were
of their

grown up, under the care


of ascetics,

two mothers,

in

the society

in the midst of sacred groves and holy recluse abodes of religious men, they were conducted by Rishis into

the presence of Dhrita-rashtra and his sons, following as students


in the habit of Brahmacharis, having their hair tied
in

knots

on their heads.

'These our pupils,' said they,


;

'are as

your sons,
'

your brothers, and your friends


this,

they are Pandavas,

Saying

the Munis disappeared.

'

ADI PARYA.
''

V
as the sons of

When

the

Kauravaa saw them introduced


class
said,

Pandu, the distinguished


for joy.

of citizens

shouted exceedingly
;

Some, however,
;

they were not the sons of Pandu


a few asked

others said, they were


his
ofifspriug,

\vhile

how they could be


Still

seeing

he had been so long dead.

ou

all

sides voices were heard crying, 'They are on all accounts welcome!

Through divine Providence we behold the family


Let their walcorae be proclaimed
ceased, the
1'

of

Pandu

As these acclamations
causing every point

plaudits

of invisible

spirits,

of

the

heavens to resound, were tremendous.

There were

showers of sweet-scented flowers, and the sound of shells and

Such were the wonders that happened on the arrival of the young princes. The joyful noise of all the citizens, in expression of their satisfaction on the occasion, was so great
kettle-drums.

that
"

it

reached the very heavens in magnifying plaudits.


of the

Having studied the whole


from any one.

Vedas and sundry other

shastras, the Pandavas resided there, respected

by

all

and without

apprehension
"

The

principal ni3n were pleased with the purity of Yudishfortitude of Bhima-sena,

thira,

the

the courage

of Arjuna,

the submissive attention of Kunti to her superiors, and the

humility of the twins Nakula and Sahadeva; and


rejoiced because of their heroic virtues.
"

all

the people

After a while, Arjuna obtained

the

virgin

Kirshna at

the siuayamvara, in the midst of

a concourse

of Rajas,

by

performing a

vei-y difficult feat of archery.

And

from this time

he became very

much
fields

respected
of battle

in this
also,

world
the

among
all

all

bowmen; and

in

like

sun,

he wa3
the
.

hard to be beheld by foe-men.


plished

And having vanquished


tribe,

neighbouring princes and every considerable


all

he accom-

that was necessary for the Raja (his eldest brother) to perform the great sacrifice called Rajasuya.
"

Yudhishthira,

after

having,

through the wise counsels of

Vasudeva and by the valor of Bhima-sena and Arjuna, slain Jarasandha (the king of Magadha) and the proud Chaidya
acquired the right to perform the grand sacrifice of Rajasuya

abounding

in provisions

and

offerings

and fraught with transto this sacrifice


;

cendent merits,

And Duryodhaua came

and

10

MAHABHARATA.
belielJ the vast wealth of the

when he
around
;

PanJavas scattered

all
;

the

ofterings

the

precious stones, gold, and jewels


;

the wealth in cows, elephants, and horses

the curious textures,


furs,

garments, and mantles


ctirpets

the precious shawls and


of the

with
with

made

of the skin

Mankib

he was

filled

envy and became exceedingly displeased.


the hall of assembly elegantly constructed

And when he beheld by Maya (the Asura


was inflamed

architect) after the fashion of a celestial court, he

with rage.

And having

started in confusion at certain architec-

tural deceptions within this building,

he was derided by Bhima-

sena in the presence of Vasudeva, like one of


"

mean

descent.

And

it

was represented

to Dhrita-rashtra that his son, while

partaking of various objects of enjo3'ment and diverse precious


things, was

becoming meagre, wan, and


(with

pale.

And

Dhrita-rashtra,

sometime
their

after,

out of affection for his son, gave his consent ta


the

playing
to

Pandavas) at

dice.

coming

know

of this,

became exceeding wrath.

And Vasudeva And being

dissatisfied,

he did nothing to prevent the disputes, but over-

looked the gaming and sundry other horrid unjustifiable transactions

arising

therefrom

and

in

spite

of

Vidura,

Bhishma,

Drona, and Kripa the son of Sharadwan, he made the Kshetrias kill each other in the terrific war that ensued.
"

And

Dhrita-rashtra hearing the

ill

news of the success

of the Pandavas and recollecting the resolutions of Duryodhana,

Kama, and Sakuni, pondered


the following speech
'
:

for

a while and addressed Sanjaya

Attend,

Sanjaya,

to all I

am

about to say, and

it will

not become thee to treat


versed
in

me

with contempt.

Thou

art

well

the shastms,

intelligent,

and endued with wisdom.


distinction

My
own
as

inclinations were never for war,


of

nor did I delight in the-

destruction

my

race.

made no

between
old.

my

children and

the children of Pandu.

My own
am

sons were

prone to wilfulness and despised


I

me

because I

Blind

am, because of
bore
it

my
all.

miserable plight and through paternal


I

affection, I

was
in

foolish
folly.

after

the thouo-htless

Duryodhana ever growing


tator of the riches of the

Having been a spec-

mighty sons of Pandu,

my
hall.

son was

4erided for his awkwardness while ascending the

UnabW

ADI PARVA.^
t'o

11
overcome
the

bear

it

all

and unable
field,

himself to

sons

of

Panda

in

the

and though a

soldier,

unwilling yet to

obtain good fortune by his

own

exertions, with the help of the


dice.

king of Gandhara, he concerted an unfair game at


'

Hear,

Sanjaya,

all

that happened thereupon and

came
for

to*

my

knowledge.

And when
it fell

thou hast heard

all

I say

recollect-

ing everything as

out,

thou shalt then know


I

me
it

one

with a prophetic eye.

When

heard that Arjuna, having bent


to the

the bow, had pierced the curious mark and brought


ground, and bore away in triumph the maiden
sight of the assembled princes, then, of success.

Krishna, in the

Sanjaya, I had no hopq


of the race of

When

I heard that

Subhadra

Madhu

had, after forcible seizure, been married by Arjuna in the city of

Dwaraka, and that the two heroes of the race of Vrishni (Krishna and Balai'ama, the brothers of Subhadra) without resenting it

had entered Indraprastha


hope of
success.

as friends, then,

Sanjaya, I had no
celestial ar-.

When

heard that Arjuna, by his

rows preventing the down-pour by Indra the king of the gods, had
gratified

Agni by making over

to

him the

forest

of
I

Khandava^
heard that,

then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

the five Pandavas with their mother Kunti had escaped from the

house of

lac,

and that Vidura was engaged


Sanjaya,
I

in the accomplish-

ment

of their designs, then,


I

had no hope of success..


in.

When

heard that Arjuna, after having pierced the mark

the arena had won Draupadi, and that the brave Panchalas had joined the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When
line oi

heard

that Jarasandha,

the

foremost of the royal

Magadha and blazing in the midst of the Kshetrias, had been slain by Bhima with his bare arms alone, then,
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
their general
chiefs

When

heard that

irt

campaign the sons of Pandu had conquered the of the land and performed the grand sacrifice of the'

Rajasuya, then,
1

Sanjaya, I

had no hope of success.


voice

When
and

heard

that

Draupadi,

her

choked

with

tears

heart

full of

agony, in the season of impurity and with but


she had none, then,

raiment on, had been dragged into court and


protectors had been treated as
if

one though she had

Sanjaya,-

I had no hope of success.

When

I heard that the wicked wretch-

X2

MAHABHAllATA.

Duslisahana, ia striving to strip her of that single garment, had

being only drawn from her person a large heap of cloth without O Sanjaya, I had no hope of able to arrive at its end, then,
success.

When

heard that Yudhishthira, beaten by Saubala

at the

game

of dice

and deprived of

his

kingdom

as

the con-

sequence thereof, had still been attended upon by his brothers Sanjaya, I had no hope of of incomparable prowess, then
success.

When

heard that the virtuous Pandavas weeping


to the wilderness
for the mitigation

with

affliction

had followed their elder brother

and exerted themselves variously discomforts, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of


'

of his

success.

When I heard that Yudhishthira had been followed into the live Tv-ilderness by Snatakas and noble-minded Brahmanas who
upon alms, then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

I heard that Arjuua, having in combat pleased the god of gods, Tryamhaka (the three-eyed) in the disguise of a hunter,

obtained the great weapon Pcmqxita, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that the just and renowned
Arj una, having been to the celestial regions, had there obtained celestial v/eapons, from Indra himself then, O Sanjaya, I had

no hope of

success.

When

heard that afterwards Arj una had

vanquished the Kalakeyas and the Paulomas proud with the boon they had obtained and Avhich had rendered them invulnerable Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. even to the celestials, then,

heard that Arj una, the chastiser of enemies, having gone to the regions of Indra for the destruction of the Asuras, had returned thence successful, then, O Sanjaya, I had no

When

hope of

success.

When

heard that Bhima and the other

sons of Pritha (Kunti) accompanied by Vaisravana had arrived at that country which is inaccessible to man, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

heard that

my

sons,

guided

by the counsels
had

of

Kama,

while on their journey of Ghosayatra,


set
free

been taken prisoners by the Gandharvas and Avere


Sanjaya, I
(the

by Arjuna, then,
heard that
form of a
then,

had no hope of

success.

When

Dharma

god of

justice) having

come under the

that

O mv

Yaksha had proposed certain questions to Yudhishthira, When I heard Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
sons had failed to discover the

Pandavas under their

ADI PARVA.
disguise
Virata,

l^
in

while
then,

residing

with

Draupadi

the

dominions of

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

heard that the principal

men

of

my

side

had

all

been vanquished

by the noble Arjuna with a single chariot while residing in the dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When
for

I heard that the king of

Matsya had

offered his virtuous

daughter Uttara to Arjuna and that Arjuna had accepted her


his son, then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

I heard that Yudhishthira, beaten at dice; deprived of wealth,

exiled

and separated from

his connections,

had assembled yet an

army

of seven Akshauhhiis, then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of

success.

When
in

heard that Vasudeva of the race Madhn,


foot,

who
I

covered this whole earth by one


the
welfare
of the

was

heartily

engaged

Pandavas, then,
I

Sanjaya,

had no hope of success.

When
in

heard Narada declare

that Krishna

and Arjuna were Nara and I'Tarayana and he


the
regions
of Brahma,
I heard

(Narada) had seen them together


Ihen,

Sanjya.

had no hope of
welfare
to the

success.

When

that Krishna for

the

of mankind,

anxious to bring

about peace, had repaired

Kurus, and went away without

having been able to effect his purpose, then,

and Diiryodhana no hope of success. When I heard that resolved upon imprisoning Krishna but that Krishna displayed Sanjaya, I had no in himself the whole universe, then,

O Kama

Sanjaya,

had

hope of snccess.
received

When

heard that upon the departure of


full

Krishna, Pritha (Kunti) standing


consolation
success.

of sorrow near his chariot

from him, then,


I heard

Sanjaya,

had no

hope of
the son

When

that

A^asudeva and Bhisma

Santanu were the counsellors of the Pandavas and Drona the son of Bharadwaja pronounced blessings on them, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When
of

Kama
I

said

unto Bhisma

will

not fight

when thou
then,

art

fighting

and

quitting the

army went away,


V7hen
I

Sanjaya,

had no hope of success.

heard that

Vasudeva

three

and Arjuna and the bow gandlva of immeasurable prowess, beings of dreadful energy, had come together, then,

Sunjaya,

had

no hope

of success.

When

heard that
big

upon Arjuna having been seized with compunction on

;^|

MAHABHARATA.

ready to sink, Krishna showed him all the worlds within his body, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Bhisma, the desolator of foes, killing tenchariot and

thousand charioteers every day in the field of battle, had not elain any amon;?st the (Pandavas) of note, then, O Sanjaya, I had

hope of success. When I heard that Bhisma the righteous son of Gano-a had himself indicated the means of his deatli in the field of battle, and that the same were accomplished
DiO

by the Pandavas with


of success.

joyfulness,
I

then,

Sanjaya, I had no

hope Sikhandi before himself in his chariot, had wounded Bhisraa' Sanjaya, of infinite courage and invincible in battle, then,
I

When

heard that Arjuna having placed

had no hope of success. When I heard that ancient hero Bhisma, having reduced the numbers of the race of shomakato a few, overcome with various wounda was lying on a bed of
arrows, then,

Sanjaya, I had no

hope of success.

When

I
for

heard that upon Bhisma's lying on the ground distressed


water, Arjuna, being requested,
allayed his
thirst,

had pierced the ground and


allies

then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When Vayu

together with
of the

Indra and Surya united as

for

the success (by their inauspicious presence) were putting us in


Sanjaya, I had no

sons of

Kunti, and the beasts of prey


fear,

then^

hope of

success.

When

the wonderful
field^

warrior Di'ona, displaying various modes of fight in the

did not slay any of the superior Pandavas, then,


1 had no hope of success.

Sanjaya,

When

heard that the Maharatha


for the

^ansaptaJcas of our army appointed

overthrow of Arjuna

were

all slain

by Arjuna himself, then,


I heard that

Sajnaya, I had no hope


forces, im-r
well-:

of success.

When

our disposition of

penetrable by

others,

and defended by Bharadwaja himself

armed, had been singly forced and entered by the brave son of

Subhadra, then,
I heard that our

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.

When

Maharathas, unable
then,

to

overcome Arjuna, bore

the

face

of joy after

having jointly surrounded and slain the

boy Abhimanyu,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of

.-^uccessri

When
after

heard that the blind Kauravas were shouting

for joy^

having slain Abhimanyu and

that thereupon Arjuna in

angor made

his celebrated speech referring to

Saindhava, then

AI)I

PARVA.

Id

Saujaya, I had no hope of success.

When I

heard that Arju-

na had vowed

tlie deatli

of

Saiudhava and

fulfilled his

vow

in tiie

presence of his enemies, then,


success.

Saujaya, I had no hope of

When

heard that upon the horses of Arjuna being


Avater

fatigued,

Vasudcva releasing them made them drink


before,

and

bringing them back and re-harnessing them continued to guide

them

as
I

then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.


horses were fatigued,
all his assailants,

When

heard that while his

Arjuna

staying on his cliariot checked


jaya, I had no hope of

then,

San-

success.

When

I heard that

Yuyuprowess

dhana
fusion

of the race of
tiie

Vrishni, after having thrown into conin

army

of

Drona rendered unbearable

owing to the presenca of elephants, retired to wliere Krishna

and Arjuna were, then,

When
him
I

heard that

O Kama

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.'

even though

he

had got Bhima

within his power allowed him to escape after only addressing


in

contemptuous terms and dragging him with the end of

his bow, then,

Sanjaya, I

had no hope of

success.

When
suffered

heard that Drona, Kritavarma, Kripa,

Kama,
(

the son of

Drona, and the valiant king of

Madra

Salya)

Saindhava to be
success.

slain,

then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of

When

I heard that the celestial Sakti given

by Indra

(to

Kama)

was by Madhava's machinations caused to be


I

hurled upon the Rakshasa Ghatotkacha of frightful countenance,


then,

Sanjaya,

had no hope of

success.

When

I heard

that in the encounter between

Kama
slain

and Ghatotkacha, that


Arjuna
in

Sakti was hurled

against

Ghatotkacha by Kama, the same


battle,

which was certainly to have


Sanjaya, I

then,

had no hope of

success.

When
battle,

I heard that

Dhristadyumna, transgressing the laws of


1 had no hope of

slew Drona

while alone in his chariot and resolved on death, then,


success.

Sanjaya,

When

heard that Nakula, the

son of

of the whole army engaged in single combat with the son of Drona and showing

Madri,

having in the presence

himself equal to

him drove

his chariot in circles around, then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.


his

When upon
of

the

death

of Drona,
failed
to

son

misused the weapon called


the
destruction

Narayana but
.

achieve

the

Paudavas,

then,

16
Sanjaya,
I

MAHABHARATA.
had no hope of success.
the

When
brother
to

heard that
in

Bhima-sena drank
tJie

blood

of

his

Dushshana

field

of battle without

anybody being able


success.

prevent him,
I

then,

Sanjaya, I

had no hope of

When
to

heard

that the infinitely brave

Kama,

invincible in battle, was slain

by Arjuna
then,

in that

war of brothers mysterious


I

even the gods,

Sanjaya,

had no hope of

success.

When
son

heard

that Yudishthira the just overcame the

heroic

of Drona,

Dushshana,

and the

fierce

Kritavarma,

then,

O
was

Sanjaya,

1 had no hope of success. of

When
Sanjaya,

I heard that the

brave king
slain

Madra who ever dared Krishna


I I

in

battle

by

Yudhishthira, then,

had no hope of
slain in battle

success.

When

heard that the wicked Sauvala of magic power, the

root of the

gaming and the

feud,

was

by Sahadeva
having
waters,

the son of Pandu, then,

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.


fatigue,
its

When

heard that Duryodhana, spent with


for

gone to a lake and made a refuge

himself within

was lying there


then,

alone, his strength

gone and without a chariot,


success.

Sanjaya,

had no hope of
to

When

heard

that the Panda vas having gnnc

that lake accompanied by

Vftsudeva and standing on


tuously
then,

its

beach began to address contemp-

my

son

who was
I

incapable of putting

up with

affronts,

Sanjaya,

had no hope of
circles

success.

When

heard

that while displaying in


(of attack

and defence)

in

a variety of curious modes an encounter with clubs, he was


Krishna,
then,

unfairly

slain

according to the counsels of

Sanjaya,

had no hope of

success.

When

I heard that

the son of Drona and others by slaying the Panchalas and the
sons of Draupadi in their sleep, perpetrated
a horrible and insuccess.

famous deed,

then,

O
the

Sanjaya,

had no hope of

When

heard that Aswatthama while being pursued by Bhimafirst

sena had discharged

of weapons called AisJiika, by


(of Uttara)

which the embryo in the


then,

womb

was wounded
I

Sanjaya, I had

no hope of success.

When

heard

that the weapon

Brahmashlnt

(discharged by Aswatthama)

was repelled by Arjuna with another weapon over which he had pronounced the word "Sasti," and that Aswatthama had to
give up the jewel-like excrescence on his head, then,

Sanjaya,

AT)I

PARYAi

17

1 had no hope of success, When I heard that upon the embryo in the v/omb of Virata's daughter being wounded by Aswat* thama with a mighty weapon, Dwaipayana and Krishna de- nounced curses on him, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success^
'

Alas

Gandhari, destitute of
is

chihh-en,

grand-childrenj

parents, brothers, and kindred,

to be pitied.

Diincult
:

is

the

task that hath

been performed by the Pandavas


rival.
left

by thein

hath a kingdom been recovered without a


*

Alas

have heard that the war hath


of

only ten alive


;

three of

our side, and

the

Pandavas, seven

in

that

dreadful conflict eighteen Akshaiihinis of Kshetrias have been


elain! All

around

me

is

utter

darkness, and
leaves

fit

of

swoon

assaileth

me

consciousness

me,

Suta,

and

my

mind

is distracted,'

Sauti

said,

" Dhrita-rashtra,

bewailing his fate in these

words, was overcome with extreme anguish and for a time


deprived of sense
;

but being revived, he addressed Sanjaya


:

in the following words


*

After what hath come to pass,


life

Sanjaya,
least

I wish to

abandon

without delay
it

I
**

do not see the

advantage

in cherishing

Sauti said,

" the

any

longer.'

wise son of Gavalgana, (Sanjaya) then


of

addressed the distressed lord

Earth while thus talking

and bewailing, sighing


in these
'

like a serpent
:

and repeatedly fainting,

words of deep import


hast heard,

Thou

Raja, of the greatly powerful

men
;

of vast exertions, spoken of by Vyasa and the

wise Narada

men born

resplendent with Avorthy qualities, versed in the science of celestial arms, and in glory
families,

of great royal

men who having conquered the world emblems of Indra by justice and performed sacrifices with fit offerings (to the Brahmans), obtained renown in this world and at last succumbed to the sway of time. Such were Saivya the valiant Mahratha j Srinjaya, great amongst conquerors Suhotra ; Ranti-Deva, and Kakshivanta great in glory Valhika
;

;.

Damana,
of
foes
;

Saryati, Ajita, and Nala

Viswamitra the destroyer


;

Amvarisha, great
Gny.a,.

in
;

strength
the

Marutta,

Mann,

Ikshaku,

and Bhara^ta

Kama

son'

oC Dasaratha-;

1$
Sasavindu,

MAHABHARA.TA
;

Kritavirya the greatly fortu anJ Bhagiratha and Yayati of good deeds who Janamejaya too nate, and performed sacrlno.-s being assisted therein by the celestiaU themselves, aa.l by whose sacrificial aii irs and stakes this earth
;

"with
all

her habited and uninhabited regions hath been marked These twenty-four Rajas were formerly spoken of over.
the celestial Rishi Narada unto Saivya

by

when much

affiicted

for the loss of his children.

Besides these, other

Rajas had

gone

before,

noble in

These

more powerful than they, mighty charioteers, mind, and resplendent with every worthy quality. were Puru, Kuru, Yadu, Sura, and Viswagaswa of
still

great glory

Baghu

Anuha> Yuvanaswa, Kakutstha, Vikrami, and Anga, Bhava, Sweta, Vitihotra, Vijaya, and
;

VrihadgurHj-Udiuara, Sata-ratha, Kanka, Duliduha, and Druma;

Dambhoubliava, Para. Vena, Sagara, Sankrita, and Nimi ; Ajeyaj Parasti, Pundra, Sambhu, and the holy Deva-Vridha ;

Devahwuya,
Satyabrata,

Supritiraa, Supritika,

eaha, Viuitatma, Sukratu,

and Vrihad-ratha ; Mahotand Nala the king of the Nishadhas;


Sumitra,

Santa-bhaya,

and the chief and

Subala

Janujatigha,

Anaranya,
^'iramardda,

Arka,

Priyabhritya,

Shuchi-brata,

Balabandhu,
Dhrishtaketu,

Ketusringa,

Brihadbala
;

Ei-ihatketii, Driptaketu,

and Niramaya and

Abik;

shit, Ciajiala, Bliurta,

Kritabandhu, and Dridhe-shudi


ParahS,,
Sruti.

Maha*

purana-sambhavya, Pratyanga,
Chief, and other Rajas,

These,

we

hear ennuraerated by hundreds and

by thousands, and still others by millions, princes of great power and wisdom, quitting very abundant enjoyments, met death as thy sons have done Their heavenly deeds, valor, and
!

generosity, their magnanimity, faith, truth, purity,

simplicity

and mercy, are jmblished

to the world in the records of former

times by sacred bards of great learning.

Though endued with


lives.

every noble virtue, these have yielded up their


sons were malevolent, inflamed with
passion,

Thy
and

avaricious,
in

very evil-dispositioned.

Thou

art

versed
;

the

Shastras,

they never sink under misfortunes whose understandings are guided by the
Shastras.

Bharata, and art intelligent and wise

Thou

art acquainted,

prince,

with the lenity

and severity of

fate

this

anxiety therefore for the safety of

ABI PARVA.
thy
children
is

19
it

unbecoming.
is

Moreover,
be
:

fcehoveth thee
avert,

not to grieve for that which


his wisdom,

to

for

who can

by

the

decrees of fate ?

No

one can leave the way

marked out
all

for

him by Providence. Existence aud non-existence,

pleasure and pain,


things and
burnetii

that
fire.

Time crea^^eiU ali have Time for their root. Time desfroyeth all creatures. It is Time creatures and it is Time that extinguishetii the
evil, in

All states, the good and the

the

three

worlds,

are caused by Time.

Time

cutteth siiortall things and creatcth

Time alone is awake when all things are Time is incapable of being overcome. Time passeth over all tilings without being retarded. Knowing
them anew.
:

asleep

indeed,

as thou dost that at the present

all

things past and future and

all

that
it

exist

moment, are the

offsprings of Time,

behovetU

thee not to abandon thy reason.'"

The son of Gavalgani, havlno; in thig manner administered comfort to the royal Dlirifa-rashtra overwhelmed with grief for his sons, then restored his mind to
Sauti
said
:

'*

peace.

Taking these
iioly

facts

for his

posed a

Upanishad
of the

that has been published to


in

by learned and sacred bards


*'

Dwuipayana comtlie world the Puranas composed by them.


subject,
is

The study

Bharata

an act of piety.

He

that

readeth even one

foot, believing,

hath his sins entirely puro-ed

away.

Herein Devas, Devarshis, and immaculate Brahma


Herein also hath been
described

rshis of good deeds, have been spoken of; and likewise Yakhas-

and great Uragas (Nagas).


true and just,

the eternal Vasudeva possessing the six attributes. the

He

is

the

pure and holy,

the eternal Brahma, the


light,

supreme
the

soul, the true

and constant
recount
;

whose divine deeds


hath proceeded

wise and learned


non-existent
of

men
and
also

from

whom

principles

generation

and

re-birth.

That

universe with and progression, and birth, death, hath been treated of which is called

existent-nonexistent

Adhyatma
cribed

(the superintending spirit of nature) that partaketh

the attributes of the five elements.

That

also hath

been des-

who

is^%r%s/ia being above such epithets as *undisp1nyed*


;

and the
the

like

also that

which ihe

first

of yotis

exempt from

common

destiny and endued with the power of meditation

20
and Tapft behold

MAHABHARATA,\
dewelling in their hearts as a reflected

image
*'

in

the mirror.
of
faith,

The man

devoted to

piety,

and constant in

the exercise of virtue, on reading this section is freed from The believer that constantly heareth recited this secein.
tion

of

the

Bharata,

called the Introduction,

from the

beginning,

falleth

not into difficulties.

The man repeating

any part of the Introduction in the two twilights is during such act freed from the sins amassed during the day or the
nicrht.

This section, the body of

the Bharata,

is

truth

As butter is among curds, Brahmana among and bipeds, the Aranyaka among the Vedas, and nectar among medicines as the sea is eminent among receptacles of water, as are these (among the and the cow among quadrupeds things mentioned) so is the Bharata said to be among histories,
nectar.
;

*'

He

that

causeth

it,,

even a single foot thereof, to be

recited to

drink to
*'

Brahmans during a Sradha, his offerings of food and the manes of his ancestors become inexhaustible.
the aid of history and the Puranas, the
;

By

Veda may be

expounded
lest

but the Veda


it.

is

afraid of one of little information

he should Injure
^/iis

The

learned

others

Veda

of

Vyasa reapeth advantage.

man who recites to It may withevery change


I

out doubt destroy even the sin of killing the embryo and
the like.
f the

He

that readeth this holy chapter at

moon, readeth the whole of the Bharata,

ween.

The man who with


work acquireth long
**

reverence daily listeneth to this eacred


life

and renown and ascendeth


having placed the
five

to heaven.

In former days,

side

and the Bharata on the other,

Vedas on one these were weighed in the

balance by the celestials

assembled for that purpose.

And

as the latter weighed heavier than the four

Vedas with their

mysteries, from

that

period

it

hath been called in the world


;

Mahabharata (the great Bharata)


rior both in

for it

being esteemed supe*


is

substance and gravity of Import

denominated

Mahabharata liom such substance and gravity that knoweth its meaning is saved from all his
*'

of import.
sins.

He
of

Tapa

is

innocent,

study
all

Is

harmless, the ordinances

the Vcdaa

prescribed for

the tribes are harmless, the acquiai-

ADI PARVA.
is
it

?1
;

tion of wealth

by exertion
practice

harmless
is

but

when

these

are

abused
of evil.

in

their

then that they become sources,

Section

II.

The

Rishis said

"

son of Suta,

we wish

to hear a full

and circumstantial account of the place mentioned by you as


Sanianta-panchaka."
Sauti said
:

" Listen,

ye Brahmans, to the sacred desof men,

criptions I utter.

Ye

best

ye deserve to hear of

the place

known
all

as Saraanta-panchaka.

In the interval between


(the son of Jamadagni)

the Treta and the Dwapara yugas,


great

Rama

among

who have borne

arms, urged by impatience

of wrongs,

when
aka

repeatedly smote the noble race of Kshetrias. And that fiery meteor, by his own valor, annihilated

the entire tribe of the Kshetrias, he formed at Samanta-panchfive

lakes

of blood.

We

are

told

that his reason being

overpowered by anger he offered oblations of blood to the

manes

of his

ancestors, standing in the midst of the sanguine

waters of those lakes.

It

was then that

his

forefathers

of

whom

Richika was the


:

him thus

first

having arrived there addressed

'

O Rama, O

blessed

Rama,

offspring of Bhrigu,

wa
for

have been gratified with the reverence thou hast shown Blessings thy ancestors and with thy valor, O mighty one
!

be upon thee,

O
:

thou illustrious one, ask the boon that thou

mayst
"

'

desire.

Rama

said

'

If,

fathers,
is

ye are favorably disposed to-

wards me, the boon I ask


sins begotten of

that I

may be

absolved from the

my
I

having annihilated the Kshetrias in anger,

and that the lakes


world as holy

have formed

may become famous


said,
'

in

the

shrines.' The Pitris then But be thou pacified.' And Rama was pacified accordingly. The region that lieth near unto those lakes of gory water,

So

shall it be.

from that time hath been celebrated as Samanta-panchaka the holy. The wise have declared that every country should
be distinguished by a name significant of some circumstance

which may have rendered

it

famous,

In the interval between

22

MAHABHARATA.

the Dwapara and the Kali yugas there happened at Samantapanchaka the encounter between the armies of the Kauravas

and

tiie

Pandavas.

In that holy region, without ruggedness


of soldiers

of any kind, were assembled Eighteen Akshauhinis

eager for battle.

And,

Brahmanas, having come thereto,

they were

all slain

on the spot

Thus the name


I

of that region,

O
to

Brahmans, hath been explained, and the country described


you as a sacred and delightful one.
of

have mentioned the


is

whole

what relateth

to

it

as

the region

celebrated

throughout the three worlds."

The Rishis said " We have a desire to know, O son of Suta, what is implied by the term Akshauhini that hath been used by thee. Tell us in full what is the number of horse and foot, chariots and elephants, which compose an Akshau:

hini, for

thou art fully informed."


:

Sauti said

"

One

chariot,

one elephant,
;

five foot soldiers,

and three
gulmas, a

horse,
;

form one Patti

three

pattis

Sena-muhha

three

sena-mukhas are called a


ganas,
;

make one Guhna ; three


vahinis to;

Gana ;

three

Vahini

three

gether are called a Pritana


three chamus, one Anikini
forms,
as
it
is'
;

three pritanas form a Chartiu

and an Anikini taken ten times


calculated

styled

by those who know, an Akshauhini.


arithmeticians have

O Ye
the

best of Brahmans,

that

number

of chariots in an

Akshauhini

is

twenty one thousand


of elephants

eight hundred and seventy.

The measure

be fixed at the same number.


t])at

O Ye
is

pure,

must you must know


of horse is

the

number

of foot

soldiers

one hundred and nine

thousand three hundred and


sixty-five

fifty.

The number
These,

thousand six hundred and ten.

Brahmans,
numbers.

as fully explained
said

by me, are the numbers of an Akshauhini as

by those acquainted with the principles of

best of Brahmans, according to this calculation were composed the eighteen Akshauhinis of the Kaurava and the Pandava army. Time, whose acts are wonderful, assembled

them on that spot and having made the Kauravas the cause, destroyed them all. Bhisma acquainted with choice weapons, fought for ten days. Drona protected the Kaurava Vahinis
for five days,

Kama

the desolator of hostile armies fought

ADI PARTA,
Ibr

2S
day.

two days

and Salya

for

half a

After that lasted

for half a day the encounter with clubs between Duryodhana and Bliiina. At the close of that day, Aswatthama, Kritavarma and Kripa destroyed the army of YudhLshthira iu the

night while sleeping without suspicion of danger.


"

Saunaka, this best of narrations called Bharata which


sacrifice,

has begun to be repeated at thy


at the sacrifice

was formerly repeated


disciple of Vyasa.

of Janamejaya by an intelligent
:

It

is

divided into several sections

in

the beginning
full

are

Paushya, Pauloma, and Astikaparvas, describing in


valor and renown
diction,

the

of kings.

It

is

a work whose descriptions,


It contains

and sense are varied and wonderful.


rites.
is

an

account of various manners and

It

is

accepted by the

wise as the state called Vairagya


release.

As

Self

among
is

things to

by men desirous of final be known, as life among

things that are dear, so


of arriving at

this history that furnisheth the

means
all

the knowledge of

Brahma

the

first

among

the shastras.

There

is

not a story current in this world but

doth depend upon this history even as the body upon the food
that
it

taketh.

As masters

of good lineage are ever attended

upon by servants desirous of preferment, so is the Bharata cherished by all poets. As the words constituting the several branches of knowledge appertaining to the world and the Veda
display only vowels and

consonants,

so this

excellent history

displayeth only the highest wisdom.


" Listen,

ye
)

ascetics, to the outlines of the

several

divi-

sions

parvas

of this history called

Bharata, endued with

great wisdom, of sections and feet that are wonderful and various, of subtile

meanings and
parva

logical connection,

and embellishthe second,


;

ed with the substance of the Vedas.


" The Sangraha
first
;

is

called
;

Anukrama.nika

then Pausya

then

Pauloma

then Astika.

then

Adivansav'xtarana. Then comes the Sa^nvava of wonderful and


thrilling incidents.

Then comes Yatugriha-daha


lac)

(setting fire

to the

house of
;

and then Ilidimba-badha

(death of

Hidimba) parvas

then comes Baka-badlm ( death of Baka) and then Ghaitra-ratha. Th next is called Swyamvara (election of husband by Panchali). in which Atjuna by the

24!

MAHABHAEATA.
of Kshetria

exercise

comes Vdivahika ( advent of Vidura


Arjiina-hanahasha,

won Draupadi for wife, Theii Then come Viditragamance, (marriage).


virtues
),

Rajya-lava

acquirement of kingdom

),

(exile of

Arjuna; and Siibhadra-liarana (the

ravishment of Subhadra). After these, come Harana-harika, Khandava-daha ( the burning of the Khandava forest), and Maya-darshana ( the meeting with Maya the Asura architect)* Then come Sabhd, Mantra, Jarasandha, Digbijaya (general
compaign). After Digbijaya come Raja-syuika, Argkavikarana, and Shisupala-badha ( death of ( robbing of the Arghya )

Shishupala

).

After these,

(subsequent to
(destruction of
vels of Arjuna),

Dyuta ( gambling ), Anudyida, Aranyaka, and Kinnira-badkd gambling). Kirmira). Then, Arjunavigamanct ( the tra-

the battle
ter.

and Kairdti. In the last hath been described between Arjuna and Mahadeva in the guise of a hun(

After this Indra-lokavigdmana


]

the journey to the

regions

of Indra

then that mine of religion and virtue and


(the story of Nala).

highly pathetic
last,

Nalopdkhydna

After this

Tirtha-yattra or the pilgrimage of the wise prince of the Kurus, the death of Jatasura, and the battle of the Yakshas,

Then the battle with the Nibata-kabachas, Ajagara, and Markan^ dyea-Samasya (the meeting with Markunde^^a). Then the meeting of Draupadi and Satyavama, Ghoshayathra, Mrlga-sivapna

Then the story of Brihadaranayka and then Aindra-drumna. Then Draiipadi-harana (the abduction
(dream of the
of
deer).

Draupadi), and Jayadratlia-bimoksana

(the

realease

of

Jayadratha.)

Then the

story of Savitri illustrating -the great

merit of connubial chastity.

After this

last,

the story of

Rama.
(the

The parva that comes next is called Kiindala-harana That which comes next is of the ear-rings.) Aranya and then Vairata. Then the entry of the Pandavas, and the fulfilment of their promise (of living unknown for one
theft

year.)

Then the

destruction of the Kichakas, then the attempt

to

take the kine (of Virata by the Kauravas).

The next

is

Avimanyu with the daughter The next you must know is the most wonderful parva called Udyoga. The next must be known by the name of Sanjayayana (the arrival of Sanjaya). Then comes PrajagarXi. .(the
called the marriage of

of Virata.

ADT PART A,
sloenlessness

55
to
lils

of

Dlirita-raf.htra

owing

anxiety.)

Then

Then Tana-sandhi

Sanat-sujata in wliich are the m3^steries of spiritual philosophj-. and then the arrival of Krishna. Then
,

the story of Mahdl,

and then of Galava.

Then the

stories of

Savitrl, Vama-cleva, and Vcdnya.

iv/a

Then the story of YamadagThen the arrival of Krishna at the court, and then Bldiihpnfra-sho.f^hnna. Then the muster Then must you know com?3 <)? troops and the story of Sheta. Then the march to tlie quarrel of the high-souled Kama. The next hath been field of the troops of both sides. the Then comes called numbering the Rathis and Afirathaf^.
and ^hoda^^lia-rajiha.
the arrival of the
(of the Pandavas).

messenger

JJlid-a

which kindled the wratli

The next that comes you must know i.^ the story of Amha. Then comes the thrilling story of the The next is installation of Bhisma as Commander-in-chief.
called the creation of

the insular region

Jamhu

then

Bhumi

then the account about the formation of islands. Then comes Then the JBhifjih'if-glM and then the death of Bhisma.
;

mstallation of

Drona

then the destruction of the Sansaptahas.


;

Then
(to

the death of Abhiman3-'u

and then the vow of Arjuna

Then the death of Jayadratha, and then Th^n must you know comes the story of the death of Drona of surprising interest. The next that comes Ravaijana. Then is called the discharge of the weapon called Then comes the Wiust you know is Kama, and then Salya.
slay Jayadratha.)

of Ghatot-kacha.

immersion into the lake, and then the encounter (between Bhima and Diiryodhana) with clubs. Then comes Siuaraswata;

and then descriptions


of the Kurus.)

of holy shrines,

and then genealogies. Then


of harrowing incidents.
to

comes SdibptilM describing incidents disgraceful (to the honor

Then comes the Aialuka


and then the wailings
/Si/imfZr^/i'X

Then comes
the

/ak^?ra(Z'Uia (oblation? of watir


of

the manes of

deceased),

the
the

women.
funeral

The
rites

next must be known as

describing

performed
of the

for

the slain Kauravas.

Then comes the

destruction

Rakshasha Charvaka who had assumed the disguise of a


(for

Brahmana
<of

deceiving Yudhish-thira.)

Then the coronation

the wise Yudhish-thira.

bhaji.

The next is called the OrihcfprahiThen comes SanfT then Rijcullutrni'x-amWiasana, then
4

28

MAHABHARATA.

Apaddhanna,thenMoIcsha-clharma. Those that follow are called respectively Siika-prashna-avigamana, B rkama-prashna-anii^


shasana, the origin of Durvasa, the disputations with Maya. The next is to be known as Aniishasanika. Then the ascension of

Bhisma
purgeth

to heaven.
all

sins away.

Then the horse-sacrifice, which when read The next must be known as the Anu-

words of spiritual philosophy. Those that follow are called AsroinvascL, PiUtra-darshana (meeting with the spirits of the deceased sons), and the arrival of Narada.
qita in which

are

Mansala which abounds with terrible and Then come Mahaprasthanika and ascension cruel incidents. Then comes the Purana which is called Khilato heaven.
The next
is

called

Harivansa.
frolics

In this

last are

contained Visnu-parva, Vishnu's

and

feats as a child, the destruction of

Kansa, and

lastly,

the very wonderful Bhavishya-parva (in which are prophesies


regarding the future.)"

The high-souled Vyasa had composed


of

these hundred parvas


:

which the above

is

only an abridgment

having distributed

them

into eighteen, the son of Suta recited


:

them consecutively
Astika,.
lac,

in the forest of Naimislia as follows

"In the

Adi parva

are contained

Pausya, Paidoma

Adivansavatara, Samhhava, the burning of the house of

the

slaying of Hidimva, the destruction of the Asura Vaha, Chitra-

ratha, the

Swayamvara of Draupadi, her marriage after the


war, the
arrival

over-

throw of

rivals in

of Vidura, the

restoration,

Arjuna's exile, the abduction of Subhadra,

the gift and receipt

of the marriage dower, the burning of the

Khandava

forest,

and the meeting with (the Asura- architect) Maya. The Pausya parva treats of the greatness of Utanka, and the Pauloma,
of

the sons

of of

Biirigu.

The Astika

describes

the birth of

Garuda and
celestial

the race of the Nagas (Snakes), the churn-

ing of the ocean,


steed

the incidents relating to the birth of the

Uchchaisrava,

and

finally,

the

dynasty of

Bharata. as described in the Snake-sacrifice of king Janamejaya.

The Sariibhava parva


incarnations
va-i

narrates the births of various kings

and

heroes, and that of the sage,


of
deities,

Krishna-Dwaipayana

the partial

the generation of Daityas and Dana-

und Yakshas of great prowess, and of serpents, Gandharvas,

ADI PARVA.
Thirds,

27
lastly,

and of

all

other creatures

and

of the

life

and

adventures of
goes by his
in the

king Bharata

the

progenitor of the line that

name

the son born

of Sakuntala

by Dushshanta
births

asylum of the ascetic Kanwa.


the greatness of

This parva also desthe


of

cribes

Bhaglrathi, and

the

Vasus in the
ven.

house of Santanu and their ascension to hea-

In

this

parva

is

also narrated

the

birth
of

of

Bhisma

uniting in himself

portions
of
his

of

the

energies

the other

Vasus, his renunciation

royalty and adoption of the Brah-

macharya mode of

life,

adherence to his vows, his protecChitrangada, his

tion of Chitrangada, and after the death of

protection of his younger brother,

Vichitravirya,

and

his

plac-

ing the latter on the throne

the birth

of

Dharma among
;

the births consequence of the curse of Animandyavya of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu through the potency of Vyasa s the plottings and also the birth of the Pandavas blessing

men

in

of

Duryodhana

to

send the sons of

Pandu

to

Varanavata,

recrard

and the other dark counsels of the sons of Dhrita-rastra in then the advice admiaistored to to the Pandavas Yudhish-thira on his way by that well-wisher of the Pan:

davas

Vidura in
tlie tlie

the mlechchd

language

the

digging

of

the hole,

burning of Purochana and the sleeping


in the

woman
;

of the fowler caste, with her five sons,

house of lac

the meeting of
ba,

Pandavas

in the dreadful forest with

Hidim-

and the slaying of her brother Hidimba by Bhima of great the meeting of the prowess. The birth of Ghatot-kacha
;

Pandavas with Vyasa, and in accordance with


stay in disguise in
;

his advice

their

the city

of Ekachchatra, in the house of

Brahmana the destruction of the Asura Vaka, aiid the amazement of the populace at the sight the extraordinary births of
;

Krishna
to

and Dhrista-dyumna
obedience to

the departure of the Pandavas the injunction of Vyasa,

Panchala in

and
of a

moved

equally by the desire of winning the hand of Draupadi


lips

on learning the tidings of the Swayamvara from the

Brahmana

the

victory of

Arjuna over a Gandharva, called


and
hearing from the
Thiis

Angara-parna, on the banks of the Bhagirathi, his contraction


of friendship

with

his

adversary,
of Tapatij

his

Gandharva the history

Vasistha and Aurva.

28

MAHABHAEATA,
l*;iin'b;8Tflf;,

parva treats of the journey of the Panda vas towards


the acquisitiou
of

Draupadi iu the midst of

all

the
;

Rajahs,

by Arjuna,

after

having successfully pierced the mark


tlie

and in

the ensuing fight,

defeat of Salya,

crowned heads, at tho hands of


prowess
;

Kama, and all the other Bhima and Arjuna of great

the ascertainment by Balarama and Krishna at sight

f these

matchless exploits, that the heroes were the Panat the house of the
;

davas, and the arrival of the two brothers

potter whore

the Pandavas were staying


that Draupadi

the dejection of

Drupada on learning
five

was to be wedded to
ludras related

husbands

the wonderful
;

story of the five

in consequence

the
;

extraordinary
the
to

and

divinely-ordained
the sons

wedding

of

Draupadi
his sight

sending of
the
;

Vidum by
;

of Dhrita-rashtra as envoy

Pandavas

the an'ival

of

Vidura and
in

of

Krishna

the abode of the Pandavas

Khandava-prastha, and then their rule over one half of


the fixing of

the king lorn;

turns by the sons of Pandu,

iu

obedience to the injunctions of Narada, for connubial companionship


ef

with

Krishna.

In like manner hath the history


recited in this.
for the forest

Sunda and Upasunda been

This parva then


according to the

treats of the departure of

Arjuna

vow, he having seen Draupadi and Yudhish-thira sitting together as he entered the chamber to take out amis for delivering the kinc of a certain Brahmana.
cribes
Ai;j

This parva then des-

Una's meeting on the

way with Ulupi, the daughter


visits
;

of

Naga
spots

(serpent)
;

it

then relates his


of

to

several

sacred

the

birth

Vabruvahana

the deliverance

by Arjuna
ing of

of the five celestial damsels

into alligators by the

imprecation of a

who had been turned Brahmana the meet;

Madhava and Arjuna on the holy spot


the ravishment of Subhadra by Arjuna,
in

called

Pra-

vh;s\

incited there-

to by her brother Krishna,


land,

the

wonderful car moving on

water,
;

and

in

mid
of

air,

according to the wish of the

rider

the departure to Indra-prastha,


the
;

with the dower

the

birth in

womb

Subhadra

of that

prodigy of prowess
;

Abhinianyu
the

Yajnaseni's giving birth to children

then follows
of the

pleasure-trip of
tind

Krisna and Aijuua to the banks

Jumna

the licquisilion by

them

of the

discus

und the

ADI PARVA,
celebrated

29
tlie

bow GanJiva

the

burning of

forest of

Khanof the

dava

the

serpent,

by Ai^una, and the escape begetting of a son by that be&t of and the
rescue of ^Maya

Rishis,
is

Mandapala, in the

womb

of the bird

SarncfL

This

parva

divided by Vyasa into two hundred and twenty seven


ters.

chapcontain

These two hundred and twenty seven chapters eight thousand eight hundred and eighty four slokas.

"The second
assembly,
full

is

the extensive parva called

Sabha

or

the

of matter.

The

subjects of this pan-a are the


;

establishment of the grand hall by the Pandavas


of their retainers
;

their review

the description of the courts of the lohapalas


celestial
;

by Narada well acquainted with the


preparations
for

regions

the

the Rajasuya sacrifice

the destraction of

Jarasandha
fined in the

the deliverance by Vasiideva of the princes con-

mountain pass
;

the compaign of imiversal conquest

by the Pandavas
sacrifice

the arrival of the princes at the


;

Rajasuya

with tribute

the destruction of Shishupala on the

occasion of the sacrifice, in connection with the offering o^arghya;


Bhiraa-sena's ridicule of

Duryodhana

in

the assembly

Duryo-

dhana's sorroAv and envy at the sight of the magnificent scale

the indignation on whicii the arrangements had been made of Duryodhana in consequence, and the preparations for the
;

game

of dice
;

the defeat of

Yudliish-thira at play

by the

wily Sakuni

the deliverance by Dhrita-rashtra of his afflicted

daughter-in-laAv Draupadi

sunk in the ocean of

distress caused

by the gambling, as of a boat tossed about by the tempestuous


waves.
thira again

The endeavors of EKiryodhana to engage Yudhishand the exile of the defeated in the game These constitute what has brothers. Yudhish-thira with his
;

been called by the great Vyasa the Sabhd parva.


is

This parva

divided into seventy eight sections,


five

and

consists,

best of

Brahmanas, of two thousand

hundred and eleven

slokas.

"Then must you know


(relating
to the
forest).

is

the third parva called

AmnyaJcd
oi*

This parva treats of the weudiug

the Pandavas to the forest and the citizens' following the

wise

Yudhish-thira

Yudhish-thira's adoration of the

god of day,

according to the injunctions of Dhaumya, to be gifted with


the power of maiutaiuing the dependant Brahmanas with food

80
and drink
;

MAHABHARATA.
the creation of food through the grace of the

the expulsion by Dhrita-rashtra of Vidura


for his master's

Sun who always spoke


;

good

Vidura's

coming

to the

Panda vas and


;

his

return to Dhrita-rashtra at the solicitation of the latter

the wicked Druyodhana's plottings to destroy the forest-ranging

Pandavas, being incited thereto by

Kama
;

the appearance of
to
;

Vyasa and
the forest
his laying
;

his

dissuasion

of

Duryodhana bent upon going


the

the history of Surabhi

arrival of Maitreya
;

down

to Dhrita-rashtra the course of action


;

and hb
;

curse

on Duryodhana

Bhima's slaying of Kirmira in battle

the coming of the Panchalas and the princes of the Vrishni


race
to

Yudhish-thira on hearing
;

of

his

defeat at unfair

gambling by Sakuni
Krishna
;

Dhananjay's

allaying

the wrath
;

of

Draupadi's lamentations before


;

Madhava

Krishna's

cheering her

the
;

fall

of

Sauva

also has

been here described

also Krishna's bringing Subhadra with her son by the Rishi to Dwaraka and Dhrista-dyumna's bringing the sons of Draupadi to Panchala the entrance of the sons of Pandu into the
; ;

romantic Dwaita
thira,

wood
;

conversation

of

Bhima,

Yudhish-

and Draupadi the coming of Vyasa to the Pandavas and endowing Yudhish-thira with the power of Pratismriti his then, after the departure of Vyasa, the removal of the Pandavas to the forest of

Kamyaka

the wanderings of Arjuna of


;

immeasurable prowess in search of weapons his battle with Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter his meeting with the lok i;

palas and receipt of weapons from them


rashtra

his journey

to the

regions of Indra for arms and the consequent anxiety of Dhrita;

the wailinofs and lamentations of Yudhish-thira on the

occasion of his meeting with the worshipful great sage Brlhad-

aswa.

illustrating the

Here occurs the holy and highly-pathetic story of Nala patience of Damayanti and the character of
of the mysteries

Nala.

Then the acquirement by Yudhish-thira


;

of dice from the same great sage

then the arrival of the Rishi


the woods of the in-

Lomasha from

the heavens to where the Pandavas were, and the


in

receipt by these high-souled dwellers


telligence brought

by the Rishi of

their brother

Arjuna staying

in the heavens

then the pilgrimage of the Pandavas to various

sacred spots in accordance with the message of Arjuna, and their

ADT PAPvTA.
attainment of great merit and virtue consequent on such

31
pil-

grimage
davas.

then the pilgrimage of the great sage Narada to the


;

shrine Pulnsta

also the pilgrimage

of the

high-souled Panear-rings

Here

ia

the deprivation of
is

Kama

of his

by

Indra.

Here

also

recited the sacrificial magnificence of Gaya;

then the story of Agastya in which the Rishi ate up the Asura
Vatapi, and his connubial

connection with

Lopa-mudra from

Then the adopted the Brahmacharya mode of


the desire of offspring.

story of Rishya-sringa
life

who
;

from his very boyhood


the son of

then the history of

Rama

of great prowess

Yama-

dagni in which has been narrated the death of Karta-virya and then the meeting between the Pandavas and the Haihayas
;

the Vishnis in the sacred spot called Pnivhasa then the story of Sii-kanya in which Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu, made
;

the twins, Aswiuas, drink, at the sacrifice of king Saryati, the Som'X jwice (from which they had been excluded by the other

gods

),

and in which, besides,

is

shown how Chyavana himself

acquired perpetual youth (as a boon from the grateful Aswinas).

Then hath been described the liistory of king Mandhata then the story of prince Jantu and how king Somaka by offering up
; ;

his only son (Jantu) in sacrifice obtained a

hundred others then


; ;

the excellent history of the

hawk and the pigeon


is

then the ex;

amination of king Shivi by Indra, Agni, and


story of Ashtavakra, in which
fice of

Dharma
first

then the
saci'i-

the disputation, at the

Janaka, between that Rishi and the


;

of logicians,

Vandi, the son of Varuna

the

defeat of Vandi by the great

Ashtavakra, and the release by the Rishi of his father from the

depths of the ocean.

Then
;

the story of Yava-krita, and then

that of the great Raivya


for

then the departure (of the Pandavas)


their

Gandha-madana and
;

abode in the

asylum called

Narayana

then Bhima-sena's journey to Gandha-madana at the


search
of the

request of Draupadi (in

sweet-scented flower).

Bhima's meeting on

his way, in a grove of bannanas,

with

Hanumana, the son


-for

of Pavaua, of great

prowess

Bhima's

bath in the tank and the destr>iction of the flowers therein


obtaining the sweet-scented flower (he was in search of
)
;

.his

consequent battle with the mighty Rakshasas and the Yakof

shas

groat

prowe^^s

including

Maniman. the destruction

^2
of the Asnra Jata

MAHAEHARATA.
by Bhima
;

the meeting (of the Pandaras)


;

with the

royal

sage

Vrisha-jxirva

their

departure
;

for

the

asyhim of Arsliti-shena and abode therein of Bhima (to acts of vengeance) by Dranpadi.
ted
the ascent of the
hills

tlie

incitement
is

Then

narrahis
;

of Kylasa

by Bhima-sena,

terrific battle with the mighty Yakshas headed by Maniman then the meeting of the Pandavas with Vaisravana (Kuvcra), and the meeting with Arjiina after he had obtained for the purposes of Yudhish-thira many celestial weapons then Arju;

na's terrible encounter with

the Nivata-Kavachas dwelling in

Hiranya-parva, and also with the Paulomas, and the Kalakeyas;


their

destruction at the hands of Arjuna

the

commencement
the

of the display of the celestial weapons by Arjuna before Yudhishthira


;

the prevention of the same by Narada


;

descent of

the Pandavas from Gaudha-madana the seizure of Bhima in his the forest by a mighty serpent huge as the mountain
;

release from the coils of the snake,


ino-

upon Yudhish-thira's answorPandavas to the


of

certain questions

the
is

return of the

Kamyaka
sudeva

woods.

Here

described the reappearance of Va;

to sec the

mighty sons of Pandu


;

the

arrival

Mar-

kandeya, and various recitals

the history of Prithu the son of


;

Vena

recited
Kislii

by the great Kishi


Tarhhya.

the stories of Swaraswati


is
;

and the

After these,

the

story of

Matsya

other old stories recited by Markandej'a

the stories of Indra-

dyiimna and Dhundhu-mara


wife
;

then the history of the chaste


conversation
of

the history of Angira, the meeting and


;

Draupadi and Satyabhama


forest of

tlie

return of the Pandavas to the

Dwaita

then the procession to see the calves and the


;

captivity of

Duryodhaua and when the wretch was being here is Yudhish-thira's dream carried off, his rescue by Arjuna the deer then the re-entry of the Pandavas into the Kaof
;
;

myaka
Here

forest
is

here also

is

the long story of


;

Vrihi-draunika.

also

recited the story of Diirvasa


of

then the abduction


;

by Jayadratlia
the ravishor by

Draupadi from the asylum


swift as the air

the pursuit of
ill

Bhima

and the

shaving

of

Jayadratha's crown at Bhima's hands.

of

Rama

in wliich is

Hero is the long history shown how Rama by his prowess slew Raalso
is

*vana in battle.

Here

narrated

the

story

of Savitri';

ADI PAEVA.
then Kama's deprivation by Indra of hiaear-ringfl
presentation to
;

33
tlien tlie

Kama by
had
it

the gratified Indra of a 8aktl (missile


virtue

weapon)
against

vvliich

the

of killing one
;

only

person
called

whom
in

might be hurled

then the story

Aranya
Pandavas

which Dharma (the god of justice) gave advice


;

to his son (Yudhish-thira)

in which, besides,

ia

recited

how

the

after having obtained a


all

boon went towards the west.

These are
of slokas
'

Included in

the third Parva called Arunyaka,

consisting of two hundred and sixty-nine sections.


is

The number

eleven thousand six hundred and sixty four.

The

extensive

Parva that comes next

is

called Vairata.

The Pandavas
cemetery

arriving at the dominions of Virata saw in a on the outskirts of the city a large skami tree whereon they kept their weapons. Here hath been recited

their entry into the city

and abo

le

there in

disguise.

Then
appoint-

the slaying

by Bhima of the wicked Kichaka who


his

seuseles.s

with

lust,

had sought Draupadi for


prince

embraces

the

ment by

Duryodhana of

clever spies, and their despatch


:

to all sides for tracing the

Pandavas

the

failure

of these

to

discover the mighty sons of

Pandu

the

first

seizure of Virata's

kine by the TrljaHas and the


capture of Virata by the
the release
also

terrific battle that

ensued

the
j

enemy and

his rescue

by Bhima-sena
;

kine by the Pandava f Bhima) the Virata's kine again by the Kurus seizure of the defeat in
of the
;

battle

of

all

the

Kurus by the single-handed Arjuna


kine
;

the

release

of the

king's

the bestowal
in

by

Virata of his

daughter Uttara

for Arjuna's acceptance

behalf of his son

by Subhadra
great Rishi

Abhimanyu the
slokas
to
is

destroyer of foes.

These are

the contents of the extensive fourth Parva

the

Vairata.

The

Vyasa has composed


then
as

in this sixty
fifty.

seven sections.

The number of
' Listen

two thousand

(the contents

must be known
victory,

Udyoga.

of) the fifth Parra which While the Pandavas, desirous of

were residing

in the place called

Upaplavya, Duryoto

dhana and Arjuna both went


and said
*0 ye
'

at the

same time

Vasudeva,

you should render us assistance


of men,
a couneeilor iu myaelt

in this war.'

The

high-souled Krishna, upon these words being uttered,


first

replied

who
6

will not fi^^ht

34,

MAHAP.HAPvATA.
one Akshauhmi of troops, whicli of these shall I give to
?'

an.l

which of you dhana asked


as
kino- of

Bliad to his
;

own

interests, the foolish

DuryoKrishna
the

for the troops

while

Arjuna
is

solicited

an unfigliting counsellor.

(Then

described how)

when

Madra was coming

for the assistance of the Pandavas,

Duryodhana, having decieved hira on the way by presents and solicited his hospitality, induced him to grant a boon and then how Salya, having passed his word to assistance in battle
;

Duryodhana, went
reciting

to

the

Paudavas and consoled them by


victory
(over Vitra).

the the

history

of Indra's

Then

comes
rashtra

despatch

by the Pandavas

of

their

Pwrohita
the

(priest) to the

Kauravas.

Then

is

described

how king Dhrita-

of

great

prowess,

having heard the words of


the

purohita of the

Pandavas and
to the

story of Indra's victory,

decided upon sending his purohita and ultimately despatched

Sanjaya as envoy

Paudavas from desire of peace.

Here

hath been described the sleeplessness of Dhrita-rashtra from anxiety upon hearing all about the Pandavas and their friends,

Vasudeva and
addressed
that were
recited
to
full

others.

It

was on
It

this

occasion

that

Vidura

the

wise

king Dhrita-rashtra

various counsels
that

of wisdom.

was here

also

Sanat-sujata

to the anxious and sorrowing monarch the excellent

truths of spiritual philosophy.


spoke, in

On

the next

morning Sanjaya

the

court

of the

King,

of the identity of the lord

Vasudeva and Arjuna. It was then that the illustrious Krishna, moved by kindness and desirous of peace, went himself to the

Kaurava
comes
parties.

cai)ital,

Hastinapore, for bringing about peace.

Then

the

rejection

by prince Duryodhana of the embassy of


to solicit

Krishna who had come


then the story
of

peace for the benefit of both


;

Here hath been recited the story of Damvodvava


the

high-souled Matuli's
;

search for

husband
Galava
son of
;

for

his

daughter

then the history of the great sage


of the

then the story of the training and discipline


Bidula.

Then

the

exhibition by Krishna, before the

assembled Rnjas, of his Yoga powers upon learning the evil


counsels of Duryodhana

and

Kama

then Krishna's taking

Kama

on his chariot and tender to him of advice, and Kama's,

rejection of the same from pride

Then the return

of

Krishna

ADI rAFxYA.
tlie

oa

chastiscr

of

enemies from

Hastinaporc to Upaplavya,
all

and

his narration to the

Pandavas of

that

had happened.

It was then that those oppressors of foes, the Pandavas, having

and consulted properly with each other, made every preparation for war. Then comes the march from Ilastinapore, for hattle, of foot soldiers, horse, charioteers, and elephants.
heard
all

Then

the tale

of troo{.s

by both

parties.

Then the despatch


tu

by prince Duryodhana of UIuJm as envoy on the day previous to the battle. Then the
of different classes.

the

Pandavas

talc of charioteers

Then
in

the story
fifth

of

Ainha.

These

all

have been described


peace.

the

Bharata, abounding with incidents

Parva called Udyoga of the appertaining to war and


hath composed one

ye

ascetics,

the great Vyasa


this

hundred and eighty


of slokas
also

six sections in

Parva.

The number
is

composed
recited

in this

by the great Rishi

six thou-

sand six hundred and ninety eight.


"

Then

is

the

Bhisma Parva abounding with

wonderful incidents.
the formation of

In this hath been narrated by Sanjaya

the region

known
ten

as

Jambtt.

Here hath
In
this

been described the great depression of Yudhish-thira's army,

and

also

the fierce

fight

for

successive days.
the

the high-souled Vasudeva by reasons based on of final release drove

philosophy

away Arjuna's compunction springing hitter's regard for his kindred (whom he was on the from the eve of slayingj In this the magnanimous Krishna, attentive
to the welfare of Yu<lhish-thira,

seeing the loss inflicted (on

the Pandava

army,) descending swiftly from his chariot, himself

ran, with dauntless breast, his driving

whip

in

hand, to elTect

the death of Bhisma. In

this,

Krishna also smote with piercing


in

words Arjuna the bearer of the Gandiva and the foremost


battle

of

among all wielders of weapons. In this, the foremost bowmen, Arjuna, placing ShlJcandi before him and piercwith his sharpest arrows felled him from his ino- Bhisma In this, Bhisma lay stretched on his bed of arrows. chariot. This extensive Parva is known as the sixth in the Bharata.
In this have been composed one hundred and seventeen
sec-

tions.

The number

of slokas

is

five

thousand eight

hundred

and eighty four

aa told

by Vyasa cognisant of the Vcdas.

36
*'

MAHABKAEATA.
Then
is

recited

the

wonderful Parva called Drorta^


installation
in

full

of incidents.
of the

First

comes the

the
:

-command
then
the

army of the great


in

instructor in arms,

Drona

row made by
Yudhish-thira

that great master of


battle
to

weapons of seizing the wise


Diiryodhana
j

please

then
;

the

retreat of Arjiina from the field before the Sansaptakas

then
field,

the overthrow of Bhagadatta like to a second Indra in the


with his elephant Supritika,

by Arjuna

then the death of the

hero Abhimanyu in his teens, alone and

unsupported, at the
;

hands of many Maharathas including Jayadratha


seven

then after
in

the death of Abhimanyu, the destruction by Arjuna


of

battle
;

Akshauhinis of

troops and then

of

Jayadratha

then the entry, by Bhima of mighty arms and by that foremost


of charioteers Satyaki, into the
to even

Kaurava ranks impenetrable

the

gods, in

search after Arjuna in obedience to the

orders of Yudhish-thira, and the destruction of the remnant of

the

Sansaptakas.

In the Drona Parva,

is

the death of AlaraVirata,


;

vusha, of Srutayus, of Jalasandha, of Shoraa-datti, of


of the great charioteer

Drupada, of Ghatotkacha, and others

in this
fall

Parva,

Aswatthama, excited beyond measure


battle,

at the

of his

father in

discharged the terrible weapon


of

Narayana.
recital

Then

the glory

Rwdra
Then

in

connection

with

the burning (of the three

cities).

the arrival

of Vyasa and

by him of the glory of Krishna and Arjuna.


all

This

is

the

great seventh Parva of the Bharata in which

the heroic chiefs

and princes mentioned were sent to their

last

account.

number of sections in this number of slokas as composed

is

one hundred and seventy.

The The

In the

Drona Parva by Rishi Vyasa

the son of Piirasara and the possessor of true knowledge, after

much
"

meditation,

is

eight thousand nine hundred and nine,


called

Then comes the most wonderful Parva


is

Kama.
Madra
of
fall

In
as

this

narrated the appointment of the wise king of

(Kama's) charioteer.

Then the

history

of the

the

Asura Tripura.

Then the
of the

application to each other by


for

Kama
field.

and Salya of harsh words on their setting out

the

Then

the
;

story

swan and the crow


of

recited in insulting

aUusion

then

the

death
;

Pandya

at

the hands of
;

the

bigh-soulcd Aswatthama

then the death of Danda-scna

then

A r>
that of

PAR V

A.

37

Danda

then Yudhish-thira's imminent risk in single


in the presence

combat with

Kama

of all

the

warriors

then

then the wrath of Yudhish-thira and Arjuna to each other Krishna's pacification of Arjuna. In this Parva, Bhima in ful;

filment of his vow, having ripped open Dushshasana's breast in


battle drank his heart's blood.

Then Arjuna slew the great


call this

Kama

in

single combat.

Readers of the Bharata


of sections
is

the

eighth Parva.

The number and the number of slokas


sixty four.
"

in

this

is

sixty

nine

four thousand nine

hundred and

been recited the wonderful Parva called Salya. After all the great warriors had been slain, the king of Madra became the leader of the (Kaurava) army. The encounters,, one after another, of charioteers have been here described. Then comes the fall of the great Salya at the hands of

Then

hatli

Yudhish-thira the just.


in battle at the hands

Here

also

is

the death

of

Sakuni

of Sahadeva.

Upon

only a small rem-

nant of the troops remaining alive after the immense slaughtroom er, Duryodhana went to the lake and creating for himself
within
its

waters

lay stretched there for

narrated the receipt of this intelligence


fowlers
;

Then is Bhima from the by


some time.

then is narrated how, moved by the insulting speeches Yudhish-thira, Duryodhana ever unable to bear affronts of came out of the waters. Then comes the encounter with clubs
;

between Duryodhana and Bhima


of such encounter, of Balarama ness of the

then the
;

arrival, at

the time

then

is

described the sacred-

Swaraswati
;

then the progress of the encounter

with clubs

then the fracture of Duryodhana's thighs in battle by Bhima with a terrific hurl of his mace. These all have been In this the number of described in the wonderful ninth Parva.
sections
is fifty

nine and the

number

of slokas

composed by the

great Vysa

the spreader of the fame of the Kauravas

is

three

thousand two hundred and twenty.

"Then

shall

I describe the

Parva called Sauptika of fright-

ful incidents.

On

the Pandavas having gone away, the mighty

charioteers,

the

field

Kritavarma, Kripa, and the son of Drona, came to of battle in the evening and there saw king Duryohis

dhana lying on the ground,

thighs

broken,

and himself

38
covered with
blood.

MAHAEHAKATA.
Then the great
wrath,
charioteer,

the

son
all

of

Drona, of terrible Panchalas including Dhrishta-dyumna, and the Pandavas also


'

vowed,

without killing

the

with

all

their allies, I will not take off

my

armour.'

Having
While

spoken these words, the three

warriors

leaving

Duryodhana's
setting.

side entered the great forest just as the sun


sitting

was

under a large banian tree in the night, they saw an owl

killing

numerous crows one


his

after another.

At

sight of this,
his

Aswatthama,
father's fate,

heart

full

of rage at

the

thought of

resolved to slay the slumbering Panchalas.

And

wending to the gate of the camp, he there saw a Rakshasa


of frightful
visage

and head reaching

to

the

very

heavens,

guarding the entrance.


all

And

seeing that Rakshasa obstructing


of

his

weapons,

the son

Drona speedily

pacified

by
the

worship the three-eyed Rudra.

And

then accompanied by

Kritavarma and Kripa slew


their relatives,

all

the sons of

Draupadi,

all

Panchalas with Dhrishta-dyumna and

others,

together Avith
night.

slumbering unsuspectingly in the


five

All

perished on that fatal night except the


great warrior
Satyaki.

Pandavas and the


Krishna's

These escaped

owing to

counsels. Then the charioteer of Dhrishta-dyumna brought to the Pandavas intelligence of the slaughter of the slumbering

Panchalas by the son of Drona.

Then Draupadi
fasting.

distressed

at

the death of her sons and brothers


lords resolved to kill herself

and father sat before

her

by

Then Bhima
resolved

of terrible
to

moved by the words her and speedily taking up


prowess,
;

of Draupadi,
his

please

son of his preceptor in arms.

mace The son


fates
'

followed in
of

wrath the

Bhima-sena and impelled by the


of
all

and moved

Drona from fear of also by anger


this shall not be

discharged a celestial weapon saying


the Pandavas
'

this is for the destruction


'

then Krishna saying

neutralised Aswat-thama's speech.

Then Arjuna

neutralised that

weapon by one
curses

of his own.

Seeing the wicked Aswat-thama's

Dwaipayana (and Krishna) denounced The Pandavas the latter returned. then deprived the mighty charioteer Aswat-thama of the jewel on his head and became exceedingly glad, and boastful of
destructive intentions,

on him which

their

success

made

present of

it

to the sorrowin^^

Draupadi,

ABIPAHVA.

S9

This the tenth Parva, called Sauptlka, is recited. The great Vyasa hath composed in this eighteea sections. The number
of slokas also composed in this

by the great

reciter

of sacred

truths

is

eight hundred and seventy.

In this Parva have been

put together by the great Rishi the two Parvas called Sauptlka,

and Aishika.
"After this
called
Strl.

hath been recited the highly pathetic Parva


prophetic
eye,
afflicted

Dhrita-rashtra of

at

the death of his children,

and moved by enmity towards Bhima,

broke into pieces a statue of hard iron deftly placed before him by Krishna (as a substitute for Bhima). Then Vidura,

removing the distressed Dhrita-rashtra's affection


things by reasons pointing to final release, consoled

for

worldly

that wise

monarch.

Then hath been described the wending of the disaccompanied by the


the Kauravas.
ladies of his house to

tressed Dhrita-rashtra

the

field of battle of

Here

follow

the

pathetic
of

wailings of the wives of the slain heroes.

Then the wrath


loss

Gandhari and Dhrita-rashtra and their

of consciousness.

Then the Kshetria


sons,

ladies

saw those heroes,

their

unreturning
field.

brothers,

and

fathers,

lying

dead on the

Then

the pacification by Krishna of the wrath of Gandhari distressed


at the death of her sons and grandsons.
of the bodies of the deceased

Then the cremation


rites

Rajahs with due

by that

monarch (Yudhish-thira) of great wisdom and the foremost


also of all virtuous

men.

Then upon the

presentation of water

to

deceased princes having commenced, the story of Kunti's acknowledgment of Kama as her son born in
the manes of the

secret.

These have

all

been described by the great Rishi Vyasa


Its

in

the

highly pathetic eleventh Parva.

perusal

moveth
seven.

every feeling heart with sorrow and even draweth tears from
the eye.

The number of sections composed is twenty The number of slokas is seven hundred and seventy five.
the understanding and in Avhich
related the

"Twelfth in number cometh the Santl Parva, which increaseth


is

despondency of

Yudhish-thira on his having slain his fathers, brothers, sons,

maternal uncles and matrimonial relations.


described

In this Parva

is

bed of arrows Bhisma exposed various systems of duties worth the study of kings desirous of knowhis

how from

4-0

MAHABHARATA.
;

ledge

this

Parva exposeth the duties relative to emergencies,

with

full

indications of time

and reasons. By understanding

these,

a person attaineth to consummate knowledge.


also of final
is

The mysteries
This
It consists of

emancipation have been expatiated upon.

the

twelfth

Parva the favorite of the wise.

three hundred and thirty-nine sections, and

contains

fourteen

thousand seven hundred and thirty two slokas. "Next in order is the excellent Aniishashana Parva. In
described

it is

how Yudhish-thira

the king

of the

Kurus was

re-

conciled to himself on hearing the exposition of duties by Bhisma, the son of Bhagirathi. This Parva treats of rules
in detail
rity

and of
its

Dharma and Artha


;

then the rules of cha-

and

merits

then the qualifications of donees, and the


gifts.

Bupreme rule regarding

This Parva also describes the


of conduct, and the

ceremonials of individual duty, the rules

matchless merit of truth.

This Parva showeth the great merit

of Brahmanas and kine, and unraveleth the mysteries of duties These are embodied in the exin relation to time and place.

Parva called Aniishashana of varied incidents. In this hath been described the ascension of Bhisma to Heaven. This is the thirteenth Parva which hath laid down accurately the
cellent

various duties of men.

The number of sections in this is one The number of slokas is eight thousand. hundered and "Then comes the fourteenth Parva called Aswamedhika. In this is the excellent story of Samvarta and Marutta. Then
forty-six.
is

described the discovery (by the Pandavas)


;

of golden

treasu-

and then the birth of Parikshita who was revived by Krishna after having been burnt by the (celestial) weapon (of Aswat-thama). The battles of Arjuna the son of Pandu, while
ries

following the sacrificial horse let loose, with various princes


in wrath seized
it.

who
ni

Then

is

shewn the great

risk

of Arjuna

his encounter with

Vavru-vahana the son of Chitrangada (by

Arjuna) the appointed daughter (of the chief of Mauipura). Then the story of the mungoose during the performance of the
horse sacrifice.

This

is

the most wonderful Parva called


is

Aswa-

medhika. The number of sections The number of slokas composed in


ledge
is

one hundred and three.

this

by Vyasa of true know-

three thousand three hundred and twenty.

ABTPAKVA.

4T

-'Then comes the fifteenth Parva called ARvnmavasiJia.

In

this Dhrita-rashtra, abdicating the

kingdom, and accompanied

by Gandhari and Vidura, went to the woods. Seeing this, the virtuous Pritha also, ever engaged in cherishing her superiors,
leaving the court of her sons, followed the old couple.
is

In this

described the wonderful meeting through the kindness of


spirits of his slain

Vyasa of the King (Dhrita-rashtra) with the


children, grand-children,

and other

princes, returned from

the

other world.

Then the monarch abandoning

his sorrows acquir-

ed with his wife the highest fruit of his meritorious actions. In this Parva, Vidura after having leaned on virtue all his life
attaineth to the most meritorious state,

under
this

"The learned son of Gavalgana. Sanjaya also, of passions full control, and the foremost of minister.^, attained, in
Parva,
to

the

blessed

state.

In

this.

Yudhish-thira the

just met Narada and heard from him about the extinction of

the race of the

Vrishnis.

This

is

the very wonderful Parva


is

called Asramavasika.

The number
of slokas
live

of sections in this

forty

two, and the of truth


"
is

number

composed by Vyasa cognisant


six.

one thousand
this, j^ou

hundred and

After
In

know, comes the Maushala of painful


lion-hearted

inci-

dents.

this,

those

heroes

(of

the

race

of

Vrishni) with the scars of

many a
fates,

field

on their bodies, oppress-

ed with the curse of a Brahmana, while deprived of reason


with drink, impelled by the
of the
salt sea

slew each other on the shores

with the Eraka grass which (in their hands)

became (invested with the fatal attributes of the) thunder. In this, both Balarama and Keshava (Krishna) after causing
the
extermination
of
rise

their race,

their
to

hour having

come,

themselves did not


ing Time.

superior

the

sway of

all-destroy-

In

this,

Arjuna the foremost among men, going to


the city destitute of the
sorry.

Dwaravati (Dwaraka) and seeing


Vrishnis

was much

affected of his

and became exceedingly


maternal uncle

Then

after the

funeral

Vasudeva the

foremost

among

the

Yadus

(Vrishnis), he

saw the heroes of the

Yadu
of the

race lying stretched in death on the spot where they

had

been drinking.

He

then caused the cremation of the bodies

illustrious

Krishna and Balarama and of the principal

a
members

MAHABHARATA.
of the Yrishui race.

Then

as

he was joiinieying from

Dwaraka with the women and the children, the old and the remnants of the Yadu race he was met on the decrepit,

way by a heavy calamity. He witnessed also the disgrace of his bow Gandiva and the unpropitiousness of his celestial weapons.

Seeing

all this,

Arjuna became despondent and pursuant


to Yudhish-thira of
life.

to Vyasa's advice

went

and
is

solicited permission

to adopt the So.nyasa


called

Maushala.
of slokas

mode The number

This

the sixteenth Parva


is

of sections

eight and the


is

number
"

composed by Vyasa cognisant of truth

three

hundred and twenty.

The next

is

"In this those foremost


their
culled

Mahaprastkanika the seventeenth Farva. among men the Pandavas abdicating


their great journey

kingdom went with Draupadi on


Mahaprasthan.
In
this

met with Agni having this, asked by Agni himself, Arjuna having worshipped him duly, returned to hhn the excellent celestial bow called Gandiva. In this, leaving his brothers who dropped one after another and Draupadi
they
arrived at the sea of

red waters.

In

also,

Yudhish-thira went on his journey without once looking

back on them.
prasthanika.

This

tlie

seventeenth
of

Parva

is

called
is

The number

sections

in this

three.

MahaThe

number
is

of slokas also

composed by Yyasa cognisant of truth


after
this

three hundred and twenty.


"

The Parva that comes

you must know

is

the

extraordinary one called Sarga of celestial incidents.

seeing the celestial car come to take him, Yudhish-thira

Then moved
to

by kindness towards the dog that accompanied him, refused


ascend
it

without his companion.

Observing the illustrious

Yudhish-thira's steady adherence to virtue,


justice)

Dharma (the god of abandoning his canine form showed himself to the king.

Then Yudhish-thira ascending to heaven felt much pain. The celestial messenger showed him hell by an act of deception. Then
Yudhish-thira the soul of justice heard the heart-rending lamentations
of his brothers abiding
in

that region under the disci-

Then Dharma and Indra showed Yudhish-thira Then Yudhish-thira after (the region appointed for sinners). leaving hi?, human body by a pluno:e ia the celestial Ganges
pline of Yarna.

AD PARVA.
I

4o

attained
live in

to

that region

which

his acts merited, and'


all

began
is

tio

joy respected by Indra and

the gods.

This

tlio

eighteenth Parva as narrated by the illustrious Vyasa.

The

number

of sections

is five,

and the number of slokas composed,


in this
is

O ascetics,

by the great Rishi

two hundred and nine.

"The above are the contents of the Eighteen Parvas. In the


appendix (Khila)B.rc the Ilarlvansa and the Vauish'^a. The number of slokas contained in the

Harwansa

is

twelve thousand.

These are the contents of the section called Parva-sangraha,


gether

Akshauhinis of troops came toThe encounter that ensued was terrible and lasted for eighteen days. He who knows the four Vedas with all the Angds and Upanishadas, but doe& not know this history
Sauti continued
:

Eighteen

for battle.

(Bharata), cannot be regarded as wise.

Vyasa of immeasur-

able intelligence has spoken of the Mahabharata as a treatise

on Artha, on DJiarma, and on Kama.


to
this history

Those who have listened


as,

can never bear to listen to others,

indeed,-

they who have

listened to the sweet voice of the


tlie

male Kokila,

can never hear the dissonance of


so do the inspirations

crow's

cawing.
five

As the
elements,
excellent

formation of the three worlds proceedeth from the


of all poets proceed from

this

Brahmanas, as the four kinds of creatures (viviparous, oviparous, born of filth, and vegetables) are dependcomposition.

O ye

ent on space for their existence, so the Puranas depend upon


this history.

As

alt

the senses depend for their exercise upon


all acts

the various modifications af the mind, so do


nials)

(ceremo-

and moral

qualities

depend upon

this treatise.

There

is

not a story current in the world but doth depend on this history, even as the body upon the food it taketh. All poets
cherish the

Bharata even as servants desirous of preferment

Even as the domestic Asrama can never be surpassed by the three other Asramas (modes of life) so no poets can surpass this poem.
blessed

always attend upon masters of good lineage.

"Ye
has gone

ascetics,

shake ye

O'ff all

be fixed on virtue,
to

for virtue is the

Let your hearts one only friend of him that


inaction.

the other world.

Even the most

intelligent
their

by

cherishing wealth and wives can never

make

these

own

nor ure these possessions that are lasting.

The Bharata

uitcrcst

4-t

MAHABHARATA.
lips of

by the
itself

Dwaipayana
It
it

is

without a parallel

it

is

virtue

and sacred.
the

destroyeth sin
it is

and

produceth good.

He

that listeneth to

while

being recited hath no need


of Pushkara,

of a bath in

sacred waters

Brahmana,

whatever
senses,
is

sins

he

may commit during


from them
sins
all

the day

through his

freed

by reading the Bharata in the


also

evening.

Whatever

he

may commit
is

in
all

the night

by

deeds,

words, or mind, he
first

freed from

them

by reading

the Bharata in the

twilight (morning).

He

that giveth a

hundred kine with horns plaited with gold to a Brahman cognisant of the Vedas and all branches of learning, and he that
daily listeneth to the sacred narrations of the Bharata, acquireth

equal merit. As the wide ocean


ships,

is

easily passable

by men having
"

so

is

this extensive history of great

excellence and deep

import with the help of this chapter called Parva-sangraha.

Thus

endeth

the

section

called

Parva-sangraha of the

Adi Purva

of the blessed

Mahabharata.

Section

III.

(Pausya Paria).
Sauti said,
his
"

brothers attending his long sacrifice on the plains of

Janamejaya the son of Parikshita was with Kuruas

kshetra.

His brothers were three, Sruta-sena, Ugra-sena, and

Bhima-sena.

And

they

were sitting at the

sacrifice,

there

arrived at the spot an offspring of

Sarama (the
his

celestial

bitch.)

And

belaboured by the brothers of Janamejaya, he ran away to

his mother, crying in pain.

And

mother seeing him crying


?

exceedingly asked him, ''Why criest thou so

Who
of

hath beaten
'

thee
'

?"

And

being thus questioned,

he said unto his mother,

have been belaboured by the brothers


his

Janamejaya.

And
some
ficial
it."

mother

replied, 'apparently

then, thou hast


!'

committed
'

fault for

which hast thou been beaten


fault.

He

answered,

have not committed any


butter

have not

touched

the sacri-

with

my

tongue, nor have I even cast a look upon

His mother Sarama hearing


her son went to

affliction of

and much distressed at the the place where Janamejaya with


this
ssaciitice,

his brothers

was at

his

lung-exteading

And

she

ABI PAEVA.
addressed Janamejaya in anger, saying,
:

15
*

this

my

son hath com-

mitted no fault he hath not looked upon your sacrificial butter, nor hath he touched it witli his tongue. Wherefore hath he

been beat
she said,
therefore
"

They gave not her a word in reply whereupon my son who hath committed no fault, shall evil come upon ye when ye least expect it.'
?'
; '

as ye have beat

Janamejaya, thus addressed by the


dejected.

celestial bitch

Sarama,
sacrifice

became exceedingly alarmed and


was concluded,

And after the


and began

he returned to Hastinapura,

to take

great pains in searching for a Purohita


absolution for his
sin,

who

could by procuring

neutralise the effect of the curse. of Pai-ikshita Avhile ahunting,

"One day Janamejaya the son

observed in a particular part of his dominions a hermitage

where dwelt a certain Rishi of name Sruta-srava.

He had a

son named Soma-srava deeply engaged in ascetic devotions.

Being desirous of appointing that son of the Rishi as his


Purohita, Janamejaya the son of Parikshita sainted the Rishi

and addressed him saying,


let

possessor

of the six attributes,

this

thy son be

answered Janamejaya,
ascetic

my purohita.' The Rishi thus addressed, O Janamejaya, this my son, deep in


'

devotions,

accomplished in the study of the Vedas, and


full

endued with the

force

of

my

asceticism,

is

born of the

womb

of a she-snake

that had drunk


all

my

vital fluid.

He

is

able to absolve thee from


against Mahadeva.

offences

save those committed

But he hath one particular habit, viz., he would grant to any Brahmana whatever might be demanded of him, If thou canst put up with it, then take thou him.' Janamejaya thus addressed replied to the Rishi * it shall be even so.' And accepting him for his Purohita, he returned to
'

and he then addressed his brothers saying, this is whatsoever the person I have chosen for my spiritual master he may say must be complied with by you without examination.'
his capital
* ;
:

And

his brothers did as they

were directed.

And

giving these

directions to his brothers,

the king marched towards Takshya-

shila and brought that country under his authority.


"

About

this

time there was a Rishi of name Ayodha-Dhaudisciples,

mya.
Aruni,

And Ayoda-Dhaumya had three and Veda. And the Rishi bade

Upamanyti,

one

-of

these disciples;

46

MAHABHARATA.

Arimi of Panchala go and stop up a breach in the water-course of a certain field. And Aruni of Panchala, thus ordered by
his

preceptor,

repaired to

the spot.

And

having gone there

he saw that he could not stop up the breach in the water-course

by ordinary means.
and
said
'

And he was
But
do
it

distressed because he could


at length

not do his preceptor's bidding.


well, I

he saw a way then went down

will

in this way,'

He

into the breach and lay

down himself

there.

And

the water

was thus
"

confined.
after,

And sometime
Sir,

the preceptor

Ayoda-Dhaumya asked
Avas.

his other disciples

where Aruni of Panchala

And
'

they

answered,

he hath been sent by yourself saying


field
:

up the breach in the water-course of the minded, Dhaumya, addressing his pupils,
all

Go, stop Thus


'

re-

said,

then

let

us

go to the place where he


*

is.'
'

And

having arrived there, he shouted,


?

Ho

Aruni of Pan-

chala,

where art thou

Come

hither,

my

child.'

And Aruni
addressing
water-

hearing the voice of his preceptor speedily came out of the


water-course and stood before his
preceptor.
in the breach to

And

the

latter,

Aruni

said,

'

here I

am

of the

course.

Not having been


it

able

devise

any other means I

entered

myself for the purpose of


It is only

preventing the water

running
left it

out.

upon hearing thy voice that having


to escape I I

and allowed the waters


;

have stood before thee,


do.'

I salute thee, Master


"

tell

me what

have to
'

The preceptor, thus addressed replied because in getting up from the ditch thou hast opened the water-course, therefore hence-forth shalt thou be called Uddalaka as a mark of thy
preceptor's favor.
thee,

And
all

because

my

words have been obeyed by

thou shalt obtain good fortune.

And all
also.'

the

Vedas

shall

shine in thee and

the Dhdrma-shastras

And Aruni,

thus

addressed by his preceptor, went to the country after his heart.

"The name of another of Ayoda-Dhaumya's disciples was Upamanyu. And Dhaumya appointed him saying, " go, my child, Upamanyu, look after the kine. " And according to
his preceptor's orders, he

went

to tend the

kine.

And having
to his pre-

watched them
ceptor's house

all

day, he returned in the evening

and standing before him he saluted him respect-

ADI PARVA.
fttlly.

47

And
?

his preceptor seeing him, in

asked him, 'Upamanyu,


thyself

my

child,

good condition of body upon what dost thou support


'

Thou

art exceeding

plump.

And

he answered his

preceptor,

'Sir, I
is

support myself by begging.'

And

his precept-

or said 'what

obtained in alms should not be used by thee


it

without offering
away.

And Upamanyu, thus told, went And having obtained alms, he offered the same to his And his preceptor took from him even the whole. preceptor. And Aruni, thus treated, went away to attend the cattle. And
to me.
'

having watched them


his preceptor's abode.

all

day, he returned in the evening to

saluted

him with

And he stood before his preceptor and And his preceptor perceiving that respect.
child, I

he

still
'

continued to be of good condition of body said unto


take from thee even the whole of

him,

Upamanyu, my

what

thou obtainest in alms, without keeping anything for thee.

How
And
time
'This

then dost thou, at present, contrive to support thyself V

Upamanyu
all

said unto his

preceptor,

'Sir,

having made

over to you
for
is

that I obtain in alms, I go abegging a second


'

supporting myself.
not the

And

his

preceptor then replied,

way

in

which thou shouldst obey thy preceptor.


live

By

this

thou art diminishing the support of others that

by
his

begging.
thyself

Truly, having supported thyself so, thou hast proved


covetous.
all
'

And Upamanyu,
all

having

signified

assent to
cattle.

that his preceptor said, went

away

to

attend

the

And

having watched them

day, he

returned to his

preceptor's house.

ted

And he him respectfully. And


said again
all

stood before his preceptor and saluhis preceptor observing that


'

he was
take

still fat,

unto him,

Upamanyu,

my

child, I

from thee

thou obtainest in alms and thou

dost not go

abegging a second time, and yet art thou in healthy condition.

How dost
cows.
'

thou support thyself


I

?'

And Upamanyu,
live
'

thus quesof

tioned, answered, 'Sir,

now

upon the milk


it is

these

And

his preceptor thereupon told him,

not lawfirst

ful for

thee to appropriate the milk without having

ob-

tained

my

consent.'

And Upamanyu having


went away

assented to the

justice of these observations,

to tend the kine.

And
him

Avhen he returned to his preceptor's abode, he stood before


axul saluted

him

as usjual,

And

his

preceptor seeing

that be

^8
was
still fat,

MAHARHARATA:
said.

IJpamanyu,

my

child,

thou eatest no longei'

of alms, nor dost thou

go abegging a second time, nor even


yet art thou

driukest of the milk

thou contrive to

live

now

'

By what means dost And Upamanyu replied, Sir, I


fat.
'

now

sip the froth that


'

these

calves

throw out while sucking


'

their mothers' teats.

And

the preceptor said,


for

these generous

calves, I suppose, out of

compassion

thee throw out large


in the

quantities of froth.
full

Wouldst thou stand


?
'

way

of their
it is

meals by acting as thou hast done


for

Knov/ then that


to tend

unlawful

thee to drink the froth.


this,

And Upamanyu, having


the cows.

signified his assent to

went

as before

And

restrained by his preceptor, he feedeth not


else to eat
!

on alms, nor

hath he anything
"

he drinketh not of the milk, nor

tasteth he of the froth

And Upamanyu,
ate of the
his

one day, oppressed by hunger, when in

forest

leaves of the

Arka
the

Ascle^ias gigantea

).

And

eyes being affected by

pungent,

acrimonious,

crude, and saline qualities of the leaves which

he had eaten,
fell

he became blind.
pit.

And

as he

was crawling about, he

into a

And upon

his not returning that

day when the sun was

sinking

down behind the summit

of the western mountain, the

preceptor observed to his disciples that

come.
"

And they

told

Upamanyu was not yet him that he had gone out with the cattle.
said,
'

The preceptor then


therefore,

Upamanyu
is,

being restrained
displeased,

by me from the use


and,

of everything,

of course,
it

doth not come home until

be

late.

Let us Ho,
his

then go in search of him.'


his
disciples

And having
?'

said this, he

went with
'

into

the forest and began to shout saying,


art

Upamanyu, where
preceptor's
voice
well.'

thou

And Upamanyu
'

hearing

answered in a loud tone,

here I

am

at the

bottom of a

pened to be
fallen
'

And his preceptor there. And Upamanyu


I
well.'

asked him how he hapreplied,


'

having eaten of

the leaves of the ^rA;a plant


into
this

became

blind,

and

so

have I

And

his preceptor

thereupon told him,

glorify the twin


will

Aswinas, the joint physicians of the gods,


thee thy sight.'
to

and they

restore

And Upamanyu

thus

directed by his preceptor began


in the following words of the

glorify

the twin Aswinas,

Rig Yeda:

ADI PARVA.
!

49

Ye first-horn beings, 'Ye have existed before the creation ye are displayed in this wondrous universe of five elements
I desire to

obtain ye by help of the knowledge derived from


Infinite
!

hearing and of meditation, for ye are

Ye

are

the

course itself of Nature and the intelligent

Soul that pervades

that course

Ye

are
is

birds
like

of beauteous feathers
to

perching

on the body that


three

tree

common
!

attributes of every soul


in every

Ye are without the Ye are incomparable

Ye, through
universe

its spirit

created thing, overspread the

'Ye are golden Engles


things disappear
terioration
!
!

Ye

are

the

essence in

which

all

Ye
are

are free
of

from error and know no de-

Ye

beauteous beaks that wound not unin

justly and
prevail

are

victorious
!

every encounter

Ye

certainly

over

Time

wondrous cloth of
of the cloth so

Having created the Sun, ye weave the the year by means of the white thread
!

day and the black thread of the night

And
The

with the
apperbird of

woven ye have established two courses

of action

taining respectively to the Devas and the Pitris.


Life
seized

finite soul,

by Time which represents the strength of the Inye set free for delivering her unto great happithat are
in deep ignorance, as

ness

They

long as they are

under the delusion of their

senses, suppose

ye who are inde1

pendent of the attributes of matter to be gifted with form

Three hundred and sixty cows represented by three hundred and sixty days produce one calf between them which is the That calf is the creator and destroyer of all. Seekers year.
of truth

following different routes,


its

draw the milk of true

knowledge with
of
thcat calf
'

help.

Ye

Aswinas, ye are the creatora

The year

is

but the nave of a wheel to which

is

attached
daj's

seven hundred and twenty spokes representing as

many

The circumference of this wheel represented by twelve months is without end. This wheel is full of delusion and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures whether of
and nights.
this or of the other world.

Ye

Aswinas, this wheel of time

is

set in
'

motion by ye
of

The wheel

Time

as represented

by the year has a nave


7

50
,

MAHAP.HAHATA,
The niimbcr
of spokes attaclied

represented by the six seasong.


to that

nave

is

twelve as represented by the twelve signs of the

Zodiac,
of all

This wheel of Time manifests the fruits of the acts beings. The presiding deities of Time abide in that wheel.

Subject as I

am

to its distressful influence, ye Aswinas, liberate

me
this

from that wheel of Time,


!

Ye Aswinas,

ye are this imi-

verse of five elements

Ye

are the objects


!

that are enjoyed in

and

in

the

other world
I

infiaence of the five elements

Make me independent of the And though ye are the Supreme


Earth in forms enjoying the

Brahma, yet ye move

over the

delights that the senses can afford.


'

In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe

Then have ye placed the Sun and the Sky above according to the coni^e of the same Sun, perform

The

Rishis,

their sacrifices^,

and the gods and men, according to what hath been appointed for them, perform their sacrifices also enjoying the fruits &f
those acts
'

Mixing the three colors ye have produced all the objects of sight It is from these objects that the universe hath sprung, whereon the gods and men are engaged in their respective
!

occupations, and, indeed,


'

all

creatures endued with


'.

life

Ye

Aswinas, I
!

adore ye

I also

adore the Sky which is


acts

your handiwork

Ye

are the ordainers of the fruits of all


I

from which even the gods are not free from the
'

Ye

are yourselves free

fruits of

your acts

Ye

are

the parents of

all

As males and females


The new-born
it is

it is

ye

that swallow the food


life-creating
fluid

which subsequently develops into the


!

and blood

infant

swcks

the teat of
the infant
"
!

its

mother.

Indeed,

ye that take the shape of


sight to protect

Ye

Aswinas, grant

me my

my

life
'

1'

are

The twin Aswinas, thus invoked, appeared and said, We Here is a cake for thee. Take and eat it.' And satisfied.
replied,

Upamaayu, thus addressed,


bavs never proved
cake to
untrue.

'your words,
fiist

Aswinas,
this

But without
it.'

oflEering

my

preceptor I dare not take


him,
*

And
j

the Aswinas

thereupon
liS.

told

formerly,

thy preceptor had invoked

We

thereupon gave him a cake like this


it

and he took

it

without offering

to his

master.

Do

thou that which thj

ADI PARVA.
preceptor
cUd,'

Si
again said unto
oftering it

Thus

addressed,

Upamanyu

them,
to

'

Aswinas-, I crave your pardon.

Without

my

preceptor I dare
'

not apply this cake.'


v/ith

The Aswinaa
to

then

said,

O we

are pleased

this

devotion ot fhine

thy preceptor.
shall be of ffcld.

Thy

master's teeth are of black iron.


shalt be

Thine

Thou

restored to

siij-lit

and shall

have good
*'

fortune.'

Thus spoken to by the Aswinas he recovered his sight, and having gone to his preceptor's presence he saluted hirxi and told

him

all.

And

his

preceptor was well pleased with him and


shalt obtain prosperity even

said unto him,

'Thou

as

the As-

winas have
*'

said.

All the Vedas

shall shine in thee


trial

and

all

the Dharma-shastras,'

And

this

was the

of

Upamanyu,

Then

the other disciple of Ayoda-Dliaumya was called

Veda. His preceptor once addressed him, sa3ang, *Veda,


tarry sometime in

my

child,

be

to

thy

profit,'

my house and serve thy preceptor. It shall And Veda having signified his assent tarried
of serving him.

long in

the

family of his preceptor mindful

Like an ox under the burthens of his master, he bore heat and cold, hunger and thirst, at all times uncomplainingly. And it was long before his preceptor was satisfied. And as a
consequence of that
"
satisfaction,

Veda obtained good fortune


was the
trial of

and universal knowledge.

And

this

Veda.

And

Veda,, having received permission from his preceptor,


latter's

and leaving the


in his

residence after th completion

of his

studies, entered the domestic

mode

o-f life.

And

while living

own

house, he got three pupils.

And

he never told them


;

to perform

any work or

to

obey implicitly

for having experienced himself

his own behests much woe while abiding in

the family of his preceptor, he liked not to


severity.
**

treat

them with
of

After a certain time, Janamejaya and Paushya, both

the order of Kshetrias, arriving at his residence appointed the Brahmana, Veda, as their spiritual guide ( Upadhyaya ). And

one day while about


charge of

to

depart upon some business relative

to

a sacrifice, he employed
his

one of his
'

disciples,

Utahka,
'

to take

household.

Utanka,' said he,


house,
let
it

whatsoever
by thee

should have to be done in

my

be

done

52
without neglect.
'

MAHAEHARATA.
And
having given these orders
to Utanlsai,

he went on
"

his journey.

So Utanka always mindful of the injunction of his preceptor took up his abode in the latter's house. And while

Utanka was
thy mistress be
fruitful.

residing there,

the females of

his
'

preceptor's

house having assembled addressed him and


is

said,

Utanka,
might)

in that season

when connubial connection


absent
;

Thy

preceptor

is
'

then stand thou in his

place and do the needful.


said unto those

the bidding of

women, women.

'

It is
I

And Utanka, thus addressed, not proper for me to do this at

have not been enjoined by


improper.
*

my

pre-

ceptor to do aught that

is

"After a while,

his preceptor
all

returned from his journey.


that had happened, became
said,
?
'

And

his preceptor

having learnt

well pleased and, addressing Utanka, what favor shall I bestow on thee

Utanka,

my

child,

I have been served


for

by

thee duly
creased.

therefore hath

our friendship

each other in-

I therefore grant thee

leave to depart.

Go

thou,

thy wishes be accomplished.' Utanka, thus addressed, replied, saying, Let me do something that you wish, for it hath been said, He who bestoweth

and

let all

"

'

instruction contrary to usage, and he

who

receiveth

it

contrary

to usage, one of the

two

dieth,

and enmity springeth up between


received thy leave 'to depart,
to a preceptor.'

the two.

I,

therefore,

who have

am
a

desirous of bringing thee

some gratuity due


'

His master upon hearing


while.'
'

this replied,

Utanka,

my

child,

wait

Sometime

after,

Utanka

again addressed his preceptor,

Command me to bring that for gratuity which you desire, And his preceptor then said, my dear Utanka, thou Last often told me of your desire to bring something by way of acknowledgment for the instruction thou hast received. Go
saying,
'
'

then in and ask thy mistress what thou art to bring


ty.

for gratui-

And
'

bring thou that which she directs.

'

And
to

thus disay-

rected by his preceptor,


ing,

Utanka addressed

his preceptress,

Madam,

I have obtained

my

master's leave

go home,
thee as

and

am

desirous of bringing something agreeable to

gratuity for the instruction I have received, in order that I

may
what

not depart his debtor,

Therefore, please to

command me

ADI PARVA.
I

53
his

am

to bring as
'

gratuity.'

Thus addressed,

preceptress

replied,

ear-rings

Go unto King Paushya and beg of him the pair of worn by his Queen, and bring them hither. Four days
when
at

hence

is

a sacred day

I wish to appear before the Brah-

manas ( who may dine


rino-s

my

house

decked with
!

these ear-

Then

accomplish
'

this,

O Utanka
;

If

thou shouldst

succeed, good fortune shall attend thee


canst thou expect
*'

if not,

what good

Utanka, thus commanded, took

his

departure.

And

as

he was passing along the road he saw a bull of extraordinary


size

and a

that

uncommon stature mounted thereon. And man addressed Utanka and said, Eat thou of the dung

man
'

of

'

of this bull.

Utanka,
'

however, Avas unwilling to comply.

The man said again, Thy master ate of


assent and ate of the
bull,

Utanka, eat of
it

it

without scrutiny.
signified

before.'

And Utanka

his

dung and drank of the urine of that and washing his hands and mouth Paushya was. went to where King *' Arrived at the place, Utanka saw Paushya seated ( on And approaching him Utanka saluted the monhis throne ). I am come a petiarch by pronouncing blessings and said,
and rose
respectfully,
'

tioner to thee.'

And King Paushya, having


what
shall I

returned Utanka's
?'

salutations, said, 'Sir,


said,
'

do for thee

And Utanka
the ear-rings

am come

to beg of thee a pair of ear-rings as gratuity

for

my

preceptor.

It bchoveth thee to
'

give

me
into

worn by thy Rani. *' King Paushya

replied,
is

'

Go Utanka

the

female
'

apartments where the Rani

and demand them of


as

her.

And
'it is

Utanka went into the women's apartments. But

he could

not discover the Rani, he again addressed the Raja, saying,

not proper that I should be treated by thee with deceit. Rani is not in the private apartments, for I could not find

Thy
her.'

thus addressed, considered for a while and replied, 'Recollect, Sir, with attention whether thou beest not in a state of defilement in consequence of contact with the impurities of a

The

Raja,

repast.

My

Rani

is

a chaste wife

and cannot be seen by any one

who is impure owing to contact with the leavings of a repast. Nor doth she herself appear in sight of any one who is defiled.'

64
"

KAHABHARATA."
Utanka, thus informed, reflected
for

a while and then

said, 'Yes, it

must be
(

so.
)

Having been
in
is

in a hurry I performed
'

my

ablutions

after
'

meal

a standing posture.

Raja Pauis

sliya

then

said,

Here
'

a transgression.

Purification

not

properly effected by one in a standing posture, nor by one

while he
sat

is

going along.

And Utanka having


towards
thoroughly.

agreed to

tliis,

down

with his face

the

East,

and washed
then,
froth,

his face, hands,

and

feet

And he

without

noise, sipped thrice of water free from scum and

and not
his face

warm, and just


twice.

sufficient to reach his

stomach and wiped

And
(

he then touched with water the apertures of his

organs

eyes, ears, &c. &c. )

And

having done

all this,

he once

more entered the apartments


saw the Rani. And
respectfully
do.'

of the wo-men.

And

this time

he

as the

Rani perceived him, she saluted him


Sir,
'

and

said,

'Welcome,

command me what

And Utanka

said unto her,

it

behoveth thee to give

am to me

those ear-rings of thine, I beg

them as a present for my preceptor.'


Utanka's con-

And

the Rani having been highly pleased with

duct and, considering that Utanka as an object of charity could


not be passed over, took
off

her ear-rings and gave them to him.

And

she said,

'

these ear-rings are very

much sought

after

by

Takshaka, King of the Serpents.

Therefore shouldst thou carry

them with the greatest care.' And Utanka being told this,
under no apprehension.
leave of the Rani, he

said unto the Rani,

'

Lady, bo
is

Takshaka, Chief of the Serpents,

not able to overcome me.'

And

having said

this,

and taking
of Paushya,

went back

into the presence

and

said,

'

Paushya, I

am

gratified.'

Tlien Paushya said to


at long in-

Utanka,
tervals.

'A fit object Thou art a

of charity can only be had


qualified

guest,
little.

therefore do I desire to

perform a sraddha.
*

Tarry thou a

And Utanka

replied,

Yea, I will tarry, and beg that the clean provisions that are ready may be soon brought in.' And the Raja having signified
assent,

his

he entertained Utanka duly.

And Utanka
it,

seeing
it

that the food placed before him had hair in

and also that

was
'

cold,

thought

it

unclean.

And
in

he said unto Paushya,


therefore shalt
'

Thou

givest

me

food

that

is

unclean,

thou

lose

thy

sight.'

And Paushya

answer said

And

because

ADI PARVA,
dost thou

5o
is

impute unci eanness to food that

clean,

therefore

shalt thou be without issue.'


*

It behoveth thee not, after

And Utanka thereupon rejoined, having offered me unclean food,


satis-

to curse
"
fied

me in return. Satisfy thyself by occular proof.' And Paushya seeing the food alleged to be unclean himself of its uncleanliness. And Paushya having
it

ascer-

tained that the food was truly unclean, being cold and mixed

with hair, prepared as


hair,

was by a

woman

with unbraided
'

began to pacify the Rishi Utanka, saying

Sir,

the food

placed before thee is cold, and doth contain hair, having been

prepared without sufficient care.

Therefore I pray thee pardon


'

me.

Let

me

not become

blind.

And Utanka

answered, 'what

I say must come to pass.

Having become

blind,

thou mayst,

however, recover thy sight before long.


also doth not take effect
*

Grant that thy curse


said unto him,

on me.

'

And Paushya
For

am

unable to revoke

my

curse.

my

wrath even now hath

not been appeased.

But thou knowest not


as
razor.

mana's heart

is soft

this. For a Brahnew-churned butter, even though his

words bear a sharp-edged


these with the Kshetriya.

It

is

otherwise in respect of
soft as
tool.

His Avords are

new-churned

butter, but

his heart

is

as a sharp-edged

Such being

the case, I
neutralise

am

unable, because of the hardness of


curse.

my

heart,

to

my

Then go thou thy ways.

'

To

this

Utanka

made

answer, 'I showed thee the uncleanness of the food offerBesides, saidsfc

ed to me, and I was even now pacified by thee.

thou at

first

that because I imputed uncleanness to food that


issue.

was clean I should be without

unclean, thy curse cannot affect me.

But the food being truly And Of this I am sure.


'

Utanka having
"

said this departed with the ear-rings.

On

the road Utanka perceived coming towards him a

naked

idle

disappearing.

beggar sometimes coming in view and sometimes And Utanka, having occasion, put the earIn the meantime the

rings on the ground and went for water.

beggar came quickly to the spot and taking up the ear-rings And Utanka having completed his ablutions in ran away.
water and purified himself and having also reverently bowed down to the gods and his spiritual masters pursued the thief
with the utmost speed.

And

having with great

difficulty over-

55
taken him,
lie

MAHAEHARATA,
seized

him with

force.

But

at

that instant the

person seized, quitting the form of a beggar and


real form, viz, that of

assuming his
hole
to

Takshaka,

sj^eedily entered a large


in,

open in the ground.


his

And

having got

Takshaka proceeded

own abode, the region of the serpents. " Now, Utanka, recollecting the words of th Rani, pursued
to

the Serpent, and began to dig open the hole with a stick but

was unable

make much
his

progress.

And

Indra beholding

his distress sent

thunder-bolt (Vajra) to his assistance.


stick enlarged that hole. after the

Then the thunder-bolt entering that

And Utanka began to And having entered

enter the
it

hole

thunder-bolt.

he beheld the region of the Serpents

infinite in extent, filled'

with hundreds of palaces and elegant

mansions with turrets and domes and gateways, abounding with


wonderful places for various games and entertainments.

And
:

Utanka then

glorified the serpents

by the following slokas


Airavata,

Ye

Serpents,

subjects

of

King

splendid in

battle and showering weapons on the field like lightning-charg-

ed clouds driven by the winds

Handsome and

of various of

forms and decked with many-colored ear-rings, ye children


Airavata, ye shine like the Sun in the firmament
!

On

the

northern banks of the Ganges are

many

habitations of serpents.

There I constantly adore the great serpents.


ravata would desire to

Who

except Ai?

move in the burning rays of the Sun


Airavata's brother
)

When

Dhrita-rashtra

goes out, twenty-

eight thousand and eight serpents follow him as his attendants.

Ye who move
I adore
'

near him and ye

who

stay at a distance from him,

all

ye that have Airavata for your elder brother.

I adore thee also, to obtain the ear-rings,

Takshaka, Avho
!

formerly dwelt in Kurukshetra and the forest of Khandava

Takshaka and Aswasena, ye are constant companions Avho I also dwell in Kurukshetra on the banks of the Ikshumati
!

adore the illustrious Srutasena, the younger brother of Takshaka,

who
"

resided at the holy place called

Mahadyuman with

a view

to obtain the Chiefship of the Serpents.'

The Brahmana Rishi Utanka having saluted the chief


ear-rings.

serpents in this manner, obtained not, however, the

And

he thereupon became very thoughtful.

And when he

ADI PARYA.

57

adored the serpents, he then

saw that he obtained not the ear-rings even though he had looked about liim and beheld

two women over a loom weaving a piece of cloth with a fine and in the loom were black and white threads. And shuttle
;

he likewise saw a wheel, with twelve spokes, turned by six


boys.

And he

also

saw a man with a handsome horse.


:

he began to address them the following mantras


'

And

This wheel whose circumference

is

marked by twenty four


is

divisions representing as

many
It
is

lunar changes
set

furnished with

three

hundred spokes
(

in continual

motion by six

boys

the seasons

These damsels representing universal

mature are v/eaving without intermission a cloth with threads


black

and white,

and thereby ushering into existence the


!

manifold worlds and the beings that inhabit them


of Vritra and

Thou

wielder of the thunder, the protector of the universe, the slayer

Namuchi, thou
for

illustrious

one who wearest the

black cloth and display eth truth and untruth in the universe,

thou who ownest


the god of

thy

carrier,

the horse received


is

from the

depths of the ocean, and which


<

fire

),

but another form of Agni bow to thee, thou supreme Lord, thou

Lord of the three worlds,

Purandara

!'

gratified

the man with the horse said unto Utanka, 'lam by this thy adoration. What good shall I do to thee V And Utanka replied, even let the serpents be brought under
'

"Then

my

control.'

Then the man

rejoined, 'Blow into this horse.'

And

Utanka

bleAv into that horse.

And from

the horse thus blown

into, there issued,

from every aperture of his body, flames of fire with smoke, by which the region of the Nagas was about to be

consumed.
fied

And

Takshaka, surprised beyond measure and


fire,

terri-

his abode taking the ear-rings with him, and said unto Utanka, Pray, Sir, take back the ear-rings.' And Utanka took them back.
'

by the heat of the

hastily

came out of

"But Utanka having recovered


is

his ear-rings thought, '0 this

that sacred day of

my

preceptress.

am

at a distance.

How
said,
'

can

I,

therefore,

show

my

regard for her V


the

And when
and
a

Utanka was anxious about

this,

man
he

addressed him
will

Ride this horse, Utanka,


'

and

in

moment

carry thee to thy master's abode.

And

LTtanka having signi-

58
fied his

MAHABHARATA.
assent,

mounted the horse and presently reached


morning
after

his

preceptor's ihonse.
"

And

his preceptress that

having bathed was

dressing her hair sitting, thinking of uttering a curse on


if

he should not return within time,


his preceptor's

Eut

in

Utanka the meantime


'

Utanka entered
his preceptress
she,
'

abode and paid his respects to


ear-rings.

and presented her the

Utanka/ said

thou

hast arrived at the proper

time at the proper

place.

Welcome,
curse

my
thee

child
!

I do not

Thou art innocent and therefore Good fortune is even before thee. Let
!

thy wishes be crowned with success


"

!'

Then Utanka waited on his preceptor. And his preceptor What hath occasioned thy long Thou art welcome said, And Utanka replied to his preceptor, Sir, in the absence ?
'
!

'

'

execution

of

this

my

business

obstruction

was offered
sitting

by

Takshaka the King


region of the Nagas,

of serpents.

Therefore had I to go to the


over a

There

saw two damsels

loom, v/eaving a fabric with black and white threads. Pray, v/hat
is

that

There likewise

beheld a wheel with

twelve spokea

Who

What too doth that import ? And what the horse of ? extraordinary size likewise beheld by me ? And Avhen I was on the road I also saw a bull with a man mounted thereon, by whom I was endearingly accosted thus Utanka, eat of
ceaselessly turned
also
is

by

six

boys.

the

man

that I saw

the dung of this bull, which v/as also eaten by thy master.
I ate of the
also
all
is

So
Who

dung

of that bull according

to his words.

he

Therefore,

enlightened by thee, I desire to hear

about them.

"And

his

preceptor thus addressed said unto him, 'Tiie


;

two damsels thou hast seen

the black are Dhata and Vidhata and white threads denote night and day the wheel of twelve
;

spokes turned by the six boys signifieth the year comprising six
seasons.
is

The man

is

Parjanya, the deity of rain


fire.

and the horse


the

Agni, the god of


is

The

bull that thou hast seen on


;

road

Airavata, the king of elephants


is

the

man mounted

thereon

Indra

and the dung of the

,bull

which was eaten by

thee was Aiarlta. It was certainly for this (last) that thou hast

not met with death in the region of the Nagas

and Indra

AD I
mho
is

PARVA,'

o9

my

friend

having been mercifully inclined showed thee


than rcturnset
safe,

favor.

It is for this that

taking the earI give thee leave

rings with thee.


to depart.
"

Then,

thou amiable one,

Thou

shalt obtain good fortune.'

And Utanka, having

obtained his master's leave,

moved by

anger and resolved to revenge himself on Taksh^ka, proceeded


towards Hastinapura.
Hastinapura,

That excellent Brahmana soon reached


then waited upon King Janamejaya

And Utanka

who had sometime before returned victorious from Takshashilaj And Utanka saw the victorious monarch surrounded on all sides by his ministers. And he pronounced benedictions on him in proper form* And Utanka addressed the monarch at the proper moment in^ speech of correct accent and melodious
sounds, saying,
'

thou best of monarchs


"

How
is

is

it

that

thou spendest thy time like a child when there


that urgently demandeth thy attention

another matter

Sauti

said

'

"

saluting that excellent

The monarch Janamejaya, thus addressed, Brahmana replied unto him, 'In cherishdischarge the duties of
that business to be done by

ing these
tribe.

my

subjects I do
is

Say, what

my noble me and which

hath brought thee


"

hither.'

That foremost of Bmhman-as and distinguished, beyond


good deeds, thus addressed by the excellent monarch of
unto him,
'

all for

large heart, replied

O King
;

the business

is

tby

wn
ak-a.

that demandeth thy attention


!

therefore do

it please.
life

thou King of kings


:

thy father was deprived of

by Taksh-

therefore do
serpent.

thou avenge thy father's death on that


I ween, for the act of ven-

vile

The time hath come,


fates.

geance ordained by the


of thy

Go then and avenge

the death

magnanimous father who, unoffending being bitten by that vile serpent, was reduced to the five elements even like a tree stricken by thunder. The wicked Takshaka, vilest of
the serpent race, intoxicated with
necessary act

power committed an unfather.,

when he

bit the

King, thy god-like


saints.

the

protector of the race of royal

Wicked

in.

his deeds,

he even caused Kasyapa

the prince of physicians ) to turn


relief

back when he was coming for the

of thy

father.

Ife

behoveth tkee to burn the wicked wretch in the blazing

fire

go
of a Snake-sacrifice.

MASABHIRATAJ
King
!

give instant orders

for

the

It is thus that thou canst avenge the death of thy sacrifice. And a very great favour shall have also been shown father.

to me.

my

For by that malignant wretch, O virtuous Prince, business also was on one occasion obstructed while proceed-

ing on account of

my
:

monarch having heard these words, was enraged with Takshaka. The speech of Utanka inflamed
Sauti continued
^"The

preceptor.'

"

the prince, even as the

sacrificial

fire

with clarified butter.

Moved by

grief also,

in

the

presence of Utanka himself the

prince asked his ministers the particulars of his father's journey


to the regions
of the
blessed.

And when he
"

heard
of

all

the

circumstances of his

father's

death from the

lips

Utanka,

he was overcome with pain and sorrow. And thus ends the section called Paushya of the Adi
of the blessed Mahabharata.

Parva,.

Section IV.

(Pauloma Parva).
Puranas, being in the
years' sacrifice of

Ugrasrava Sauti, the son of Lomaharshana, versed in the at the twelve forest of Naimisha,

Saunaka surnamed Kulapati, stood before the Having studied the Puranas with great Rishis in attendance. pains and therefore acquainted with them thoroughly, with
joined hands he addressed them thus,
cribed to ye the history of
of
" I

have graphically desis

Utanka which
shall
I

one of the causes


Sirs,
? "

King Janamejaya's
?

Snake-sacrifice.

What, reverend

do ye wish to hear

What

relate to ye

The holy
and

men

replied,

"

son of Lomaharshana,

we

shall ask thee

thou wilt reply unto us anxious to hear, recounting some exSaunaka our reverend master is at present cellent stories.
attending in the apartment of the holy
fire.

He

is

acquainted

with those divine stories which relate to the gods and Asuraa. He adequately knoweth the histories of men, serpents, and
Gandiiarvas.

Further,
the chief.

Sauti, in this sacrifice that


is

learned
wise,

Brahmana

is

He

able,

faithful to his vows,

a master of the shastras and

the Aranyaka,

a speaker

of

AD I PARVA.
trutli, a lover of peace,

61
flesh,

a mortifier of the

and an observer

of the penances according to the ordinance.

He

is

respected

by us
he
is

all.

It behoves us therefore to wait for him.


"

And when

seated on his highly respected seat, thou wilt answer what

that best of Dwijas shall ask of thee.

Be it so. And when the high-souled master hath been seated, by him questioned I will narrate sacred
Sauti said,
"

stories

on a variety of subjects."

After a while that excellent


all

Brahmana (Saunaka) having duly performed

his duties,

and having propitiated the gods with prayei-s and the manes of his fathers with oblations of water, came back to the place
of sacrifice, where of
saints

with Sauti seated hefore were the assembly

of

rigid

vows sitting at their

ease.

And when
and Sadasyas,

Saunaka was seated

in the midst of the Ritwikas

who were

also returned to their places, he spake as foUoweth.

Section V,
C

Pauloma Parva
" Child,

continued.

Saunaka

said,

thy father formerly read the whole

of the Puranas,

son of Lomaharshana, and the Bharata with

Krishna-Dwaipayana.

Hast thou

also

made them thy study


all

In those ancient records are interesting stories and the history


of the
first

generations of the wise men,

which we heard
I

rehearsed by

thy

sire.

In the

first

place,

am

desirous of

hearing the history of the race of Bhrigu.


history
;

Recount thou that


"
all

we

are attentive to listen to thee.


:

Sauti answered

"

By me hath been
;

acquired

that was

formerly studied by the high-souled Brahmanas including Vai-

by me hath been acquired sampayana and repeated by them O descendant of the all that had been studied by my father.
Bhriofu race,

attend then to so

much

as relateth to the exalted


all

race of Bhrigu, revered


tribes
first

by Indra and

the gods,
great Muni,

by the
I will

of Rishis and Marutas (Winds).

then properly recount the story of this family, belonging

to the Puranas.
"

The great and

blessed saint Bhrigu,

we

are informed, was


at the
sacrifice

begot by the self-existing Brahma from the

fire

G>2

KABABHARA'TA,

And Bhrigu had a son whom he dearly loved named Chyava7ia. And to Chyavana was born a virtuous son called Pramati. And Pramati had a son named Ruru by Ghritachi: (the celestial danceuse). And to Ruru also by his wife Pramadof Varuna.
vara,

was born a

son,

whose name

was

Sunaka.

He

was,

Saunaka, thy great ancestor exceedingly virtuous in his ways.


v/as

He

devoted to asceticism, of great peputartion, learned in

the law, and eminent

among
son

those having a knowledge

of the"
fare.

Vedas.

He was

virtuous, truthful,

and of well regulated


I ask thee

Saunaka said."
trious son of
:

of Suta,

why

the illus"

Rhrlgu was named Chyavana. Do tell me all. " Bhrigu had a vnfe v/hom he dearly loved^ replied Sauti named Puloma. She became quick with child by Bhrigu. And

one day while the virtuous and continent Puloma was in that
condition, Bhrigu, great
religion,

leaving her at

among those home went out

that are

true

to

"

their

to perform his ablutions. to

It was then that a Rakshasa called

Puloma came

Bhrigu 's

abode.

And

entering the Rishi's abode, the Rakshasa saw the


everything.

wife of Bhrigu, irreproachable in

And

seeing her

he became filled with lust and lost his reason. The beautiful Puloma entertained the Rakshasa thus arrived, with roots and And the Rakshasa burning with desire fruits of the forest. upon having seen her, became very much delighted and resolved,

good sage, to bear her away who was so blameless


"

in

every respect.

'My design

is

accomplished' said the Rakshasa, and so seiz-

that beautiful matron he carried her away. And, indeed, she of agreeable smiles had been betrothed by her father to the Rakshasa himself, although the former subsequently bestowed
incT

her according to due rites on Bhrigu. O thou of the Bhrigu race, this wound rankled deep in the Rakshasa's mind and he thought the present a very good opportunity for carrying the lady away. " And the Rakshasa saw in the apartment in which the
sacrificial fire

was kept that element burning brightly.


'Tell
art

And
me,
the

the Rakshasa then asked the flaming element,

Agni, whose wife this


of the gods,

woman

rightfully
art

is.

Thou

mouth

therefore

thou bound to answer


first

my
ac-

question.

This lady of superior complexion had been

ADI PARYA,
tepted by

-03

me

as wife

but her father subsequently bestowed

Tell me truly if this fair one can be regarded as the wife of Bhrigu, for having found her alone I am resolved to bear her away by force from the hermitage. My

her on the false Bhrigu.

heart burneth

with rage when I

reflect that

Bhrigu hath got


betrothed to

possession of this
myself.'"

woman
:

of slender waist

first

Sauti continued

the flaming god of


Bhrigu's wife.
'

fire

la this manner the Rakshasa asked again and again whether the lady was
"

And
fire,'

the ged was in fear to return an answer.


said he,
'

Thou,

god of

residest continually within every

creature,

as witness

of

their

merits

and demerits.

thou

Has not Bhrigu appropriated her who was chosen by me as my wife ? Thou shouldst declare truly whether, therefore, she is my wife by
question truly.
first choice.

respected one, then answer

my

After thy answer as to whether she

is

the wife of

Bhrigu, I will bear her away from this hermitage even in thy " Therefore answer thou truly.' sight.
Sauti continued
these words
of the
:

" The Seven-flamed god having heard Bakshasa became exceedingly distressed,

being afraid of telling a falsehood and equally afraid of Bhrigu's curse. And the god at length made answer in words that came
out slowly.
*

This Puloma was, indeed,

first

chosen by thee,

Rakshasa, but she was not taken by thee with holy rites and

invocations.

But

this

far-famed lady was bestowed

by her

father on Bhrigu in gift from desire of a blessing.

bestowed on thee
the Rishi Bhrigu

O
his

She was not Rakshasa, this lady Avas duly made by


wife with

Vedic

rites

in

This

is

she

my

presence.

know

her.

I dare not speak a falsehood.


is

best of RakshasaS; falsehood

O thou never respected in this world.' "

Section VI.

Sauti said
the god of

Pauloma Parvd

continued. )

fire,

" O Brahmana, having heard these words of the Rakshasa assumed the form of a boar, and

seizing the lady carried her away with the speed of the wind, even of thought, Then the child of Bhrigu residing in her body

Zi

MAHABHARATA,

enraged at such violence, dropped from his mother's womb, for

which

lie

obtained the

name

of Chyavana.

And

the Rakshasa

perceiving the infant

drop from the mother's womb, shining


grasp of the

like the sun, quitted his

and was instantly converted into

ashes.

woman and fell down And the beautiful

Puloma distracted with grief, O Brahmana of the Bhrigu race, took up her offspring Chyavana the son of Bhrigu and walked away. And Brahma, the Grand-father of all, himself saw her,
the faultless wife of his son, weeping with eyes
full

of tears.

And

the Grand-father of

all

comforted her who was wedded to


fell

his son.

And

of the drops of tears which


river.

from her eyes was


to follow the
foot-

formed a great

And

tliat river

began

steps of the wife of the great ascetic Bhrigu.

And

the Grandson'.s

father of the woi-lds seeing that river follow the path of his

wife gave
it

it

name

himself,

and he called

it

Vadhusard. And
in

passeth by the hermitage of Chyavana.

And

this

manner

was born Chyavana of great ascetic power, the son of Bhrigu, " And Bhrigu saw his child Chyavana and its beautiful
mother.

And

the Rishi in a rage asked

her,

By whom wast

thou made known to that Rakshasa resolved to carry thee

away

thou of agreeable smiles, the Rakshasa could not


for

know thee

my
so,

wife.

Therefore

tell

me who
curse

it

was that told


anger.'
I

the Rakshasa

inorder that I
'

may

him from
fire).

And Puloma
bore
it

replied,

possessor of the six attributes,

was

discovered to the Rakshasa by Agni (the god of

me away
;

crying like the

Kurari

female Osprey.

And he ) And
go and

was only by the ardent splendour of


for

this

thy son that I was

rescued

the

Rakshasa (seeing

this

infant) let

me

himself falling to the ground was turned into ashes.' "


" Bhrigu upon hearing this account from Puloma became exceedingly enraged. And in excess of passion

Sauti continued

the Rishi cursed Agni, saying, 'Thou shalt eat of

all things.'
"

"

So ends the the Adi Parva,

sixth Section called

"

the curse on Agni

in

Section VII.

Sauti said
Bhrigii,

Pauloma Parva
"

continued, )

The god

of

fire
:

enraged at the curse of


'

thus addressed the Rishi What meaneth tliis rashBrahmana, that thou hast displayed towards me ? What transgression can be imputed to me v/ho was laboring to do
ness,

justice

and speak the truth impartially

Being asked I gave


interrogated respecting

the true answer.

witness

who when

a fact of which he hath knowledge representeth otherwise than


it is,

ruineth his ancestors and descendants both to the seventh

generation.

He
is

too,

who,

being fully informed of

all

the

circumstances of an

affair,

doth not disclose what he knoweth


guilt.

when

asked,

undoubtedly stained with


are held

I also can curse

thee, but

Brahmanas

by me

in

high respect.
will yet

Al-

though these be known to


of them, so please attend
myself,
I
!

thee,

Brahmana, I
ascetic

speak

Having by

power multiplied
where holy
flame accord-

am

present in various forms, in places of the daily


years,

homa,
rites
fices.

in sacrifices extending for

in places

are performed (such as marriage, &c.),

and

in other sacri-

With the butter that

is

poured upon

my
;

ing to the ordinances declared in the Vedas, the Devas and the

The Devas are the waters the Pitris are The Devas have with the Pitris an equal right The to the sacrifices called the Davshas and Pwrnd-mashas. Devas therefore are the Pitris and the Pitris, the Devas. They
Pitris are appeased.
also the waters.
;

are identical beings, worshipped together and also separately at

the changes of the moon.

poured upon me.

and the

Pitris.

The Devas and the Pitris eat what h mouth of the Devas At the new moon the Pitris, and at the full moon
I

am

therefoi'e called the

the Devas, are fed through


butter that
is

my

mouth, eating of the

clarified

poured on me.

Being, as I am, their inouth,

how

am

I to be an eater of all things (clean


"

and unclean)

Then Agni,
all

after reflecting for a Avhile,

withdrew himself
of the Brah-

from

places

from places of the


long-extending

daily

homa

manas, from
rites,

all

sacrifices,

from places of holy

Without their and from other ceremonies. Vashats, and deprived of their Siuadhds and Siudhds

0ms and
(sacrificial

mantras of great mystery), the whole body of creatures became


9

65

MAHABHARATA.
distressed for the loss of their (sacrificial)

much
*

in great anxiety

went

to

The Rislus the gods and addressed them thus :


fire.
!

Ye immaculate beings
of the

the three regions of the universe are


sacrifices

confounded at the cessation of their


in consequence
loss of

and ceremonies
is

nre

Ordain what

to be

done

in this matter, so that there

may

be no

loss of time.'

Then the

Kishis and the gods went together into the presence of Brahma. And they represented to him all about the curse on Agni

and the consequent interruption of


said,
'

all
!

ceremonies.

And

they

Agui hath been cursed by Bhrigu. for -some reason. Indeed, being the mouth of the goda and also the first who eateth of what is offered in sacrifices, the eater also of the sacrificial butter, how shall Agni be

thou greatly fortunate one

reduced to the condition of


promiscuously
?'

one who eateth of

all

things

words of theirs

And the creator of the universe hearing those summoned Agni to his presence. And BrahmS,
and eternal as himself in these art the creator of the worlds and thou art Thou preservest the three worlds and thou
all all

addressed Agni the creator of


gentle
wxjrds : 'Thou
!

their destroyer
art
fore

the

promoter of

sacrifices

and ceremonies
butter,

There-

behave thyself so that ceremonies


thou eater of the
foolishly,
sacrificial

be not interrupted.

And O
act
so

why

dost thou
all
?

being as thou art the Lord of

Thou
its

alone art
stay
state
!

always

pure in

the
all

universe

and thou art

Thou

shalt not, with

thy body, be reduced to the

of one

who

eateth
is

all

things promiscuously.

thou of
eat of
flesh

flames, the flam.e that


all

in thy viler

parts shall alone

things alike.

That body ef thine which eateth of


all

(being in the stomach of


of
all

carnivorous animals) shall also eat

things promiscuously.

And

as every

thing touched

by

the sun's beams becometh

pure so shall everything be pure

that shall be burnt by thy flames. Thou,

energy born of thy own power.


of thine

Tlien,

O fire, art the supreme O Lord, by that power


"

make

the Rishi's curse true.

Continue to receive thy

own portion and that of the gods, offered at thy mouth.'


Sauti continued
:

Then Agni replied to the Grand-father, 'So be it.' And he then went away to obey the command of the supreme Lord. The gods and the Eishis also in delight returued
"

ADI PARVA.
to
tlie

67
the Rishis

place

whence ihoy came.


all

And

began to perthe gods in

form as before their ceremonies and

sacrifices.

And

heaven and

creatures of the world rejoiced exceedingly.


fi*ee

And
sin.

Agni too
"

rejoiced in that he was

from the prospect of


attributes,

Thus,
in

possessor of the

six

had Agni been


is

cursed

days of yore by Bhrigu.


"

And

sucli

the ancient

history founded thereon,

the destruction of the

Rakshasa Puof the

loma, and the birth of Chyavana.

Thus endeth the seventh Section


Adi Parva
of the blessed

of the

Pauloma

Mahabharata,

Section VIII.

(Pauloma
SautI said
:

Parvci continued.)

'*

begot in the

womb

of his

Brahmana, Chyavana the son of Bhrigu wife Su-kanya a sou. And Ihat

eon was the illustrious Pramati of resplendent energy.

And
Ruru.

Pramati begot in the

womb
you in

of Ghritachi a son

called

And Ruru
And

begot by his wife Pramadvara a son called Sunaka.


detail,

I shall relate to

Brahmana, the entire


listen to it

history of Ruru of abundant energy. " Formerly

then in

full

there

was a great Rishi


At
that time,

called Sthula-kesha
.to-

possessed of ascetic power and learning and kindly disposed

wards

all

creatures.

O Brahmana
it is said,

sao-e,

Viswa-

vaahu, the

King

of the

Gandharvas,

knew Menaka

Menaka, O thou of the Bhrigu race, when her time was come, dropped the infant in her womb near the hermitage of Sthula-kesha. And
the celestial dancing-girl.
the Apsara,

And

dropping the new-born infant on the banks of


the Apsara, Menaka,

Branmana,

the river being destitute of pity

and shame, went away.


ascetic

And

the Rishi, Sthula-kesha, of great


in a lonely
it

power discovered the infant lying forsaken


the river side.

part

of

And

he perceived that

was a

female child, bright as the ofF^pring of an Immortal and as it were blazing with beauty. And the great Brahmana, Sthulakesha, that
first of

Munis, seeing that female


it

child,

and

filled

with compassion, took

up and reared

it.

And

the lovely child

gre^ up

in hia holy habifcationj th

noble-minded and blegsed

68
Rialii

MAHABHAIIATA.
Sthula-kesha performing in due succession
v/ith that at the birth
all the cere-

monies beginning
divine
laAv.

a3
all

ordanied

by the

And

because she surpassed

of her sex in good-

ness, beauty,

and every quality, the great Rishi called her by the name of Praraadvara. And the pious Ruru having seen Pramadvara in the hermitage of Sthula-kesha became cue

whose heart was pursued by the god of love. And Ruru by means of his companions made his father Praraati, the son of Bhrigu, acquainted with his passion. And Pramati demanded
her
of the

far-famed Sthula-kesha

for

his

son.
to

And
Ruru

her

foster-father

betrothed

the virgin

Pramadvara

fixing

the nuptials for the day


"

when

the star

Varga-Daivatci, (Purva-

phalguni) would be ascendant.

Then

within a few days of the time fixed for the nuptials,

the beautiful virgin while at play with companions of her


sex,

own
the

her time having come, impelled by


it

fate,

trod upon a

serpent she did not perceive as


reptile,

lay

in

coil.

And

urged to execute the

will of fate, violently darted itg

envenomed fangs on the body of the heedless maiden. And stung by that serpent, she instantly dropped senseless on the
ground, her color faded and
all

the graces of her person gone.

And

with disheveled hair she became a spectacle of woe to

her companions and friends.

And

she

who was

so agreeable to

behold became in death what was too painful


the slender-waisted
girl,

to look at.

And
more

lying on the ground like one asleep

being overcome with the poison of the snake

once

became more beautiful

still

than in

life.

And

her foster-

father and the other holy ascetics

who were

there, all

saw her

lying motionless upon the ground with the splendour of a lotus.

And

then there came

passion, and they sat around her.

many noted Brahmanas filled with comAnd Swastyatreya, Mahajana,


Arshti-sena,

Kushika, Sankhya-mekhala, Udclalaka, Kat-ha, and Sweta of


great renown, Bharad\vja, Kauna-kutsya,

Gau-

tama, Pramati, and Pramati'sson Ruru, and other inhabitants of


the
forest,

came

tliere.

And when

they saw that maiden lying

dead on the ground overcome with the poison of the reptile


that had stung her,
filled

with compassion, they

all

wept.

But

Ruru, paiued exceedingly, retired from the scene."

ADIPARVA.
So ends the eighth Section
Parva of the blessed Mahabharata,
of the

69
Piiuloma of the Adi

Section IX.
(

Pauloma Parva continued


*'

Sauti
sitting

said:

While those
a deep

illustrious

around the dead boly of


grief he indulged in
his

Brahraanas were Pramadvara, Ruru, sorely

afflicted, retired into

whelmed with

And remembering
one that increaseth

wood and wept aloud. And overmuch piteous lamentation.' beloved Pramadvara he gave vent to
words:

his sorrow in the following

'Alas!

the

delicate

fair
I

my
I

affliction lieth

upon the bare ground


?

What

can be more deplorable to us her friends


if

If

have
have
con-

been charitable,
tore to life
trolling

have performed acts of penance,

if I

ever reverenced

my

superiors, let the merit of these acts res!

my beloved one If from my my passions, adhered to my vows,


while

birth

have,

let the fair

Pramad-

vara rise from the ground.'

"And

Ruru was indulging


:
'

in these lamentations for

the loss of his bride, a messenger from heaven came to him in


the forest and addressed him thus

The words thou


effect.

utterest,

Ruru, in thy

affliction

can have no

For,

O pious man,

one belonging

to this world

whose days are runout can never


Therefore,

come back

to life.

This poor child of a Gandharva and Apsara


!

has had her days run out

child,

thou shouldst

not yield up thy heart to sorrow.

have provided before-hand a


with
"
it

The great gods, however, means. And if thou compliest


is
!

thou mayest receive back thy Pramadvara.'


replied,
'

And Ruru

what
it.

that which the gods have

provided,

messenger of heaven
It

Tell

me

in full

so

that

hearing I
*

may comply with

behoveth thee

to deliver

me

!'

thy

And the celestial messenger said unto Ruru, own life to thy bride, and then, O Ruru
replied,
'

'Resign half of
of the

race of

Bhrigu, thy Pramadvara shall rise from the ground.'

And
up a
be-

Ruru

best

of celestial messengers,
favor of

give
let

moiety of

my own

life in

my

bride.

Then

my

loved one rise up in the dress and form of love.'

70
Sauti saiJ,

MAHABHARATA.
" Then the king of the GanJharvas (the fathei?

of Pramadvara) and the celestial messenger, both of excellent


qualities,

went

to the

god Dharma(the Judge of the dead) and


'

addressed him, saying,


the

If

it

be thy

will,

Dharma-raja,

let

amiable Pramadvara,

the

betrothed wife of Euru,


life,'

lying dead, rise up with a moiety of Ruru's


raja
let

now And Dharmabe thy wish,

answered,

'

messenger of the gods,


"
life
!'

if it

Pramadvara the betrothed wife of Euru,


o.f

rise

up endued
said so,

with a moiety

Ruru's
:

Sauti continued

" And

when Dharma-raja had

that maiden of superior complexion, Pramadvara, endued with a moiety of Ruru's life, rose as from her slumbers. This bes-

towal by Ruru, endowed with length of days, of a moiety of


his

owa
"

life

to

resuscitate

his
life.

bride

afterwards

led, it

was

Been, to a curtailment Ruru's

And on an

auspicious day their fathers gladly married

them with due


to each other.

rites.

And

the couple passed their days devoted

And Ruru having

obtained such a wife as

is

hard

to be found, beautiful and bright as the filaments of the lotus,

made

vow

for the destruction

of the

serpent race.

And
V

whenever he saw a serpent, he became filled and always killed it taking up a weapon.
"

with great wi

One

day,

Brahmana, Ruru entered an extensive


of the

forest.

And

he there saw an old serpent

Dundubha
thereupon

species
lifted

lying stretched on the ground.

And Ruru

up

in anger his staff even like to the staff of Death, for the purpose

of
'^

Dundubha, addressing Ruru, said, I have done thee no harm, O Brahmana! Then wherefore
killing
it.

Then
in

the

wilt thou slay

me

anger

?'

"

of

So ends the ninth Section of the Pauloma of the Adi Parva. the blessed Mahabharata.

Section X.
(

Pauloma Parva

continued. )
those words replied,
;

Sauti said:

"And
me

Ruru on hearing
was
bit

*My

wife, dear to

as life,

by

a snake

upon which,
kill

I made,

snake^ a dreadful vow, viz^ that I would

every

ADI PARTA,
snalce tliat
I

71

might

see.

Therefore shall I smite thee and


life.'

thou shalt be deprived of


"

And

the

Dundubha
It

replied,

'

Brahmana, they are other

snakes that bite man.

behoveth thee not to slay Dundubhaa


Subject with other serpents to

who

are serpents only in name.

the same calamities but not sharing their good fortune, in

woe
"

the same but in joy different, the Dundubhas should not be


slain

by thee

for

thou canst judge between right and wrong.'


:

Sauti continued

"

And

the

Rishi
it

Ruru hearing these


species,

words of the serpent, and seeing that


besides being really
of the

was perplexed with fear


killed it
not.

Dundubha
'

And
thou
'

Ruru, the possessor of the six attributes, comforting the

snake addressed
thus
!

Ruru

me fully, Snake, who art metamorphosed And the Dundubha replied, was formerly a Rishi of name Sahasrapat. And
it,

saying,

Tell
?
'

it is

by the curse of a Brahmana that

have been metamor'

phosed into a snake.'

And Ruru

asked,

O
"

thou best of
in wrath
?

Snakes, for what wast thou cursed by a

Brahmana
?'

And how And


Parva.

long also shall thy form continue so


so

ends the tenth Section of the Pauloma of the Adi

Section XI.
(

Pauloma Parvd
:

continued. )
said,
'

Sauti continued
times, I

"

The Dundubha then

in former
in his

had a friend Khagama by name.


one day

He was

keen

speech and possessed of spiritual power by virtue of his austerities.

And

(Fire-sacrifice), I

frolic

when he was engaged in the Agni-hotra made a mock snake of blades of grass, and in attempted to frighten him with it. And anon he went

into a swoon.

On

recovering his senses, that truth-telling and

vow-observing ascetic, burning with

wrath, exclaimed,

Since
thou

thou hast made a powerless mock snake to frghten me,


shalt be turned even into a venomless
curse.

serpent thyself by
of his

my
;

ascetic,

I well

knew the power

penances
thus,
this

therefore with an

agitated heart, I addressed

him

lowly

bending with joined hands,

Friend

have done

by way

72
of joke, to excite

MAHABHARATA.
thy laughter.
It behovetli thee to

forgive

me and revoke thy curse. ascetic was moved, and he


What
it

And seeing
to pass.
!

me

sorely troubled,

the

replied, breathing hot and hard,

I have said,

must come
pious one

Hear what I say and

lay

to

thy heart.

When

Ruru, the pure son of

Pramati, will appear, thou shalt be delivered from the curse the moment thou seest him. Thou art the very Ruru and the

son of Pramati.

On

regaining

my

native form, I will

tell

thee

something
"

for

thy good.'

Brahmanas then left his snake body, and attained his own form and original brightness. He then addressed the following words to Ruru of incom-

And

that illustrious

man and

best of

parable power.
hio-hest morality

'

O
of

thou

first
life.

of created

beings,

verily

the

is

sparing

Therefore a Brahmana should

never take the

life
is

any creature.

Brahmana should ever

be mild.

This

the most sacred injunction of the Vedas.

Brahmana should be versed in the Vedas and Vedangas, and should inspire all creatures with confidence. He should be
benevolent to
as
it is

all creatures,

truth-speaking, and forgiving, even


to retain the

his

paramount duty

Vedas

in his
stern,

memory.
to hold

The

duties of the Kshetria are not thine.

To be

the sceptre and to rule the subject are the duties of the
Kshetria.
Listen,

Ruru, to the account of the destruction

of snakes at

the sacrifice of

Janamejaya

in

days of yore,

and the deliverance of the


energy.'

terrified

reptiles

by that best of

Dwijas, Astika, profound in Vedic lore and mighty in spiritual

And

so ends

the eleventh Section of the Pauloma of the

Adi Parva.

Section XIL
(

Pauloma Parva

continued. )

Sauti continued : " Ruru then asked, '0 best of Dwijas,

why
?

was the king Janamejaya bent upon destroying the serpents

And why were


"

they saved by the wise Astika

am

anxious

to hear all this in detail.'

The Rishi

replied,

'

Ruru, the important history of

ADI PARVA.
Astika yon
"

Y2
the Brahmanas'.

will learn

from the

lips of

Saying

this, he vanislied.

Ruru rushed out


tx)

in search of the

disappearing
fell

Rishi,

and

havinf; failed

find

him

in all the

wood,

down upon the


of the Rishi, he

ground.

And

revolving in his

mind the words

swooned away.

On
all

regaining his senses,

he went home and

asked his father to relate the history


his father related

in question.

Thus asked,

about the story."


twelfth

And

so ends

the

Section in the Pauloma of the

Adi Parva.

Section XIII.
( Astika

Parva
it

).

Saunaka asked, "For what was


Janamejaya determined
of his sacrifice
Tell us also
?

that the mighty monarch

to take the lives of the snakes


tell us in full

by means

Sauti, pray

the

true story.

why

that best of Dwijas and foremost of those that

have controlled their passions (Astika), rescued the snakes from the flaming fire. Pray, whose son was that monarch who celebrated the snake sacrifice
?

And whose
is

also that best of

Dwijas

"
?

Sauti said,

"

best of speakers,
long.
1

the story of
will

Astika to
it

which you have alluded

relate

in

full,

listen

Saunaka
Astika.
"

said,

" I

am

desirous of

hearing at length the

charming story of that Rishi of old, the illustrious Brahmana,


Sauti began,
"

This history

fir.-st

recited by Krishna-DwaiIt

payana

is

called a

Purana by the Brahmanas.


the Naimisha

was formerly
at their

narrated by

my

wise father, Suta Lomaharshana, the disciple of


forest,

Vyasa, before the dwellers of


request. I

was present at the


will

recital, and,

Saunaka, since thou

askest me, I

narrate

the

history

of Astika exactly as I
!

heard
"

it.

listen as I recite in full that sin-destroying story

The

father of Astika

was powerful

like Prajapati.

And

he was a Brahmachari, and was always engaged in austere devotions. And he ate sparingly, was a mighty ascetic, and had
his lust

under complete control.

And

he

was known by the


10

'^
name
of

MAHABHARATA.
Jaratkaru.

And

that beat of the

Yaijdvaras and

virtuous

and

vow-observing

Brahmana once undertook a

journey over the world, equipped with spiritual energy.


he visited divers

And
to

holy spots, and rested where


religious

night overtook

-him.

And

he practised

austerities

hard

be

practised by

men
fire,

of undeveloped minds.
for

And

the sage lived

upon air and


like

renounced sleep

ever.

Thus going about


to see his ancestors,

flaming

one day he happened

hanging head foremost


the
*

in a great hole, their

feet pointing
:

to

sky.

On

seeing them, Jaratkaru addressed thein thus

Who

are ye thus hanging head

foremost in this hole by a


all

rope of

virana

fibres

that
?'
*

is

again secretly eaten into on

sides by rats living here


"

The

ancestors sard,
sect.

We

are vow-observing Rishis of the


this

Yayavara
karu.
ties

We
I

have come by

low state in conse-

quence of want of descendants.

We

have a son named Jarat-

Woe
It

is

us

that wretch hath entered

upon a

life

of austeri-

and the

fool

doth not think of raising offspring by marthat reason that

riage.

is

for

Having means, we

fare like v/retches as

we have met with this fate. if we had none. Pray,


to

excellent one,
?

wlio art thou that thus sorrowest as a friend

on our account
"Jaratkaru
Jaratkaru.
"

We

are

desirous

learn
us.'

who thou
I

art

standing by us, and


said,
tell

why thou
'Ye
are
I

sorrowest for

even mv/ ancestors.


serv ye
!'

am

thafc

me how

may
'

The

fathers then answered,


to

Try thy
act

best,

child, to be=

get a son

extend our
one,

line.

Thereby thou
for

wilt

achieve,

excellent
oui'selves
!

meritorious

both

thyself

and

Not

by doing one's duties, not


merit

by

practising

penances, one
father.

acquireth the

one doth

by being a
thou make

Therefore,
to

child, at

our command, do

up

thy mind

marry
sake

and

produce

offspring.

Herein
'I shall

consisteth our chief good.'

And Jaratkaru

replied,

not marry
1 shall

for

my

nor earn wealth for enjoyment, but


In proper time, and actake a wife so that I
If a bride

do so

for

your welfare alone.


I shall

cording to the ordinance,


the end.
I shall not

may

attain

do otherwi>>e.
friends

may

be had of the

same name with me, who-?e

would besides willingly give

ADIPARVA.
her to

75"

me

in

marriage as a gift in charity, I shall take her hand,

according to

poor given
union.

ritca. But who will give away his daughter to a man like myself? I shall accept, however, any daughter I shall endeavour, O sires, to compass a to me in alms,

I will

abide by

my
"

word,

I v/ill raise offsjn-ing for

your

redemption, so that,

fathers, ascending tO' the celestial regions

ye

may

joy as ye

like.'

So ends the thirteenth Section


Parva.

in the Astika of the

Adi

Section XIV.
( Astika ParvcC contln,ucd'. )

Santi said,

"That Brahmana

of rigid vows then began to

search for a wife, but found he none.

One day he went

into the

forest, and recollecting the words of his ancestors, in a faint voice thrice begged for a bride. Thereupon rose before the Brahman-a^ Vasuki with his sister and offered for the former's acceptance

the hand of the

fair one.

But the Dwija hesitated

to accept

her, thinking her not of the self-same

name with
'

himself.

The
o-f

great Jaratkaru thought within himself,

I will take
v'ise

none save

one

who

is

my

namesake.'

Then the
'

Jaratkaru

austere devotions asked the Snake,

tell

me

truly,

what

is

tlie

name
"

of this thy sister V


replied,

Vasuki

'O Jaratkaru, the name of this

my younger
thee

sister is

Jaratkaru. Pray, accept this slender- Avaisted one for thy

spouse.

O
this

best

of Dwijas,

it

was

to

unite her with

that I have brought her up.

Tlierefore

do thou take her!*


to

Saying

he offered his beautiful


rites.

sister

Jaratkaru

who
Adi

then espoused her with ordained

So ends the fourteenth Section


Parva.

in the Astika of the

Section XV.
( Aatika

Parva continued.

Sauti

said,

"O

foremost of the Brahm-(truth) knowing Rishis^


serpents

the mother

of the

had cursed them

of old,

saying.

Y6
'

MAHABHARATA.
shall

Agni

burn ye

all

in the sacrifice of

Janamejaya

!
'

It

was

to neutralise that curse


his
sister

that the chief of the serpents married

to

that high-souled and vow-observing Rishi.

The

Rishi having formally wedded her, begat in her the great Astika, who became an illustrious ascetic, profound in the Vedas and Vedangas, who regarded all with an even eye, and who removed

the fears of his parents.


"

Then

aft^r a long space of time, the king of the

Panda va
After

line celebrated a sacrifice

known

as the

Snake

sacrifice.

that sacrifice

intended for the extermination of the serpents had


reptiles,

commenced, the powerful Astika delivered the


thera and uncles.

bis bro*

spring to himself.
various

He delivered his fathers also by raising offAnd by his austerities, O Brahmana, and by
;

vows and the study of the Vedas, he became freed from By sacrifices he propitiated the gods and by the his debts. aloption of the Brahmacharya mode of life he conciliated the

Bishis

and by bagetting offspring he gratified his ancestors. "Thus discharging his great debts, and having acquii'ed great
;

merit, Jaratkaru

went

to

heaven with his ancestors, leaving


story
of Astika, which I

Astika behind. This is related as I heard it. Now,

the

have

tell

me,

powerful

one of the

Bhrigu
Parva.

race,

what more

am

to narrate."

So ends the

fifteenth

Section in the Astika of the Adi

Section XVI.
( Astika

Parva continued.

Saunaka said, " O Sauti, relate in detail the history of the We are extremely curious to virtuous and learned Astika. hear it. O thou amiable one, thou speakest sweetly, and we are
well pleased with thy speech.

Thou speakest even

as thy father.

Thy

sire was ever ready to please us.


"
it.

Now

tell

us the story as

thy father told


Sauti said,

"

thou blest

Avith

length

of

days, I will

narrate the history of Astika as I heard it from my father. O Brahmana, in the Krita (golden) age Prajapati had two fair and
virtuous daughters

named Kadru and

Vinata,

The

sisters vvere

ADI PARVA.
the wives of Kasj'apa.

77
his virtuous wives,

Highly gratified with

Kasyapa, resembling Prajapati himself, was desirous of conferring on each of them a boon.
their lord
Tlie ladies were all joy because was willing to confer on them choice blessings. Kadru said, I would be mother of a thousand snakes of equal vigor.' And Vinata wished to bring forth two sons surpassing
'

the thousand offspring of Kadru in strength, energy, size of body, and bravery. And Kasyapa said, be it so/ to Vinata extremely
'

desirous of having offspring.

And

having obtained her prayer,

she rejoiced greatly.


prowess, she

And

having obtained two sons of slpendid


fulfilled.

regarded her boon


sons of

And Kadru
'

also

obtained her thousand


children
'

equal

vigor.

Bear your
forest,

carefully said Kasyapa and went to the leaving his two wives gratified with his blessings. "

Sauti said, "

best

of Dwijas,

after a long time,

Kadru
Five

brought forth a thousand eggs, and Vinata two.


servants deposited

Their maidvessels.

the eggs separately in

warm

hundred years passed away, and the thousand eggs produced by Kadru bui^st and out came the progeny. But the twins of
Vinata did not appear.

And Vinata was jealous, and


it

she broke

one of the eggs and found in


the egg

an embryo with the upper

part developed but the lower undeveloped.


in

At

this,

the child

became angry and thus cursed

his

mother: 'O
five

mother, since thou hast prematurely broken this egg, thou


shalt even serve as a slave.
years,

And shouldst thou


child

wait

thousand

and not destroy, by breaking the


the illustrious

otiier
it,

egg through
it

impatience,

within

or render
if

half-

developed, he will deliver thee from slavery.

And

thou wouldsfc
for

have the child strong, thou must take tender care of the egg
all

this time.'

And

thus cursing his mother the child rose


is

to

the sky.

Brahmana, even he

the charioteer of the Sun,

always seen in the hour of moniing.

"Then

at the expiration of the five liundred years, bursting

open the other egg, out came Gadura, the serpent-eater.


tiger of the

O
the

Bhrigu

race,

immediately on seeing the


wings to seek
of
"
all.

light,

son of Vinata

left his

mother, and the lord of birds feeling


for the food assigned

hungry mounted on
to

his

him by the great ordainer

78

MAHABHARATA.
..

And
Parva.

so eails the sixteenth Section iu the Astika of the AJi'

^^

Section XVII.
( Astika

Parva continued.

Sauti said, " O ascetic, about this time the two sisters saw Uchchaisrava approaching near, that Uchchaisrava of complacent appearance who was worshipped by the gods, that best

of

steeds,

who

at

the

churning

of

the

Ocean

for

nectar
"

arose, divine, graceful, perpetually

young, creation's masterpiece,

of irrisistible vigor, and


'

blest with every auspicious mark.

Why did the gods churn the ocean for Saunaka asked, which occasion, nectar and under what circumstances (an best of steeds so powerful and resplenas you say, sprang that
dent) was
it

undertaken
"

?"

Sauti said,
pearance, and

There

is

a mountain

named

Mem of blazing
The

apraya

looking like a
its

huge heap of effulgence.

of the sun falling on

peaks of golden lustre are dispersed by


that,

them.

Abounding with gold and of variegated tints, mountain is the haunt of the gods and the Gandharvas. immeasurable, and unapproachable by men of manifold
its breast,

It is
sins.

Dreadful beasts of prey inhabit

and

it

is

illuminated

with divine herbs of healing virtue.

It standeth kissing

the

heavens by

its

height and

is

the

fii-st

of mountains.
it.

Ordinary
graced

people cannot so

much

as think of ascending

It is

with trees and streams and resoundeth with the charming melody Standing high for infinite ages, upon it once of winged choirs.
all

the mighty celestials sat them

They came

in quest of observed the rules according to the ordinance. and

down and held a conclave. amrita, they who had practiced penances
Seeing
consultation,

said the celestial assembly in anxious Suras ( gods ) to Brahma, Do thou churn the Ocean with the By doing so, amrita shall be obtained and the Asuras.
'

Narayana

together with

all

drugs and

all

gems.
"

ye gods, churn ye the

Ocean, and ye shall discover dmriia.' And so ends the seventeenth Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XVIII.
( Ast'tka

Parva continued.

Sauti

said, "

There

is

a mountain of
It

name Mandara adoraed


is

with peaks like those of the clouds.

the best of mountains,

and

is

covered

all

over with intertwining herbs.

There no end

roam The gods, the Apsaras, and the Kinnaras visit the place. Upwards it riseth eleven thousand yojanas, and descendeth downwards as much. The gods failed to tear it up and they came to Vishnu and Brahma who were sitting, and said. devise you some efficient scheme. Consider, ye gods, how Mandara may be upraised for our good. "
febout.
'

of birds pour forth their melody, and there beasts of prey

"And Vishtui, with Brahma, assented to it, And the lotus-eyed one laid the hard task on the mighty Ananta, the prince of Snakes. And the mighty Ananta, directed thereto both by Brahma and Narayana,
Sauti continued,
!

son of Bhrigu

Brahmana,

upraised

that

mountain

with

tlie

woods
the gods

thereon and with the dwellers of those woods.

And

came to the shore the Ocean saying,


waters for
it so,

of the

'

Ocean with Ananta, and addressed Ocean, we have come to churn thy
'

obtaining nectar.
I

And

the Ocean replied,


I

'

be

as

am

to

have a share of the nectar,


of

am
said

able

to

bear the agitation

my

waters by the mountain.'


tiie

And
to

the

gods went to the king of


'

tortoises

and

him,

Tortoise-king, thou

shalt have to hold the

on thy back.'
"

The

tortoise-king

agreed,

mountain and Indra placed


their churn-

the mountain on the former's back by means of instruments.

And

the gods and the Asuras

made Mandara

ing staff and Vasuki the cord, and set about churning the main
for

amrlta.
tail.

The Asuras held Vasuki by the hood and the gods

by the

And Ananta who was

for

Narayana, at intervals raised


it.

the Snake's hood and suddenly lowered


of the friction

And

in conserpience

he received at the hands of the gods and the Asuras, black vapours with flames issued out of his- mouth

which becoming clouds charged with lightning poured down


showers to refresh the tired gods.
rain

And

blossoms beginning to

on

all

sides of the go

Is

from

the trees

on the whirling

Mandara,

also refreshed

them,

80
"

MAHABHARATA,
And,
Brahraana, out of the deep then came a tremendous

roar, like
tion.

unto the roar of the clouds at the

universal

dissolu-

Various aquatic animals were crushed by

the great

mountain, and gave up their being in the salt-waters.

And

many
large

dsvellers

of the

lower regions and inhabitants of the


killed.

world of Varuna were


trees

Fix>m

the revolving Mandara,

were

torn

up by the
water.
fire

roots,

and flying into the


the

air

like birds, they fell into the

And

mutual

friction

of the

trees

produced a

which surrounded the mountain.


increased,

And

the mountain looked like a mass of dark clouds charged with

lightning.

Brahmana, the

fire

and burnt the

lions,

elephants and other creatures that were on the mountain.


carcasses of no

And
Then

end of animals floated down the waters.


fire

Indra extinguished that

by descending showers.

"0 Brahmana, after the churning had gone on for sometime, the gums of various trees and hei'bs mixed witli the waters
of the

Ocean.

And

the celestials

attained

immortality

by

drinking of the Avaters mixed with those

gums

vested with the

properties of amrita, and with the liquid extract of gold.

By

degrees, the milky water of the agitated deep produced clarified

butter by virtue of the


rise

gums and
said,

juices.

But nectar did not


are spent,

even then.

And

the gods appeared before boon-granting


'

Brahma, seated on his seat and


not strength
left to

Sir,

we

we have
arisen.

churn further.

Nectar hath not yet

So that now we have no resource save Narayana.'


"Hearing them, Brahma said
"

to

Narayana,

'

Lord, vouchsafe

to grant the gods strength to churn afresh the deep.'

And Narayana
'

agreeing to grant their various prayers,

said,

wise ones, I grant ye sufficient strength.

Go, insert

the mountain and churn the waters.'

"Re-equipped with strength, the gods began the churning


again.

After a

while,

the

mild Moon of a thousand rays

emerged from the ocean. Thereafter, Lakshmi dressed in white, and wine, the white steed, and then the celestial gem Kaustuva which graces the breast of Narayana. Lakshmi, wine,

and the steed fleet as the mind, all came before the gods on high. Then arose the divine Dhanwantari himself with the
white
vessel

of nectar

in

his

hand.

And

seeing

him, the

ADI PARTA.
Asiiras set

8Z'

up a louj

cry, saying,

"

Ye have taken

all,

l(e

must
huge
on,

be

ours.'

"

Aud

at length rose the great elephant, Airavata, of

bod}'

ami with two pairs of white tusks.


appeared, and

And him
still

took the

holder of the thuiider-bolt.


so that poison at last

But the churning


began

went

to overspread the

earth, blazing like a


s(\ent of

flame mixed with fumes.

And

at the

the fearful Kahikuta,

the three Avorlds were stupefied.


form, solicited by Bralima,

And

then Mahadcva of the

Mantra

to save the creation swallowed the


throat.

poison ami
t'lat

held
is

it

in

hia

And
(

it is sairl

that the god from


)

time

called Nila'
thing's,

hintha,

blue-throated.
filled

Seeing

all

these

wondrous
to

the Asuras were

with

despair,

and prepared
his

enter

into hostilities with the gods for the possession of


nectiir.

Thereupon Narayana

called

Lakshmi and bewitching Maya.

to his aid, and assuming a ravisliing female form, co pietted with

the Asuras.
their reason

And
"

the Daityas,

ravished

with her charms, lost


in

and unanimously placed the nectar


in the

the hands of

that

fair

woman.

So ends the eighteenth Section


Parva,

Astika of the Adi

Section XIX.
( Astika

Parva continued.

Sauti
class

said, Then the Daityas and the Danavas with first armours and various weapons pursued the gods. In the
"

meantime the valiant liord Vidhnu accompanied by Nara took away the nectar in his hands from those mighty Danavas,

"And then

all

the tribes of the gods during that


it

time of

great fright drank the nectar receiving

from Vishnu.

And

while the gods were drinking that nectar after which they had 80 much hankered, a Danava named Rahu was drinkino^ it in
the nectar had only reached Rahu's throat, the Sun and the Moon (discovered him and)
the guise of a god.

And when
the

communicated the
ly

fact to

gods.

Ami Narayana
head

instant-

cut off

with his

discus

the

well-adorned

of

the

Dauavu who was drinking

the aectur without permission.

Audi

11

if

MAHAEHAHATA.

the linge head of the Danava cut off by the discus and resembling a mouutain-peak then rose to the sky and began And the Danava's headless trunk to utter dreadful cries.
fallinfT

upon the ground and

rolling

thereon naade the

Earth

tremble with her mountains,

forests,

and

islands.

And from

that time ha4h arisen a long-standing quarrel between Rahu's head and the Sun and the Moon. And to this day it swalloweth

the

Sun and the Moon, (causing the

eclipses.)

ino'

And Narayana quitting his ravishing female form, and hurlmany terrible weapons at them, made the Danavas tremble.
thus on the sliores of the sea of salt-water,

And

commenced the

dreadftjl battle of the gods

and the Asuras. And sharp-pointed


weapons by thousands began
with the discus and

javelins and lances and

various

to be disehai*ged on all sides.

And mangled

wounded with swords, saktis, and maces, the Asuras in large nnmbers vomitted blood and lay prostrate on the earth. Cut off
from the trunks with sharp double edged swords, heads adorned with bright gold
bodies drenched
It
fell

continually on the field of battle. Their


the great Asuras lay dead everywhere.
all

in gore,

seemed

as

if

red-dyed mountain peaks lay scattered

around.

And when
'

the sun rose in his splendour, thousands of


their

warriors striking one another with

weapons, the sounds

'Alas!' and
fiohtinEC

0h

' !

were heard everywhere.

The

warriors

at

a distance from one another brought


iron missiles,

one another
close quarters
filled

down by sharp

and those fighting at


fist.

slew one another by blows of the

And

the air was

with shrieks of
fvounds, 'cut
off,'

distress.

Everywhere were heard the alarming

'pierce/ 'after,' 'hurl down,' 'advance.'

"And when
in the

the battle was raging fiercely,


field.

yana entered the

And Narayana
his

seeing the heavenly


his

hand of Nara, called to


discus.

mind
lo
!

Nara and Narabow own weapon the

Danava-destroying

And

the

discus,

Sudarshana,

destroyer of enemies,
in battle,
it

like to Agiii in effulgence,

and dreadful

came from the sky as soon as thought of. And when Aehyuta of fierce energy, of arms like the trunk of an came,
tire,

elephant, hurled with great force the weapon, effulgent as flam-

ing

dreadful,

and of extraordinary

lustre,

and capable of

destroyidg

hostile towns.

And

that discus bla :ing like the fire

ADI PARVA.
that burneth all things at the end
of time, hurlel with

83
force

from the handg of Narayana,

falling

constantly

everywhere

destroyed the Daityas and the Danavas by thousand,^. Sometimes it flamed like fire and consmued them all, eonietiioes it struck them down &s it coursed through the sky; and sometimes, falling on earth; like a goblin
"
it

drank their

life

blood.

And on

their &ide, the Danavas, white as the clouds from

which the rain hath been extracted, possessing great strength and bold hearts, ascended the sky and hurling down thousands
of mountains continually harassed the gods.

And

those dreadful
flat tops,

momitaina, like masses of clouds, with their trees and


falling

from the sky, collided with one another and produced a


roar.

tremendous

And when

thousands of warriors shouted

without intermission on the


forests trembled.

field of battle
fall

and the mountains

with the woods thereon began to

around, the Earth with be?

Then the divine Nara coming to that dread* ful conflict of the Asuras and the Ganas (the followers of Rudra), reducing todu.st those rock-s by means of his goldheaded arrows covered the heavens with the dust.
corafittcd

And

dis-

by the gods,
heaven

and seeing the furious discus scourlike a blazing flame, the

ing the

fields of

mighty Dana-

vas entered the bowels of the Earth, while others plunged into

the sea of salt waters.


"

And having

gained the victory, the gods otTering due respecti

Mandara placed him on bis own base. And the nectar-bearing gods making the heavens resound with their shouts, v^^eut to And the gods returning to the heavens retheir own abotles.
to

joiced greatly, and the vessel of nectar

ludra and the other


"

gods made

over to

Nara

for careful

keep.

And
Adi

so

ends the nineteenth Section in the Astika of the

Parva.

Section XX.
( Astikd Parvcb Gontinued. )
Sauti
said

: ' Thus

have I recited to you


ot

all

about ho"r

amrita (nectar) was churned out


oocfitsiou the

the Ocean, and on

which
iiiivm-

horse

Uchcbaiarava of great beauty and

84

MAHABHARATA.
It

parable prowess was obtained.

was

this horse

seeing whona

Kadru asked

Vinata,
of

'

Tell me, amiable sister, without taking


is

much

time,

what color
o(

Uchchaisrava
is

?
'

answered, 'that king

horaes

certainly white.
is
'

And Vinata What dost


Let ue lay a
agreeable

thou think,

sister
it.'

Say thou what


horse

its color.

wager upon
smiles,
I

And Kadru
that
that

replied,
is

O
in

thou of
its tail.

think

black

Beauteous

one, bet
slave.'

with

me

she

who

losetb

shall

be the other'a
other about
resolved
to

Sauti continued,

menial service as a slave, the


satisfy

"Thus wagering with each sisters went home

themselves by examiuing the horse the next day.

And

Kadru bent upon


cover the horse's
slave.

practising a deception, ordered her thousand

eons to transform

themselves into black hair and speedily


inorder that
slie

tail

might not
to

become a

But her sons

the snakes refusing

do her bidding,

ehe cursed them, saying, 'during the snake-sacrifice of the


wise king Jauamejaya of the Pandava race,
ye.'
fire shall

consume

And

the

Grand-father (Brahma) himself heard this ex-

ceedingly cruel curse denounced


fates.

by Kadru impelled by the


for his

And

seeing

that

the

snakes bad multiplied exceed-

ingly, the Grand-father

moved by kind consideration


all

creatures sanctioned

with

the

gods

tiiis

curse of Kadru.

Indeed, of flaming poison, great

prowess,

excess of strength,

and ever bent on biting other creatures, in consequence of such poison and for the good of all creatures the conduct of their mother towards those persecutors of all creatures was very
proper.

Fate always

inflicts

the punishment of death

on those

who

seek

the death of other creatures.

The gods having

exchanged such sentiments with each other then applauded

And Brahma calling Kasyapa to Kadru (and went away.) him spake uuto him these words: 'O thou pure one who
overcomest
all

enemies,

these

snakes of flaming poison, of

huge

bodies,

and ever intent on biting other creatures, that


Child,

thou hast begot, have been cursed by their mother.


not grieve for
it

do

in the least.

The

destruction

of the snakes
Puranas.'

in the sacrifice hath, indeed,

been indicated in the

paying

this,

the

divine

Creator of the

universe propitiated

ADIPARVA.
the Prajapati (LorJ
of creation,

85

Kasyapa) and bestowed on

that illustrious one the knowledge of neutralising poiaous.

And
Parva.

so ends the twentieth Section in the Astika of the

Adi

Section XXI.
(Astika Parva cmitinued),
Sauti said,
"

Then when the night had passed away and the

sun had risen in the morning,


the two
sisters,

O thou

whose wealth

is

ascetism,

Kadru

and

Vinata,

having laid a wager

about slavery, with haste and impatience went to view the horse Uchchaisrava from a near ix)int. On their way they

saw Ocean, that receptacle


ed and
in a

of

waters, vast and deep, agitatfull

tremendous

roar,

of

fishes

large

enough

to swallow the whale, and abounding with huge makaras and creatures of various forms by thousands, and rendered

inaccessible

by the presence of other


fierce

terrible,
;

monster-shaped,
also

dark, and
tortoises

aquatic

animals

abounding

with

home

of

and crocodiles, the mine of all kinds of gems> the Varuna (the water-god), the excellent and beautiful
Nagas, the lord
the
friend
(or

residence of the

of rivers, the abode of the

subterranean
the
terror

fire,

asylum)

of

the

Asuras,
waters,

of

all

creatures,
It

the grand reservoir of


is
;

knowing no
Bacred,

deterioration.

holy,

beneficial to the gods,


limits,

and the great mine of nectar


and highly wonderful.
creatures,

without

inconceivable,

Dark, terrible with the voice


full
all

of aquatic
whirl-pools.

tremendously roaring, and

of

deep

It

is

an

object

of

terror
its

to

creatures.

Moved by the winds blowing from


with agitation and disturbance,
it

shores and heaving high

seems to dance everywhere


its

with uplifted hands represented by

surges.

Full of heav-

ing billows caused by the Avaxing and waning of the moon, the

parent of (Vasudeva's great conch called) Panchajanya,, the


great mine of gems,
its

waters were formerly distitrbed in conwithin them

sequence of the agitation caused

by the Lord
Iti

Goviuda (Vishnu)

of

immeasurable prowess when he assumed

the form of a wild-boar for raising the (submerged) Earth.

86
bottom
lower

MAHABHARATA.
than the
nether regiona
tlie

vow-observing
for)

Brahmavshi, Atri, could not fathom after (toiling


years.
It

a hundred becomes the bed of the lotus-naveled Vishnu when


of every Yiij(t that deity of

at the

dawn

immeasurable power
It
is

enjoys the deep sleep of spiritual meditation.


of

the refuge

Mainaka under th^

fear of falling thunder,


fierce

of the Asaras overcome in

encounters.
fire
is

and the retreat It offers water

as sacrificial butter to the blazing

emitted from the mouth


fathomless and without
rivers.

of

Vadava (the ocean-mare).

It

limits, vast

and immeasurable, the lord of


it

"And

they aawthat unto

rushed mighty rivers by thousands,

in pride of gait, like competitors in love, each eager for a meet-

ing forestalling the others.

And

they saw that

it

was always
it

full,

was and always dancing with the waves. And they saw that deep and abounding with fierce timls and makarois. And it
roared constantly with the terrible sounds of aquatic creatures.

And

they saw that

it

was

vast,

and wide

as the

expanse of space,

unfathomable, and limitless, and the grand reservoir of waters."

And

80

ends tho twenty-first Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.
Section XXII.
( Astika
*'

Parva continued. )

The Nagas

after a debate arrived at the conclusion that


if

they should do their mother's bidding, for


ing her desire she might burn them
all

she failed in obtainaffection


;

abandoning her

on the other hand

if

she were graciously inclined, the magnani-

mous one might

free

them from her

curse.

They

said,

'We

will

certainly render the horse's

tail black.*

And

it is

said that they

then went and became as hairs in the horse's tail, * In the meantime, the two co-wives had laid the wager.

And

having laid the wager,

excellent of Brahmanas, the two


of Daksha,

sisters,

Kadru and Vinata, the daughters

proceeded
ocean.

in great delight along the sky

to the other side

of the

And

on their way they saw the Ocean, that receptacle


of being
^viud,

of waters,

incapable

easily disturbed, mightily agitated all

on a

sudden by the

and roaring tremendously,

Abounding with

ADI PAKYA,
fishe<5

87"

capable
;

of

swallowing the

whale (timi)

and

full

of

maharcis

containing also creatures of various forms computed by


;

thousands

frightful

from the presence of horrible monsters,


terrible
;

in-

accessible, deep,

and

the mine of

all

kinds of gems

the

home
N;igas

of
;

Varuna (the water-god), the wonderful habitation of the


the lord of rivers
;

the abode of the sub-terranean

fire
;

the residence of the Asuras and of


reservoir of waters
ful
;

many dreadful
;

creatures

the

not subject to decay

romantic, and wonder;

the great mine of the amrlta of the celestials


;

immeasurable

and inconceivable contaiuing waters that are holy; filled to the brim by many thousands of great rivers dancing as it were in
;

waves such the ocean,


;

full

of liquid waves, vast as the expanse

of the sky, deep, of body lighted with the flames of sub-terranean


fire,

and roaring, which the

sisters quickly passed over."

And

so ends the twenty-second Section in the Astika of th e

Adi Parva.

Section XXIIT.
(

AstUm Parva

continued.. )

Sauti said,

"

Having

crossed the ocean,

Kadru

of swift speed,

accompanied by Vinata, soon alighted at the vicinage of the


horse.

They then both beheld that foremost of steeds, of great body Avhite as the rays of the moon but (tail) having black hairs. And observing many black hairs in the tail, Kadru
fleetness,with

put Vinata who was deeply dejected into slavery.


Vinata having
lost

And

thus

the wager entered into a state of slavery and


sorr}'.

became exceeding

"And
his)

in the

meantime, bursting the


also,

errg

without (the help of

mother, Gadura

of great splendour,
all

when

his

time

came, was born enkindling

the points of the universe,

that

mighty being endued with strength, that bird capable of assuming at will any form, of going at will everywhere, and of
calling to his aid at will any

measure of energy.

Effulgent like
of

a heap of
the
fire

fire,

he blazed terribly.

Of

lustre

equal to that

at

the end of the Yuija, his eyes were bright like the

lightning

flash.

And
his

soon after birth that bird


skies.

grew

in

size

and increasing

body ascended the

Fierce and fiercely

88
roariiiG^,

MAHABHARATA,
He was terrible like a second ocean-fire.
seeing
liim,

And

all

tlja

deities

sought the protection of Bibhavasu (Agni.)


to that

And
on

they bowed

down

deity

of manifold
:

his

seat and spake unto

him these words


not consume
us
'

'O Agni, extend


Lo
!

forms seated

not thy body.

Thou
is

wilt

this

huge
ia

heap of thy flames

spreadinc^
it is

wide

And Agni
in splendour,

replied,

'O ye persecutors of the Asuras,

not as ye imagine.
to

This

Gadura

of great strength

and equal
to

me

endued

with great energy, and born

promote the joy of Vinata,


hath caused this

Even the sight of thh heap


delusion
in
ye.

of effulgence

mighty son of Kasyapa, the destroyer of the Nagas, engaged in the good of the gods, and the foe of the D.dtyjis and the Rakshasas. Be not afraid of it in the least. Come with me and see. And thus addressed,
is

He

the

'

tlie Rishis wending towards Gadura adored him from a distance with the following words. " Tlie gods said, Thou art a Rishi {i. e., cognisant of all
*

the gods

along with

mantras), sharer of the


displayed in
presiding
splendour,
of the

largest

portion

in

sacrifices,

ever
the

the

controller of the bird of

life,

spirit,

animate and the inanimate universe


creator of
;

Thou art the destroyer of all, the Brahma of the Hiranyagarva form
creation in the form of
art Indra (the king

all

thou art
lord
;

thou

art

the

of

Daksha and the other Prajapatis


gods),
art

thou

of the
;

thou

art

the steed-necked

incarnation
as he

of

Vishnu

thou

the arrow (Vishnu himself,

became such
;

in the

hands of Maha leva on the burning of


;

Ti'lpiira)

thou art the lord of the universe


four-faced

thou art the

mouth of Vishnu; thou art the a Brahmana {i.e., wise), thou

Padmaja; thou art


{i.e.,

art Agni, Pavana, &c.,

the
art

presiding deities of every olyect in

the

universe).

Thou

knowledge; thou art the illusion to which we are all subject thou art the all-pervading spirit, thou art the lord of the gods thou art the great truth thou art fenrless thou art ever
; ;

unchanged; thou art the Brahma without attributes; thou


the energies of the Sun, &c.
;

art
;

thou art the intellectual functions


;

thou art our great protection


tliou art the

thou art the ocean of holiness;

pure

thou art bereft of the attributes of darkness,


;

&c,

thou art the possessor of the six high attributes

thou art

ABT PARVA.
he wlio cannot be withstood
in

SD
!

oontest

From

iheo

hnve
art;

emanated
all

all

things

thou art of
all

excellent

deeds; thon
!

that

hath not been and


;

that liath been

Thon

art pure

knowledge

thou displayest to

us, as

the

Sun by

his rays, this

animate and inanimate universe; darkening the splendour of


the
art

Sun
all

at every
is

moment, thou
all

art the destroyer of all

thou thou

that

perishable and

that

is

imperishable
all

of the splendour of Agni,

thou burnest
!

even as the Sun ia

his ana;er burneth all creatures

thou terrible one, thou risest


creation
1

even as the

fire

at the final dissolution of the

Thou

him that destroyeth all at the revolutions of the Yugas Having reached thee, O mighty Gadura, who movest in the skies, we seek thy protection, O lord of birds, whose
destroyest even
!

energy
ness
is

is

great,

whose splendour

is

that of

fire,

whose bright-

as that of lightning,

whom

no darkness can approach,

who
this

reachest the very clouds,

who

art both the cause

and the
!

effect,

the dispenser of boons, and invincible in prowess

O Lord,

whole universe
lustre

is

rendered hot by thy splendour bright as the


gold
!

of heated

Protect

these

high-souled gods, who,


are
flying

overcome by thee and

terrified withal,

along the
!

heavens in ditferent directions on their


best of birds, thou lord of
all,

celestial cars

thou

thou art the son of the merciful


;

and high-soule J Rishi Kasyapa


have mercy on the universe
!

therefore,

be not wroth

bufi

Thou art supreme, O assuage thy anger, and preserve us! At thy voice, loud as the roar of thunder, the ten points, the skies, the heaven?, this earth, and
our hearts,
this
bird,

are

continuously
!

trembling!

diminish

thy body resembling Agni

At

the sight of thy splendour

resembling that of
hearts losing
all

Yama

(the great destroyer) in wrath, our


!

equanimity are quaking


solicit

thou lord of birds,

be propitious to us who

thee
!'

thou illustrious one,

bestow on us good fortune and joy

"And
and the

that bird of fair feathers, thus adored by the deities


his

tribes of the Rishis, diminished

own energy and


in

s}>lendour."

And

thus

ends

the

twenty-third Section

the Astika of

the Adi Parva,

12

Section XXIY.
(Astika Parva contimied,)
Sauti
"
Siiid,

"Then having heard


said,

about,

and beholding

his

own

body, that bird of beautiful feathers diminished his size,

And Gadura

'Lei no creature be afraid

and as ye

also are in a fright at sight of

my
that

terrible form, I will diminish

my

energy.'

Sauti

continued, "
will,

Then

bird capable of going every-

where at
aid

that ranger of the skies capable of calling to his

any measure of energy, bearing Aruna on his back wended from his father's home and arrived at his mother's side on the

other shore of the great ocean.

And
"

he placed Aruna of great


the

splendour in the eastern region,

when

Sun had resolved

to

burn the worlds with his

fierce rays.
for did
?

Saunaka

said,

"

What

the worshipful
"

Sun

resolve at
to

that time to burn the worlds by the gods which provoked

What wrong was done


?
1

him

his ire

Sauti said.

"0

thou sinless one

when Rahu
tlie

in the act of

drinking nectar was discovered to the gods by

Sun and the

Moon, the former from that time conceived an enmity towards And upon the Sun being sought to be devoured those deities. by that afflicter (Rahu), he became wroth, and thought, O
'

this

enmity of Rahu towards

me

hath sprung from

my

desire of

benefitting the gods.

And

this sore evil I alone

have to sustain.

Indeed, at this pass help I obtain not.

And
must

the dwellers of the


it.

heavens see
fore for the

me

about to be devoured and suffer


I

destruction of the worlds


to the

sit.'

And thereAnd with

thid
"

resolution he went

mountains of the west.

And

from

that place

he began to scatter his heat around

for the destruction of the worlds.

And
:

then the great Rishis


' 1

Lo in the middle of approaching the gods spake unto them a great heat striking terror into every the night s[)ringeth
heart,

and destructive of the three


'

worlds'.

And then

the

gods accompanied by the Rishis wended to the Grand-father, and said unto him, O what is this great heat to-day that
causeth such panic
?

The Sun hath

not

yet arisen,

still

the

ADI PARVA,
destruction
(of
tlie

91

world)
?
'

is

obvious.

Lord,

wliat shall it
replied,
'

be when he doth

arise

And

the Grand-father

In-

deed, the Sun is prepared to rise to-day for the destruction of the worlds. As soo-n as he appeareth he will burn everything By me hath been provided the remedy into a heap of asiies. beforehand. Tlie intcllij^ent son of Kysyapa is known to all

by the name of Aruna.


splendour
;

He

is

huge of body and of great

duties of charioteer and


former.
Risliis,

he shall stay at the front of the Sun, doing the taking away all the energy of the
tliis

And

will secure the welfare of the worlds, of thd

And
father,

and of the dwellers of the heavens,'" Sauti continued, " And Aruna, ordered by the Granddid
all

that he was ordered to do,

Atid

the Siin

rose

by Aruna's person. I have told thee all about why the in wrath, and how Aruna also was appointed as the Now hear of that other question propounded Sun's charioteer.
veiled

Sun was

by thee a

little

while ago.

"

And

so ends the twenty fourth vSection in the Astika cf the

Adi Parva.

Section
(

XXV,
continued, j

Adlkd Parva

Sauti said,

"

Then that bird of great strength and energy


will into

and capable of going at


thither

every place repaired

to

hia

mother's side on the other shore of the great ocean.

For

was Vinata
o-f

in

affliction,

defeated in wager and put


after,

into a state
occasion,

slavery.

And sometime

on a certain

Kadru

calling Vinata

who had

prostrated herself

to the former, addressed her these words in the presence of her

san:

*0

gentle Vinata, there

is

in the

midst of the ocean, in

a remote quarter, a delightful and fair region inhabited by the Nagas, Bear me thither.' And then the mother of that bird
of fair feathers bore (on her back or shoulders) the

mother of

the snakes.
carried

And Gadura
the

alsa,

directed

by

his mother's v/ords,

(on his back)

snakes.
to ascend

And

that

ranger of the

skies born of Vinata

began

towards the FJun.

And

thereupon the snakes, scorched by the rays of the Sun, swoou-

92 ed away.

MAHABHAEATA.
And Kadru
'I

seeing her sons in


to thee,

that state
all

adored
:

Indra, saying,
I

bow

thou lord of
!

the deities

bow

to thee,

thou slayer of (the Asura) Vala

bow

to thee,

thou slayer of Namuchi,

thou of thousand eyes, thou lord of

BhacJd

By

thy showers, be thou the protector of the snakes


!

scorched by the Sun

our great protection


clouds, thou art

O O
!

thou best of the

deities,

thou art

thou Purandara, thou art able to


art

grant rain in torrents


fire,

Thou

Vayu

(the

air),

thou art the


!

and thou art the lightning of the skies

Thou

art the

propeller of the clouds,


{i. e.

and thou hast been

called the great cloud

that which will darken the universe


!

during the end of the Yuga)


the creator of the

Thou

art the fierce

and incom!

parable thunder, and thou art the roaring clouds


worlds and their
art the
lij,^ht

destroyer

Thou Thou

art art

imconquered

Thou

of all creatures,

thou art

Aditya, thou art

Vibhavasu, thou art the highest knowledge,


!

Thou art thou art wonderful, thou art the greatest being Thou art the best of the wonderful and thou art a King
!

deities

Thou

art

Vishnu
art

Thou hast thousand


the
final

eyes,

thou
art,

art

a god,

and thou
art the

resource

Thou

deity, all
!

amrita, and

thou

art

the most adored

Soma

(juice)

Thou
lava
(

moment, thou
),

art the lunar daj*, thou

art the

minute

thou art the kshana (4 minutes).


full

Thou

art

the fortnight of the


!

moon and the


the

fortnight

of the

new moon

Thou

art the kala, thou


all

kashtha,

and
art

thou the Tvid'i. thou the days

(These are

divisions of time.)

Thou

the year, thou the seasons, thou the months, thou


!

the nights,

and
the

forests

Sun

Thou art the fair Earth with her mountains Thou art also the firmament resplendent with Thou art the great Ocean with heaving billows
!
!

and abounding with timis, swallowers of thnis, tnakaras, Thou art of great renown, always adored and various fishes and by the great Rishis with minds rapt in by the wise, Thou drinkest, for the good of creatures, contemplation
!

the

Soma

juice in sacrifices and


of a

the clarified

butter offered
Avorfruit.

with Vashats (mantras

shippcd

ill

sacrifices

Thou art always by Brahmanas moved by desire of


kind).

thou incomparable mass of strength, thou art sung

in

the

ADI FARVA.
I

93

Vedmigas It is for that reason that the learned Brahmanas bent upon pertbnning sacrifices study the Vedangas with
every
care.'

And

so ends the twenty-fifth Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XXVI.
( Astika

Parvd continued.

Sauti continued,

"And
for

then the illustrious one having


bearer,

the

best

of horses

his

covered the entire firmament

thus adored by Kadru, with masses of blue cloudsi

And
ing,

he commanded the clouds, saying, 'pour ye your vivifyiag


'

And those clouds luminous with lightand incessantly roaring against each other in the welkin, poured abundant water. And the sky looked as if the end of
and blessed drops.
the

consequence of those wonderful and terribly-roaring clouds that were incessantly begetting vast
in

Yuga had come,

quantities of water.

And

in consequence of myriads of

waves

caused in the falling torrents, the deep roar of the clouds, the
flashes of lightning, the violence of the wind,

and the general

agitation, the sky looked as

if

dancing in madness.

the sky became dark, the rays of the sun and the

And tlien moon totally

disappeaing in consequence of the


those clouds.

incessant

downpour by

" And upon Indra's causing that downpour, the Nagas became exceedingly delighted. And the Earth whs filled with

water

all

nether regions.

over the

And the cool clear water reached even the And there were countless watery waves all Earth. And the snakes with their mother reached
around.

(in safety) the island called

Ramaniaka.

And

so ends the twenty-sixth Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XXVII.
('

Aatika Parva continued.

Sauti

said,

''And then the Nagaa wetted with the shower


ghid.

became exceedingly
feathers,

And

borne by

that

bird

of fair

they soon arrived at the island.

And

that ishiud

had been appointed by the creator of the universe as the abode of the makaras. They had seen in that island ou a former occasion the fierce Asnra of the name of Luvana.

And

arrived

there

with Gadiira,

they saw there a beautiful

forest,

washed by the waters


around with various
mansions

of the sea

and resounding with


of

(the music of) winged


trees
all

choirs.

And
fruits
;

there were clusters

and flowers.

And

there

were

ing with lotuses.

all around and many tanks aboundAnd it was also adorned with many fair lakes of pure water. And it was refreshed with pure incensebreathing breezes. And it was adorned with many a tree

also fair

hills of Malaya (sandal wood) which seemed by Its tall ness to reach the very heavens, and which shaken by the breeze dropped showers of flowers. And there were also various other trees whose flowers were scattered all

that grows only on the

around by the breeze.

And

it

seemed as
that forest

if

these bathed

the

Nagaa

arrived

there with
flowers.

showers of rain represented by

their dropping

And

was charming and

dear to the

Gandharvas' and always

gave them pleasure.

And it was full of bees mad with the honey they sucked. And the sight of its appearance was exceedingly delightful. And in consequence of many things there capable of charming everybody, that forest was fair, delightful, and holy. And
echoing with the notes of various
the sons of Kadru.
birds, it delighted

greatly

"And

then the snakes having arrived at that forest began

to enjoy themselves.

And

they

commanded
'

the lord

of birds,
fair

Gadura, of great energy, saying,


island

convey us to some other


of the
skies,

with

pure

water.
fair

Thou ranger
regions in

thou

must have seen many


air.)'

thy course (through the

And Gadura,

after reflecting for a few

moments, asked.

ADI PARYA,

95

mother Yinata, why, mother, am I to do the hidding of the snakes V And Vinata thus questioned by him thus spake unto that ranger of the skies, her son, invested with every virtue, of great energy, and great strength.
his

'O ihou best of birds, I have become, from misfortune, the slave of her who hath the same husband with me. The snakes by an act of deception caused me to lose my And when liis mother had told bet and have made me so.
"Vinata
said,
'

bim the
what

reason, that ranger of


'

tlie skies,

dejected with

grief,

addressed the snakes, saying,


thing,

Tell me, ye snakes,

by bringing

or

gaining a knowledge of Avhat thing, or doing

what

act of prowess,
ye.'

we may be

freed from this state of bond-

age to

Sauti

continued,
"

"And
force.

the

snakes hearing him

said.

'Bring thou amrita by


freed from bondage.'

Then.

bird,

shalt

thou be

And

so

ends

the twenty-seventh Section in the Astika of

the Adj Parva.

Section XXVIII.
( Astika

Parva continued.

Sauti
!aid

said,

"

Gadura, thus addressed by


'

tlie

snakes, then
I

unto his mother.

I shall

go
to

to

bring amrita.

desire
:

to

eat something.

Direct

me

it.'

And Vinata
ocean,

replied

'In a remote

region in the midst

of the

the Nishadas

have their

fair

home.

H aving
of a

eaten the thousand Nishadas

that live there, bring


ever set

thou amrita.
life

But

let

not thy heart be

on taking the

Brahmana.
is,

Brahmana
fire.

of

all

creatures must not be

slain.

He

indeed, like

Brah-

mana when angry becomes


edged weapon.
of
all

like fire or the

Sun, like poison or an

creatures.

For

Brahmana, it hath been said, is the master thei^e and other reasons, a Brahmana is
child,

the adored of the virtuous.

he

is

never

to

be slain by

thee even in anger.

Hostility

with the Brahmanas, therefore,

would not be proper under any circunii^tances.

thou sinless

one, neither Agni nor the Sun truly consuineth so as doth a Brahmana of rigid vows when angry. By these vai ious iudica-

9G
tions
is

MAHAT^HARATA.
must thou know
first-born

a good

Brahmana,
the
all.'

Indeed, a

Brahmana
the
four

the

of

all

ereatnres,

foremost of

orders, the father


"

and the master of


then asked,
'

And Gadura

mother, of what form


?

is

shine
it

Brahmana, of what behaviour, and of what prowess like fire, or is he of tranquil mien ? And,
behoveth thee to
tell

Doth he
mother,

my

inquirin^

self,

assigning reasons,

those auspicious signs by which I


*'

may
'

recognise a

Brahmana

!'

And Vinata
as a ball
will

know

replied, saying, O child, him shouldst thou amongst Brihmanas who having entered thy

throat

torture thee as a fish-hook or burn thee as flaming

charcoal.
anger.' him.

A Brahmana
'

must never be

slain

by thee even
son again
a good
"

in

And Vinata from affection for her these words: Him shouldst thou know as
shall not be

told

Brahm-

ana who
she

digested

in thy stomach.

from parental affection, rniterated those words.

And Vinata, And although

knew the incomparable strength of her son, she yet blessed him heartily, for deceived by the snakes she was very much
afflicted

by woe.

And

she said,

'

Let Maruta (the god of the

winds) protect thy wings, and the Sun and the Moon thy vertebral regions; let Agni protect they head, and the Vasus thy

whole body
shall
sit

I also,

child,

engaged

in beneficial ceremonies,

here

to

give thee prosperity.

Go

then,

child, in

safety to accomplish thy purpose.

Sauti continued,

"

Then Gadura, having heard the words


his

of his mother, stretched

wings and ascended the

skies.

And endued with


shadas,

great strength, he soon came


like

upon the Nibent upon

hungry and

to

another Yama.

And

slaying the Nishadas, he then raised a great quantity of dusb

that overs{)read the firmament and sucking up water from

amid

the ocean, shook the trees growing on the adjacent mountains. And then the lord of birds obstructed the principal thoroughfare of the

Nishadas by

his

mouth having increased


fly in

its

cleft

at

will.

And

the Nishadas begaa to

great haste in

the direction

of the open

mouth of the great serpent-eater.


by thousands into the
shaken by the wind, so

And
skies

as birds in great affliction ascend

when the

trees of the forest are

those Nishadas blinded by the dust raised by the storm entered

ADIPARVA.
the

i)7

wule-extending

cleft

of Gadura's moutli open to receive


all

them.

And

then the hungry lord of

rangers of the skies,

the oppressor of enemies, endued

with great strength, and

moving with the greatest

activity to achieve his end, closed his

mouth

killing

innumerable Nishadas following the occupatioa

of fishermen."

And

so ends the twenty-eighth Section in the

Astikaof the

Adi Parva.
Section XXIX.
( Astllrt

Parva continued.
certain

)
his wife

Sauti

continued,

''

Brahmana with

had

entered the throat of that ranger of the skies.

And

the former

thereupon began to burn the bird's throat like flaming charcoal.

And him Gadura


anas,

addressed,

saying,

'

thou best of Brahm-

come out soon from my mouth which I open for thee. Brahmana must never be slain by me although he may be always engaged in sinful practices.' And to Gadura who had let this woman of thus addressed him, that Brahmana said, the Nishada caste who is my wife come out with me !' And

'

Gadura

said,

'Taking the

woman

also of the

Nishada caste with

Save thyself without delay inasmuch aa thee, come out soon. " thou hast not yet been digested by the heat of my stomach.'
Sauti continued,
'*

And

then that Brahmana accompanied


out,

by

his

wife

of

the

Nishada caste came

and eulogising

Gadura wended whithersoever he liked. And upon that Brahmana coming out with his wife, that lord of birds, fleet as the
mind, stretching his wings ascended the skies.

And he then

saw

his

father

and hailed by him, Gadura of incomparable

prowess made proper answers.


then asked him,
sufficient food
'

And

the great Rishi (Kasyapa)


?

O
?

child,
?

is it

well with thee

Dost thou

getj

every day

Is there food in

plenty for thee in

the world of

men

"And Gadura

replied,

'

My

mother

is

ever well.

And
I

so

my

brother, and so
for to

am L
which

But, father, I do not always obtain

plenty of food

my

peace

is

incomplete.

am

sent

by the snakes

fetch the

excellent

amrUa
13

(Soma).

And,

^^
ill

MAHAEHARATA,
to-day for emancipating

Jeeil, I shall fetch it

my

mother from

her l^oudage.

My

mother had commanded me, saying,

Etit

thou the Nishadas. I have eaten them by thousands but my hunger is not appeased. Therefore, O worshipful one, point
out to

me some

other food, by eating which,

master,

may

be strong enough to bring away amrita by force. Thou shouldst indicate some food wherewith I may appease my hunger and
thirst.

"

And Kasyapa

replied,

'

This lake thou seest

is

very sacred.

It hath been heard of even in the heavens,

Tiiere an elephant

with face downwards doth continually drag a tortoise his elder


brother,
I shall

speak to you in detail of

tiieir

hostility in

former
life.

life.

I will tell

you

in full

of their

enmity in another

Hear from me the


"

truth,

in proof

whereof are they both

(in this place.)

'There was of old a great Rishi of the

name

of Vibha-

vasu.

He was
name

exceedingly wratiiful.

He

had a younger brother


ascetic.

of the

of Supritika

who

also

was a great

And

the great sage Supritika was averse to keep his wealth joint with his brother's. And Supritika would always speak of partition.

After a certain time his brother Vibhavasu told Supri-

tika,

It

is

of wealth always desire to

from great foolishness that persons blinded by love make a partition of their patrimony.
with each other. Then
cause an

And

after effecting a partition they fight

again, enemies in the guise

of friends

estrangement

between ignorant and selfish men after they become separated and pointing out faults confii-m their quarrels in their wealth And downright ruin very so that they soon fall one by one. For these reasons, the wise, separated. soon overtakes the
;

never speak well of partition amongst brothers who when divided regard not the most authoritative Shastras and are

always in fear of each other.


regarding
wishest to

But

as thou

Supritika,

without

my

advice, impelled by desire of separation

always

make an arrangement about your


:

property, thou

must become an elephant. And Supritika, thus cursed, then Thou also must become a tortoise spake unto Vibhavasu

moving
"

in the interior of the waters.

Aud

thus on account of wealth those two

fools,

Supritika

ADI PARVA,

99^

and Vibhavagu, from each other's curse, have become an elephant and a tortoise, Owinor to their wrath, they have both

become

inferior animals.

And And

they are

engaged in

hostilities

with each other, proud of their excessive strength and the


weight of their bodies.
in

this

lake

those two of huge


hostility.

bodies are engaged in acts according to their former

The
is

other amongst them, the handsome elephant of huge body,

even

how

approaching.

And

hearing his roar, the tortoise also

of huge body, living witliin the waters,

cometh out agitating


the elephant, with

the lake exceedingly.

And

seeing him,

trunk in a

curl,

goeth

into the water.

And endued

with great

energy, with motion of his tusks,


tail,

of fore-part

of his trunk, of

and of

feet,

he agitates the waters of the lake abounding with

fishes.

And

the tortoise also of


for

much

strength, with upraised

head, cometh forward


six

an encounter.

And

the elephant

is

yojctnas in height and twice that measure in circumference.

And
in

circumference ten.

also is three yojanas and his Eat thou both of them, madly engaged the encounter and bent upon slaying each other, and accom-

the height of the tortoise

plish this business that thou desirest.

Eating that

fierce

ele=

phant,

looking

like a

huge mountain and resembling a mass of


"

dark clouds, bring thou amrita.'


Sauti continued,

"And having
'

said

so unto

Gadura,

he

(Kasyapa) blessed him then.

Blest be

thou when thou art


filled

engaged with the gods

in

combat. Let pots

to

the brim,
there are,

Brahmanas, kine, and what other auspicious objects


bless thee,

And O thou of great engaged with the gods in combat, let strength, the Richas, the Yajus, the Samas, the sacred sacrificial butter, all the mysteries (of the Vedas), and all the Vedas, be thy
thou oviparous one.
art

when thou

strength.
"

And Gadura,

thus addressed by his father, wended to the

side of that lake.

And

he saw that expanse of clear water


all

with birds of various kinds

around.

And remembering

the

words

of his father, that ranger of the skies possessed of great

swiftness of motion seized the


in each claw.

elephant and the tortoise, one


the
air.

And

that bird then soared high into

And he came upon

a sacred

place

called

Alamixi and saw

100

MAHABHARATA.
divine trees.

many

And
began

struck by the wind raised by his


to

wings, those trees

shake with

fear.

And

those di-

vine trees growing on golden summits feared that they


break.

would

And

the ranger of the skies seeing that those trees

capable of granting every wish were quaking with fear, went to other trees of incomparable appearance. And those gigantic
trees were adorned with fruits of gold

and

silver

and branches
into

of precious gems.
sea.

And

they were washed with the waters of the

And

there was a large banian

among them grown


:
'

gigantic proportions, that then spoke unto that lord of birds while

coursing towards

it fleet

as

the mind

Sit thou on this large

branch of mine extending a hundred yojanas and eat thou the


elephant and the tortoise.'

And when

that best of birds of great

swiftness, and of body resembling a mountain, quickly alighted, that banian, the resort of thousands of birds, shook and that

branch also

full of

leaves broke.

"

And
Adi

so ends the

twenty-ninth Section in the Astika of the

Parva.

Section
( Astika

XXX.
)

Parva continued.
of

Sauti

said, "

The moment the arm


might with

the tree was touched

by Gadura
broke,
it

of great

his feet, it

broke.

And

as

it

was supported by Gadura. And as he cast his eyes around in wonder after having broken tliat gigantic branch, he saw that a tribe of Rishis called Valakhilyas were suspended And having seen those therefrom with heads downwards.
Brahmarshis engaged
in ascetic practices
'

suspended therefrom,
that

Gadura
from
it
;

said unto

himself,

Indeed, there are Rishis suspended


'

I will not kill them.

And

reflecting that
slain,

if

branch

fell

down, the Rishis would be

the mighty one

held by his claws the elej)hant and the tortoise yet more firmly.

And
on

the king of birds,

from fear of slaying the Rishis and

desirous of saving them, held that branch in his beaks and rose
his wings.

And

great Ritihis seeing that act

of his

which

WJ^s

beyond even the power of the gods,

their hearts

wonder, gave that mighty bird a name.

And thpy

moved by eaid, Aa
'

ADI PARVA.
this ranger of the skies
rises

101

oa

its

wings bearing a heavy

burden, therefore
his food be called
"

let this

foremost of bir Js having snakes for

And

Gadivra (bearer of heavy weight.)' slinking the mountains by his wings, Gadura

leisurely

coursed through the skies.

And

as he soared with the elephant

and the
neath.

tortoise (in his claws), he beheld various regions under-

And

desiring as he did to save the Valakhilyas,


sit.

he saw

not a spot whereon to

And

at

last

he wended to the

foremost of mountains called

Gandhamadana.
in

And

he saw

there his father Kasyapa engaged

ascetic devotions.

And
and

Kasyapa

also

saw

his son

that ranger

of the

skies,

of divine

form, possessed of great splendour, energy, and strength,

endued with the speed of the wind


mountain peak, a ready smiter
inconceivable, indescribable, frightful

or the mind, huge as a

like the curse of a

Brahmaua,
endued

to

all

creatures,

with great prowess, terrible, of the splendour of Agni himself,

and incapable of being overcome by the


invincible Rakshasas, capable

deities,

Danavas, and

of splitting

mountain summits

and of sucking the ocean itself and of destroying the worlds, And then the illusfierce, and looking like Yama himself. trious Kasyapa seeing him approach and knowing also his
motive, spake unto
"

him these words.


'

And Kasyapa

said,

child, don't

then thou wouldst have to suffer pain.


"

commit a rash act, for The Valakhilyas, supif

porting themselves by drinking the rays of the Sun, might, angry, consume thee.'

Sauti continued, "

And Kasyapa

then propitiated,

for

the

sake of his son, the Valakhilyas of exceeding good

fortune

and whose sins had been destroyed by ascetic penances. And Kasyapa said, Ye whose wealth is asceticism, the essay of Gadura is for the good of all creatures. The task is great that
'

he

is

striving to
?

accomplish.
"
'

It

behoveth ye to accord him

your permission

The Munis thus addressed by the illustrious Kasyapa abandoned that branch and wended to the sacred mountain of Himavata for purposes of ascetic penances.
Sauti continued,
"

And upon

those Rishis going away, the son of Vinata, with voice

obstructed by the branch in his beaks, asked his father Kasyapa,

102
'

MAHABHARATA.
thou illustrious one, where
?

am

I to

throw

tliis

arm
is

of the

tree

Illustrious one, indicate to

me some

region that

with-

out

human beings.' And then Kasyapa spoke of a mountain without human beings, with caves and dales always covered
with snow and incapable of ^approach by ordinary creatures
even in thouf^ht.

And

the

great bird bearing that branch,

the elephant, and the tortoise, then proceeded with great speed

towards that mountain of broad waist.


of the tree with which that bird of

And
of

the great

arm

huge body flew away could


a hundred (cow)
flew

not be girt round with a cord made


hides.

And

Gadura, the lord of birds, then

away

for

hundred thousands of yojanas within the shortest time.


tain

And
fall

going according to the directions of his father to that mounalmost in a moment, the ranger of the skies
let

the gigantic branch.

And

it

fell

with a great noise.

And

that king of rocks shook, struck with the storm raised


dura's wings.

by Ga-

And

the trees thereon dropped showers of flowers.

And
fell

the

cliffs

of that

mountain decked with gems and gold


itself,

and adorning that great mountain

were loosened and


flowers

down on all sides. And numerous trees which with

the

falling

branch struck down

their golden

amid their

dark foliage shone there like clouds charged with lightning.

And

those trees, bright as gold, falling

down upon the ground


if

and becoming dyed with mountain metals, shone as


were bathed in the rays of the sun.
"

they

And

the best of birds, Gadura, perching on

the summit
tortoise.

of that mountain then ate both the elephant and the

And

he the son of Tarkhya, endued with great speed, having

eat of the tortoise and the elephant, then rose on his

wingS

from the top of the mountain summit.


"

And

various

omens began

to appear

among

the gods fore-

boding

fear.

Indra's favorite thunder-bolt blazed

up

in a fright.

And meteors
shot

with flames and smoke, loosened from the welkin,


the
day.

down during

And

the respective weapons of

the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, of all of them, of the Sadhyas, the Marutas, and of all the other tribes of the gods,

began

to

spend their force against each other.

And such

things had never happened even in the war of the gods and the

ADI FARVA.
Asiiras.

103
with thunder, and

And

the winds blew accompanied

And the sk}^ meteors fell by And even cloudless, roared tremendously. dropped showers of blood. And god of gods,
thousands.

although

it

Avas

he who was the


the lustre of the

flowery garlands on the necks of the gods was dimned. And And terrible masses of their prowess suffered a diminution.

clouds dropped thick showers

of blood.

And

the

dust raised
coronets of

by the winds darkened


the gods.

tlie

splendour of the very


sacrifices

And

he of a thousand

(Indra),

with the

other gods, perplexed with fear at sight of these dark disasters,

spake unto Vrihaspati thus

'

Why,
?

worshipful one, have

these dark disasters suddenly arisen

No

foe

do I behold who
'

would oppress us

in war.

'

And

Vrihaspati answered,
it is

thou

chief of the gods, thou of a thousand sacrifices,


fault

from thy

and carelessness, and owing

also to the ascetic

penances of
son

of the high-souled great Rishis, the Valukhilyas,

that the

of Kasyapa and Vinata, a ranger of the skies endued with great strength and possessing the capacity to assume at will

any form,

is

approaching to take away the Soma.

And
to

that

bird, foremost

among

all

endued with strength,


is

is

able

rob
:

ye of the Soma.

Every thing

possible,

ween, in him

the un-achievable he can achieve.'


Sauti continued,

"

"And

Indra having heard these words


the

then spoke unto those that guarded


taking away the amrita.

amrita

'

A
he

bird

endued with great strength and energy has


I

set his

mind on

warn ye beforehand
force.

so that

may
told

not succeed in taking

it is

away by

Vrihaspati has

me
of

that his strength


it

immeasurable.'

And

the gods hearing

were amazed

and took precautions.


with tbem.

And

they stood

surrounding the amrita, and Indra also of great prowess, the


Avielder of the thunder, stood

And
and

the gods wore


set with

curious breastplates of gold,

of great value

gems,
the

and bright

leathern

armour of great toughness.

And

mighty
of

deities wielded various siiarp-edged

weapons of terrible

shapes, countless in number, emitting, even all of them, sparks


fire

mixed with smoke.

And

they were also armed with

many

a discus and iron mace furnished with spikes, and trident,

and battle-axe, various kinds of sharp-pointed short missiles

104 and polished swords

MAHABHATIATA.
raid

maces of

terrible forma,

all

befitting

their respective bodies.

And decked

with celestial ornaments

and resplendent with those bright arms, the gods waited there,
their
feai-s

allayed.

And

the gods, of incomparable strength,

energy, and splendour, resolved to protect the amrita, capable


of splitting the towns of the Asnras,
in
all

displayed

themselves

forms resplendent as the

fire.

there, that [would be] battle-field,

Thus the gods having stood in consequence of hundred


like " the rays of the sun.

thousands of niaces furnished

with iron

spikes,

shone

another suddenly arrived sky illumined by

And

so

ends

tiie

thirteeth

Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XXXI.
( Af^tlhi

Parva contimied.

)
fault,

Saunaka

said,

''

Son of Suta, what was ludra's


?

what

his act of carelessness

How

was Gadura born


?

in conse-

quence of the ascetic penances of the Valakhilyas

had Kasyapa

a Brainnana the king of


all

birds for his

Why also son Why


?

too was he invincible of

creatures

and un-slayable of

all ?

Why

also

was that ranger of the skies capable of going into


any measure of
Purana, I should like

every place at will and of mustering at will

energy
to hear

If these are described in the


!"

them

Sauti said,
of the Purana.
all
!

"

What

thou askest

me

is,

indeed, the

subject
recite it

twice-born one, listen as I briefly

"

Once upon a time, wlien the Prajapati, Kasyapa, was


in a sacrifice from desire of offspring, the

engaged

Rishis,

the

gods, and the Gandiiarvas, gave him

help.

And
wood
;

Indra was

appointed by Kasjapa to bring the

saerificial

and with
deities.

him

those ascetics

the Vahikhilyas,

and

all

the other

And

the lord Indra taking

up according

to his
it

own strength a

weight that was mountain-like, brought

without any fatigue.

And

he saw on the way some Pashis, of bodies of the measure

of the tiiumb, together carrying one single stalk of the

Palasha
of food,

(Butea frondosa)

leaf.

And

those Rishis were, from

want

ADI PAHVA.
very lean-fleshed as
if

105

merged

into their OAvn bodies.


afflicted

And

they

were so weak that they were


hoof of a cow.

much

when sunk

in the

water that collected in an indentation on the road caused by the

And

Purandara, proud of his strength, beheld

them with surprise, and laughing at them in derision soon left them behind, insulting them besides by passing over their
heads.
sorrow.

And those Rishis were at tlus possessed with rage and And they made preparations for a great act at Avhich

terrified. Hear thou, O Saunaka, of the wish for (he accomplishment of which those vow-observing, wise, and excellent

Indra was

ascetics

poured

clarified
!
'

butter on

ioudly uttered mantras

the sacrificial fire with There shall be another Indra of all

the gods, capable of going everywhere at will and of mustering at will any measure of energy, imparting fear unto the (present) king of the gods. By the fruit of our ascetic penances,
?et

one

arise,

and strength,

an hundred times greater than Indra in coura^-e fleet as the mind, and fierce v/ithal.' And the
sacrifices, iiaving

king of the gods, he of a hundred

come

to

know

of this,

became very much alarmed and sought the provow-observing Kasyapa.

tection

of the

And

the Prajapati,

Kasyapa, hearing everything from Indra went to the Valakhilyas and asked them if their act had been successful. And
those truth-speaking Rishis replied to him, saying, 'Let
it

be aa

thou say est.


spake

'

And
them
been

the Prajapati, Kasyapa,


as
follows
:

pacifying them,
of Brahma,

unto

'

By the word
of
to

this one hath


ascetics,

made

the

lord

the

three worlds.

Ye
\

ye also have been striving

create

another Indra

Ye excellent ones, it behove th ye not to falsify the word of Let not also this purpose for (accomplishing) which Brahma
!

5'e

are striving be rendered futile.

Let there

sjiring

an Indra

(Lord) of winged creatures, endued

with excess of stren<^th.


!'

Be

gracious unto Indra

who

is

a suppliant before ye
b}'

And

the

Valakiiilyas,

thus

addressed

Kasyapa,

after

reverenc-

ing that

first

of Munis, the

Prajapati, Kasyapa,

spake unto

him.
"
is

The Valakhllyas
an Indra.

said,

'

Pr.ijnpati,

this

essay of us
also

all

for

Indeed, this essay hath

been

meant

for

a sou being born unto thee.

Let

ihis

huccessful

act theu be

1^

f^Q
accepted by
llioe
is
'

MAnABHAEATA,
And
"

in this

matter appoint
"

tlioii

wlialr>o

ever thou seest

good and proper.'

Sauti continued,
ciffspring,

Meanwhile,

moved by the

desire

of

the s^ood

daughter

of Daksha, the vow-observing,

amiable,

and

fortAinate

Vinata,

her ascetic penances over,


in that season

having purified herdelf vath a bath


bial

when connulord.

iutercourde might prove

fruitful,
'

approached her

And Kasyapa

spake unto her,

Respected
:

one, the sacrifice

commenced by me hath borne friut what hath been desired by thee shall come to pass. Two heroic sons shall be born unto
thee, the lords of the three worlds.

And by

the ascetic pendesire with

ances of

the

Valakhilyas and by

virtue of the

which

had commenced my

sacrifice,

those sons shall

be of

And

exceeding goo<l fortune and worshipped of the three worlds.' Bear thou the worshipful Kasyapa spake unto her again,
'

these

auspicious
all

seeds

with

great care.

These two

shall

be the lords of
of the eky

winged creatures.
of

And

the heroic rangers

shall be respected

the

worlds,

and capable of

assuming
*'

at will

any

form.'

And

the

Prajapati, gratified

with

all

that took
saying,

place,

then addre?.-ed him of a hvmdred

sacrifices,

'Thou
shall

shalt hnve two brothers of great energy

and prowess, who

be

to

thee

oven as

thy help-mates.

And

from
;

them no
thou shalt

injury shall result unto thee. Let thy sorrow cease

continue as the lord of


of
let

all.

By

thee also let not the utterers

Brahma

(the Veda) be ever again slighted.

Nor by thee

also

the very wr.ithl'ul ones whose words are even as the thunder-

bolt be ever agidii insulted.' to heaven, his fears di^spelled.


fulfilled,

was exceeding
of

glad.

And Indra, thus addressed, went And Viuata also, her purpose And she gave birth to two sons,

Aruna and Gadura.


the
fore-rui"i.ner

And Aruna of undeveloj>ed body became And Gadura was vested with the tlie Sun.

lordship of the VnwU.

thou of the race of Bhrigu, hearken

now
Adi

to the

mighty achievement of Gadura!"


thirty-first

And

so eudp. the

Section

in the

Astika of the

P:\rva.

Section
( Astlka

XXXIE
)

Parva continued.

Sauti said,

"O

thou

foremost of Brahnianas,
for

upon the

gods having stood prepared

war

in

that

vmy, Gadura the

king of birds soon came upon those wise ones. gods beholding him of excessive strength began with
fear,

And
to

the

quake

and strike one another with


architect), of

all their

weapons.

And
(tlic

amongst those that guarded the Skoma was Bhav.mana


celestial

measureless might,

effulgent

as

the

electric fire,

ter of

and of great energy. And after a terrific encounonly a moment, mangled by the lord"^ of birds with and wings, he lay as dead on the
his
field.

his talons, beak,

And

that ranger of the skies darkening the worlds


raised
tials

by the hurricane of
it.

by the dust wings, overwhelmed' the celesoverwhelmed by that


dusfc

And swooned away. And


with

the

cclei^tiala
lo,

the

immortals

who

guarded the

amrita, blinded by that dust, could not sec Gadura

Gadura mangled the gods thus


and beaks.

thus agitated

the region of the


v/ith the

hciivens.

And And ha
!

wounds

iniiict^d by,

his

wings

"And
soon.

then the god of

thousand eyes commanded Vayu


thou this shower of dust

(the god of wind); saying, 'dispell

Maruta, this

is,

indeed, thy

mighty Vayu soon dispelled that


ness had disappeared, the
as he of great

dust.

celestials

And then the And when the darkattacked Gadura, And


v/ork
!'

might was attacked by the


Fit^ft,

gods, he

began to
at

roar loudly, like the great cloud that' appeareth in the, sky

the end of the

fi-ightening every

creatm-e

And

that

king of birds
the heads of

of

great energy and slayer of hostile heroes,

then rose on his

v.'ings.

And him
all

sta^nng in

the skies over


celcstialb)

the gods,

the

wise ones (the

with Indra amongst them

covcrad

with double-edged

broad-

swords, iron-maces furnished with sharp spikes, pointed lances,

maces, bright kt<hvynq)ras, and


the sun.
vbo^Ycrs

many

a discus

of the form
all

of

And
of

the king

of birds, attacked on

sides with

Yiuioiis

weyi'-ous,

fau^ht exceeding haid with.-

205

MAHABHARATA.

of Vlnata, of tlie son out wavering for a moment. And attacked the gods on all great prowess, blazing in the sky, And blood began to flow with his wings and breagt.
sides

the Sadhyas Adityas towards the with the Rudras towards the south, the the north. And gifted west, and the twin Aswinas towards fighting, looking back every Tvithgreatcnergy, they retreated

mangled by the talons copiously from the bodies of the gods lord of birds, and the beak of Gadura. And overcome by the Gandharvas fled eastwards, the Vasus with the

moment on their enemy. And Gadura had encounters with

(the Yakshas)

Aswa-

bold Krakranda of great courage, with Rainuka, with the Shasanaka, with Nithanaka, with Tapana, with Uluka and
inisha,

with Puruja, and with Pulina.


his wings,

And

the son of Vinata


like

mangled them with

talons,

and beak,

that

himself oppressor of enemies the holder of the Pinalm And those Yakhas of great of the yuga. anger at the end

might and courage, mangled


skies, looked like
f>

all

over by that ranger of the

masses of black clouds dropping thick showers


of life

blood. " And

Gadura depriving them


fire.

then went to where

And he saw that it was suiTounded on all And the terrible flames of that fire covered sides with winds, they seemed the entire sky. And moved by violent Gadura bent on burning the Sun himself. And the illustrious
the amrita was.

then assumed ninety times ninety (eight thousand and one hunrivers with those dred) mouths. And soon drinking in many

mouths and returning with great speed, that oppressor of enemies, having wings for his vehicle, extinguished that fire with those rivers. And extinguishing that fire, he assumed another

small form, desirous of entering into (where the Soma was.) And so ends the thirty-second Section in the Astika of

the Adi Parva.

Section XXXIII.
( Astiha

Parva continued.

Sauti said,
as

"

Aud
the

that bird, assuming a golden body bright


sun,

the

rays of

entered
was),
like

with

great

force

(the

region
ocean.

where the

Soma

a torrent entering the

And

he saw in the vicinage of the


sharp as
fierce

Soma
of

a wheel

of

steel,

keen-edged, and

the

razor,

revolving
the
lustre

incessantly.

And

that

instrument,
form,

of

the blazing sun

and of

terrible
all

was devised by

the gods for cutting to pieces

robbers of the Soma.


it

And

Gadura seeing a passage through

stopped there for a moment.

And

diminishing his body, in an instant he passed through

the spokes of that wheel.

And
for

within the line of the wheel,

he beheld, stationed there

guarding the Soma, two great


fire,

snakes of the lustre of blazing


lightning
flash, of

of tongues

bright as the
fire,

great energy,

of

mouth emitting

of

blazing eyes, containing poison, very terrible, always in anger,

and of great

activity.

And
is

their eyes were ceaselessly inflam-

ed with rage and were winkless. even one of the two


the bird of
dust.
fair

And he who

is

seen by

instantly

reduced to ashes.

And

feathers

suddenly covered their eyes with

And unseen by them he attacked them from all And the son of Vinata that ranger of the skies attacking their bodies, mangled them into pieces. And he then approached the Soma without loss of time. And the mighty
sides.

son of Vinata,
it

was, rose

taking up the amrita from the place where on his wings with great speed, breaking into

pieces

the instrument that had

surrounded

it.

And

the

bird soon
it

came out taking the amrita but without drinking himself. And he then wended on his way without the least
darkening the splendour of the Sun.
the son of Vinata then
"

fatigue,

And

met with Vishnu

in

his

path
act of

along the sky.


self-denial

And Narayana was

gratified with that

on the part of Gadura.

And

that deity
skies,
'

knowing no

deterioration said

unto the ranger of the

am

in-

clined to grant thee a boon.

'

And

the ranger of the skies


'

thereupon

said,

'

I shall stay above thee.

And he

again spake

110

MAHABHARATA.
:

unto Narayana these words

'I
'

shall

be immortal and free


'

from disease without (drinking)

amrita.
'

And

Vislinu said

unto the son of Vinata, 'Be


those two boons, told Vishnu,

it so.

And

,Gadura, receiving

I also shall grant

thee a boon
of me.

; '

therefore, let the possessor of the six attributes ask

And Vishnu
come

asked the raighty carrier of great weights to be-

his vehicle.
'

And he made

the bird

sit

on the

flag staff of
'

his car, saying,

Even thus thou shalt stay above me.


speed, saying unto

And

the

i'anger
'

of the skies, of great


'

Narayana,

Be

it so,

swiftly vfcnded

on his way, mocking the wind


that

with his

fleetness.

"And
first

while that foremost of all rangers of the skies,

air

winged creatures, Gadura, was coursing through the after robbing the amrita, Indra hurled at him his thunderof

bolt.
bolt,

A^nd Gadura, the lord of birds, struck with the thunder

spake laughingly unto Indra engaged in the encounter, in


'

sweet words, saying,

I shall respect

the Eishi (Dadhichi) of


shall also respect the

whose bone

tlie

Vajra hath been made. I

Vajra, and thee also of a thousand


feather of mino whose end

sacrifices.

cast

this

thou shalt not attain.


the slightest pain.
'

Struck with

thy thunder I have not


tures

felt

said this, the king of birds cast a feather of his.

And having And all crea-

became exceeding glad, beholding that excellent feathci' of Gadura so cast oif by himself. And seeing that the feather
was very
(having
beautiful, they said,
feathers,)'
'

Let

this bird

be called Suparna

fair

And Pnrandara

of a

thousand eyes
bird
to

witnessing this wonderful incident thought

tha,t

be

some great being and addressed him thus.


"

And

Indra

said,

'

thou best of

birds, I desire

to

know

the limit of thy great strength, and I desire also eternal friendsship with thee,'

And

so

enda the thirty-third Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva

Section
( Astika

XXXIT.
)

Parva continued.
Baid,

Siuti continued,
1)6

"

And Gadura
is

'O
as

Piiraiidaralet there

friendship between thee and

me

thou desirest.
to bear.

My
thou

strenf^tli,

know

thou,

great and hard

good never approve of speaking highly of their own strength, nor do they speak of their own But being made a friend, asked by thee, O friend, I merits. will answer tfeee, although self-praise without reason is ever
of a thousand sacrifices, the

improper.

I can bear on

siy.gle

feather of mine,

Sakra,

this Earth with her mountains and forests and with the waters of the ocean, and with thee also stationed thereon. Know

thou,

my

strength

is

such that I can bear without fatigue even

all the worlds put together, with their animate

and iuauimate

objects.'

Sauti continued, "

Saunaka, after Gaduraof great cour-

age had thus spoken, the chief of the gods


the (celestial)

the

wearer of

crown, the lord bent upon the good of the worlds,


'

replied, saying,

It

is

as thou

sayest.

Everything

is

possible

in thee.
if

Accept now
liast

my

sincere

and hearty

friendship.
it to

And
me.

thou
to

no business

with the Soma, return


it

Those

whom

thou wouldst give


'

And Gadura, answered, There Soma is being carried by me.


any one
place
it

is

would always oppose us. a certain reason for which the


not give the

I shall

Soma

to

for drink.

But where

I myself,

thou of thousand eyes,

down, thou lord of the heavens canst then, taking it And Indra then said, O thou up, instantly bring it away.
'

'

oviparous one,

I
!

am

highly gratified with

this

speech now*
of the
skies,

spoken by thee
accept from
S;iati

thou best of

all

rangcrd
"

coi\tinuod, "
1

mo any boon that thou desirest.' And Ga'hira, recollecting


romembeiing
also

then the eons


of
l>is

of

Kadru an

the b"ii,]age

motlier,

caused by an act of deception, owing to the well-known i-easoa


(the curse
of Aruua), said,
shall
'

Although

have power over


Let,

all

creatures, yet I

do your bidding.

Sakra, the
of the
Dii-

mighty snakes become

my

food

'.'

And

the flayer

112

KAHAEHAEATAi
liiiu
'

navas, having' saiJ unto

Be

it so,'

tLen went to Harl the


of

god

of god'^,

of great

soul,

the lorJ

Yogees.

And

the

latter sanctioned

everything that had

been said by Gadura.

And And

the worshipful lord of the heavens again said unto Gadura,

'I shall bring

away the Soma when


so,

tliou

placest

it

down."
the

having said

he bade farewell to Gadura.


to the

And

bird of fair feathers then went

vicinage of his mother

with great speed.


"

And Gadura
I

in joy then spake unto all the snakes,

'

Here

have
grass.

brought the amrita.

Let

me

place
it

it

on

some kusa
ye have per-

ye snakes, sitting here, drink of


rites.

after

formed your ablutions and religious


this

As

said

by

ye, let
for

my mother become

from this day a freed- woman,


'

by

me

hath been accomplished your bidding.


'

And

the snakes

having said unto Gadura


ablutions.

Be

it so,

'

then went to perform their

And Sakra

in the

meantime taking up the amrita

wended back

to the heavens.

And the

snakes, after performing

their ablutions, their daily devotions,

and other sacred


amritd.

rites,

returned in joy, desirous of drinking the

And they

saw that the bed of kusa grass whereon the amrita had been placed was empty, the amrita itself having been taken away by a counter act of deception. And they thereupon began to
lick

with their tongues the husa grass as the amrita had been

placed thereon.

And

the tongues of the snakes

bj'

that act

became divided
tact with

in twain.

And

the Jaisa grass

too

from conthus by

amrita became sacred from that time.


for the snakes,

And

the illustrious Gadura was amrita brought (from the heavens)

and brought

and by him thus were the snakes

made
"

of divided tongues.

And

the bird of fair feathers very

much

delighted, enjoyed

himself in those woods accompanied by his mother.


of grand achievements, deeply reverenced
skies, gratified his

And he
tlie

by

all

rangers of

mother by eating of the snakes.


listen to this

"And

that

man who would


merit

story, or
to

read

it

to an assembly of good Brahmanas,

must surely go

heaven

acquiring great

from

the

recitation of (the deeds of)

Gadura.

"

ADIPARVA,

11 Q

And
Adi

so enJa the tliirfy-fourtli Section iu the

Astlka of the

Parrfi.

Section
( Astlka

XXXV.
)
tlie

Parva continued.
of Suta,

Saunaka

said,

"

son

thou hast nnfolded

reason why the snakes were cursed by their mother, and why

Vinata was also cursed by her son.


bestowal of boons by
their

Thou bast

also related the

husband on Kadru and Vinata.


sons.

Thou hast likewise told us the names of Vinata's But thou hast not yet recited the names of the snakes. are anxioi^s to hear the names of the principal ones.
Sauti S^d, "

We

thou whose wealth

is

asceticism,
all

from feau
the
snalcesr.

f being lengthy,

I shall not

mention the names of

But

I will recite the

names
first,

of th chief ones. Listen ye to me.

Sesha was born

and then Vasuki.

(Then were born)

Airavata, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Kalakeya, the ser-

pent Mani, Purana, Pinjarakaand Elapatra, Vamana,Nila, Anila,

Kalmasha, Savala,
kha,

Aryaka,

Ugraka, Kalasapotaka,

Suramu-

Dadhimukha, Vimalapindaka, Apta, Karotaka, Sanklia, Hemaguha, Nahusha, Pingala, BahyaHastipada, Mudgarapindaka, Kamvala, Aswatara, Kakarna,
Valisikha, Nisthanaka.
liyaka, Vritta,

Samvartaka, Padma, Mahapadma,

Sankhamu-

kha, Kuslimandaka, Kshemaka, Pindaraka, Karavira, Pushpa-

danstraka, Vilwaka, Vilwapandara, Mushakada, Sankhashirah,

Purnabhadra, Haridraka, Aparajita, Jyotika, Srivaha, Kauravya, DhritaraRtra,Sankhapinda, Virajah, Sabahu, Salipinda,
tipinda, Pitharaka,

Has-

Sumukha, Kaunapasliana, Kuthara, Kunjara, Prabhakara, Kumuda, Kum.udakshya, Tittiri, Halika, Kardama, Vahuniulaka, Karkara, Akarkara, Kundodara and Mahodara,
Thus,

best of Dwijas,

have

told the

names of the
asceticism,

principal serpents.

From

fear of length I

have not told the


is

names

of the rest.

thou whose wealth

the

sons of these

snakes,

with their grandsons, are innumerable.

Reflecting upon this, I shall not


ascetics, in this world

the

name them to thee. O best of number of snakes defies calculation,


of them,

there being

many thousands and arbudas

15

4.^14!

MAHABHARATA,
And
so suds the thirty-fifth

Section iu the Astika of the

Alii Parva,

Section

XXSVI.

( Astika Pai^t^a continued.. )

thou hast named many o-f the energy and incapable of being easily serpents gifted with great cui-se ?" overcome. What did they do after liearing of that

Saunaka

said,

"

child,

of great Sauti said, "Tlie illustrious Bhesha amongst them, practised hard penances, living renown, leaving his mother, And he was enair and rigidly observing his vows.

upon gaged

in these

ascetic devotions,

having arrived at Gandha-

and the inadana, Vadari, Gokarna, the woods of Pushkara, his days in those sacred And he passed foot of Himavat.
recrions,

some

of

which were sacred


rigid

for their

waters and others

fur their soil,

in the

observance of his vows, with a


in complete
central.

sinoleness of aim

and
in

his passions

And
dried

the
liair
ivn,

Grand-father of

all srav

him

that

ascetic with

knotted

and

clad

rags,

his

flesh,

skin,

and sinews

owing to the hard penances he v/as practising.


Grand-father
addressing

And

rhe

him

that
is

penance-practising

one of

firm fortitude, said,


?

'What

this that thou doest,

Let the welfare of the creatures of the worlds also O thou sinless one, thou art afflicting eJio-acre thv thoughts. O Shesha, tell me by thy hard penances. all creatures

Shesha

the desire that


''

is

implanted in thy
replied,

breast.'

And Shesha

'My uterine

brothers are

all

of

wicked hearts.
of one
:

I do not desire to live

amongst them.

Let

this be sanctioned

by

thee.

Like enemies, they


I

are always

jealous

another.

am
her

therefore

engaged in ascetic
Vinata's
son,

devotions

I will not see them even.

They never show any


Indeed,

kindness for Vinata

and

son.

capable of ranging through the They always envy him. ours.

skies, is

another brother of

he too is much stronger, boon by our father the high-souled from the bestowal of the Kasyapa. For these, I am engaged in ascetic penances, and I

And

ADI PARVAi

]15^

wiH cast off them I may


"
so,
'

this

body of mine, so that companionship with


life.'

avoid, even in another state of

And

the

Grand-father spake unto Shcsha


I

who had

said

Q Shesha,
O

know the behaviour


owing

of

all

thy brothers, and


their mother.

their great danger

to their offence against

But,

Snake, a remedy hath


It

been provided by
for thy

me

even

before-hand.

behoveth thee not to grieve

brothers.
I have

Shesha, ask then of

me

the boon that thou desircst.

been highly gratified


boon.

v;ith thee

and I
it
is

will

grant thee to-day a


that thy heart

thou best of snakes,


'

fortunate

hath been set on virtue.


firmly set on virtue.

Let thy heart be more and more

"And Shesha
boon that
virtue
is

replied,

'0

divine Grand-father, this

is

(he

desired by me, that

my

heart

may

always joy in
!

by mand,
tures
tains

O Loi'd of all " And Brahma said, O Shesha, lam exceedingly gratified this thy self-denial and love of peace. But by my comand
in blessed ascetic penances,
'

let this act

be done by thee for the good of


this

my

crea^
:

Holding properly and well


forests,

Earth with her motm-

and

her seas and towns and retreats for enjoyments;


thou,

80

unsteady, remain
!

Shesha, so that she

may

be

steady
"

And Shesha

said,

'

divine

lord of all creatures,

grantor
lord

of boons,

lord of the Earth, lord of every created thing,


I will,

of the universe,

even as thou sayest, hold the Earth


lord of all creatures,

steady.

Therefore,
'

place

thou that on

my

head.
"

And Brahma
She
And,

said,

'

beat of snakes,

go thou underneath
a
crevice
"
to

the Earth,

will

herself give

thee

pass

through.
certainly

Shesha, by holding this Earth


is

thou shalt

do what

prized by

me

very greatly.'

Sauti continued,
of the

"And

then the elder brother of the king


to

snakes entering by a hole passed

the other

Bule

of the Earth,

and holding

her, supports

with his head


round.

the:

goddess Earth with her belt of seas going

all

"And Brahma

said,

'O Shesha, be&tof


alone,

snakes, thou

art the

god Dbarma^ because

with thy huge body, thou 5U-

116
portest
this

MAHABHARATA.
Earth taking
it

everything

with her, evert

as I

myself or Vala\

(Indra) can'."
*'

Sauti continued,
of great prowess,

And
the

the snake,

the

lord

Ananta^

lives

underneath the

Earth,
of

alone sup-

porting

the

world

at

command
tlie

Brahma,

And

the illustrious

Grand-father,

best of the
feathers

immortals, then
so-n

gave unto Ananta the bird of


lor Anauta's help."

fair

the

of Vinata,,

And

so ends the thirty- sixth Section in the

Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XXXVII.
( Astilca

Parvd

continii^ed.

Sauti said, ''That best of snakes, Vasiiki, on hearing the curse of his mother, reflected how to render it abortive. Then

he held a consultation with all his brothers, Airavata and all othersjintent upon doing what they deemed best foy themselves.

And Vasuki
curse
it.

said,

'

ye

sinless

ones
to

The

object of this
neutralise
is

is

known

to ye.

It

behoveth us

strive to

Remedies certainly

exist for all

curses,

but no remedy

available to those cursed

by their mother.

Hearing that

this

curse hath been uttered in the presence of the immutable, the


infinite,

and the true one,

my

heart trembleth

Surely, this our

annihilation hath

come

otherwise

why

should not the immut?

able god prevent her (our mother) while uttering the curse

Therefore

will

we

consult

to-day

bow

we may
and

secure the

safety of the snakes.

Let us not waste time.

All of ye are
find out the

wise and discerning.


of deliverance,

We

will consult together

means Agni who had concealed himself within a cave, o that the sacrifice of Janamejaya for the destruction of the snakes may not take place, and so that also we may not meet with dis-

as (did)

the gods of yore to regain losi

comfiture.'

"

Sauti

continued,

"Thus

addressed,

all

the

offspring

of

Kadru assembled

together,

and wise

in

couneels, submitted

AUl PARVA.
their opinions to one another.

117
'

One

party of serpents said,

we

should assume the guise of Superior Brahmanas, and beseech Janamejaya^saying, this (intended) sacrifice of yours ought not

to take place
*

'.

Other snakes thinking themselves wise, saidy


his favorite councellors.

we should

all

become

certainly ask for our advice in all projects.

He And we

shall thett will

thea

give him

such advice that the

sacrifice

may be obstructed
we
shall

The
say,

king, the

foremost of wise men, thinking us of sterling


ask us about his sacrifice, and

worth shall

certainly

It must not be-.

And

pointing to

many and

serious evils

and the next world with rcasons and causes we should take care that the sacrifice may not take place. Or let one of the snakes approaching bite the person who intending the monin this arch's good,
rifice,

and well acquainted with the


the

rites of the

snake sacthat he

may

die.

may be appointed as And the sacrificial

sacrificial priest, so

priest dying,

the sacrifice shall

not be completed.

We
snake

shall also bite all those


sacrifice,

who, acquainted

with the

rites of

may

be

appointed Ritiuijas

of the sacrifice, and by that attain our object.'

Other snakes,
is evil.

more virtuous and It is not meet to kill Brahmanas.


kind, said,
'

this counsel

of yours

In danger, that remedy


the honest.

is

proper which

is

based on the practices of


world.'

Un-

righteousness finally destroyeth the


said,

Other serpents

'we shall extinguish the flaming

sacrificial fire

by ourselves
proposed,

becoming clouds luminous with lightning and pouring down


showers.'
'

Other snakes, the best of their kind


night, let us
steal

Going by

away the
in that

vessel of

Soma juice;
snakes

this will disturb the rite.

Or

sacrifice,

let the

by hundreds and thousands


around.

bite the people,

and spread terror


us

Or

let

the serpents defile the pure food with their urine and
dung.'

own

food-defiling

Others

said, 'let

be-

come the

king's

Ritiuijas,

and obstruct
sacrificial fee

his sacrifice

by saying
Others

at the outset,

Give us the

He (the
we

king) being

placed in
there said,

our power, shall do whatever


'

like.'

when the king will sport in the waters, we shall carry him to our home and bind him, so that the sacrifice may not take place.' Other serpents who conceived themselves wise, said/ approaching him (king) let us bite the monarchy

113
SO that our object
of all evil
a^ll,

MAHIHARATA,
may be
accomplished.

By

his death the

roof
us-

^7ill

be severed.

This

is

the final deliberation of


!

thou

who

hearest by thy eyes

Then, do that speedily


said
this,

which thou deemest proper.'

Having

they looked
also, after

intently at Vasuki, the best of snakes.


reflecting

And Vasuki
*

answered the snakes, saying.

Ye

snakes,

this

final

determination of ye all doth not seem worthy of adoption. The advice of ye all is not to my liking. What shall I appoint

which would be
illustrious

for

your good

I think

the grace of the

Kasyapa

(our father) can alone do us good.

Ye

snakes,

my

heart doth not

know which
to

to adopt of all

your sug-

gestions for the welfare of iny race as also of mine.

That must
is

be done by

me

which would be

your weal.

It

this

that

makes me
alone.

so anxious, for the credit and the discredit are

mine

And

so ends the thirty-seventh

Section in the Astika of

the Adi Parva.

Section XXXVIII.
( Astihd
"

Parvd conthiued.

Hearing the respective speeches of all the' Sauti said, snakes, and hearing also the words of Vasuki, Elapatra beganto address them, saying,
'

That

sacrifice is not

such that

it

may
such-.

not take place.

Nor
king,

is

king Janamejaya of the Pandava race

(as can be hindered),

from

whom

this our great fear proceedeth.

The person, O
alone
;

who

is afflicted

by fate hath recourse to fate

nothing else can be his refuge.


its root.

Ye best of snakes,

this fear

of ours hath fate for


in this. Listen ye to

Fate alone

must be our refuge


of

what

I say.
I

When

that curse was uttered,

ye best of snakes,
mother.

in fear

had crouched on the lap

our

Ye

best of snakes, and


I

lord (Vasuki) of great splen

dour, from that place

heard

the words the sorrowing gods

spake thereupon unto the Grand-father.


Grand-father, thou god of gods, could thus, after getting

The gods

said

:
so,^

who

else than- the cruel

Kadru

such dear children, curse

them

even in thy presence

And

Graud-father, by thee also hath

ADI PARVA,
been spoken in reference to those words of
wish to
liers,

119

Be

it so.

We

know the reason wliy thou didst not prevent her. And Brahma thereupon replied, The snakes have been many, cruel, terrible in form, and highly poisonous. From desire of

the good of

my

creatures, I did not prevent her then.


a-re

Those
they
for

poisonous serpents that

always disposed

to

bite,

who

bite for little

faults,

they

who

are

sinful,

biting

no
the

faults, shall

indeed be destroyed, not they

who

are harmless

and virtuous.
snakes
fooni

And
escape

hear ye, how,


this

when

the

liour

comes,
shall

may

dreadful

calamity.

There

be

in tlie race of the

Yayavaras a great Rishi known by


given up to ascetic devocontrol.

the

name

of Jaratkara, intelligent,
his passions

tions,

and having
Astika.

under complete

That

Jaratkaru shall have a son also given up to ascetic penances,


of

name

He

shall

put a stop to that


virtuous
shall

sacrifice.

And

those snakes

who

shall be

escape therefrom.--'

And
shall

the gods replied, O thou

truth-knowing one, in

whom

Jaratkaru that
asceticism,

first

of munis, gifted with


his
illustrious son
?

great energy

and

beget

And

Brahma

answered,

Gifted with great


;

energy, that best of Bralimanas

shall beget a son

possessed of great

energy in a wife of the

same name with him.


sister, of

Vasuki the king of the snakes hath a


the son of

name Jaratkaru
continued,

whom
gods

born in her, and he shall liberate the snakes.


"

speak shall be

Elapatra

lord Brahma having said Be it so. so unto the gods went to heaven. O Vasuki, I see before me that sister of thine known by the name of Jaratkaru. For

Grand-father

And And the


'

the

said

unto

the

relieving

us

from

fear,

give

her as alms unto Jam,, the Rishi

Jaratkaru, of excellent
bride.

vows,

who

shall

roam abegging

for a

This means of release hath been lieard of by me."


so ends the thirty-eighth Section in the

And

Astika of the

Adi Parva.

S-ECTION

XXXI X.
)

( Astika
^aiiti said,

Parva continued.

"O
!'

beat of dwijas,
in

on hearing these words of


'

Elapatra,
jsaid,

all

the serpents,

great delight, exclaimed,

weli

well said

And

from that time Vasuki set about carefully


sister,

bringing up that maiden, his


great delight in rearing her.
"

Jaratkani.

And he

took

And

a long time did not elapse from


all

this,

wh^en the deities

and the Asuras, assembling


Varuna.

together,

churned the abode of


gifted with strength,

And

Vasuki, the foremost of

all

became the churning-cord.


father.

And

directly

the work was over,

the king of the snakes presented himself before the Grand-

And

the gods, accompanied by Vasuki, addressed the


'

Orand-father, saying,

lord,

Vasuki

is

suffering great afflic-

tion from fear of (Ins mother's) curse. It behoveth thee to

draw
race.

out the dart, begotten of the curse of his mother, that hath
pierced the heart of Vasuki
desirous of the weal of his

The king

of

the snakes

is

ever

our friend and Ijenefactor.


to

thou

lord
fever.*

of the gods, be

gracious

him and

allay

his

mind's
"

And Brahma

replied,

'

ye immortals, I

have thought

in

my mind

what ye have

said.

Let the king of the snakes

himself do that which hath been communicated to him before

by Elapatra.
foe

The time
that are

also

hath arrived.
those

Those only

shall

destroyed

wicked, not

that are virtuous,


is

Jaratkaru hath been born, and that Brahmana

engaged

in

hard ascetic penances.

on him his
snake
'

sister.

Ye
the

Let Vasuki, at the proper time, bestow gods, what hath been spoken by the
weal of the

Elapatra for

snakes

is

true and

not

otherwise.

Sauti
afflicted

continued, "And the king of the snakes, Vasuki, with the curse of his mother, on hearing these words
his sister for

of the Grand-father, and intending

bestow^al

on

the Rishi Jaratkaru,

commanding

all

the

serpents,
to their

even large
duties, set

numbers

of

them

that were ever attentive

them

to

watch the Rishi

Jaratkaru, saying,

when the

lord

ADI PARVA.
^aratkai'u will ask for a wife,

121

come immediately and iuform


it.'

me

of

it.

The weal of our race depends upon

And

so ends the thirtj'-niuth

Section in the Astika of the-

Adi Parva.

Section XL.

( Astika

Parva continued,

Saunaka

said, "

son of Suta, I desire to

know

the reason

why the illustrious Ki.shi

whom

thou hast named Jaratkaru


It

eame

to be so called

on earth.

behoveth thee to

tell

ua

the etymology of the

Sauti said, "


huge.

name Jaratkaru,." Jara is said to mean waste, and Karii

implies

This
it

Rislii's

body had been huge, and he gradually

reduced

by severe ascetic penances.


sister of

For the same reason,

Brahmaua, the

Vasuki was called Jaratkaru."


this,

The

virtuous

Saunaka, when he heard


is

.smiled,

auj

addressing Ugrasrava said, " It

even

so."
all

Saunaka then
recited.

said, " I

have heard

that thou hast before


born."
to say

I desire to

know how Astika was


in the Shastras.

And
to

Sata, on hearing these words,

began

according

what was written

Sauti said, " And Vasuki desirous of bestowinsf his sister upon the Tashi Jaratkaru gave the snakes (necessary) orders. But days went on, yet that wise Muni of rigid vows, deeply engaged in ascetic devotions, sought not for a wife. And thab
high-souled Rishi, engaged in
asceticism, his vital seed under

study and deeply devoted to


full control,

fearlessly

wauder-

ed over the whole earth and


"

felt

not a wish even for a wife.

Afterwards, once upon a certain time, there was a king,

the

Brahmaua, of the name of Parikshita, born of the race of Kauravas. And, like his groat-grand-father Pandu of old, he was of mighty arm, the first of all bearers of bows ia war and given up to hunting. And the monarch wandered
deer,

about piercing

wild boars,

wolves,

and
16

buifitloes,

aa4

122:

MAHAEHAEATA."
One day having pierced
his

various other kiinU of vvilJ animal.s.

(leer

with a sharp arrow and shmg his bow on


forest,

back, he

penetrated into the deep

searching for the animal here


of old

and
ill

there, like the illastrious


tlje

Rudra himself
in hand,

pursuing

heavens,

with

bow
itself

the
into

deer
that

which was
shape, after

the celestial

sacrtfice
it.

turned
that

having pierced

No
in the

deer

was pierced by Parikshita


life.

had ever escaped

woods

Avith

This deer, however,


(proximate) cause
the deer that Parilost

wounded
kshita

as before, fled with speed,

as the

f the king's attainment of heaven.

And

that

king of

men

had

pierced was

to

his gaze

and drew the monarch tigued and thirsty, he came upon a Muni,
far

enough into the


the

forest.

And

fa-

in the forest,

seated

in a fold of

kine and drinking to his

fill

froth

oozing out

of

tiie

mouths

of calves sucking the milk of their dams.


hastily,

And
'

approaching

liitn

the

monarch, hungry and fatigued,

and raising

his bow, asked that I

Muni

of rigid vows, saying,


of

Brahmana,

am

king Parikshita, the son


lost.

Abhimanyu.
it
?'

O A

deer pierced by rae hath been


that Muni, observing then the

Hast thou seen


of silence,

But

vow

spake not unto

him a word. And the king in anger thereupon placed upon his shoulder a dead snake, taking it up with the end of his bow.

And

the

Muni

sufifered

him

to

do

it

without protest.
the king seeing
sorry.

And
him

he spake not a word, good


in that stake, cast off

or bad.

And

his

anger and became

And he

returned to his capital,


state.

but the Rishi continued in the same

And

the forgiving Muni,

knowing that the monarch


true to
the

who was

a tiger amongst kings Avas

duties of his

order, cursed

him not though

insulted.

And

that tiger araongsb

monarchs, the foremost of the Bharata race, also knew him Hot for a virtuous Rishi. And it was for this that he had insulted
"

him

so.

And

that Rishi

liad

a son

by name Sringi, of tender


difficult to

years, gifted with great energy,


in his vows,

deep in ascetic penances, severe


be appeased.

very Avrathful, and

At

times,

he worshipped with
with
ease

great attention

and respect his

preceptor, seated
in the

on his

seat

and ever engaged

good of

all

creatures.
his preceptor

"And commanded by

he was coming home when,

ADl PAllVA.

i2S
his,

best of Brahinanas, a companion of

a Pislil's son

named
And*

Krisha in a playful mood laughingly


Srinj^i,

spake

unto

liim.

wrathful and

like

unto

poison

itself,

hearing those

words
"

in reference to his father,

flamed up in a rage.

And

Krisha

said;

'

Be

not proud,

OSringi,

for

ascetic as

thou art and possessed of energy,


shoulder a dead snake.
Rishis like ourselves
in ascetic penances,
liness of thine,

thy father bears on his


to

Henceforth speak hot a word

sona of

who have knowledge

of the truth, arc deep

andhave attained success. Where is that manthose high words of thine begotten of pride, when

O'thou best of
sorry as

thou must have to behold thy father bearing a dt-ad snake ? all the Munis, thy father too had done nothing to
deserve this treatment, and
if
it is

for this
"

that

lam

particularly

the punishment were mine.'

And

so

ends the

fortieth

Section in

the

Astika of the

MHi Parva.

Sectiox XLF.
(Astlka
Sauti said,

Par va continued.)
his sire was-

"Thus

addressed, and hearing that

Bearing a dead snake, the powerful Sringi burned with

wrath;

And

looking at Erisha) and speaking softly,

he asked him,
?'

'Pi-ay,

why doth my

father bear

to-day a dead snake

And
ot

Krisha replied^

'Even

as the king Parikshita

was roving

purposes of hunting,

0dear
sire
'

one,

he

placed the

dead snako

on the shoulder of thy

?'

"And

Sringi asked,

monarch by
"

my

father

What wrong was done to that wicked O Krisha tell me this, and witness
'
'

thou the force of

my

asceticism.

And

Krisha answered,

King
a-

Parikshita; the son of Abhifleet

man}^!, while hunting, wounded^

stag with

an. arrow
tiie

and chased

it alone.

And

the king lost sight of

animal

in that extensive wilderness.

And; on seeing thy

mediately accosted him.


silence.

He was

he imthen observing the vow of


sire,

Oppressed by hunger,

thirst,

and labour, the prince

again Mid agaiu usked thy fathep hiii'ing mutionkes, about th*

12ii
mlsslnof deer.

BfAHAHARATA.

And

the sage

beinj]j tlie

under the vow of silence


tliereupon

retnrneth no reply.

And

king-

placeth the

snake on thy

father's

shoukler with the end of his bow.


in devotion
is

Sringi, thy father


still

engaged

in

the same posture

And

the king also hath gone to his capital


?'"

named

after

the elephant
placed upon

Sauti continued,

"Having heard
it

of a dead

snake being

his (father's) shoulder, the son of the llishi, his eyes

reddening with anger, as


possessed

were flamed up

witii rage.

And

by

anger, the puissant Rislii then cursed the king,

touching water and overcome with wrath.

"And
that

Sringi said, 'That sinful wretch of a monarch

who hath
fame of

placed a dead snake on the shoulder of


insulter of

my

lean anil old parent,


tlie

Brahmanas and tarnisher of

the Kurua, shall be taken within seven nights hence to the reo-ions of Yama by the snake Takshaka, the powerful king of
Ecrpents, stimulated thereto

by the strength

of

my

words.'

Sauti

continued, "

And

having thus cursed (the king) froin

anger, Sringi

went

to his father,

and saw the sage

sitting
his

in

the cow-pen, bearing the dead snake. in that plight, he was again inflamed

And

seeing

parent
he shed

Avith ire.

And

tears of grief, and addressed his sire, saying, 'Father, having been informed of this thy disgrace at the hands of that wicked wretch, the king Parikshita, I have from anger even cursed
liim
;

and that

Avorst of

Kurus hath

richly deserved

my

potent
shall

curse.

Seven days hence, Takshaka, the lord


'

of snakes,

take the sinful king to the horrible mansions of death.*


the father said to the enraged sou,
Child, I
thus.

And
the

am

not pleased
live in

with thee

Ascetics

should not
king.

act

We

domains of that
righteously. In like of
all

great

We
thou

are

protected

by him
verily

he does, the reigning king


If

should by the

us be forgiven.
will destroy
U3,

destroy

Dharma,
not

Dharma
protect
religious

thee.

If
ill
;

the kin^ doth not properly

we

fare

very

we can

perform

our

rites

according to our desire.

righteous sovereigns,

we

attain

But protected by immense merit, and they are


reigning royalty
is

entitled to a share thereof. Tlicrefore


laieaus to bt^ forgiven.

by

all

And

Parikshita like unto his great-grand-

^ire protecteth us as a

king should protect bis euhjects,

Thut

ADIPARVA.
ponancc-practising monarch was
fatigued and oppressed
(of silence)

12a
witlr

hunger. Ignorant of

my vow

he

did

this.

kingless country always suffereth from evils.


offeuJerfi,

and

fear

of punishments

conduceth to peace

people do

their duties

and perform their

The king punisheth and rites undisturbed. The


;

king establisheth religion (Dhartna) and religion establisheth


the

kingdom

of heaven.

The king

protecteth sacrifices froni

annoyance, and saQrifices please the gods.


rain,

The gods cause


is

and rain produceth

medicinal herbs, which are always

useful to

man. Manu sayeth, a ruler of the destinies of men


Avith

equal (in dignity) to ten veda-studying priestss

Fatigued and

oppressed

hunger, that penance-practicing prince hath

done

this

through ignorance of

my

vow.

Wiiy then hast


from
"
'

thou?

rashly done this unrighteous action, through chihlishness


son, in no ways doth the king deserve a
cui*se

us.

And

so ends the

forty-first

Section in the Astika of tho

Adi Parva.

Section XLII.
(Astika Parva continued.)
Sauti said, "

And

Sringi then replied to his

father,

saying,

'Whether

this

be an act of rashness,

father, or
it

an improper
it,

act that I have done, whether thou likest

or dislikest

the

words spoken by
spoken a
even

me

shall

never be vain.

O
I

father,

I tell

thee, this '(curse)


lie

can never be otherwise.

have never

in jest.'

"And Shamika
Eb

said,

'Dear child, I know that thou art of

great {)rowess, and truthful' in speech.


falsehood before, so that
son,

Thou

hast never spoken


falsified.

thy curse shall never be

The

even when he

attaineth to age, should yet be always

counselled by the father, so that crowned with good qualities he

may
more

acquire great renown.


dost thou stand
in ascetic
t

child as thou art,


?

in

need of counsel

how much Thou art ever

engaged

penances.
six

The wrath

of even the illustrious

ones possessing

lie

attributes iucreaseth greatly.

thou

fyj.eiaoat of ordinance-observing persons, seeing that thuu art

12G
niy see

MAHABHARATA.
Ban and a niinor
that I
too,

and beholding
thee.
fruits

also

thy
son,

raHlincss,

1
to

must

coinifel
o>f

Live thou,

O
of

inclined

peace and

eatin.g

the

and roots
fruit of

the forest.

KiU

this thy anger

and destroy not the

thy ascetic acts so^

Wrath

surely decreaseth the virtue

that ascetiss acquire witHt

great pains.

And

then for those deprived of virtue, the blessed

state existeth not.

Peacefukiess ever givefch

success to forgivfor the forgiv-

ing ascetic^.
ing.

This world

and the next are both

Therefwe beeaming forgiving in thy tentper and conquering


live.

thy passions, shauldst thou always

By

forgiveness shalt

thou obtain worlds that are


himself.
also of

beyond the reach of Brahma' Having adopted peacefulness myself, and with a desire doing gooK.J as n\Hch as lies in my power, I must do someeven must I send to that king, telling him,
cui-sed

thing

monarchy

thou hast been


myself.'
"

by

my

son of tender years and undeve-

loped intellect, in wrath at seeing thy act of disrespect towards

Sauti continued,
vows,

"And

that great

ascetic,

observant of

moved

by kindness, sent with proper instructions a disto

ciple of his

king Parikshita.

And

he sent his disciple


also
in

Gaurmukha
of the king

of good

manners and engaged


to
first

ascetic

penances, instructing him

inquire about the welfare


real message.

and then to communicate the

And
first

that disciple soon approached that monarch


ii^uru
race.

the

head of the

And

he entered the king's palace having

Bent notice of his arrival through


6t the gate,

the servant in attendance'

"And
ftvch

the twice-born

with proper forms.

Gaurmukha was worshipped by themonAnd after resting for a while, he detailed

fully to the

king in the presence of his ministers the words of

Shamika, of cruel import, exactly as he had been instructed.


"

And Gaurmukha

said,

'

kiug of kings, there


soul, his passions

is

a Rishi,.

Shamika, by name, of virtuous


dominions.

under control,
living in thy

peaceful and given up to hard ascetic

devotions,

By

thee,

tiger

amongst men, was placed on the

shoulders of that Rishi observing at present the

vow
the

of silence,

a dead snake,
thee that
act.

with

the end of thy bow.


his son could not.

He

himself forgave
latter hast

But

And by

thou ta-day

b(;en curbed,

king of kings, without the know-

ADI PARVA.
Ifjdge of
laiH

127
witlun

father,
(tlie

to

the

effect

that

seven nights

hence shall

suake) Takshaka be thy death.


is

And Shamika
none to
falsify

repeatedly asked his son to save thee, but there


his sou's curse.

And

because he hath been unable to pacify

his sou possessed with auger, therefore

have

been sent to thee,

king, for thy good.

'

"And
his

that king of the

Kuru

race, himself

engaged

in as*

cetic practices,

having heard these cruel words and recollecting

own

sinful act,

became
of

exceedingly sorry.
Rishis
in

And

the king,

learning

that
tiic

foremost

the

forest

had becu

observing

vow

of silence, was doubly afflicted with sorrow.

And

learning the kiuduess of the Rishi Shamika, and his

own

sinful act towards him,

the king became very repentant.

And
fo(

the king looking like a very god, did not grieve so hearing of his death as
for

much

having done that act

to the Rishi.

"And

then the king sent

away Gaurmukha,

saying, 'Let the

worshipful one

(Shamika) be gracious to me.'


with
Ids ministers.

And when
without
liaving con-

Gaurmukha had gone away, the king,


loss of time, "consulted

in great anxiety,

And

sulted with his

ministers,

the king,

wise in counsels himself,

caused a mansion to

be erected upon

one solitary column.

And
tion

it

was w^ell-guarded day and night.


around.

And

for

its

protec-

were placed there physicians and medicines and Brahmaall

nas skilled in mantras,

And

the monarch, protected

on

all sides,

discharged his kingly duties fi'om


his

that

place snr-

vounded by

virtuous

ministers.

And no
air

one could ap-

proach that best of kings there.

The

even could not go

there, being prevented from entering.


"

And when

the seventh day had arrived, that best of Brah-*

manas, the learned Kasyapa, was coming (towards the king*$


residence) desirous of treating the king (after
the snake-bite.)
that

He had
that

heard

all

that had

taken place,

viz.,

Takshaka,
to the

first

of snakes,

would send that best of monarchs

vicinage of

Yama.
is bit

And
by the

he
first

thought,

'

would cure the mon-

arch after he

of snakes.
also.'

By

that I

may have
Kasyopo.

wealth and

may
in

acquire virtue

But that prince of snakes;


set

Takshaka.

the

form of an old Bndunana, saw


lieart

approacliing on his way, his

upon curing the king.


bull

And

the prince of snakes then

spake unto that

aniongstJ

12S

MAHABHARATA,
'

Munis, Kar,yapa, naying,


speed?
intent
?'

Whitlier dost thou


the

go

'witb

such

What,

besides,

is

business upon which thou art

"And

Kasyapa, thus addressed, replied,


enemies.

'

Takshaka, by
race,

his poison, will to-day

burn king Parikshita of the Kuru

that oppressor of

all

And

go with speed,

ami-

able one, to cure, without loss of time, that king of inmreasurable

prowess,

the

sole representative

of the
to

after he is bit

by the same Takshaka


Taksliaka answered,
shall
'

like
I

Pandava race, Agni himself iu

energy.'

And

am

that Taksliaka,

Brahmana, who
for

burn that lord of the earth.


bit

Stop thou,

thou art unable to cure one


'

by me.

'

And Kasyapa
thee.'

rejoined,

am

sure that possessed of the power of learning,

going

tiiither

I shall cure that

monarch

bit

by

And

so

ends

the forty-second Section

in the

Astika of

the Adi Parva.

Section XLIII.
( Astika

Farva continued.
after
this,

Sauti said, "

And Takshaka,
this

answered,

'

If,

in-

deed, thou art able to cure any creature bit by me,

thou,

Kasyapa, revive thou

tree

bit

by me.

thou best of
'

Brahmanas,
fihow
"

burn

this

banian in thy sight.

Try thy best and

me that skill And Kasyapa

iu

mantras
'

of which thou hast said.

said,

If thou art so minded, bite thou thcua,


tree..

O
by

king of snakes, this


thee.'

snake,

I shall

revive

it

bit

Sauti continued,
the illustrious
tree, bit

"

That king of snakes, thus addressed by


tree.

Kasyapa, bit then that banian


around.

And

that

by the illustrious snake, and penetrated by the poison

of the serpent, blazed up all

And

having burnt the

banian

so,

the snake

then spake again unto Kasyapa, saying,


t'lis

'O

first

of

Brahmanas, try thy best and revive

lord of the

"
forest.'

Sauti continued, " The

tree

was reduced to ashes b} the

poison of the king of snakes.

And

taking up thoae

ashes.

,.

ADl
:

PAP.TA,
'

129^
beliold the
!

KaSj^apa spake

these words

kinc^ of snakes,

power of

my

knowledge as applied
very sight

to this

lord of the forest


it.'

G
by

snake, in thy

I sliall revive

And

then that

l?est of

Brahnianas, the illustrious and learned Kasyapa revived,


that
first

his learning,

tree v/hich

had been reduced

to

a heap

of ashes.
i-t

And

he created the -spront, then he furnished

with two leaves, and then he

brandies,

And

made the stem, and tiien the and then the full-grown tree Avith leaves and all. Takshaka seeing the tree revived by the illustrious
said unto him,
'

Kasyapa

It

is

not wonderful in thee that thou


else like

wouldst destroy my poison or that of any one

myself.

thou whose wealth


?

thither goest thou


fi'om

what wealth The reward that thou expectest to have


is

asceticism,

desiring

that best of moiiarchs, even


it

Avill

give thee, liowever

difficult
art,

may be to obtain it. Decked with fame as thou thy success may be doubtful on that kin^ affected by a
itself

Brahmana's curse and whose period


shortened.

of

life

hath been

that case, this blazing fame of thine that hath overspread the three worlds will disappear like tlie sua when deprived of his splendour (on the occasion of eclipses.)'
in

And

"And Kasyapa
me,

said,

'

go there

for

wealth
I

give

it

nnta

snake, so that taking thy gold,

may

return.' An^l.

Takshaka answered, '0 best of Dwijas, even I will give thee wealth more than what thou expectest from that kino*.
Therefore, cease to go."

Sauti continued,
of

great prowess
sat in

Takshaka
spiritual

"And that best of Brahmanas, Kasyapa," and intelligence, hearing those words of yoga meditation over the king. And the

Kasyapa, of great prowess and gifted with knowledge, ascertaining that the period of life of that king of the Pandava race had really come to its end.

foremost of Munis,

returned, receiving from Takshaka as


"

much wealth

as he desired,
his steps,

And upon
at

the

illustrious

Kasyapa retracing

Takshaka

the

Hastinapore.

And

proper time speedily entered the city of on his way he heard that the lord of the

earth was living very carefully, protected by neutralising mjiiitras and medicines. "

means of poisoasaying-,

Sauti continued,

"

And

he thcrc-upon reflected,

17

130
'

MAHABHARATAi

The monarch must be deceived by my power of illusiou. But) v*^hat must be the means V And then Takshaka sent to
;the

king (his attendant) snakes in the guise of ascetics taking


fruits,

with them

the kiisa grass, and


said,
'

water (as presents).

And
make
(rbsit

Takhaka, addressing them,

Go ye

all

to the king

a^'eging urgent business, without sign


-the

of impatience, as if to

monarch only accept the

fruits,

flowers

and water

yeshall carry as presents to him).'

"

Sauti continued,

*'And those snakes, thus

commanded by
of

Takshaka, acted accordingly.


grass,

water,
prowess,

and

fruits.

And And
those

they took to the hing kusa

the

foremosf of kings,

great

accepted

offerings.

And

after

thier

business was finished, he said unto them, 'Retire'.

And when

those snakes disguised as ascetics had gone away, the king


of
ye,

men

then addressed his ministers and friends, saying, 'Eat


all

with me,

these fruits of excellent taste brought

by the

ascetics.'

And

then moved by fate and the words of the Rishi,

the king, with his ministers, entertained the desire of eating

And the particular fruit, within which Takshaka was eaten by the king himself. And when he was eating \was, the fruit, there appeared, O Saunaka, in it an ugly insect,
^those fruits.

of shape scarcely discernible, of eyes black and color as copper.

And
more
as

the formemost of kings, taking that insect, addressed


is

Lis ccnncillors, saying, 'The sun


fear

setting
let

to-day I have no
insect act
'

from poison.
bite of

Therefore,

this

becoming
expiated
those

Takshaka,

me, so that

my

sinful

be

and the words


councillors
also,

the ascetic rendered


fate,

true.

And

impelled by

approved of that speech.

And

then the monarch smiled, losing his senses, his honr bavino' come. And he quickly placed that insect on his neck.

And

was smiling, Takshaka, who had (in the form of come out of the fruit that had been offered to the king, coiled with his own body, round the neck of the monarch. And quickly coiling round the king's neck and uttering a
as the king

that insect)

tremendous

roar,

Takshaka, the lord of snakes, then bit the


"

protector of the earth,

And

so ends

the forty-third Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva,

Section XLIV.
( Astiha Sauti said;
"

Parva continued.

And

the councillors beholding the king in the


fear,

coils of Taksliaka,

became pale with

and they

all

wept

in exceeding grief.

ministers
grief they

all

fled.

And hearing the roar of Takshaka, the And as they were flying away in great

saw Takshaka, the king of snakes, that wonderful


coursing through the blue sky like a lotus-colored

of serpents,
streak, very

much

looking

lik;e

the vermeil-colored line on a

woman's crown dividing iu the middle the dark masses of


her hair.
"

And
away

the mansion in which the king was, blazed up with

Takshaka's poison*
fled

And

the king's counicillors on beholding

it

in all directions.

And

the king himself

fell

down

as

if
*'

struck with lightning,

And when

the king was fairly laid

low by Takshaka's

poison, the councillors of the

m.onarch, v/ith the king's priesL


all his

a holy
citizens

Brahmana, performed

last rites.

And

all

the

assembling together made

the minor son of the de-

ceased monarch their king.


king, that slayer of
all

And

the people called their

new
race,

enemies, that hero of the

Kuru

by the name

of Janamejaya.

And

that excellent of monarchs,

Janamejaya, though a child, vras wise in mind. And with his councillors and priest, the eldest son of that bull amongst
the Kurus, ruled his kingdom like his heroic great-grand-father
(

Yudhish-thira.

And

then the ministers of the youthful

monarch beholding that he could now keep his enemies in check, went to Suvarnavarmana, the king of Kasi (Beneras) and asked him his daughter Vapushtama for a bride. And the king of Kasi, after due inquiries bestowed with ordained rites his daughter Vapushtama on the mighty hero of the Kuru
glad.

And the latter receiving his bride became exceedingly And he gave not his heart at any time to any other woman. And gifted with great energy^. h wandered in purrace.

suit of pleasure, with a cheerful heart, on expanses of water

and amid vroods and flowery

fields.

And

that

first

of monarcha

132

MAHABHARATA,
Pururava of old did on recolvm^

passecl his time In pleasure as

the

celestial

damsel

XJrvasi.

And

the fairest of the

fair,

the

tlamsel Yapushtauia too, devoted to her lord and celebrated for

her beauty, having gained a desirable husband, pleased him by the excess of her affection during the period he spent ia
the pursuit of pleasure."

And

so ends the forty-fourth Section in the

Aslika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XLY.
( Astlka

Parva continued.

Meanwhile, the grent ascetic Jaratkaru wandered over the whole Earth making the place where evening fell his home for the nio^ht. And gifted with ascetic power, he roameJ,
practising various vows difficult of being practised by

the

in-

mature, and bathing also in various sacred watera. And the Muni had air alone for his food, and was free from the desire o-f

worldly enjoyment.
iean-Seshed.

And

he became daily emaciated and grew


spirits of his

And

he saw one day the

ancestors

banging with heads downward in a hole, by a cord of virand loots having one only thread entire. And that single thread
even was being gradually eaten away by a large rat dwelling in that hole. And the pltris in that hole were without food, emaciated, pitiable,

and eagerly wishing

for their salvation.

And

Jaratkaru approaching the pitiable ones, himself in humble

'Who are ye hanging by this cord of virana roots ? The single weak root that is still left in this cord of virana, roots already eaten away by the rat dwelling in this hole, is itself being gradually eaten away by the rat with his
guise, asked them,
isharp teeth.

The

little tiiat

remains of that single thread


fall

will

soon be cut away.


this
pit.

It is

clear ye shall then

with faces downwards. wards, and overtaken by this great calamity, my pity hath been excited. What good can I do to ye ? Tell me q^uickly,

down into Seeing ye with faces down-

whether this calamity can be relieved by a


or even with a half of this

fourth,

a third,

my

ascelioism,

relieve your^

ADI PARVA.
selves

!F3S

with even the whole of

my

asceticism.

I consent

to

all this.
''

Do

ye as ye please

!'

And

the pitris said,

'

Venerable Bralwiacliarin, thoit


foremost of Brahmanas, thoa

desirest of relieving

us

But,

canst not dispel our affliction by thy asceticism.

chiUl,

thou
But,

first

of speakers,

we

too have the fruits of our asceticism. the loss of children that
1

we are fallThe Grand-father himself hath Prone as we are in this hole, said, that a son is a great merit. child, we know tliee our ideas are no longer clear therefore, Venerable not, although thy manhood is well-known on earth. fortune, who thus from kindness grievest thou art and of good
Brahmana,
it is for

ing down

into the unholy hell

for us wortliy of pity

and greatly

afflicted.

O Brahmana, listen,
of
fallen

who we
"
'

are.

We

are Rishis

of the

Yayavara

sect,

rigid

vows.

And,

Muni, from
a thread

loss of children,

we

liave

down from

a sacred region.

Our

severe penances have not been destroyed

we have

yet.

But we have one only thread now.

But it matters little whether he is or is not. Unfortunate as we are, we have a thread in one known as Jaratkaru. The
unfortunate one has crossed the Vedas and the Vedangas and,

has adopted asceticism alone.

Of

soul

under complete control,

of desires set high, observant of vows,


ascetic

and deeply engaged


this

in

penances,

by him, from temptation of the merits of

asceticism, have

we been reduced
no

to

deplorable state.

He

hath no wife, no son,

relatives.

Therefore do

in this hole, our consciousness

gone, like

we hang men having none to


tell

take care of

us.

If thou

meetest him,

him, from thy

kindness to ourselves,
faces

Thy

pitris, in sorrow are

hanging with
amiable one,
ancestors.-

downwards

in a hole.

Holy

one,

take to wife and beget

children.

thou of ascetic wealth,

thou

art,

the only thread that remaineth in

the line of thy

hanging by,
Aiul,

Brahmana, the cord of virana roots that thou secst we are is the cord representing our grown up race.

Brahmana, those threads

of the cord

of Virana

roots

that thou seest have been eaten away, are ourselves

who have
hath
is

been eaten up by Time.


hal f-eaten and by which

This root that thou

seesfc

been

wo

are hanging in this hole,

h& that

131

MAHAHARATA.
alone.

hath adopted asceticism


is

The

rat

that thou beholdest


is

Time

of inflnite strength.

And

he (Time)

gradually

weakening the v/retch Jaratkaru engaged


tempted by the merits
heart.
thereof, but

in ascetic in

penances

wanting

prudence and

thou

excellent

one, his

asceticism cannot save us.

Behold, our roots being torn, cast down

from higher regions,

deprived of consciousness by Time, we are going downwards


like
sinful

wretches

And upon

our going down into this

hole with

all

our relatives, eaten up by Time even he shall


hell.

sink with

us into
or
is

child,

v/hether

it

is

asceticism,

r sacri^ce,

v/hatever else

there

be of

very

holy acts,
son.

everything
child,

inferior.
all,

These cannot count with a

having seen

speak unto that Jaratkai'u of ascetic


tell

wealths

Thou shouldst
And,

him
tell

in

detail

everything that
to-

thou hast beheld.

Brahmana, from thy kindness

wards ourselves, thou shouldyt

him

all

that would induce


his
friends,

him

to take a wife
race,

and beget children.

Amongst

r of our own
grieveth for us

who
"

art thou,
?

excellent one, that

thus

all like

a friend

We

wish to hear who thou

art that stayest here.'

And

so ends the

forty-fifth

Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XLVI.
(Astika Parva cantinued.)
Sauti said, " Jaratkaru, hearing
sorry.
all this,

became excessively
pitris
in

And from

sorrow he spake unto those

words

obstructed by tears.

And

Jaratkaru said,
before
I

'

Ye

are

even
tell

my
me
of

fathers and grand-fathers gone

me. Therefore

what must I do
yours,
as I am.

for
!

your welfare.
Punish

am

that sinful son

Jaratkaru

me

of sinful deeda

and worthless

"And

the p^'^ris replied, saying,

'

son,

by good fortune

hast thou arrived at this spot in the course of thy rambles.

Brahmana, why hast thou not taken a wife V


"

And

Jaratkaru

said,

ye pitris, this desire hath always

existed in

my

heart that I would, with vital seed

drawn

up,.

./

ADl PARVA.
other workh

135

carry

tliis

body

to

the

My

rnincl

hath been

possessed with the idea that I


grand-fathers,

would not take

wife.
birds,

But ye
I

having seen ye hanging like

have
I

diverted

my mind

from the Brahmachar^a mode of

life.

I will certainly marry, if ever I will truly do what ye like. get a maiden of my own name. I shall accept her who shall, bestowing herself of her own accord, be as alms unto me,

and

whom

I shall not
;

have to maintain.

I shall
is

many

if

get such a one


grand-fathers
shall
!

otherwise, I shall not.

This

the truth, ye

And

the offspring that will

be begot in her
of mine,

be your salvation.

And, ye

'pltrls

ye shall

live forever in blessedness and without fear of fall.'" Sauti continued, " And the Muni having said so unto the

Pitris,

wandered over the earth again. And,

Saunaka, old as

he was, he obtained not a wife.

And

he grieved

much that
his

he was not
tors,

successful.

Bat

directed (as before) by

ances*

he continued the search.


in great grief.

wept loudly
tors, said,

And going into the forest he And having gone into the forest,
bride
'

the wise one, moved by the desire of doing good to his ancesI will ask
for

distinctly rejjeating

these
here,

words
fixed

thrice.'

And he

said,

Whatever creatures
invisible,

are

and
!

moving, or

whatever that are

hear

my
me
am

words

My

ancestors, afflicted with grief,

have directed

engaged in the most severe penances, saying,


the acquisition of a son.

Marry

thou for

ye, directed

by

my

ancestors, I
for

roaming, in poverty and sorrow, over the wide world


(\in(r

wed-

a maiden I

may

obtain as alms. Let that creature, amongst

those I have addressed,

myself roaming on

all

who hath a daughter, bestow her on Such a bride who is of the same sides
!

name with me,


besides
I

to

be bestowed on
not maintain,

me

as

alms, and

whom
Then

shall

bestoAV

on

me

'

those snakes that had been set on Jaratkaru, ascertaining this And the king of his inclination gave information to Vasuki.

the snakes hearing their words, taking with him that

maiden

decked with ornaments, went into

the

forest

unto that Rishi.

Brahmaua, Vasuki the king of the snakes, having gone there, offered that maiden as alms to that high-souled
And,

liishi.

But the Risbi did not

at once accept her,

And

the Rislii

IM
thinking her not
question
(or a
ot"

:WAEABHATIATA.^
to

be of the same name with

him.self,

and the
reflected

her maintenance also being unsettled,


hesitating
to

few moments,

accept her.

And

then,

son of Bhrijjn, he asked Vasuki the


said unto him,
'

maiden's name, and also

I shall not

maintain her.'"
Section in the Astika of the

And
Adi

so ends the farty -sixth

Pa,rva,

Section XLVII.
( Astika

Parvd
best

continibed. )

Sauti

said, "

And
:

karu these words

then Vasuki spake unto the Rishi Jarat'

of

Brahmanas,
is
;

tiiis

maiden

is

of the same name with


merit.
ascetic

thee.

She

my

sister

and hath ascetic

will

maintain thy wife


I shall

accept of her.
all

thou of

wealth,

protect her with

my

ability.

And

thou foremost of great Munis, she hath been reared by me And the Bishi replied, This is appointed between for thee

!'

'

us that I shall not maintain her


that I do not
like.

and she

shall

not do aught

Sauti continued, "


ing,
'

And if she do, I leave her.' And when the snake had
sister,
first
'

promised,

sa}^-

shall

maintain ray

Jaratkaru

then went to

the snake's home.

Then that
rigid

of maTiira-knowing Brah-

manas, observant of
ascetic,

vows,
to

the

virtuous

and veteran

took her hand presented

him with ordained mantras.

And
tlien

taking his bride with him, adored by the great Rishis, he


entered the delightful chamber set apart for him by

the king of the snakes.


stead covered with very
lived there with his wife.

And

in

that chamber was


coverlets.

a bed-

valuable

And

Jaratkaru

And

the excellent Eishi made aa


'

appointment with his


doing any such thing
in thy house.
"

wife, saying,

done or said by thee that is I would leave thee and no longer continue

against

my

Nothing must 'ever be And upon thy liking.

Take these words that have been spoken by me.'

And

then the sister of the king of the snakes, in great


the desire of doing good

anxiety and grieving exceedingly, spake unto him, saying, 'Be


it so.'

And moved by

to

her rela-

tives, of unsullied reputation, she then began to attend upon

ADl PARVA,

137

her lord Avith the wakefulness of the dog, the timidity of the And the deer, and knowledge of signs possessed by the croAV.
sister of Vasuki,

one day, when her season arrived, approached,

after

And

bath according to the custom, her lord the great Muni. she conceived, and the being conceived was like unto a

flame, possessed of excessive energy,

and resplendent

as

fire.

And he grew like the "And one day, within


one fatigued.

moon

in the lighted fortnight.

a short time, Jaratkaru

of great

fame, placing his head on the lap of his wife, slept, looking like

And

as

he was sleeping, the sun entered his


mountain.
excellent

chambers

in the western

And,
sister

Brahmana,

as the

day was
thought,
'

fading, she, the

of Vasuki,

became
she
I

thoughtful,

fearing the loss of her husband's virtue.


is

And

What

proper for
?

my

husband

or not

his religious duties.

me now to do He is both exacting and punctilious in. The How can I so act as not to offend
?

Shall

wake

alternatives are his anger

and the
will

loss of

virtue of a

virtuous

man.
Again,

The
if I

los of virtue is

the greater of the two

evils, I
if

ween.

wake him, he

be

angr}^

But

twilight

passeth away, he shall certainly sustain loss of virtue.'

"And, having resolved


the sister of Vasuki,

at last,

the sweet- voiced

Jaratkaru,

then spake softly

unto that Rishi res-

plendent with his ascetic devotions, and lying prostrate like


a flame of
fire.
!

'

sun

is

setting

O thou of great good fortune, awake, the O thou of rigid vows, thou illustrious one,
!

adore the twilight after touching water

The time
lord,
is

for

the

evening

homa

hath come.

Twilight,

even

now

gently covering the western side


'

And

the illustrious Jaratkaru of great ascetic merit, thus


his

addressed, spake unto his wife these words,

upper

lip

qui-

vering in anger.
hast insulted me.

'

Thou amiable one


I shall

of the

Naga

race,

thou

no more abide with thee, but shall

go whithersoever I came from.


I believe in

thou of beautiful lower limb,

my

heart that the sun hath not power to set

in the usual time, if I

am

asleep.

An

insulted
insult,

person should
far
less

never
I

live

where he hath met with the

should

a virtuous person, or those that are

like

me
18

!'

And

Jaratkaru,

the sister of Vasuki, thus addressed by

her lord, began to

13S

MAHAEHARATA,
siiying,
'

quake with terror, and she spake unto liim, Brahmana, I have not waked thee from desire of
I have

insult

but

done

it

so that

thy daily

rites

may

not be passed over

unperformed.
"

And

the Rishi Jaratkaru, great in ascetic merit, possessed


his spouse,
fair

with
ed,

anger and desirous of forsaking


'

thus address-

spake unto his wife, saying,

thou

one, never

have
thee.

I spoken a falsehood.

Therefore,

go I

shall.

This was also

the appointment between ourselves

made by me with

Amiable

one, I have passed the time happily with thee.

And,

fair

thee.

one, tell thy brother when I am gone that I have left And upon my going away, it behoveth thee not to

grieve for me.


*'

Thus addressed, Jaratkaru, the

fair

sister

of Vasuki, of

faultless features, steeped in anxiety

and sorrow, having mus-

tered sufficient caurage and patience, though her heart was

quaking

yet, then spake

unto the Rishi Jaratkaru.

And

her

words were obstructed


fear.

v;ith tears

and her face was hueless with

And

the palms of her hands v/ere joined together, and

her eyes were bathed in tears.


thee not to leave
v/ays
?

And

she said, 'It behoveth

me

I too have
raj'

on the good of
purpose
for

without fault. Thou art ever in virtue's been in the same path, with heart fixed And, O best of Brahmanas, the relatives.
I

which
unto

have been bestowed on thee hath not


Unfortunate as I am, what shall

been accomplished

yet.
?

Vasuki say

dsired of thee

me by my
!

And,

excellent

one, the

offspring
curse,

relatives afflicted

by a mother's
relatives
!

doth not yet appear

The

welfare of

my

dependeth
in order

en the acquisition
that

of an offspring

from thee

And

my

connection with thee

may

not be fruitless,

ous Brahmana, moved by the desire of doing good

O illustrito my race
as thou

do I entreat thee
art,

And,

why
"

shalt thou leave


is

O excellent one, high-souled me who am faultless ? This


ascetic

concep-

tion of

mine

as yet indistinct.'

Thus addressed, the Muni of

merit then

spake

unto his wife, Jaratkaru, these words that were proper and And he said, O thou fortunate one, suitable to the occasion.
'

tie

being thou hast conceived, even like unto Agni himself,

ADIPARVA.
is
a.

339^

Rishi of soul highly virtuous, and a master of the Vedas

aad the Vedangas.


" And having said so, the great Rishi Jaratkaru, of virtuous soul, went away, his heart firmly fixed on practising again " the severest of penances,

And

so ends the forty-seventh Section in the

Aslika of the

Adi Parva.

Section XLVIII.
(Astika Parva cmitinued.)
Sauti said,
left

thou of ascetic wealth, as soon as her lord her, Jaratkaru went to her brother. And she told him
it

"

everything as

transpired.

And

tlie

first

of snakes, hearing
sister,

the calamitous news, spake unto his miserable

himself

more miserable

still.
'

"And
for the

he said,

Thou knowest, amiable

one, v/hat the purIf from


that,

pose of thy bestowal, what the reason


welfare of the snakes, a son

thereof.

be born, he of energy
!

shall save us all

from the snake

sacrifice

The Grand-father

had said so of old


one, hast thou

in the midst of the gods.

thou fortunate
best of

conceived from
is

thy union with that

Rishis

My
may

heart's desire

that

my

bestowal of thee on that


it is

wise one

not be

fruitless.

Truly,

not proper for

me

to ask thee about such a

business.

that business do I ask thee.

But from the gravity of Knowing also the obstinacy of


not
follow

thy lord ever engaged in severe penances, I shall


him,
lord,

for

he may curse me.


amiable one,
that
is

Tell

me

in

detail

all

that thy

hath done,

and extract the terribly

afflicting dart

implanted, from a long time past, in

my

heart.
"

Jaratkaru, thus addressed, consoling Vasuki, the king of

the snakes, atlengh replied, saying, 'Asked by


pring, the high-soul ed and mighty ascetic said

me about
There
is,

offs-

and

then he went away. I do not remember him

to

have ever before


should he,
?

spoken even in jest aught that

is

false.

Why

king, speak a falsehood at such a serious occasion

He

said,^

Thou

shouldst not grieve,

daughter of the snake-racC; with

140

MAHABHARATA.
!

A son shall be barn to regard to the purpose of our union having said thee, resplendent as the blazing 8un. O brother,
this to

me,

my husband

of ascetic

wealth

hath gone away.


"

Therefore let this great grief abiding in thy heart disappear.' '* Thus addressed, Vasuki, the king of the Sauti continued.
great joy snakes, accepted those words of his sister, and in snakes then adored his Be it so.' And the best of said,
'

and fitting uterine sister with his best regards, gift of wealth, best of Brahmanas, the embryo gifted Then, O adorations.
with great energy and of great splendour, began to develop, fortnight. like the moon in the heavens in the lighted
"

And

in

due time, the

sister

of

the snake,

Brahmana,

gave birth to a son of the

splendour of

a celestial child, and

the reliever of the fears of his paternal ancestors and maternal relatives. And the child grew up there in the bouse of
the kino- of the snake?.

And he

studied the Vedas and the

Vedano-as with the

Muni Chyavana the


vows were
rigid.

son of Bhrigu.

And

though
with

but a boy, his

And

he was gifted

and with the several attributes of virtue, knowledo-e, freedom from the world's indulgences, and saintliAnd the name by which he was known in the world was ness.
o-reat intelligence,

Astika.
is)

And he was known by

the

name

of Astika (ivhoever

because his father had gone to the woods, saying. There is, when he was within the womb. And though but a boy he had
great gravity and intelligence.

And

he was reared with great

care in the palace of the king of the snakes.

And he was
of the

like

the illustrious lord of the celestials,


form, the wielder
of the
trident.
"

Mahadeva

golden

And he grew up day by

day, the delight of all the snakes.

And

so

ends the forty-eighth Section in the Astika of

the Adi Parva.

Section XLIX.
( Astika

Parva continued.
again in detail

Saunaka
heaven,

said,

" Tell

me

all tl.at

king Jana-

mejaya had asked

his miuistera

about his father's asceusion to

ADI PARVA.
Sauli said,
ministers,
"
"
all

141
that the kinor asked his

Brahmana, hear

all

and

that they said about the death of Parikshita.


'

Janamejaya asked,

Know

ye

all

that befell

my

father T
?

How

also the famous one, in time, meet with his death

Hearother-

ing from ye the incidents of


ordain something
if it

my

father's

life

in

detail, I shall
:

be for the benefit of the world

wise I shall do nothing.


"

And

the ministers replied,

'

Hear,

monarch, what thou


life,

askest,

an
was

account of thy illustrious father's


final

and how

also that king of kings hath gone on his

journey.

Thy
of his

father

virtuous,

and high-soul ed,

and the protector

people.
earth.

And

hear

how he

of high soul conducted

himself on
justice,

Like unto an impersonation of virtue and

the monarch, cognisant of virtue, virtuously protected the four


orders, each

engaged in the

pi*actice of their

specified

duties.

Of incomparable

prowess, and

blessed

with fortune, he pro-

tected the goddess Earth.

he himself hated none.

had none who hated him and Like unto Prajapati (Brahma) he

He

And, O monarch, was equally disposed to all creatures. Brahmanas and Kshctrias and Vaisyas and Sudras, all engaged contentedly in the practice of their respective duties, were Widows and orphans, the impartially cherished by that king. maimed and the poor, he maintained. Of handsome features, he was unto all creatures like another Shoma (Moon.) Cherishing his subjects and keeping them contented, blessed with good fortune,
disciple, in the

truth-telling,

of severe prowess,

he was the

science of arms,

of Sharaclwat (Kripachai'ya.)

And,
in

Janamejaya,
ftime,

thy father
all

was dear unto Govinda


men.

Of great
the
extinct.

he was loved by
of

And he was born


race

womb
And,

Uttara when the

Kuru
of

was almost

therefore, the
to

mighty son

Saubhadra (Abhiextinct
the

manyu) came
line.)

be called Parikshita (born in an

Well-versed in the interpretation of treatises on

duties of kings, he was gifted with every virtue.

Of passions
retentive
of the
fully

under complete

control,

intelligent,
all

possessing a

memory,

the practiser of

virtues, the

ctujtpieror
all,

six passions,

of powerful mind,

excellent

over

and

acquainted with the science of morality and political con-

142

MAHABHARATA.
And
And,

verse, thy father ruled over these subjects for sixty years.

he

then died making


first

all

his

subjects deeply sorry.

after him,

of men, thou hast acquired this hereditary


for the last

sovereignty

of the Kurus,

thousand years.
art

Thou
every

hast been installed while a child


creature
"
.

and

protecting

And Janamejaya

said,

'

There hath not been born in our


of his

race a king

who hath not sought the good

subjects

or

been loved by them.

Behold especially the conduct of

my
did
?

grand-fathers ever engaged in grand achievcmcntes.

How

my

father,

blessed

with so

many
as
it

virtues, receive bis death


fell

Describe everything to
bearing
it

me
And

out.

am

desirous of

from ye

"
!'

Sauti continued,

"

thus directed by the

monarch,

those councillors, ever solicitous of the good of the king, told

him everything exactly


"

as it fell out.
'

And

the councillors said,

king, that

father of thine,
all

the protector of the whole Earth, the foremost of


to the injunctions of the shastras,
sports of the field, even
first of all

obedient
to

became addicted
of

the

as

Pandu
in

mighty arm and the

bearers of the

bow

battle.

And he made
forest,
it

over

to us all the affairs of state, from the most trivial to


inportant.

the most

And

one day, going into the

he pierced a

deer with an arrow.

And having

pierced

he followed

it

quickly on foot into the deep woods, armed


quiver.

with sword and

But thy

father could not

come upon

the lost deer. Sixty

years of age and decrepit, he was soon

fatigued and became


Rislii.

hungry.

And he

then saw in the deep woods an excellent


silence.

And

the E-ishi

was then observing the vow of

king asked him,

And the but though asked he made no reply. And


like a

the king, tired with exertion and hunger, suddenly became

angry with that Risbi, sitting motionless


in observance of his

piece of Avood

that he was a

vow of silence. And the king knew not Muni observing the vow of silence. And being
And,

under the control of anger thy father insulted him.


excellent one of the Bharata race, the king, thy father,

taking

up from the ground with


placed
it

the end of his

bow

a dead snake,

on the shoulders of that Muni of pure

soul,

But the

ADI PAP.YA,

H3

Minn spake not

a word trood

or

And

he
"

continued in the same posture, bearing

ba^ and became not angry. the dead


Astika of the

snake.

And

so ends the forty-ninth Section in the

AJi Parva.

Section
( Astika

L. )
'

Parva continued.
the

Sauti continued, "

And

ministers

said,

The king

of

kings then tired with hunger and exertion, having placed the snake upon the shoulder of that Muni, wended back to his capital.

The Rishi had a

son,

bom

of a cow, of

name

Sringi.

And

he was widely known, of great prowess, excessive energy,

and very wrathful.


returning home,
insult to his

And

going to his preceptor he was in the

habit of worshiphing him.

And commanded by him he was when he heard from a friend of his about the And, O tiger among kings, father by thy parent.
without having committed any fault,
like a stake,

he heard that his father,

was bearing, motionless


snake placed thereon.
father,

upon

his shoulder a

dead

And,

king, the Rishi, insulted by thy

was severe

in ascetic penances, the

foremost of Munis,
in

the controller of passions, pure, and ever engaged


ful acts.

wonderpenances,

And

his soul

was enlightened with


speech were both

ascetic

and

his organs

and

their functions
his

were under complete control.

handsome. And And he was without meanness of any kind and without envy. And he was old and in the observance of the vow of silence. And he was the refuge whom all creatures might seek in distress. "And such was the Rishi insulted by thy father And the son of that Rishi in wrath cursed thy father. And though

And

his practices

and

he was contented and without avarice.

young

in years,

the powerful one was old in ascetic

splendour.

And

speedily touching water he spake, from anger and burning

as it were with energy, these

words

in allusion to
!

thy father

'Behold the power of

my

asceticism

Directed by

my

words,

the snake Takshaka of powerful


siiall,

energy and virulent poison,


with his poison, the

within seven

nights

hence, burn

144

MAHAHARATA,

wretch that hath placed the dead snake upon


father

my

unofifending
his

was.

And And seeing


!'

having said

this,

he went to where
told

father

his father

he

him

of his cnrse.

And

that

tif^er

of his,

amonor Rishis thereupon sent to thy father a disciple named Gourmukha, of amiable manners and possessed

of every virtue.

And having

rested awhile

(after arrival

at

court) he told the king


his

everything, saying in the words of


cursed,

master,

'Thou hast been


And,

O
:

king, by

Takshaka

shall

burn thee with his poison

my therefore, O

son.
king,

Janamejaya, hearing those terrible words, be thy father took every precaution against the powerful snake
careful.'

Takshaka.

'And when the seventh day had arrived, the Brahmana Eishi, Kasyapa, desired to come to the vicinage of the monarch.

"

But

the

snake Takshaka saw Kasyapa.

And
is

the prince of

snakes si)ake unto Kasj-apa without loss of time, saying,

Where
mana,
Kunis,

dost thou go so quickly, and what


?

the business after

which thou goest


I

And
I

Kasyapa

replied, saying,

Brah-

am
is.

going whither king Parikshita, the best of the

He

shall to-day

be burnt by the poison of the


in order

snake Takshaka.

go there quickly

to

cure him,

in fact, in order that, protected

by me, the snake may not bite

Takshaka answered, saying, Why dost thou seek to revive the king to be bitten by me ? I am that Takshaka. O Brahmana, behold the wonderful power of my Thou art incapable of reviving that monarch when poison

him

to death.

And

bit

by me.

And

so saying,

Takshaka, then and there, bit a lord

of the forest (banian tree.)

And

the

banian, as soon

as

bit

by the snake, was converted into ashes. But Kasyapa, O king, revived the banian. And Takshaka thereupon tempted him,
saying,

Tell me thy

desire.

And Kasyapa

too, thus addressed,

spake again unto Takshaka, saying,


wealth.

go there from desire of

And Takshaka, me more

thus addressed, then spake unto the


:

high-souled Kasyapa in these soft words

sinless one, receive

thou from

wealth than what thou expectest from that

monarch, and go back thy


of bipeds, thus

way. And Kasyapa,


as he desired,

the foremost

addressed by the snake and

receiving
his

from
way.

Takshaka as much wealth

wended back

ADI PARVA,
*'

145
Takshaka,

'And on Kasyapa Avending back his way,


in disguise,
first

approaching
with

burnt with the

fire

of his poison thy

virtuous father, that


all

of kings, then staying in his


after that, thou hast,

mansion

precautions.

And
all

tiger

among

men, been installed (on the throne.) And,

best of monarchs,

we have

thus told thee

that

we have
all

seen and heard, cruel

though the account be.


ure of the

And

hearing

about the discomfitto

monarch thy

father,

and of the insult


follow.'

the Rishi

Utanka, appoint thou

tiiat

which should

of enemies, then
'

Sauti continued, *'And king Janamejaya, that punislier spake unto all his ministers. And he said,
learned
all

unto that banian by Takshaka, v/onderful as it is, which wa3 eubsequently revived by Kasyapa ? Assuredly, my father

Whence have ye
to ashes

that happened

reduced

could not have died, for the poison


lised

could

have been neutraof snakes, of

by Kasyapa with

his

mantras.

The worst
if

sinful soul,

Kasyapa would revive the king bit by him, he, Takshaka, would be an object of ridicule in the world owing to the neutralisation of hia
poison.

thought within his mind that

Assuredly, having thought


I

so,

he pacified the Brahinflicting

mana.

have devised a way, however, of

punish-

ment upon him. I like to know, however, how have ye seen or heard what happened in the deep solitude of the forest, the words of Takshaka and the speeches of Kasyapa. Having known it, I shall devise the means of exterminating the snake
race.

"

And

the ministers

said,

'

Hear,

monarch, of him who


the

told us before of that meeting between

foremost of Brah-

manas and the prince


son,

of snakes in the

woods.

certain

per-

monarch, had climbed on that free containing some dry


sacrificial
fuel.

branches with the object of breaking them for

He

was not perceived by both of the snake and the Brahmana, And, O king, that man was reduced to ashes along with the
itself.

tree tree

And,

king of kings, he was revived with the

by the power

of the

Brahmana. That man


fully

menial

having come to us represented


king,
9JI

a Brahmana'a
it

everything as

happened between Takshaka and the Brahmana.

Thus have
Au<l

we

told thee,

that

we have seen and heard,


19

1^6
having heard
should follow.'
Sauti continued,
to the words of his
"
It,

MAHABHARATA,

tiger

among

kings, appoint

that

v'hich

And

king Janamejaj'a, having listened


Avith
grief,

ministers, afflicted

began to

weep.

And

the

monarch began

to squeeze

his

hands.

And
and

the lotus-eyed king began to

exhale long and

hot sighs,

shed tears with his two eyes, and shrieked aloud.


v/ith grief

And

possessed

and sorrow, and shedding copious

tears,

and touch-

ing water according to the form, the monarch spake.


reflecting for a

And
mind,
these

moment,

as if settling something in
all

his

the angry monarch, addressing


v^ords
*
:

his

ministers,

said

have heard your account f

my

father's ascension
is.

to

heaven.

Now know
tliat

ye what

my

fixed resolve

I conceive,

no time must be
Taki^haka

lost in

avenging this injury upon the wretch

hath slain

my

father.

He

hath burnt

my

father

making Sringi only a secondary cause. From malignity alone he made Kasyapa return. If that Brahmana had arrived, my
'father assuredly
if

would have

lived.

What would he
?

have

lost

the king had revived by the grace of Kasyapa and the pre-

cautionary measures of his ministers


effects

From ignorance
coming

of the

of

my

v/rath,

he prevented Kasyapa

that excellent af
to

Brahmanasand whom he could not


is

defeat, from

my
that

father -with the desire of reviving hiua.


great of the wretch Takshaka
in order that

The

act of aggression

who gave wealth unto


I

Brahmana

he might not revive the king.

must
Rishi

now avenge on my
-Utanka, and ye

father's
"

enemy

to please myself, the

all.'

And

so

enda the
;..

fiftieth

Section in

the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

'

"

Section LI.

(Astika Parva continued.)


so,

Sauti said, " King Janamejaya having said


ters expressed their approbation.

his

minis-

And

the monarch then ex-

pressed

his

determination

of

performing a Snake-sacrifice.
the

And

the lord of the Earth

that tiger of

Bharata race

J1.D1

PARVXi

i^T
priest

ihe son of Parikshita, then called


the accomplishment

hk

and
I

Ritwijiia

aniJ

accomplished in speech, he spake unto them


tv>

of hia great

task

these words relative


'

must avenge on
v/hafe

the wretch Takshaka

must

I do.

who hath slain my father. Tell me ye know any act by which I may cast Do
the

into
?

the blazing
desire to

fire

snake Takshaka with his relatives

burn that wretch even aa he of yore had burnt by

the

fire
'*

of his poison

my

fatlier.
'

And

the chief priests answered,

There

is,

king,

great sacrifice for thee devised by the gods

themselves.

It is

known

as the snake-sacrifice,

and

is

read of in the Purana.


it,

O
else.

king, thou art

alone the

accomplisher of

and no one

Men

versed in

the Puranas

have told

us, there' is

such a

sacrifice.'

Sauti continued, " Thus addressed; the king,


ne, thought

excellent

Takshaka

to

be already burnt and thrown into


sacrificial

the blazing

mouth

of the eater of the

butter.

The
*

king then spake unto those Brahmanas versed


shall

in

mantras,
the

make

preparations for that saerifice.

Tell

me

things

that are necessary.'

Aixl the king's Ritwijas then,

excellent

Brahmana, versed
platform.

in

the Vedas and wise


land

in

knowledge, measacrificial

sured, according to the shastras, the

for the

Anid the platform was decked with

much

valuable

wealth and' with Brahmanas.


paddy.

And

it
it

was

full

of wealth

and
after

And

the Ritwijas sat upon

at their ease.

And

the sacrificial platform had been thus constructed according


to the rule

and

aS'

desired, they then in&talled the

king in the
before the

snake-sacrifice for the attainment of its object.

And

commencement
to the sacrifice.

of the snake-sacrifice

that

was

to come, there

occurred this very important incident foreboding obstruction

For when the

sacrificial

platform

was being

constructed, a professional

builder of great intelligence and

well-versed in

the knowledge of laying foundations, a Suta

by caste and acquainted with the Puranas, said, 'The soil ^pon which and the time at which the measurement for the
sacrificial
vssill

platform hath been made, indicate that this sacrifice

not be completed, a

Brahmana becoming
before
his

the reason there-

of.

'

Hearing

this,

the king,

installation,

gave

i48J

MAHABHAEATi;
anybody
the
without hia

rders to his gate-keepera not to admit

knowledge.

And

80 ends

the

fifty-first

Section in

Astika of tha

Adi Parva

Section LII.

( Astika ParvO, continued. )

Sauti said,
to due form.

"

The

Snake-sacrifice then
priests,

commenced according
competent in their

And

the sacrificial

respective duties

according to the ordinance, clad in black

garments and their eyes red from contact with smoke, poured clarified butter into the blazing fire, uttering proper mantras^

And

causing the hearts of

all

the snakes to tremble with fear,

they poured clarified butter into the


the names of the snakes.
to
fall

mouth

of

Agni uttering
calling

And

the

snakes thereupon began


piteously

into the blazing


other.

fire,

benumbed and
tails,

upon each

And

swollen and breathing hard, and twin-

ing each other with their heads and

they came in large


the

numbers and
blue, the old,

fell

into the

fire.

The

white, the black,


fire,

and the young,

all fell

alike into the

uttering

Those measuring a cross, and those measuring a yojana, and those of the measure of a gokarna^ fell convarious cries.

tinuously with great violence into that

first

of

all

fires.

And
limbs,

thus hundreds and thousands, and ten thousands and hundred

thousands of snakes, deprived of


perished on that occasion.

all

control over

their

And amongst

those that perished,

there were some that were like horses, others like the trunka of elephants, and others of huge bodies and strength like

maddened
terrible

elephants.

Of
like

various colors and of virulent poison,

and looking

maces furnished with iron


fire.

spikes, .of

great strength, ever inclined to bite, the snakes afflicted with


their mother's
curse, fell into the
i

And

so end;s the fifty-second Section in the Astika of the


'

AdiParva.

Section LIII.
( Aatika

Parvd continued.

Saunaka asked, " What great Rishis became the Ritwijas in the snake-sacrifice of the wise king Janamejaya of the Pandava line ? Who also became the Sadasyas in that terrible snake-sacrifice, so frightful to

the snakes, and begetting

such sorrow in them


all

It

behoveth thee,

child, to describe

these in detail, so that,

son of Suta,

we may know who


"
!

were acquainted with the


ones

ritual of the snake-sacrifice

Sauti answered, " I shall recite

the names of those


Sadasyas.

wise

who became

that monarch's Ritwijas and

The

Brahmana, Chanda-vargava, became the Hota in that sacrifice. He was of great reputation, and was born in the race of Chyavana and was a Brahmana, foremost of those acquainted
with the Vedas. The learned old Brahmana, Kautsa, became the
the

Udgata (the chaunter of the Vedic hymns.) Jaimini became Brahma, and Saranga-rava and Pingala became the AdhivarVyasa with
his

yus.

son and disciples, Uddalaka; Pramataka.


Asita, Devala, Narada,

Shetaketu, Pingala,

Parvata, Atreya,

Kunio-jathara, the Brahmana Kalghata, Vatsya, old Srutasrava ever engaged in

japa and the study

of the

Vedas,

Kohala,

Deva-sarma, Maud-galya, Sama-saurava,

these,

and

many
"

other Brahmanas

who had

crossed the Vedas,

became the

Sadasyas in that

sacrifice of the son of Parikshita.

When

the Ritwijas in that Snake-sacrifice began to pour


fire,
fall

clarified

butter into the

terrible snakes, striking fear


it.

unto

every creature, began to

into

And
fire

the fat and the


to flow

marrow
rivers.

of the snakes thus falling into the

began

in

And

the atmosphere
to the incessant

was

filled

with an insufferable stench

owing

burning of the snakes.


fallen into
it.

And

cries

also

were incessant of the snakes


in the air
*'

the

fire

and of those

about to

fall

into

Meanwhile, Takshaka, the prince of snakes, as soon as he heard that king Janamejaya was installed in the sacrifice,

went

to

the palace

of Puraudara.
i\\\

And

that

best

of snakes

having represented

that h^id taken pUce, soli^ht 'in terror

150

MAffABHARATA.
having acknowledged his
'

the protection of Indra after

faiilfe

And

Indra, gratified, then told him,

Thou

prince

of snakes,

Takshaka, here thou hast no fear from that Snake-sacrifice.

The Grand- father was


thou hast no
fear.

pacified

by

me

for

thy sake.

Therefore,
dispelled.'
"

Let

this fever of thy heart

be

Saiiti continued, "

snakes began to dwell

in Sakra/s

Thus encauraged by him, that best of abode in joy and happiness..


incessantly
falling
his

But Vasuki seeing that the snakes were


into the
fire,

and that

family was

reduced to only a few,

became exceedingly sorry.

And

the king of the snakes wasto

pierced with great grief, and his heart began

swim.
'

And-

summoning
Cne,

his sister

he spake unto her, saying,

amiabla

my

limbs are burning


I

and I no longer see the points of


fall

the heavens.
ness.
is

am

about to

down from

loss

of conscious-

mind is turning, my sight? is failing, and my heart Benumbed, I may fall to-day into that blaziugbreaking.

My

fire.

This

sacrifice of the son of Parikshita is

for

the exter-

mination of our race. It is evident I also shall have to go to is arrived, the abode of the king of the dead. That time wert bestowed by me ontay sister, on account of which thou

Jaratkaru.

Thou best of: with our relatives snake race, Asbika shall put an end to the the women of the The Grand-father himself told me sacrifice that is going on.
O' protect us
!

this

of old.

Therefore,

child, solicit

thy dear son who

is

even by the old; fully conversant with the Vedas and regarded " dependent on me for the protection of myself with those
!'

And

so

ends the

fifty-third Section iu the Astika of ths-

Adi Parva.
Section LIV.
( Astiha

Parva continued: )

calling her Sautisaid, " Then, the snake-dame Jaratkaru, directions of own son, told him these words according to the

Vasuki the king of the snakes. object for the accomplishment of that
'

son. the
for

time is come which I was bestowdo

ed on thy father by
should be done.

my

brother.

Therefore

thou wba^b

ADl PARVA.
"

151

And

Astlka Jisked,

'

For what wert thou,


uncle
?

mother, bestruly
so

towed on
hearing I
"

my

father

by

my

Tell

me

all

that

may do what Then Jaratkaru, the sister of the king of the herself unmoved by the general distress, and ever
is prosper.'

snakes,

desirous

of

the welfare

of

her relatives,

said unto
is

him.

'O

son,

mother of all the snakes Addressing the what she cursed in anger her sons As ye have refused to falsify <the color of ) snakes she said,
it is

said that the

Kadru.

Know

tliou for

Uchchaisrava, the prince of horses, for bringing about Vinata'a bondage according to the wager, therefoi'e, sliall he whose
charioteer
is

Vayn burn

ye

all

in Janamejaya's sacrifice.

And

perishing in that sacrifice,

ye shall go to the region of unreall

deemed

spirits. The

Grand-father liimself of

the worlds

spake unto her while uttering this curse

Be

it

so,

and

thn.<=i

approved her speech. And then the words of the Grand-father, sought the
the gods,

Vasiiki having heard that curse and

protection

of

child,

churned

for.

And

on the occasion when the amrita was being tlie gods, their object fulfilled, they having

obtained the excellent aiiwita, with VasRki ahead, approached the Grand-father. And all the gods with king Vasuki, sought

him who was born of the the curse might be made abortive.
to incline
"

lotus

into grace

so

that

'And the gods


is

said,

G Lord,
?

Vasuki, the king of the

snakes,

sorry on

account of his relatives.

How may

his

mother's curse prove abortive


"

'And Brahma thereupon

replied, saying,

Jaratkaru
:

shall

take unto himself a wife of the name of Jaratkaru

the Brah-

mana born
"

in her shall relieve the snakes,

bestowed me,

'And Vasuki, the best of snakes, hearing these words, O thou of god-like looks, on thy high-souled

father a little before the

commencement

of the sacrifice.

And
It
fire,

come.

from that marriage art thou born of me. It behoveth thee to protect us from this danger.

That time hath

behoveth thee to protect


BO that the object

my

brother and myself from the

our relieffor

which

was bestowed on
dost thou think,

thy wise father

may

not be unfulfilled.

What

Osonf"

15^
SautI
continued,
"

MAHABHARATA.
Thus addressed, Astika
said unto

hh

mother, 'Yea,
Vasuki, as
if

I shall.'

And he
life

then spake unto the afflicted


him, saying,
*

infusing

into

Vasuki,

thou

best of snakes, thou great being, truly do I say, I shall relieve

thee from that curse.

Be

easy,

snake

There

is

no fear
come.

any longer.

I shall strive earnestly so

that good

may

Nobody hath ever said that ray speech even in jest hath been false. As to serious occasions I need not say anything. O
uncle, going thither to-day, I shall gratify, with words

mixed
in the

with blessings,
sacrifice, so that,

the

monarch Janamejaya

installed

excellent one, the sacrifice

may

stop.

O
all
'

thou high-minded one, thou king of the snakes, believe


that I say.
"

Believe me,

my

resolve can never be unfulfilled.


*

And Vasuki
!

then

said,

Astika,

my

head swims and

my

heart breaks

I cannot discern

the points of the Earth,


!'

^.fflicted as I

am

with a mother's curse


said,
'

"

And

Astika

Thou best
I

of snakes,
dispell

it

behoveth thee
fear
of

not to grieve any longer.

shall

this

thine

from the blazing


burning

fire.

This terrible punishment, capable of

like the fire at the

end of the yiiga,


"

shall I extinguish.

Nurse not thy

fear

any longer!'

Sauti continued,

"Then

that best of Brahmanas, Astika,


of Vasuki's heart, and

dispelling the terrible fever

taking

it,

as

it

were, on himself, wended, for

the

relief of the

king of

the snakes, with speed to Janamejaya's sacrifice blessed with every merit. And Astika having gone thither, beheld the
excellent sacrificial

of splendour like unto that of the


best of

compound covered with numerous Sadasyas Sun or of Agni. But that

And

the

Brahmanas was denied admittance by the door-keepers. mighty ascetic gratified them, being desirous of
sacrificial

entering the

compound.
all

And
to

the

best of

Brahthe

manas,

the foremost of
fire.

virtuous men, having entered

excellent sacrificial
finite

compound began

adore the king of in-

achievements, the Ritivigas, the Sadasyas, and also the

sacred

And

so

ends

the fifty-fourth Section in the Astika of the

Adi Parva,

Section LV.
(Astikd ParvCl continued.)
Astika
said, "

Shoma and Varuna and

Prajapati

had per-

formed sacrifices of old in Prayaga.

But thy

sacrifice,

O
is

thou
not
!

foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of Parikshit'a,


inferior to

any of

those.

Let those dear to us be blessed


sacrifices.

Sakra had performed an hundred


fice of thine,

But

this sacri-

thou foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of


fully equal to ten
!

Parikshita,

is

thousand
Like the
is

sacrifices
sacrifice

of Sakra.

Let those dear to us be blessed


of Harimediia,

of

Yama,

of king Rantideva,
race,

this

sacrifice of thine,

thou foremost of the Bharata


those dear to us be blessed
!

thou son of Parikshita. Let


sacrifice of
is

Like the

Maya, of
of

Lfng Shashavindu, of king Vaisravana,


thine, thou foremost of the
hita.

this

sacrifice

Bharata

race,
!

thou son of Pariks-

Let those dear to us be blessed

Like the sacrifice of


is this sacrifice

Nriga, of Ajamida, of the son of Dasaratha,


thine, thou foremost of the
hita.

of

Bharata

race,
!

Let those dear to us be blessed


god, and

thou son of PariksLike the sacrifice of Ajamida, both


thou fore-

Yudhish-thira the son of a

of king

heard even in the heavens,

is

this sacrifice of thine,

most of the Bharata

race,
!

thou son of Parikshita. Like the


sacrifice of

Let those

dear unto us be blessed payana) the son of Satyavati, in which, besides, he himself

Krishna (Dwai-

was the

chief-priest, is this sacrifice of thine,

thou foremost of

the Bharata

race,
!

thou son of Parikshita.


unto the

Let those dear unto


of the slayer

us be blessed
here

These (Ritwijas and Sadasyas) that sitting


sacrifice like

make thy

sacrifice

of

Vritra, are of splendour equal to that of the sun.


for them to know, and become inexhaustible (in merit.) There

There
to

now
them

remains nothing

gifts
is

made

none in the world

equal to thy Ritwija.


himself.

This has been settled by Dwaipayana

His

disciples,

becoming Ritwijas competent


there
is

in their

duties, travel over the earth.

In this world of

men

no other monarch equal to


I

thee iu the protection of subjects,

am

ever well pleased witli

20

154
thy abstinence.

MAHABHAEATA.
InJeeil, thou art either
!

Varuna, or Yaina the

god of justice
hand, thou

Like Sakra himself with thunderbolt iu


this

art, in

world, the protector of

all

creatures.

In

this earth there is


is

no

man

so great as thou,

and no monarch
Khatwanga,

who
in

thy equal in

sacrifice.

Thou
like

art like

Nabhavga, and Dilipa,

in

pi'owess

Yayati and Mandhta,

splendour equal to the measure of the sun's, a monarch

like

Subrata Vishma
!

Like Valmiki thou art of energy con=


!

cealed

Like Vashishta hast thou controlled thy wrath


thy lordship
!
!

Like
of

Indra

is

Thy splendour
art

also shines like that

Narayana

Like
!

Yama

thou conversant with the judg-

ments of justice
!

Thou art like Krishna decked with every Thou art tlie home of the good fortune that belongvirtue Thou art also the refuge of the sacrifices eth to the Vasus Like In strength art thou equal to Damvodvava (Indra)
!

Rama
Trita.

(the son of

Jamadagni)
!

art

thou

conversant with

the

Bhastras and arms

In energy art thou equal to Aurva and

Thou
all,

inspirest terror
"

by thy looks

like

Bhagiratha

!"

Sauti said,

Astika, having

thus adored

them, gratified

them

the king,
And

the Sadasyas, the Ritwijas, and the sacri-

ficial fire.

king Janamejaya, beholding the signs and

indications manifested all round, addressed

them
the

as follows."

And
Adi

thus ends the

fifty-fifth

Section in

Astika of the

Pai'va.

Section
( Astika

LVL
)

Parva continued.

Sauti continued, "Janraejaya said,

'Though
.

this
is

one

is

but a boy he speaks yet like a wise old

man

He

not a boy

but wise and eld do I think. I desire to confer on him a boon. Therefore, ye Brahmanas, give me the necessary permission.'

"The Sadasyas
the respect

said,

'

Brahmana, though a boy, deserves


again who
is

of kings.

He

learned does more

so.

This boy deserves the fulfilment of every desire from thee, bub
not before Takshaka comes Avith speech'
Sauti continued,
"

"

The
'

king,

being inclined to grant the


the boon.'

Brahmaua

a boon^ said,

Ask thou

The Eota,

hovv>

AD I

PAllVAi
'

1S5
liatli

ever, being rather displeased, said,

Taksliaka

not come as

yet into this sacrifice.


"

And Janamejaya
so that

refilled,

'

Exert ye to the heio;ht of your

power
and

this sacrifice of

so that

Takshaka

also

mine may attain to completion, may soon come here. He is my

enemy.'
the Ritwijas replied, 'As the Shastras declare unto U3, and as the fire also saith, O monarch, Takshaka is now stay-

"And

inn; in

the abode of Indra, afHicted with fear.

Sauti continued,
conversant with

"The

illustrious

Stita

Lohitaksha
before.

also,

the Paranas,

had said

so

Asked

by the king on the present occasion, he again told the monarch, Knowing the Sir, it is even so as the Brahraanas have said. Puranas, I say, O monarch, that Indra hath granted him this
'

boon, saying,- Dwell thou v/ith


shall not

burn

thee.
"

me
this,

in concealment,

and Agni
in
fcha

"
'

Sauti continued,
sacrifice

Hearing

the king installed

And

as the Hota, with


fire,

became very sorry and urged the Hota to do his duty. mantras, began to pour clarified butler

into the

Indra himself appeared on the scene. And the illustrious one came on his car (in the sky) adored by all the

gods standing around, foUov/ed by masses of clouds, celestial


singers,

and the several tribes of and came


not.

celestial

dancing

girls.

And

Takshaka, anxious

v/ith fear, hid

himself in the upper garthe king in anger again told

ment
his

of Indra

And

mcmirct-knowing Brahmanas these words, desirous of the If that snake Takshaka be in the destruction of Takshaka
:

'

abode of Indra, cast him into the fire with Indra himself^'" Sauti continued, " Urged by king Janamejaya in reference
to Takshaka, the

Hota poured

libations in the

name

of Taks-

haka then staying there. And as the libations were poured^ Takshaka, with Purandara himself, anxious and afflicted,, became visible in a moment in the skies. And Purandara seeing that sacrifice became

much

alarmed.
to his

And

quickly casting

Takshaka

off,

he wended back

own

abode.

And when
ths

Indra had gone away, Takshaka the prince of snakes, insensi=


ble with fear, was, by virtue of the mantras, brought to

vicinage of the flnmcs of the

sacri*ficial fire

15S
*'

mahabharata",

And

the Ultwijas then said, 'O king of kings, this


is

sacri-

fice of

thine

being performed duly.

It

behoveth thee,

Lord, to grant a boon

now

to this first of

Brahmanas.

"And Janamejaya
a worthy boon.
in thy heart.

then said, 'Thou immeasurable one, I de-

sire to grant thee that art of

such handsome child-like features

Therefore, ask thou that

which thou desirest


it

I promise thee, that I will grant it even if


!'

be

ungrantable
"

And

the

Ritwijas said,

'

O
!

monarch,

this

Takshaka
cries,

is

soon coming under thy control loud roar


is

Uttering terrible

his

being heard

Assuredly, the snake

hath been

forsaken by the wielder of the

thunder.

And

his

body

dis-

abled by our mantras, he

is

falling

from the heaven.


"

Even

now, rolling in the


Sauti continued,

skies,

and deprived of consciousness, the

prince of snakes cometh, breathing loudly.'


"

While Takshaka the prince of snakes


the
sacrificial

was about

to fall

into

moments Astika
wouldst grant

spake as
a boon,

follows

fire,
'

during those few


if

Janamejaya,
thine

thou
to an

me

let this sacrifice of


fall

come

end and
"

let

no more snakes

into the

fire."

Brahmana, the son of Parikshita, thus addressed by became exceedingly sorry and spake unto Astik? thus : "Thou illustrious one, gold, silver, kine, what other boon
hira,

thou
fice "

desirest, shall I give

unto thee

But
'

let

not

my

sacri-

come

to

an end

!'

And

Astika thereupon replied,

Gold, silver, or kine, I

do

not ask of thee,

monarch

But

let

thy sacrifice be ended

so that

my

maternal relations be

relieved.'

Sauti continued, " The son

of Parikshita,

thus addressed

by Astika, repeatedly said


speakers
:

this

unto him, that foremost of

'

Thou best

of superior Brahmanas, ask thou


!'

some

other boon. 0, blest be thou

But,

thou of the Bhrigu race,


all

he did not beg any other boon.


sant with the Vedas told the

Then

the Sadasyas conver-

king with one voice, 'Let the

Brahmana

receive his boon.'

"

And

so
II,

ends the fifty-sixth Section in the Astika of the

Adi Par V

Section LVII.
(Astika Parva continued.)

Saunaka
of
all

said,

"

son of Suta, I desire to hear


fell

the names

those snakes that

into the fire of this snake-sacrifice.

Sauti replied, "

Many thousands and


fell

tens of thousands and

Arbudas
all.

of snakes
is

into the

fire. )

O
am

excellent

of

Brah-

manas, so great

the

number

that I

unable to count them

As

far,

however, as I remember, hear thou the names I


fire.

mention

of the principal snakes cast into the

Hear

first

the names of the


color blue, red,

principal

ones of Vasuki's race alone,

of

and white,

terrible in form,

and of body huge,


Pitch-

and of dreadful poison. " Kotisha, Manasa, Purna, Shala, Pala, Halimaka
chala,

Kaunapa, Chakra, Kalavega, Prokalana


Kakshaka,
fell

Hiranya-bahu,

Sharana,
Vasuki,

Kala-dantaka.
fire.

These snakes, born of


form and great

into the

And,

Brahmana, numerous other


terrible
I

snakes

born of the same race, of

strength, were burnt in the blazing

fire.

those born in the race of Takshaka.

now mention Hear thou their names


shall
!

Puchchandaka,

Mandalaka,

Pinda-sekta,

Ravenaka; UchchiShili, Shali,

kha, Sharava, Vanga, Vilwa-teja, Virohana;

Kara,

Muka, Sukumara,
into the

Pravepana

Mudgara and Shishu-roma, and


fell
;

Suroma and Moha-hanu.


fire.

These snakes born of Takshaka

And

Paravata, Parijata, Pandara, Harina, Krisha

Vihanga, Sharava, Meda, Praraoda, Sanha-tapana.


in the race of Airavata fell into the
fire.

These born

Now

hear,

best of

Brahmanas, the snakes I mention born of the race of Kaura-

vya

Eraka, Kundala Veni, Vcni-skandha,

Kumaraka

Va-

huka, Sringa-vera, Dhurtaka, Prata and Ataka.


the race of Kauravya
fell

These born ia
the names I

into the

fire.

Now hear

mention, in order, of those snakes endued with the

speed of

the wind and with virulent poison, born in the race of Dhritarashtra.

Shanku-karna, Pitharaka, Kuthara, Sukha-shechaka


;

Purnangada, Purna-mukha, Prahasa, Sliakuni, Dari Ama-hatha, Kamathaka, Sushcna, Manasa, Avya Vairava, Munda-vedan;

ga, Pishanga,
dcirtika,

Udraparaka
;

Rishava, the snake Begavana, Pin-

MuUu,=hanu

Rdktanga, Stirva-saranga, Samridha, Pa^

158
tha-vasaka
sliara,
;

MAHABHARATA.
Varahaka, Viranaka,
Sucliitra, Cliitra-veglka, Para*

Tarunaka, Maui-skandha, and Aruni.

'O Brahmana, thus I have recited the names of the prmclpal I have not been snakes known widely for their achievements ntimber being countless^ The sons of able to name all, the
!

these snakes, the sons of those sons, that were


fallen into the
!

all

burnt, having

fire,

am

unable

to

mention.

They

are

so

Some of three heads, some of seven, others many poison like unto the fire at the end of the yiiga, and
form, were burnt by thousands
"
!

of ten,

of

terrible ia

Many

others, of

huge bodies, of great speed,

tall

as moutt^

tain summits, of the length of a

yama,

a yojana, and

of two

yqjanas, capable of assuming at will

any form and of musterblazing

ing at will any degree of strength, of poison like unto


fire,

afilictcd

by the curse of a mother,


!"

v/ere

burnt in that

great sacrifice

And

so ends the fifty-seventh Section in the Astika

of tha

Adi Parva.

Section LVIII.
( Astika

Parva continued.
to

Sauti said,

"

Listen

now
!

another very wonderful incident

in connection with Astika

When

king Janamejaya was about

snake ( Takshaka, ) to (^ratify Astika by granting the boan, the actually thrown off Indra's hands, remained in mid-air without
falling.

King Janamejaya thereupon became


afflicted

curious, for Takfall

shaka

with fear did not at once


"

into

the

fire

blazing although libations were poured in proper form into the

Agni in his name. of those Saunaka said, " Was it, O Suta, that the mantras Takshaka did not fall wise Brahmanas were not propitious, as
sacrificial

into the fire ?"

Sauti replied,
snakes, after he

"

said thrice these

had ' words' stay

Unto the unconscious Takshaka, that best of had been cast off Indra's hands, Astika
'

stay.

'

And he

succeeded

betweea staying in the skies, with afflicted heart, like a person


the vault of the welkin and the Eiulh,

ADI PARVA,
"

159
by hia SaJasyas,
sacrifice
said,

The king
it

then,

repeatedly urged
said.

'Let

be done as Astika hath


be
safe, let this

Let the

be ended,
let,

let the snalics


Siita,

Astika also be gratified, and

thy words also be


plaudits

true.'

And

when the boon was granted


air

to Astika,

rang through the

expressive of joy.

And

that sacrifice

of the son of Parikshita


to

that

king of the

Pandava race

came

an end.

And king Janamejaya of And


unto the Ritwijas
there, the

the Bharata race was pleased

liimself.

with the Sadasyas, and unto

all

who had come

king,

bestowed money by hundreds, and thousands.


<S^i6to

And unto the

Lohitaksha^conversant with the rules of buildings and foundations who had at the commencement said that a Brah-

mana would prove


sacrifice,

the cause of the interruption of the snake-

the king gave much wealth. And the king, of immeasurable kindness, also gave iiim various things, with food and wearing apparel, according to his desert, and became very

much

pleased.

And

then he concluded his sacrifice according

to the rites of the ordinance.

respect, the king in joy sent


gratified for

And after home the

treating

him with every

wise Astika exceedingly

he had attained hia object.

And

the king said unto

him, 'Thou must come again to become a Sadasyain my great And Astika said, yea, and then returned home horse-sacrifice ?
in great joy,

the monarch.

having achieved his great end after gratifying And returning in joy to his uncle and mother
feet

and touching their


had happened.

he recounted

to

them everything

as it

Sauti continued, " Hearing

all

he said, the snakes that had

come

thither

became very

much

delighted,

and their
v/ith

fears

were

dispelled.

And

they were mightily pleased


a boon.

Astika and

asked him to
'

solicit

And

they repeatedly asked him,

thou learned one,

what good
gratified,

shall

we do unto thee
all
!'

We
!

have been very much

having been

saved by thee

What shall we accomplish for thee, O child " And Astika said, Those Brhamanas, and
'

other men,

who

shall, in

the morning or the evening, cheerfully and with atten-

tion, read the sacred

account of this ray act,

let

from ye
iu

!'

And

the snakes in joy thereupon said,


let it

them have no fear O nephew,


'

the

matter of thy boon,

be exactly as thou sayest

IGO

MAHA.BHARATA.
tliou askest shall

That which

we

all

cheerfully

tlo

nephew
fear

And

those

also that recall to their

minds Asita, Artiman, and


have no
of

^unitha, in the day


snakes.

or

in

the night, shall

He

again shall have no fear of snakes

who

will say,

mind the famous Astika born of Jaratkaru by Jaratkaru, that Astika who saved the snakes from the snakeI recall to ray
sacrifice, therefore, ye snakes of great good fortune, it behoveth ye not to bite me, but go ye away, blessed be ye, or go

away thou snake


of Astika after

of virulent poison,

and remember the words

the snake-sacrifice of Janamejay.

That snake

who does not


Astika,
shall
fruit of the

cease from biting after hearing


"
first

such mention of

have his hood divided a hundred-fold like the


tree.'
'*

shingsha

Sauti continued,

That

of

Brahmanas, thus addressed


assembled together, was
then set his

by the foremost
very

of the chief snakes

much

gratified.

And

the

high-souled one

heart upon going away.

"And
from the
"

that best of Brahmanas,


snake-sacrifice,

having saved the snakes

ascended to heaven

when

his time

came, leaving sons and grandsons behind him.

Thus have
happened.

I recited to thee this history of Astika exactly

as

it

Indeed,

the recitation of this history dis-

pelleth all fear of snakes."

Sauti continued,
race,

*'

O Brahmana,
I

thou foremost of the Bhrigu


it

as

thy ancestor Pramati had cheerfully narrated

to

his inquiring son

Ruru, and as

had heard

it,

thus have I re-

cited this blessed history, from the beginning, of the learned

Astika

And,

Brahmana, thou oppressor of

all

enemies,

having heard

this holy history of

Astika that increaseth virtue,

and Avhich thou hadst asked me about after hearing the story " of the Dundubha, let thy ardent curiosity be satisfied
!

And

thus ends the fifty-eighth Section iu the Astika of the

Adi Parva.

Section LIX.

{Ad ivansavataran a Parva.


Saunaka said, " O child, thou hast narrated tensive and great history commencing from
Bhrigu
!

to

me

this

ex-

the

progeny of
!

O son
!

of Suta, I have been

much

gratified with thee

I ask thee again, recite to me,

son of Suta, the history com-

posed by Vyasa

The

varied

and

wonderful narrations

that

were recited amongst those illustrious Sadasyas assembled in the sacrifice, in the intervals of their duties in that long-extending
snake-sacrifice,
sire to
all

and the objects

also of those narrations, I de!

hear from thee,

son of Suta

Recite then, therefore,

those to

me

fully

"
!

"The Brahmanas, in the intervals of their duties, Sauti spake of many things founded on the Vedas. But Vyasa resaid,

cited the wonderful

and great history called the Bharata." That sacred history called the Mahabharata, spreading the fame of the Pandavas, which Krishna Dwaipa-

Saunaka

said, "

yana, asked by Janamejaya, caused to be duly recited after the

completion of

the

sacrifice,

desire

to

hear duly

That

history hath been born of the

ocean-like

mind
thirst

of
of

the great

Rishi of soul purified by yoga.


recite it

Thou foremost

good men,
not been

unto me,
all

for,

son of Suta,
liast said,"

my

hath

appeased by

thou

Sauti said,
great

" I shall recite to

thee from the beginning

that

and excellent history

called the

Mahabharata composed
as I recite it
!

by Vyasa.
myself
feel

Brahraana, listen to

it in full,

a great pleasure in reciting

"
it
!

And
of the

eo ends the fifty-ninth Section in the

Adivansavatarana

Adi Parva.

21

Section LX.

(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.)


Sauti said,
snake-sacrifice,
"

Hearing that Janamejaya was


the

installed in

the

learned

Rishi

Krishna-Dwaipayana went
Pan-

thither on the occasion.

And

he, the grand-father of the

da vas, was born


Kali

in

an island of the Yamuna, of the virgin

by Sakti's son Parashara.

And

the

illustrious

one de-

veloped by his will alone his body as soon as he was born, and

mastered the Vedas with the Angas, and the histories.


be readily obtained that which
icisin,

And

no one could obtain by ascetthe

by the study of the

Vedas, by vows,
first of

progeny, and by sacrifice.

And

by fasting, by Veda-knowing ones,

he divided the Veda into four

Brahamana Rishi had knowledge of the supreme Brahma, knew the past by Of sacred deeds and intuition, was holy, and cherished truth. Dhritarashtra and Vidura great fame, he begat Pandu and
parts.

And

the

in order to continue the line of

Shantanu,
all

"And

the high-souled Rishi with his disciples

conversant

with the Vedas and the Vedangas entered the sacrificial tent And he saw that the king of the royal sage Janamejaya.

Janamejaya was seated

in the sacrificial

compound,

like the

god Indra, surrounded by numerous Sadasyas, by kings of


various countries worshipping him with heads downwards, and

by competent Ritwijas

like

unto Brahma himself.

And
and

the

best of the Bharata race, the royal sage Janamejaya, beholding

the Rishi come, advanced quickly with


latives
in

his

followers

re-

great joy.

And

the king with the approval of his

Sadasyas gave the Kishi a golden seat like Indra to Vrihaspati


(the spiritual guide of the celestials.)

And when

the Rishi, capa-

ble of granting boons and adored by the celestial Risliis themselves

according to the rites of the shastras.

had been seated, the king of kings then worshipped him And the king then offer-

ed him

his grand-father
to be slain,

Krishna

who

fully

deserved

them,

Padya, Achmanya, Arghya, and kine. And accepting those offerings, from the Pandava Janamejay and ordering the kine
also

not

Vyasa became very much

gratified.

And

kDl PARVA.

163;

to his greattbe king after these adorations then bowed down asked him about his welfare. grand-father, and sitting in joy

And

the illustrious Rishi also, casting his eyes

upon him and

asking him

Janamejaya

about his welfare, then worshipped the Sadasyas. all this, having been before worshipped by them all. And after that first of Brahwith all hia Sadasyas, asked

manas, with joined hands, (he following: * O Brahmana, thou hast seen with thy own eyes the acts I am desirous of hearing thee of the Kurus and the Pandavaa.
recite their history
!

What was the cause


deeds
?

of the disunion

amongst
between
fate
?

them
all

of extraordinary

Why

also did

that great war

which was the death

of countless creatures occur

my

grand-fathers their clear

sense over-clouded by
all

excellent of Brahmanas, tell


!

me

this

in

full,

as

every-

thing had happened

"And

hearing those

words of Janamejaya, Krishna-Dwai-

payana then directed his disciple Vaisampayana seated at hia side, saving, 'The disunion that happened between the Kurus and the Pandavas of old, repeat all to him about as thou hast
heard from me.'

"Then

that bull amongst Fraliman as,

at the

command

of

his master, recited the whole of that old history unto the king,

the Sadasyas, and


bled.

all

the princes

and chieftains there assem-

And he

told

them

all

about the hostility and the utter


the Adivansavatarana

extinction of the

Kurus and the Pandavas."


in

And
of the

so ends the sixtieth Section

Adi Parva.

Section

LXI

(Adiuansavatarand Parva continued.)

Yaisampayana

said,

"

Bowing doAvn

in the first place to

my

preceptor with the eight parts of the body touching the ground, with devotion and reverence, and singleness of heart, worshiping the whole assembly of Brahmanas and
sons, I shall
recite in full the narration I

other

learned per-

have heard of this


of

high-souled

great Rishi
worlds.

Vyasa, the

first

intelligent

men

the three

And

having

got' it

within thy reach^

164

MAHABHAR'ATA.
fit

monarch, thou also art a

person to hear the composition


the

called Bharata.

And encouraged by
fear.

command

of

my

pre-

ceptor,
"

my

heart feeleth no

Hear,

monarch, why that disunion occurred between

the Kurus and the Pandavas, and

why
)

also

that exile

into
dice
re-

the woods immediately

proceeding
of the
it,

from the
for

game
I

at
shall

prompted by the desire


late all to thee
"

Kurus

rule.

who

askest

tiiou best of the

Bharata

race.

On

the death of their father, those heroes (the Pandavas)

came

to their

own home.

well-versed in the science of the bow.

And within a short time became And the Kurus beholdphysical


strength,

ing the Pandavas gifted

with

energy and

power of mind, popular also with the citizens and blessed with good fortune, became very much jealous. And then the crooked-minded Duryodhana, and Kama, with ( the former's maternal uncle) the son of Suvala, began to persecute them and devise

means of their exile. Then the wicked Duryodhana, guided by the counsels of that bird of ill omen, Sakuni ( his maternal uncle ), persecuted the Pandavas in various ways for the acquirement of undisputed sovereignty. The wicked son of
Dhritarashtra gave poison to Bhima, but Biiima of the stomach
of the wolfe digested the poison with his food.

And

then

the

wretch again tied the sleeping Bhima of the wolfe's stomach on the margin of the Ganges and casting him into the water

went away.

But when Bhiraa-sena of strong arms, the son

of Kunti, awoke, he tore the strings with which he had been And while asleep and tied and came up, his pains all gone.
in the water, black snakes of virulent poison bit

him

in

every

part

of his
in all

And

body but the slayer of foes did not perish still. those persecutions of the Pandavas by their cousins

the Kurus, the high-minded Vidura became attentively engaged in neutralising the evil designs and rescuing the persecuted

Sakra from the heavens keeps in happiness the world of men, so did Vidura ever keep the Pandavas from
ones.

And

as

all evils.

"

And when Duryodhana, by

various means,

both secret

and open, found himself incapable of destroying the Pandavas protected by the fates and kept alive for grave future purposes

ADI PARVA,
( gucli as the

165

extermination of the Kuril race), he then called


(

together his councillors consisting of Vrisha

Kama

),

Dush-

shasana and others, and with the knowledge of Dhrita-rashtra


caused a house of lac
rashtra
to

be constructed.

And

king Dhritahis

the son
And

of

Amvica,

fi'om affection for

children,
to

and tempted by the desire of sovereignty, sent the Pandavas


exile.

the Pandavas then

went away with

their

mother

from the city called after

the

name

of the elephant.

And

when they went away, Vidura ( born of a Vaisya woman by a Kshetria) became the adviser of those illustrious ones. Rescued by him from the house of lac, they fled in the deep mid-night
to the woods.

"The

sons of Kunti having reached


their

the

town of Varanaaccording to the


all

vata, lived there with

mother.

And

command

of Dhrita-rashtra, those illustrious slayers of


lac

ene-

mies lived in the palace of


lived in that palace for one

while in that town.

And

they

year, protecting

themselves from

Purochana

subterranean passage to be constructed, acting according to the directions of


Vidura, they set
(their
fire to

very

wakefuUy.

And

causing a

that house of lac and burnt

Purochana

enemy and spy

of

Duryodhana)

to death.
fled

Those slayers

of

all

enemies anxious with fear then

with their mother.

In the woods beside a

fountain they saw a Rakshasa of the

name

of

Hidimva,

And

they

slew that king of Rakshasas.

But alarmed

at the risk they ran of

exposure by such an

act,

the sons of Pritha (Kunti) fled in the darkness, afflicted the fear of the sons of Dhrita-rashtra.
It

with

was here that Bhima

acquired Hidimva (the sister of the Rakshasa he slew) for a wife, and it was of her that Gatotkacha was born. Then the

ed

Pandavas, of rigid vows and conversant with the Vedas, wendto a town of name Ekachakra and dwelt there in the guise of

Brahmacharis.

And

those bulls

town
Wolfe's

in

the house of a

among men dwelt Brahmana for some time,

in
in

that

tem-

perance and abstinence.

And it was here that Bhima of the stomach and of mighty arms came upon a hungry and mighty and man-eating Rakshasa of the name of Vaka. And
Bhima
the son
of Pandu, that
hii?

tiger

speedily with the strength of

among men, slew him arms and made the citizens

166
Bafe

MAHABHARATA.
and
fearless.

Then they heard


princes.

of Krishna
to elect a

(the princess

of Punchala) having become disposed

husband from

among the assembled

And

hearing they went to

Panchala and going there they obtained the maiden. having obtained Draupadi
(for their

And

common

wife)

they then

dwelt there

for a
all

year.

And

after

they were known, those

enemies went back to Hastinapura. And they were then told by king Dhrita-rashtra and the son of dear ones, Shantanu (Visma) as follows : In order that, dissensions may not take place between ye and your cousms,
persecutors of
'

we have

settled that

Therefore, go ye,

Khandava-prastha should be your abode. casting all jealousy away, to Khandava-

prastha containing

roads for dwelling there

many towns and divided by many broad And according to these words, the
!'

Pandavas went, with

all

their

friends and followers, to

Khan-

davaprastha, taking with them

And

the sons

of Pritha dwelt
of

they brought, by force


subjection.

many jewels and precious stones. And there for many years. arms, many princes under their
hearts on
virtue

And

thus,

setting their

and

firmly

adhering to truth,
power.

unexcited by affluence, calm in


evils,

deportment, and putting down numerous


gradually
rose
in

the

Pandavaa
reputation
;

And Bhima
the slayer of

of great

subjugated the East; the heroie Arjuna, the North


the West
South.
over the
;

Nakula,

and Sahadeva

all hostile

heroes, the

And having done this, their dominion was spread whole world. And owing to the five Pandavas, each
Sun himself
in his

like unto the Sun, with the

splendour, the

Earth looked as
"

if

she had six Suns.

some reason, Yudhlsh-thira the just, gifted great energy and prowess, sent his brother Arjuna (the with right and left handed one) dearer unto hira than life itself, into

Then

for

the woods.

And
with

Arjuna, that tiger


all

among men,
the

of firm
for

sotil,

and

gifted

virtues, lived in

woods

eleven

years and ten months.


occasion,

And
to

during this period, on a certain


in

Arjuna went
of

Krishna

Dwaravati.

And

Vivatsu
sister

(Arjuna) there obtained


of Vasudeva,

for wife

the lotus-eyed
of

younger

name Suvadra,
gladness, with

sweet speech.

And
oi

she

became

united, in

Arjuna the son

Pandu^

ADIPARYA.
like Shaclii with the great Iniha, or Sri

167
with Krishna himself.
of Kunti,

And

then,

best

of

monarchy the son

Arjuna,

with Vasudeva, gratified A^ni


butter, in the forest of
j)lants in that

the

carrier of the sacrificial

Khandava (by burning the medicinal


Agni
of his
indigestion.)

wood

to cure

And

t(i

Arjuna, assisted as he was by Keshava,

the task did not

at all

appear as heavy, even as nothina

is

heavy to Vishnu with the

help of means in the matter of destroying his enemies.

And

Agni gave unto


sign

the son of Pritha the excellent

bow Gandiva,

and a quiver inexhaustible and a war-chariot marked by the of the monkey. And it was on this occasion that Arjuna
Asura (Maya) from
fear (of being

relieved the great


in the fire.)

consumed
Pandavas)

And Maya,
the wicked

in gratitude, built (for the

a celestial court

decked with every sort of jewels and precious

stones.
ing,

And

Duryodhana, beholding that buildit


;

was tempted with the desire of possessing

and dethrouf^h

ceiving Yudhish-thira by

means of the

dice

played

the hands of the son of Suvala (Duryodhana's maternal uncle

and chief

adviser,) sent the

Pandavas into the woods

for

twelve

years and one

additional year to

be passed in concealment

thus making the period

full thirteen.

"And on
it.

the fourteenth year,

monarch, when the Pandavas

returned and claimed their own property, they did not obtain

And thereupon war was

declared.

And

the

Pandavaa

exterminating the whole race

of Kshetrias

and slaying king


acted un-

Duryodhana obtained back


"

their ruined kinordom.

This

is

the histor}- of the Pandavas

who never

der the influence of evil


first

passions

and this the account,

of victorious monarchs, of the disunion that ended in the

loss of their

kingdom by the Kurus and the victory of the

Pandavas.

"

And

so ends the sixty-first Section in the Adivansavaturana

of the Adi Parva.

Section LXII.
(Adivansavatara7ia parva continued-

Janamejaya

said,

"

excellent

of

Brahmanas, thou hast,


called Mahabharata,

indeed, told me, in abstract, the history,


of the great acts of the Kurus.
recite

But,

thou of ascetic wealth,


I
it

now
I

that woaderful narration very fully.


it.

feel

a great
ia

curiosity to hear
full.

It behoveth thee to recite

therefore

am

not satisfied with hearing in the abstract the great


trifling

history.

That could never have been a

cause for which

the virtuous ones could slay those they should not have slain, and for which they are yet applauded by men. Why also those tigers

among men,
tions of the

perfectly innocent
their

and quite capable of avenging


suffered
also,

themselves upon

enemies, calmly
?

the persecubest of Brah-

wicked Kurus

And why

manas, Bhima of mighty arm and having the strength of ten thousand elephants controlled his anger even though wronged ?

Why

also

the

chaste

Krishna

the

daughter of
to

Drupada,

wronged by those wretches, and able

burn them, did not

burn the sons of Dhrita-rashtra by her wrathful eyes ? Why also did the two other sons of Pritha ( Bhima and Arjuna) and
the two sons of Madri
(

Nakula and Sahadeva,


?

themselves in-

jured

bj'

the wretched Kurus, follow Yudhishthira inveterately

addicted to the evil habit of gaming


thira,

Wiiy

also did

Yudhish-

the foremost of all virtuous men, the

son

of

Dharma

liimself,

and
?

fully acquainted with all duties, suffer that excess

of affliction

Why also

did the

Pandava Dhananjaya having


his

Krishna
cution

for his charioteer,

who by

arrows sent to the other


(

world that dauntless host of fighting men,


?

sufier
all

such perse-

O
"
!

thou

of ascetic wealth, tell

me

these as every

thing liappened, and every thing that those mighty charioteer?


achieved
"

Vaisampayana
hearing
it.

said,

monarch,

appoint

thou a time for


ia

This history spoken by


This
is

Krishna-Dwaipayana
I will recite
full,
it.

very extensive.

but the beginning.


in

will repeat the whole of the comjiosition trious

of the illus-

and great Rishi Vyasa

of immeatiurable

mental power and

ADI PAnVA.
wofshippod
ill

169
consists

all

the

world;^.

This Bharata

of

an
it

hinidred thousand sacred sloJcas composed by the son of Satyavati of imineasaral)le mental

powers.
it

He

that shall
attain

read
to

to others, or they

who

shall hear

read, shall

the

world of
i^

Brahma and be
he listened
to,

equal to the very gods.


i^^

This Bharata
the worthiest

equal unto the Vedas,


all to

holy and excellent

is

of

an<l is

a Purana worshipped

by the

Rishis.

It containeth
(i)rofit

much

useful instruction

on Artka an<I

Kama
Veda

and pleasure.)

This sacred

history

maketh tha
noble and

heart desire for salvation.

Learned persons by reciting thia


to

of Krishna-DwnipajTina

those

that are

liberal,

truthful and believing, earn

much

wealth.

Sins such

as killing the
this.

embryo in the womb are destroyed assuredly by person, however cruel and sinful, by hearing this historj'^,
all

escapes from
eclipse
is

his

sins

like

the
is

Sun from Hahu


called

(after

the

over.)

This history

Ja,ya.

It

should be
it

heard by those desirous of victory.

king by hearing

may

bring the whole world under subjection and conquer

all

his foes.
ness, a

This history of

itself is

a mighty act

of propitiousIt
for

mighty

sacrifice,

to give blessed fruit.

should ever

be heard by a young monarch with his

queen,
shall

then

they

may have
to a this too
is

a heroic son or a daughter

who
and

be the heiress
;

kingdom.

This history

is

the
;

sacred

Dhxrina-shaMra
is

the great Artha-shastra


:

this also

the

il/o/c-

sha-shastra

it

hath

that

is

immeasurable

been so said hy Vyasa himself of mind This history ir, recited in the present a'^g

and

will

be so recited in the future.

sons and servants always obedient


behests.

to

They that hear it have them and doing their

All sins that are committed either by body, word, or mind, immediately leave him who hath heard this history.

They who
let

hear, without a spirit of fault-finding, the

story

of

the birth of the

Bharata princes, have

no fear of maladies,

alone the fear of the other world.

"For extending the fame


of other Kshatriaa versed in
spirited,

of the
all

hi-h-souled Pandavas and


hi'>-h-.

branches of knowled^re,

and already known in the world for their achievements, Krishna-Dwaipayana, guided also by the desire of )>euefitting the world, huth composed this work that is excel*>'2

170
lent,

MAHABHARATA.
bestowing fame,
granting
length of
life,

sacred,

and

heavenly.

He

who, from desire of acquiring religious merit,,

causeth this history to be heard by sacred Brahmanas, doth


acquire great merit and virtue that
is

inexhaustible.

He

that

reciteth the famous generation of the

Kurus becometh immefamily


himself,

diately purified, and

acqnireth a large

and

is

respected in the world.

That Brahmana who regularly studies


four

this sacred Bhiirata for the


is

months

of the

rainy

season,

cleared of

all his sins.

He

that hath read the


v/ith the

Bharata

may

be.

regarded as one acquainted


"

Vedas.
sage.s,

In this have been described the goda, the royal


;

the holy Brahmarshis

the sinless Keshava


;

the god of gods

Mahadeva and

the

goddess Parvati

the birth of Kartikeya

(the generalissimo of the celestials) sprung

from and reared

by many mothers
kine.
fit

and the greatness of Brahmanas and of


is

This Bharata

collection

of all

the Srutis, and

is

to

bo heard by every
reciteth
it

virtuous person.

That learned

man

who

to

Brahmanas during the sacred


his sins,

lunations,

becometh purified of
vens as
it

and not caring

for

the hea-

were,

attaineth to a union

with Brahmn.

He

tliati

cause til even a single foot of this

poem

to be heard by Brah-

manas during

the performance of a Shraddha, that


Pitris

Shraddha
are

becometh inexhaustible, the

becoming ever

gratified with

the articles once presented to them.

The

sins

that

com-

mitted daily by our senses or the mind, those that are committed knowingly or unknowingly by any man, are ed by hearing the Mahabharata.
birth of the
all

destroy-

The

history

of the exalted

Bharata princes

is

called

the Mahabharata.

Ho

who knoweth this etymology itself of the name is cleared of all And because this hi.story of the Bharata race is so his sins. -wonderful, there foru, when recited, it assuredly puriiieth morTlie Muni Krishna-Dwaipayana attained tals from all sins.
his object in three years.

Rising daily and purifying himself

and performing
bharata.

his ascetic devotions,


this

he composed

this

Mahawith

Therefore should

be heard by Brahmanas
reciteth (his holy

the formality of a vow.

He who

narration

composed
tUey

ly

Kri.shua (Vyasa) for


it,

the

hi^aring of others,

and

who hoar

iu \vhc\tovor .^UUo they

may

be,

can uover bo

ADI PARVAi
affected

171
or bad.

by the

fruit

of their

deods

Ji^oorl

The mean
is

desirous of acquiring virtue should hear

it all.

This

equi-

valent to

all histories,

aiid

he that hoarcth

it

alwnys attalnetb

to purity of heart.

The

gratification that one deriveth on attain-

ing to heaven

is

scarcely equal to

that which one deriveth

on

hearing this holy history.

The
it to

virtuous

man who

with reverfruit

ence heareth

it or

causeth

be heard, obtaineth the


This Bharata
is

of

the Rajasuya and the horse


as

sacrifice.

said to be

much

a mine of

gems

as the illustrious
is

Ocean or the great


excellent,

mountain Moru.
is

This history
;

sacred and

and
he
it,

equivalent to the Vedas


purifying,

worthy of being heard, pleasing to

the ear,

and virtue-increasing.
of the

monarch,
for

that giveth a copy


doth, indeed,

Bharata to one that aslceth


of the

make a

present

whole
this

Earth

v/ith

her

helt of seas.

son

of Parikshita,

pleasant narration
to
recite

that giveth virtue and victory, I


entirety.

am

about

in

its

Listen to

it

The Muni Krishna-Dwaipayana


Avondcrful

re-

gularly rising for three years composed this


Galled the

history

Mahabharata.

thou bull amongst the Bharata


profit, pleasure,
;

monarchs, whatever about religion,


vation
is

and
"

sal-

contained

in this,

may
is

be seen elsewhere

but what-

ever

is

not contained herein

not to be found anywlicre.'

thus endetli the sixty-second Section in the Adivansa*. vatarana of the Adi Parva.

And

Section LXIII.

(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.)


Vaisampayana
ehara.
said, "

There was a king of name Upari-

And

the monarch was devoted to virtue.


also
to

And he was
monarch
the
of

very

much addicted

hunting.

And

this

the Paurava race, called also

Vasu, conquered

excellent

and delightful kingdom of Chedi


Indra.

under instructions from

Sometime

after,

the king gave up the use of arms, and

dwelling in a recluse asylum practised the most severe austerities. And the gods with Indra ahead once approached the

monarch during

this period, believing that

he sought the headof his.

ship of the gods by those ;ievere

austerities

AuJ

the

172
celestials,

MAHABHARATA.
becoming objects of
the gods said,
his
sighf,

by

soft

speeches

succeetled in winning hiin

"And
Earth
!

away from his 'O lord of the

ascetic austerities.

Earth, thou shouldst

take care so that virtue

may
said,

not sustain a diminution on

Protected by thee, virtue itself will in retuz'n protect


'/

the universe

And Indra

'

O
!

king, protect

thou

vir-

tue on Earth, attentively and


shult, for all time,

rigidly

Being virtuous, thou

behold (in after

life)

many
art

sacred

regions

Aitd though I
art thou

am

of heaven, and thou

of the

Earth, yet

my

friend

and dear

to

me.

And,
which

O
is

king of men,
the most de-

dwell thou in that region of the Earth


liglitful,

which aboundeth

in animals, is sacred, full of

wealth

and corn, well-protected


graced
lity.

like

heaven, of agreeable

climate,
fertifull

v/ith everj^ ohject of

enjoyment and blessed with


is

And,

monarch

of Ciiedi, this tliy dominion

of

riches, of

much
all

mineral wealth.
;

gems and precious stones, and containelh besides The cities and towns of this region are
the people
jest.

devoted to virtue
lie

are

honest

and contented

they never

even

in

Sons never divide their wealth

with their fathers atul are ever mindful of the welfare of their Lean cattle are never yoked to the plough or the parents.
cart, or

engaged

in

carrying merchandise

on

the other hand,

they

are well-fed and fattened.


four

In Chedi,

thou reverencer

of the gods and guests, the


in their

orders are

always engaged
to

respective

vocations.

Let

nothing be unknown
I
shall

thee that happens in the three worlds.


crystal car such as the celestials alone

give thee a

have, capable of carry-

ing thee through mid- air.


Earth, riding on that best
air like

Thou

alone, of all

mortals on the

of cars, shalt

range through mid-

a celestial endued with a physical frame. I shall also give thee a triumphal garland of unfading lotuses wearing which in battle thou shalt not be w^ounded by weapons. And,

O king,
"

this blessed

and incomparable garland, widely known


shall

on Earth as Indra's garlancl,

be thy distinctive badge.'


for

And

the

slayer

of

Vitra also gave the king,

his

gratification, a bamboo pole for protecting the honest and the peacefMl. And after the ex[iratiou of a year, the king planted
it

ou the ground

for

the purpose

of worshipping

the gives:

ADI PARVA.
that

173
foi'bh.,

thereof, viz,

Sahrd.

From

time

monarch,

all

kings, following Vasu'.s


tion of Indra's worship.

example, plant a pole for the celebraTlie next-day, the pole that
is

erect-

decked with golden cloth and scents and garlands and various ornaments. And the god Vasava is worsliipped due form with such garlands and ornaments. And the god, for
ed
is

the gratification of the illustrious Vasu, assuming the form of

a swan came himself

to

accept

the

wor&hip

thus

offered.

And
thus

the god, the great Indra, beholding the au picrous worship

made by

V.isu

'

that just of monarchs,

was delighted,
also,

and said unto him,


worship
the

Those men, and kings


shall

who
for

shall like

me and

joyously

observe this festivity of mine


liave

king of Chedi,

glory and

victory
shall

their

countries and kingdoms.

And

their

cities also

expand

and be ever in
*'

joy.'

King Vasu was thus blessed by


chief of
tlie

the gratified

the high-souled

gods.

Indeed,

Maghavat those men who

cause this festivity of Sakra to be observed with gifts of land,

gems and precious stones, do become the respected of the world. And king Vasu the lord of Chedi bestowing boons
of

and performing great

sacrifices atid

observing

the

festivity

of

Sakra, was respected by Indi-a.

And
for

from Cliedi he ruled the

whole

Avorld

virtuously.

And

the gratification of Indra,

Vasu, the lord of Chedi, observed the festivity of Indra.

ble prowess.

"And Vasu had five sons of great energy and immeasuraAnd the emperor installed his sons as governors
And
his son Vriliadratha

of various provinces.
*'

was installed

was known by the name of Maharatha.


his

was Pratyagra

and another,

in Magadha and And another son of Kusamva, who was also

called Mani-vahana.

And

tlie

two others were Mavellya and

Yadu

of great prowess and invincible in war.

" These,

monaich, were the sons of that royal sage of

mighty energy.
and towns

in their

And the five sons of Vasu own names and founded

planted kingdoms
separate dynasties

that lasted for long ages.

"And when
gift of ludra,

king Vasu was seated on that

cryst;ti

car,

tlio^

and courted through the sky, he was approached

IG^

MAHABnAHATA.
celestial singers

by Gandharvas and Apsaras (the


maids.)

nnd dancing(low-

And

because he coursed

through the upper rcginug,

therefore was he called Uparichara.

And by

his capital

ed a river called Shuktimatl.

And

that river was once attack-

ed by a life-endued mountain called Kolahala maddened by


lust.

And

Vasu,

beholding the foul attompt,

struck

the

mountain with

his foot.

And by
in

the

indentation

caused by

Vasu's stamp, the river came out (of the embraces of Kolahala.)

But the mountain begat

the river two children


to

that

were twins.
set her
free

And
from

the river, grateful

Vasu

for

his

having

Kolahala's

embraces,

gave them both to

Vasu.

And

the child that was male was


of wealth

made by Vasu that


and the punisher
of

best of royal sfiges and giver


his enemies

the generalissimo of called Girika was by Vasu made


"And
But
coming pure
after a bath,

his forces.
his wife.

But

the daughter,

Girika the wife of Vasu, when her season came, berepresented her state unto her lord.

that very day, the Pitris of


of the

Vasu came unto


the

that best
to

of

monarchs and foremost


fleer (for their

wise,

and asked him


king, thinking

slay

Shradha.)

And

that

the

command

of the Pitris should not be

disobeyed, went

ahuuwith

ting, wishfully thinking of Girika alone

who was

gifted

great beauty and like unto another Sree (Laksmi) herself.

And

the season being spring, the woods within which the king was

roaming,

liad

become

delightful like

unto the garden of the

king of the Gandharvas himself.

There were Ashokas and


;

Champahns, and Ghutas and AtiviuJdas in abundance and there were Punnagas and Karnikaras and Vakulas and Bivya Poialas and Patalas and Narikelas and Chandanas
and Arjunas and such other beautiful and sacred trees
plendant
with fragrant flowers and tasteful
fruits.

res-

And

the

whole

forest

was maddend by the sweet notes of the Kakila and

echoed with the

hum

of the

maddened

bee.

And

the king be-

came possessed with desire and he saw not his wife before him. Maddened by desire as he was roaming iiither and thither, he paw a beautiful Ashoka decked with dense foliage and its
branches covered with flowers.
in the shade of
thi!.t

And

the king ^at at

his

ease
of

tree.

And

excited

by the

ira";rance

ADIPARVA.
the season and the charming odours
of the
hicQ/.c,

If 3
flowers
(lie

around,

and maddened
Girika,

also

by the delicious

king could

not keep away from his

miud the thoughts of the beautiful Ibique in sUvis semen suiini continere non potuit.
illiid

Rax autem,
folium
iterum

receplt.

frustra profundi nolens, ut excidit, in Agnovit etiam tempes livani conjugis sua3
esse.

koram adventarn
fi'ustra 2^&vdi

Itdqiie

rex

rem

rnidta cogitatlone

atqiie itei'um revolvens,

( scivit

enion semen

suum

non posse at tempus jam adesse in quo conjux illvivs egeret ), carmina swper illo recitavit. And beholdin-^ that a swift hawk was resting very near to him, the king,
acquainted with the subtle truths of Dharm,a and Artha, went

unto him and

said,

'

Amiable
it

one, carry thou this seed for

my
find

wife Girika and give

unto her.

Her season hath


it

arrived.'

"And
the

the hawk, swift of speed, took

from the king

rapidly coursed

through the

air.

And

while thus passing,

hawk was seen by another


first

of his species.

And
the

thinking
flew at

that the
him.

one was carrying meat, the second one


in

And

the two fought with each other

sky
fell

wiih
into

their beaks.

And

while they wore fighting, the seed

the waters of the

Yamuna (Jumna.)

dwelt an Apsara of the higher ranks,

And in those waters known by the name of


fish.

Adrika, but transformed by a Brahmana's curse into a

And
of

that Adrika, transformed into a


fell

fish,

as soon as

the seed

Vasu

into

the

water from
it

the claws of the

hawk,
wa*^,

rapidly approaching, swallowed

at once.

sometime

after,

caught by the fishermen.


fish's

And that fish And it was


seed.

the

tenth month of the

having swallowed the


fish

And

from the stomach of that


child of

came out

male and a female

human

form.

And

the fishermen

wondered much, and

wending unto king Uparichava (for they were his subjects) And they said, 'O king, those two of liumau told him all sliape hiive been horu iu thj body of a fisli.' And the male child
amongst the two was taken by Uparichara.
"

And

this child

afterwards became the virtuous and truthful jnonarch Matsya.

And

after the birth of the twins, the

Apsara herself be-

came
th^

freed from her curse.

For she had been told before by


whil<3

ilIu,sU'iou3

one (who had cursed her) that she would,

176

MAHAftHARATA.

living in her piscatorial Corm, give birth to two children of hu-

nian shape and then would be freed

ft-oin

the curse.

And

then,

according
slain

to these

words, having given birth to


fish

the two, and

by the fishermen, leaving her


celestial sh.ape.

form she assumed her

own

And

that Apsara then went

away

into the

regiona of the Rishis crowned witii success and of the Charanas,

"And
piscatorial

the

fish-smelling

daughter of the Apsara

in

her

form was then given b) the king unto the


'

fisher-

men, saying,
ter

Let

this one be thy daughter.'

was known by the name of Satyavati.


virtue,

And the daughAnd gifted with


she of agreeable
for

great beauty aiid possessed of every


smiles,

owing

to contact

with fishermen, was


to serve her

some time
father,

of fishy smell.

And wishing
in this

(foster)

she

plied a boat on the waters of the


"

Yamuna.
was seen one
wanderings.
in course of his

While engaged

vocation, Satyavati

day by the great Rishi Parashara,


Gifted

with great beauty and an object of desire with even

an anchoret, and of graceful smiles, the wise one, as soon as

he beheld her, desired to have her. And tliat bull amongst Munis addressed the daughter of Vasu, of celestial beauty and
t'-tpering thighs, saying,

'Accept

my

embraces,

blessed one

!'

And

Satyavati

replied, '0

thou possessor of six attributes,


river.

behold the Kishis standing on both banks of the

Seen

by them, how can I grant thy wish " Thus addressed by her, the
whole region was enveloped
in

?'

illustrious

lord

thereupon

created the fog (which existed not before)

and by which the And the maiden, dnrkness.

beholding the fog that was created by the grent Rishi wondered

much.

And

the helpless one became suffused with the blushes

of bashfulness.
attributes,
trol of

And

she

said,

'

thou possessor of the six


always under
the
con-

know

that I

nm

a maiden

my father. O t!iou sinless one, by accepting your emthou best of Brahbr.ices my virginity will be sullied. how shall I, O Rishi, be Hianas, my virginity being sullied,
able
to return
life
1

home

Indeed,

I shall

not

then be able

to

bear

Reflecting upon
done.'
'

all this,

illustrious one,

do that

which should be next


with
all

she said, replied,

And the best of Rishis gratified Thou shalt remain a virgin evea

ADTPAP.VA.
if

177
timid
fair

thou grantegt,

my

wish.

And,
!

one, do
smile.s,

thou
niy

solicit

the boon that tliou desirest

Thou
her

of fair

grace hath never before proved


the maiden aslced for the boon

fruitless.'

And
it

thus addressed,

that

body might emit a


had.)

sweet scent (instead of the


illustrious Rlshi
"

fish}-

odor that

And

the

thereupon granted the wish of her heart.


obtained her
boon, she

And having

became very much

gratified,

and her season immediately came.


tiiat

And

she

accept-

ed the embraces of
thenceforth became

Rishi of wonderful deeds.

And

she

dhavati (the sweet-scented one.)


scent from the distance of a

known among men by the name of GanAnd men could perceive her
yojana.

And

for

this

she Avaa

known by another name which


scatters her scent for a

was
all

Yojanagandha (one who

yojana

around.)

And

the illustrious

Farashara, after this, went to his


"

own asylum,
the
excelhei*

And

Satyavati gratified with having attained

lent boon (viz, tliat she

became sweet-scented and that


herself.

virginity also remained unsullied), conceived in consequence of

having admitted Farashara unto


the very day, on an island in
her by Farashara and gifted
child,

And

she brought forth


in

the Jumna, the child begot

with great energy.

And

the

with

the

permission

of his

mother, set
'

his

mind on

And (he went away) saying, As soon as remembered by thee when occasion comes, shall I appear unto thee.' "And it was thus that Dwaipayana was born of Satyavati by And because he was born in an island, therefore Farashara. was he called Dwcdpayana, ( Dwipa- or island'born. ) And
asceticism.

the learned Dwaipayana,

beholding that virtue

is

destined

to

become lame by one pada each yuga (there being


in all
)

four padoji

and that the period of

life

and strength too of men


desire of doing

followed the yugas, and

moved by the

good to
there-

Brahma and
the Vedas.)

the Brahmanas, arranged the Vedas.

And

fore came he to be called Vyasa (the ai'ranger or compiler of

Jaimini, Paila,

The boon-giving great one then taught Sumantu, his own son Suka, and Vaisampayana, the

Vedas having the Mahabharata for their fifth. And the compilation of he Bharata was published by him through them
I

separately.

23

178
"

MAITA BHARATA,

Then Bhis-ma
was born

of great

energy and fame and of Immeasur-

able splendour, and spnrag


Vasiis,
ia

from the component


of

{)arts

of the

the

womb

And
fame.

tliere

was

a Ri&hi of the

name

Ganga by king Shantanu. of Animandavya of great


attributes, gifted

And he was

conversant with the interpretation of the

Yedas, was the possessor of the six

with

great energy, and of great reputation. And accused of theft though innocent, the old Rishi was impaled. And he thereupon

summoned
childliood
I

Dharma and

told

him these
fly

words ; In
'

my

had pierced a
I have,

little

in
;

blade of

grass.
call to

Dharn^a, I do recellect that one


other.
fold.

sin

but I cannot

mind any
a thousandthis
is

however, since practiced penances


sin

Hath not that one


?

been conquered by

my

asceticism

And

because the killing of a

Brahmana

more heinous than that of any other living thing, tiierefore, bast thou, O Dharma, been sinful Thou shalt, therefore, be And for that curse was born on Earth in the Sudra caste
!'

Dharma born

a Sudra in the form of the learned Vidura of pure


sinless.

tody and perfectly

And Suta

Sanjaya, like a Muni, was

born of Gavalgana. And Kama of Kunti in her maidenhood by

he came out of his And Vishnu himself, of worldface brightened by ear-rings. wide fame, and worshipped of the worlds, was born of Devaki

was born Surya ( the Sun ). And mother's womb with a natural armour and
of great strength

by Vasudeva,

for the benefit of the three worlds.

He

is

with-

out birth and death, displayed in splendour, the creator of (he Indeed, he who is called the universe and the lord of all
!

invisible cause of

all,

who knoweth no

deterioration,

who

is

the all-pervading soul,

the centre round which every thing

moveth,

the substance unto

which the three attributes of

Satwa, raja, and tamd co-inhere, the universal soul, the immutable, the material out of which hath been created this
xiniverse, the creator himself,

the controlling lord, the invisible


is

dweller in every

object,

whose work

this

universe
attributes,

of five
is

elements,

who

is

united with the six iiigh


the Vedas, save bis
is Infinite,
Avill,

the

Pranava or Oin of moved by any force


the
eiub'i>di

incapable of being
splendour,
floated

own

displayed in

ment of the mode of

life

called

Sannyasa, who

ADl PARVA,

179

en the wafers before the creation, who is the source whence hath sprung tliis mighty frame, wlio is the great combiner, the increate, the invisible essence of all, the great immutable,

who

is

THE ONE,

is-

bereft of those attributes that are


is

know-

able by the senses,


ning, birth,

who

the universe

itself,

v/ithout begin-

and decay,

that male being possessed


Kritavarma,

of infinite

wealth and the Grand-fatlier

of all creatures, took his

birth

of virtue! in the race of the Andhaka-Vrishnis for the increase

"And

Satyaki and

conversant with arms,

possessed of mighty energy, well-versed in all branches of knowledge, and obedient to Narayana in everything and com-

petent in the use of weapons, took their births from Satyaka and Hridika. And the seed of the great Rishi Varadwaja of
severe penances, kept in a
thsit

pot,

began

to

develop.

And from
the seed oF

seed

csivae

Drona

(the pot-barn.)

And from

upon a clump of reeds were born two that were tv/ins, the mother of Aswathama, (called Kripi,) and Kripa of great strength. Then was born the mighty AswaGautama,
fallen

thama from Drona. And then was born Dhrishta-dyumna, of the splendour of Agni himself, from the sacrificial fire. And the mighty hero was born with bow in hand for the destruction
of Drona.

And

from

the

sacrificial

altar

was born Krishna

(Draupa'U) resplendent and handsome, of bright features and


excellent beauty.

Then were born

the

disciples of Pralhad

Nagnajit and Suvala.

And from Suvala was born

a son Sakuni

who from
and the

the curse of the gods became the slayer of creatures

foe of virtue.

(Gandhari) the mother of Duryodliana.


versed in acquiring

And unto him was also born a daughter And both were wellworldly profits. And from Krislma-Dwai-

payana were born, in the soil of Vichitravirya, Dhrita-rasliAnd the lord of men, and Pandu of great strength. tra

from Dwaipayana was also born,

in the

Sudia

caste,

the wise

and intelligent Vidura, conversant with both


Artha, and free from
wives were born
five
all

Dharma and
The
eldest of

sins.

And

unto Pandu by his two

sons

like

the celestials.

them

Avas

Yudhish-thira.

And

Yudhish-thira was born (of


of justice)
or
;

the seed) of

Dharma (Yama
of

the god

and Bhima

of the Wolfe's stomach

Mtuutu (Fuvauu

Va}u the

god

180
of wind); and

MAHABHARATA.
Dhananjaya (Arjuna) blessed with
first

p;ood
;

for*

tune and the

of

all vvielders

Nakula and Shahadeva,


Aswinas.

of

of weapons, of Indra and handsome features and ever engag-

ed in the service of their superiors, were born of the twin

And

unto the wise Dhrita-rashtra were

born an
to

hundred

sons, tiz,

Diiryodhana and others, and

(in addition

the hundred) another, named Yuyutsu who was born of a Vaisya woman. And amongst those hundred and one, eleven, viz, Dush-shasana, Dush-saha, Durmarshana, Vikarna, Chitrasena, Vivingsati,

Jaya, Satyavrata, Purumitra, and


all

Yuyutsu

bv a Vaisya

wife, w^ere

Maharailtas

(first class charioteers.)

And Avimanyu

was born of Suvadra, the sister of Vasudeva, by Arjuna, and was therefore the grandson of the illustrious Pandu, And unto the five Pandavas were born five sons by
(their

common
all

wife) Panchali (Draupadi.)

And

these

princes

were

very handsome and conversant with

all

branches of
;

knowledge.

From
;

Yudhish-tiiira was born Pritivindhya


;

from

Vrikodara, Suta-soma
la,

from Arjuna, Sruta-kirti

from Naku-

Shatanika

and from Sahadeva, Sruta-sena of great prowess.

And Bhima, in the forest, begat in Hidimva a son named Ghatotkacha. And from Drupada was born a daughter Shikhandi who was afterwards transformed into a male child. And Shikhandi was so transformed into a male

by a Yaksha named

Shuna for his own purposes. "In that great battle of the Kurus came hundreds and
thousands of monarchs
for fighting

against each other.

The

names

of that innumerable host I


I

am

unable to recount even

in ten thousand years.

have named, however, the principal

ones who have been mentioned in this history (of tbe Bharuta.)" And so ends the sixty-third Section in the Adivansavata-

rana of the Adi Parva.

Section LXIV.

(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.)


Janamejaya
said, "

Brahmana, those thou hast named


I wish to hear of in
detail,

and those thou hast not named,


fortune,

as

also of other kings l>y thousands.


it

And,

O thou
full

of great good
for

behoveth thee to

tell

me

in

the object

which those Maharathas, equal unto the

celestials themselves,

were born on

earth.
said, " It
is

Vaisampayana
however, speak
(

hath been heard by

us,

monarch,
I
shall,

that what thou askest


it
)

a mystery to even the gods.

unto thee, after bowing down to Swayarnvw

the self-born.

thrice seven times

The son making

of

Jamadagni

Parushurama

after

the earth bereft of Kshatrias wend-

ed to that best of mountains


ascetic penances.

Mahendra and there


And Brahmanas

began
came,

his

And

then when the earth was

made

bereft of

Kshatrias,

the Kshatria

ladies, desirous of offspring,

monarch, to the Brahmanas.


connections

of rigid vows

had

with them during the womanly


king, lustfully and out of season.

season alone,

but never,
ladies

And

Kshatria

by thousands conceived from such connections with Brahmanas. Then, O monarch, were born many Kshatrias of

greater energy
thrive.

boys and

girls-so that the Kshatria race

might
gener-

And

thus sprung

the

Kshatria race

from Kshatria
the

ladies

by Brahmanas of ascetic penances.


life,

And

new

ation, blessed with long

began

to thrive

in

virtue.

And
re-

thus the four orders having Brahmanas at their head were


established.

And

every

man

at that time

went unto

his

wife

during season, and never from lust and out of season.

And,

thou bull of the Bharata race, in the same way, other creathe race
of birds,

tures also, even those born in


their wives

went unta

during season alone.

And,

O
in

thou protector of

the earth, hundreds of thousands of creatures were born, and


all

were virtuous and began


and disease.

to multiply

virtue, all

being

free from sorrow

And,

thou of the elephant's


for

tread, this

wide earth having the ocean

her
wi*o

boundaries,

with her

mountains and woods and towns,

once

more

182

MAHABHARITA.
And when
first

governed by the Kshatrias.


havinor Brahnianas for their

the earth the

began
other

to

be

again governed virtuousiy by the Kshatrias,

orders

were

filled

with great joy.

And

the kings, forsaking

all

vices born of lust

and anger and


deserved them,

juatly

awarding punishments on those that

protected the earth.


also of a

And

he of a Imndred

sacrifices possessed

thousand

e3"es,

beholding that the

Kshatria monarchs
proper

ruled so virtuously, pouring

down

vivifying showers at

times and places, blessed

all

creatures.

And,

king,

then no
before
this

one of immature years died, and none knew a


attaining to age.

woman

And

thus,

bull of the

Bharata
filled

race,

earth to the very shores of the ocean became

with

men

that were
fices

The Kshatrias performed great sacrimuch wealth. And the Brahmanas also all studbestowing
all long-lived.

ied the

king, no Brahraana in those


for

Vedas with their branches and the Upanisadaa. And, days ever sold the Vedas ( i. e.

taught

money)

or ever read aloud the

Vedas

in

the pre-

sence of the Siidras.

And

the Vaisyas with the


tilled.

help of bullthe

ocks caused the earth to be


cattle themselves.
lean.

And

they never yoked


all cattle

And

they fed with care

that were

And men
food.)

never milched kine as long the calves drank

only the milk of their dams (without having taken to grass or

any other
articles

And

no merchant in those days ever sold his

by

false scales.

And,

tiger

amongst men,

all

per-

sons living in the


set

ways
And,

of virtue

did
all

everything Avith
the orders were

eyes

upon

virtue.

monarch,

mindThus,

ful of the respective duties

that appertained to them.

tiger

among men,
And,

virtue in

those days never sustained any

diminution.

bull of the

Bharata

race,

both

kine

and
And'

women gave

birth to their offspring at the proper

time.

the trees bore flowers and fruits duly according to the seasons. And thus, O king, the hrita age having then duly set in, the

whole earth was


*'And,

filled

with numerous creatures.


race,

bull

of the Bharata
terrestrial

when such was


the Asuras,

the

blessed state of the

world,
lines.

lord of

men, began to be born in kingly

And

the sons of Diti

(Daityas) being repeatedly defeated in war by the sons of Aditi


(celestials)

aud deprived

also oH sovereignty

and heaven, began

ADI PARTA,
to

183
possessed

be incarnaie on earth,

And,

king, the Asuras

of great power, and desiroua of sovereignty


to be born on earth

among men, began


as kine,

amongst various

creatures, such

horses, asses, camels, buffaloes,

among

creatures such as Raks-

hasas and others, and in elephants and deer.


of the eartii, owing to

And,

protector

those already bora and those that were


of supporting herself, of

being born, the Earth became incapable

And amongst

the sons of Diti (Daityas) and

Danu (Danaenergy^

vas) cast out of heaven,

some were born on

this earth as kings

of great pride and insolence.

And

possessed of great

they covered the earth


oppressing
all foes,

in

various shapes.

And

capable of
for

they

filled this

earth having the ocean

her boundaries.

And

by their strength they began to oppress


all

Brahmanas and Kshatrias and Vaisyas and Sudras and


other creatures also.
traversed the earth,
sands.

Terrifying and killing

ail

creatures, they

king, in

bands of hundreds and thouvirtue,

And

bereft of truth
"with

and

proud of their strength


iu-

and intoxicated
"

the

wine of insolence, they even

sulted the great Rishis in their asylums,

And

the Earth

tlms

oppressed by the mighty Asuras

endued with great strength and energy and possessed of abundant means, began to think of going to Brahma.

The united

strength of the creatures (such as Shesha, the tortoise, and the.

huge Elephant), and of many Shesbas


supporting the Earth

too,

became incapable of
as she

rnih

her mountains, burdened

was with the weight of the Danavas.


Earth,

And

then,

king, the

oppressed

with

the
of the

weight and

afflicted

with fear,
creatures.
worlds-

sought the protection

Grand-father

of

all

And

she beheld the divine Braiima

knowing no deterioration

the creator of the ^surrounded by the gods,


And
the

Brah-

manas, and great Rishis, of exceeding good fortune, and adored by delighted Gandharvas and Apsaras always engaged in
the business of the celestials.
the

Earth then adored

Grand-father,

having approached him.

And

the

Earth,

desirous of protection, then represented everything unto


in the presence,

him,

Bhai'ata, of all the Protectors of the world.

Bat,

king, the Earth's object had

been known before-hand

to the

Omniscient Self-create Supreme Lord.

Aud,

Bharata,

184
creator as he
is

MAHARTTARATA.
of the universe,
all

why should he
creatures
lord

not

know

fully

what

is in

the minds of
?

his

including the gods


of
tlie

and the Asuras


creator of
all

And,

king, the

Earth, the

creatures, Isa,

unto the Earth.


for the

And Bralima

Smnbhu, Prajajyati, then spakesaid, '0 thou holder of wealth,


for

accomplishment of the ohject


all

which thou hast ap"

proached me, I shall appoint

the dwellers of the heavens.'

Vaisampayana continued, " Having said so unto the Earth, And the creaking, the divine Brahma bade her farewell.

tor then

commanded

all

the gods saying, 'To ease

the

Earth

of her burden, go ye and take your births on her

according to

your respective parts and seek ye


ready born
all

strife

(with
all,

the

Asuras

al-

there.)'

And

the creator of

summoning

also

the tribes of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras,


these

them
ye

words of deep import


to

spake unto

'

Go ye and be born

amongst men according


like.'

your respective parts in forms that

"

And

all

the gods with Indra, hearing these '.vords

of the

lord of the celestials,

words that

were

true, desirable

under
them.

the circumstances, and

fraught with benefit,

accepted

And they all having resolved to come on Earth in their respective parts, then went to Baikuntha where was Narayana the slayer of all foes, he who has the discus and the mace in
who is of bright splendour, who hath the lotus on his navel, who is the slayer of the foes of the o-ods, who is of eyes looking down upon his wide chest (in yoga attitude), who is the lord of the Prajapati himself, the sovereign of all the ^ods, of mighty strength, who hath
his hands,

who

is

clad in purple,

the badge of the Sreevatsa {the biggest jewel), wlio


of every one's faculties, and

is

the mover
gods.

who

is

adored by

all the

Him the
'

most exalted of persons, Indra addressed, saying,


it be.'

Be incarnate.' And Hari replied, saying, 'Let And thus endeth the sixty-fourth Section in

the

Adivansa-

vatarana of the Adi Parva.

Section LXY.
(

Samhliava Parva. J
"

Vaisampa5'ana

said,

Then Indra held

a consultation

with

Narayana about the


all

latter's

decent on earth from heaven with

the gods according to their respective portions.


all

And

having

commanded

the

dwellers

of heaven, Indra returned

from

the abode of Nara3'ana,

And
for

the dwellers of heaven gradually the destruction of the Asuras

became incarnate on Earth


amongst kings, the
they pleased, in

and the welfare of the three worlds.


celestials

And

then,

tiger

took their births, according as

the lines of BroJimarshis and royal sages.

And

they slew the Danavas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas and Snakes,


and, indeed,
race,

other man-eaters,

many
the

other creatures.

And,

bull

of

the

Bharat^

Danavas and Rakshasas,


celestials

Gandharvas and Snakes, could not slay the incarnate even in their infancy, they were so strong !"

Janamejaya

said, " I desire

to hear,

from the beginning,

of the births of the gods, the Danavas, the

Gandharvas, the
it

Apsaras, men, Yakshas, thee to


tell

and Rakshas,
all

Therefore,
creatures."

behoveth

me about

the births of

Vaisampayana

said, "

Indeed, I shall, having

bowed down.
of the
celes-

to the self-create, tell thee in detail the ^origin


tials

and other creatures.


sons, viz,

It

is

known

that

Brahma hath

six

spiritual

Marichi, Atri,

Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha,

and Kratu. And Marichi's son is Kasyapa, and from Kasyapa have sprung these creatures. Unto Daksha (one of the Prajapatis)

were born thirteen daughters of great good fortune.

Tlie daughters of

Daksha

are,

tiger

among men and prince

of the Bharata race, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhi-

ka, Krodha, Pradha, Viswa, Vinata, Kapila, Muni, and Kadru.

The
tyas

sons and grand-sons


infinite.

of these, gifted

with great energy,

have been

From

Aditi have sprung the twelve Adi-

who

are

the lords of the universe.

And,
I

Bharata, as
.

they are according to their


thee.

names, shall

recount them to

They

are Dhata, Mitra,

Yaga, Yivaswan,

Pusha,

Savita, Tashta,

Aryama, Sakra, Varuna, Angsa, and Yishuu. The

2^

186
youngest, liowever,
is

MAHABHARATA.
superior to

them

all in

merit.

Diti

had

one son called HLranya-kashipu.


kashipu had
eldest of
five sons,
all
all

And

the illustrious Hiranya-

famous throughout the worlds.

The
;

them

the third was Anuhrada


kala.

was Prahradha, the next was Sangljradba and after him were Shivi and Vash;

And,

Bharata,

had three

sons.

known everywhere that Prahrada They were Yiroehana, Kumva, and Nikumva.
it is

And And And

unto Virochana was born a son, Vali, of great prowess.


the son of Vali
is

known
also

to

be the great

Asura Vana.
Rudra,

blessed with good fortune

Vana was
The

a follower of

(Siva) and was

known

by the name of Mahakala.


!

And

them all was Danu had king Vipra-chitti of great fame. Sham vara, and Namuchi, and Pnloma Ashiloma, and Keshi, and Diirjaya; Ayashira, Aswaehira, and the powerful Aswa-sanku also Gagana-murdha, and Vegavana, and he called Keturaana Swarvanu, Aswa, Aswaand Aswa-griva, and pati, Vrishaparva, and then Ajaka
forty sous,

Bharata

eldest of

Sukshma, and Tuliundu of great strength Ekapada, and Ekachakra, Virupaksha, Mahodara and Nicliandra, and Nikumva, Kupata, and then Kapata Sarava, and Salava, Surya, and
;
; ;

then Cfiaudrama; these in the race of


well-known.

Danu

are stated

to

be

The Surya and Chandrama

(the

Sun and the

Moon)

of the celestials are other persons, and not the sons of


as

Danu
Danu

mentioned above. The following ten gifted with great


were
also,

strength and vigour


:

king, born in

the

race

of

Ekaksha,
;

Amritapa

of heroic courage,

Pralamva and

Naraka
And,

Vatapi, Shatru-tapana, and Shat-ha the great Asura;

Gavishta, and Vanayu, and

the

Danava

called Dirghajihva.

Bharata, the sons and the

grand-sons of these
birth to

were
the

known

to be countless.

persecutor of the

And Singhika gave Sun and the Moon to


;

Rahu

three

others, Su-

chandra, Chandra-hauta, and Chandra-pramardana.


countless progeny of Krura (Krodha) were as

And the much crooked and


of crooked
also

wicked as

herself.

And
bulls

the tribe

was wrathful,

deeds, and persecutors

of their

foes.

And Danayu
And

had
sons
all

four sons

who were

among

the Asuras.

They were Viksthe

hara, Vala, Vira,

and Vritra the great Asura.

of

Kala were

all like

Kala (Yama) himself and emiters of

ADIPARVA.
foes.

187
of jrreat

Ami

tliey

were of great fame,

energy and

oppressors of

all foes.

And

the sons of

Kala were Vinashana

and Krodha, and then Krodha-hanta, and Krodha-shatru. And there were many others among the sons of Kala. And Sukra the son of a Rishi was the chief priest of the Asuras. And the celebrated Sukra had four sons who were priests of
the Asuras.
others,
self in

And

they were Tashtadhara and Atri and two

Raudra and Karmi. energy, and devoted


liath

They were like the Sun himto Brahma and the welfare of the
in
oi

worlds.
"

Thus

been recited by me, as heard

the

Purana,

the progeny of the gods and the Asuras both

great strength

and energy.
to fame.
"

am

incapable,

king, of counting

the des-

cendants of thes, countless as they are

and not much known

And

the sons of Vinata were Tarkhya, Arishta-nemi, and

then Gadura and Aruna, Aruni, and Varuni. And Shesha, Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kurma, and Kulika, are known
to be the

sons

of

Kadru

and Bhima-sena, Ugra-sena, Su-

parna, Varuna, Gopati, and Dhritarashtra, and Surya-varcha

the seventh
traratha

Satyavak, Arkapania, Prayuta, Bhima, and Chito fame, of great

known

learning,

and the controller


king, Parjannya,

of his passions,

and then Shalishira, and,


in

the fourteenth

the

list;

Kali, the

fifteenth,

and Narada,

Devas and Gandharvas are known to be Muni (Dak^-ha's daughter as mentioned before.) I the sons of Anavadya, Manii, shall recount many others, O Bharata
the sixteenth
;

these

Vansa A sura, Margana-pria, Anupa, Suvaga,


daughters brought forth by
Pradha.
;

Vasi,

were the

Sidha,

and Purna, and

Varhi, and Purnayu of great fame

Brahmachari, Ratiguna, and

who was

Suparna who was the seventh; Viswavasu, Vanu, and Shuchandra the tenth, were also the sons of Piadha and they were
;

gods some of them and some Gandharvas.


that this Pradha of great

And

it is

also

known
Rishi

good fortune by the

celestial

( Kasyapa her husband ) brought forth the sacred race of the Alamvusa, Misra-keshi, \'i'Ivut-parna, Tilot-tama, Apsaras. Aruna, Rakshita, Ramva, Monorama, Keshini, Suvalm, Surata

Surtija,

Supria,

were the daughters, and. Ativahu, and the

18S
celebrated

MAffABHARATA;
Haba and
Hiihu, and TumviiriT were the
sons

best of Gandharvas
kine, Gandharvas,

of Prodha.

the?

And

Amrita, the Brahmanas,

and Apsaras,

wei'e

born of Kapila as stated

in the Parana.

"Thus hath been


creatures duly
nas, Rudras,

recited to thee

by me the
of

birth

of all

of

Gandharvas and Apsaras,


;

Snakes, Suparblessed

and Marutas

of kine and of Brahinanas

with great good fortune and of sacred deeds.


(if

And

this account,
all

read) extendeth the period of

life,

is

sacred,

worthy of

praise,

and giveth pleasure

to the

ear.

It should

be always

heard and recited to others, in a proper frame of mind.

"He who

duly readeth this account of the birth of

all

high-

soiiled creatures, in the presence of the

gods and Brahmanas,

btaineth large progeny, good fortune, and fame, and attaineth


also to excellent Avorlds hereafter."

And

so ends the sixty-fifth Section in the

Sambhava

of the

Adi Purva,

Section LXYI.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Vaisampayana
said,
" It is

known

that the spiritual sons of

Bralima were the six great Rishis (already mentioned.)

There

was another of the name of Sthanw^


gifted with

And
is

the sons of Sthanu


eleven.
;

great energy were,


Sai'pa,

it

known,

They

were Mriga-vj^adha,

Niriti

of great fame
;

Ajaikapat,

Ahivradhna and Pinaki the oppressor of foes Dahana, and Iswara, and Kapali of great splendour Sthanu, and the illus;

trious Bharga.

And

these are called the eleven Rudras. that Marichi, Angira,


six great

lb

hath been already

said,

Atri,

Pulastya,

Pulaha, and Kratu

these
And,

Rishis of great energy

are the sons of Brahma.

Angira's sons are


all of rigid

three,^

^Vrihaspati,
O
king,
it

It is well-known in the world

that

Utatliya,
is

and Samvarta,
the

vows.

said that

sons of
all

Atri are numerous.

And

being great Rishis they are

con-

versant with the Vedas, crowned with ascetic success, and of


souls in perfect peace.
)of

And,

tiger

among

kings,

the sons

-Pulastya

of great

wisdom are the

Rakshagas,

Monkeys^

ADlPARVA,
Kinnaras
(

1S9
),

balf-raen

and half-horses
it
is

and Yakshas.
the

And,
(

king, the sons of Pulaha were,


insects
),

said,

Salavas

the

"winged

the lions,
bears,

the Kimpurushas (half-lions and

lialf-inenX

the tigers,
as

and wolves.

And

the sons

of

were the companions of Surya, (the Valakhilyas), known in the three worlds and devoted to truth and vows. And, O thou protector of the Earth, the
Kratu, sacred
sacrifices,

illustrious Rishi

Daksha, of soul in complete peace, and


right

greait

asceticism, sprung from the

toe

of

Brahma.

And from

the left toe

Daksha.

Brahma sprang the wife of the high-souled And the Muni (Daksha) begat in her fifty daughters
of

and

all

those daughters
like lotus

were of
leaves.

faultless

features

and limbs,

and of eyea

And
to

the Prajapati Daksha,

not having any sons,

made

those

daughters his PutriJcas (so


himself and
their

that their sons might belong both


bands.)

hus-

And
ten of

Daksha bestowed according to the sacred ordihis

nance,

daughters on Dharma,

tvventy-seven on

Chandra

(the Moon),

and thirteen on
of

Kashyapa.

Listen as I
!

recount the

wives
all

Dharma

according to their names

They

are ten in

Kirti, liaksmi, Dhriti,

Medha, Pushti, SraIt

dha, Kria,

Budhi, Lajja, and Mati.

These are the wives of


is

Dharma

as appointed

by the

self-create.

known

also

throughout the worlds that the wives of Shoma (Moon) are twenty-seven. And the wives of Shoma, all of sacred vows,
are

employed

in indicating

time

and they are the Nakshattras


so
for assisting the courses

and the Yoginis and they became


of the worlds.

"And Brahma had another son named Manu. And Manu had a son of name Prajapati. And the sons of Prajapati were eiht and were called the Vasus whom I shall name in deThey were Dhara, Dhruva, Shoma, Aha, Anila, Anala, These eight are known as the Vasus, Pratyusa, and Prabhasa. Of these, Dhara and the truth-knowing Dhruva were born of Dhurara; Chandrama ( Shoma) and Shasana (Anila)were bom Aha was the son of Rata and Huof the amiable Shasa
tail.
;
;

tashana (Anala) of Shandilya


the sons of Prabhata.

and Pratyusha and Prabhasa Averc


sons,

And Dhara had two


the son of

Hutahavyavaha.

And

Dhiuva

is the illugtrious

Dravina and Kal

390
(Time) the destroyer
resplendant Varcha.

MAHABEARATA.
of the

worlds.

And Shoma's

son

i8

the

And Varcha

begets in hia wife Manohara

And the sons of three sons Shishira, Prana, and Ramana. Aha were Jyoti, Shama, Slianta, and also Muni. And the
son of Agni
reeds.
is

the handsome
is

Kuraara born

in

the forest of

And he

also called Kartiheya because he was reared others.

by Krittika and the


his

And

after

Kartikeya were born

three brothers
is

wife of Anila
Avijnata-gati.

Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya. And the Shiva. And Shiva's sons were Manajava and

Pratyusha,

These two were the sons of Anila. The son of you must know, ia the Rishi by name Devala.
two sons

And Devala had


and
first

who were both

exceedingly forgiving

of great

mental power.

And

the sister of Vrihasptai, the

women, uttering the sacred truth, engaged in ascetic And she became the penances, roamed over the whole Earth.
of

wife of Prabhasha the eighth Vasu.

Viswakarma the founder


of a
all

of all

And she begat the illustrious And he was the originator arts.
first

thousand

arts,

engineer of the immortals, the maker of

kinds of ornaments,

and the

of artists.

who

constructed the celestial cars of

the gods.

And he it was And mankind

are enabled to live in


illustrious

one.

And

consequence of the inventions of that he is worshipped for that reason by men.

And
"

he

is

eternal and

immutable this^-Viswakarraa.

And the illustrious Dharma, the dispenser of all happiness, assuming a human countenance came out through the
right breast of Brahma.
cellent sons capable of

And Ahasta (Dharma) hath

three ex-

And they charming every creature. Harsha. (Peace, Desire, and Gladness,) are Shama, Kama, and And by their energy they are supporting the worlds. And the and the wife of wife of Kama is Rati, of Shama is Prapti
;

Harsha

is

Nanda.

And upon
is

them,

indeed, are

the

worlds

made to depend (for all "And the son of Marichi


the Father of the worlds.

that their inhabitants do.)

Kasyapa.

And

Kasyapa's
is

offs-

pring are the gods and the Asuras.

And

therefore

Kasyapa

And

Tastri, of the form of .(a mare)

Vadava, became the wife of Savitri.

And

she gave birth, in

the skies, to two greatly fortunate twins the Aswinas.

And,

king, the sons of Adili are twelve with Indra heading

them

ADI PARVA,
all.

391

And

the youngest of

them

all

was Vishnu upon

whom

are

the worlds dependent.

"These are the thirty three gods (eight Vasus, eleven Rudrag,
twelve Adityas, Prajapati,

and Vashatkara).

And

I shall

now

recount their pro;:;eny according to their Pakshas,

Kulas, and

Ganas.

The Rudras, the Sadhyas,


of

the Marutas, the Vasus, the

Bhargavas, and the Viswadevas are each reckoned as a Paksha.

Gadura the son


twin Aswinas,

Vinata and the miglity Aruna


reckoned among
all
tiie

also,

and the

illustrious Vrihaspati are


all

Adityas.

The
are

annual plants, and

inferior animals,

reckoned among the Guhyakas.

"These are the Ganas of the gods


This recitation washes
"

recited to thee,

king

men

of all sins.

The illustrious Bhrigu came out, ripping open the breast of Brahma. The learned Sukra is Bhrigu 's son. And the learned Sakra becoming a planet and engaged according to the command of the self-existent in pouring and withholding rain,
and
in

despensing and remitting calamities,

for sustaining

the
ilie

lives of all creatures in


skies.

the three worlds traverses through

And

the learned Sukra, of great intelligence and


life

wis-

dom, of rigid vows, leading the


tual guide of both the Daityas

of a Brahmachari, divided

himself in twain by power of asceticism, and became the spiri-

and the gods.


in

And

after

Sukra

was thus employed by


This was Chyavana
soul, of great fame.

Brahma

seeking the

welfare (of the

gods and the Asuras), Bhrigu

begat another excellent son.

who was like the blazing sun, of virtuous And he came out of his mother's womb

in

anger and became the cause of his mother's release,

king,

(from the hands of the Rakshasa.)


of

And

Arushi, the daughter

Manu, became the wife of the wise Chyavana. And in her was born Aurva of great reputation. And he came out ripping open the thigh of Arushi. And Aurva begat Richika.

And

Richika in his boyhood even became possessed of great


virtue.

power and energy, and of every


Jamadacjni.

And Richika begat

And the hicjh-souled Jamadagni had four sons. And the youngest of them all was Rama (Parashurama). And Rama was sui>erior to all his brothers in tlie possession of good qualities, Aad he was skilful in all weapons, and became the

192
slayer of the Kshatrias.

MAHABHARATA.
And he had his passions under comAnd Aurva had an hundred sons with Jamadagni And these hundred sons had offspring by thousands
other sons, viz,
is

plete control.

the eldest.

spread over this Earth.


"

And Brahma had two


stayed with Manu.

Dhata and Vidhata,


auspicious Laksmi^

who

Their sister

the

having her abode amid lotuses.


Laksnii are the sky-ranging horses.
of Sukra,

And the spiritual sons of* And the daughter bora


eldest wife

named

Divi,

became the
gods.

of Varuna.

In

her were born a son named Vala, and a daughter named


(wine) giving joy unto the

Sura

And Adharma

(Sin) was

born when creatures (from want of food) began to devour each

And Adharma always destroys every creature. And Adharma had Niriti for his wife, whence the Rakshasas who And she hath also are called Nairitas (offspring of Niriti.)
other.

three other cruel sons always engaged


are
is

in

sinful

deeds.

They

Vaya

(fear),

Mahavaya

(terror),

and Mrityu (Deatb) who


created thing.

always engaged in slaying every


is,

destroyer as he

he hath no wife, and no son.

And allAnd Tamvd

brought forth

five

daughters known throughout the worlds.

They
crows

are

Kaki

(crow), Shyeni (hawk), Vashi (hen), Dhrita-rasli([)arrot).


;

tri (goose),
;

and Shuki
the
all
;

And Kaki brought


;

forth

the
;

Shyeni,

hawks

Vashi, the

cocks and vultures


also

Dhrita-rashtri,
all

ducks and swans

and she

brought forth
qualities

Chakravakas
all

and the

fair

Shuki of amiable
brought forth
nine daughters
all

and

possessing

auspicious

signs
to

the

parrots.

And Krodha

gave birth

all

of wrathful

disposition. And their names were Mrigl, Mrigamanda, Hari, Bhadrammia, Matangi, Sharduli, Sheta, Suravi, and

the agreeable Siirasd blessed with every virtue.


foremost of men,
tlie

And,

thou
of the

offspring of Mrigi are all animals

deer species.

And

the offspring

mals of the bear species and those

Mrigamanda are all anicalled Srimara (swift-footed.)


of

And Bhadramana begat eon. And the offspring


species

the celestial elephant Airavata for her


of Hari are all animals of the
also all the

endued with great activity and


called

monkey horses. And


begat

those animals also that are


are said
to

Golangula

(the cow-tailed)

be the offspring of Hari,

And Shwduli

ADi PARVA,
lions

193

and
all

tigers in

numbera, and also leopards and, no doubt

of

it,

other strong animals.


all

And,

kino;,

the offspring

of

Matangi are

the

elephant!?.

And Sheta

begat the large

elephant known
speed.
tlie

And,

king, Suravi

by the name of Sheta endued with great] gave birth to two daughters,

amiable Rohini and the far-famed Gandharvi.

And,

Bharata, she had also tAvo other daughters

named Vimala and


and from Ganthe
do.te,

Anala. dharvi

From Rohini have sprung


all

all

kine,

animals of the horse species.

And Anala begat


(They are the

seven kinds of trees yielding pulpy

fruits.

the palm, the hintald, the tali, the

little date,

the nut, and

the cocoanut.
ShitJci (the

And

she had also another


species.)

daughter called
begafc

mother of the parrot

And Surasa
birds.)

a son called
Shyeni,

Knnha

(a species of long-feathered

And

the wife

of Aruna,

gave birth to two sons of great

energy and strength named Savipati and the mighty Jatayw. Surasa also begat the Nagas and Kadru the Pannagas (snakes.)

And

Vinata begat two sons Gadura and Aruna known exten-

sively.

And,

king of men,

thou
all

first

of intelligent per-

sons, thus hath the

genealogy of

the

principal
to
this

creatures
a

been

fully described

by me.

By

listening

man

is

fully cleansed

from

all his sins,

and acquireth great knowledge,

and

finally attaineth to the first of states in after life."

And

thus endetb the sixty-sixth Section in the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva.

Section

LXVIL

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


to hear from about the birth, among men, of the gods, the Dauavas, the Gandharvas, the Raks^has, the lions the tif^ers
I

Janamejaya

said,

"Worshipful one,

wish

thee in detail

and other animals, the snakes, the


tures
!

birds, in

fact,

of all

crea-

wish also to hear about the

acts

and achievements
in

of these, in

due

order, after they

became incarnate

human
thee

forms

!"

Vaisampayana
all

said, "

king of men, I shall

first tell

about those celestials and Dauavas

that were born

among

25

194
men.

MAAi3HAKATA.
The
first of D;iiiav;i3

who was known by the name of Vipra-chitti became that bull among men noted as Jarasaudha. And, O king, that son of Diti who was known as Hiranya-kasipu was known in this world among men as the powerful Shishupala. He who had been known as Sang-hlatla, the younger brother of Prahlada, became among men the famous Salya, that bull amongst the Vahlikas. The spnted

Auuhlad wlio had been the youngest became world as Dhrista-ketu. And, O king, that son

note'i

in the

of Diti

who

hud been known Druma. And he who was known as the great Asura Vashkala became on earth the great Bhaga-datta. The five great Asuras
gifted with great energy, Aya-shira, Aswa-shira, the

as Shivi became on earth the famous monarch

spirited
all

Aya-shanku, Gagana-murdha,
in the royal line of

and Vegavana-, were


all

born

Kekaya and

became great monarchs.

That other Asura of mighty energy who was known by the name of Ketumana became on earth the monarch Amitouja of terrible deeds. That great Asura who was known as Swarvanu became on earth the monarch Ugra-seua of fierce deeds. That great Asura who was known as Aswa became on earth the monarch Asoka of exceeding energy and invincible in And, O king, the younger brother of Aswa who battle. was known as Aswapati, a son of Diti, became on earth the

mighty monarch Hardikya.

who was known

as

The great and fortunate Asura Vrisha-parva became noted on earth as


And,

king Dhirgha-prajna.

king, the younger

brother of

Vrisha-parva who was known by the name of Ajaka became noted on earth as king Shalya. The powerful and mighty

Asura who was known as Aswa-griva became noted on earth And, O king, the Asura who was known as king Rocha-mana. as Sukama, endued with great intelligence and whose achievements
also

were great, became on earth the famous king Vri-

had-ratha.

And

that

firrft

of Asuras

who was known by the

name
indu.

of

Tuhunda became noted on

earth as the monarch Sena-

That Asura of great strength who was known as Ishupa became the monarch Nagua-jita of famous prowess.
great Asura

The
QHk

who was known

as

Ekachakra became noted

^arth as PriU-viudhya, The great Asuru Virunaksha capabk

ADIPARVAi
of displaying various
as king Chitravarma.

1^5=

modes of fight became noted on earth The first of Danavas, the heroic Hora> who quelled the pride of all foes became on earth the famous and fortunate Suvahu. The Aaura Suliara of great energy and
the destroyer of foemen became noted on earth as king Vahlika.

That best of Asuras called Nichandra whose face was

as

handsome

as that of the

Moon became
Avho
v/as

noted

on earth as
of greafe

the

fortunate

monarch Munja-kesha.

That

A sura
first

intelligence called

Nikumbha

never vanquished in

battle

was born on earth as king Devadhipa the

among
sage

monarchs.
Diti by the

That great Asura known amongst the sons of

name

of Sharava became on earth the

royal

called Paurava.

And,

king,

the great Asura of exceedin/5

energy, the fortunate

Kupatha was born on earth as the famous monarch Suparsha. The gr^at Asura, O king, who wag
called

Kratha was born on earth as the royal sage Parvatya


like a

of-

form resplendent

golden mountain.

He

amongst?ii the

Asuras who was known as Shalava the second became on


eartli the

monarch Prahlad

in the

country of the Vahlikas. Tha


knov/n

foremost

among

t!ie

sons of

Diti

by the name of

Chandra and handsome as the lord of the stars himself became on earth noted as Chandra-varina the king of the Kambojas. That bull amongst the Danavas who was known by the name of Arka became on earth, O king, the royal sage
Rishika.

That best of Asuras v/ho was known


earth,

as

Mritapa

became on
paka.

best of kings,

the

monarch Paschimanu-

That great Asura of surpassing energy known as Garishta became noted on earth as king Druma-sena. The
great Asura

who was

knov/n

as

earth as the monarch Visv^a.


er

He who

Mayura became noted onv/as known as the young-

brother of

Kalakirti.

Mayura became noted on earth as the monarch The mighty Asura who was known as Chandra-

hanta became on earth the royal sage Sunaka.

The great

Chandra- vinashana became noted on earth as the monarch Janaki. That bull amongst the Danacalled
vas,

Asura who was

prince of the

became noted on earth


brought forth

who was called Dhirgha-jihva, The Graha who was by Singhika and who persecuted the Sun and

Kuru
as

race,

Kashi-raja,

196
tlie

MAHABHAEATA^
Moon
name
because

noted on

earth

as

tlic

monarch Kialha
spirited

The
the

eldest of the

four sods of

Danayu who was known by


the

of Vikshara

became on earth
of

monarch
great
called

Vasumitra.

The second brother

Vikshara

that

Asura, was born on earth as the king of

the country

Pandya.

That best of Asuras who was known by the name of Valina became on earth the monarch Paundra-raatsyaka. And, O king, that great Asura who was known as Vilra be-

came on earth the


mana.

royal sage

known by the name

of

Mani-

That Asura who was the younger


as

brother of Vitra

and known

Krodha-hanta became noted on earth as king

That other Asura who was known by the name of Krodha-vardliana became noted on earth as the monarch

Danda.

Danda-dhara.
on earth
all

The

eight sans of the Kaleyas that


also

were born
the prowess
in

became great kings endued

with

of tigers.

The

eldest of

them

all

became king Jayat-sena


third

Magadha.

Tiie second of them, in prowess like ta Indra,

became
endued

noted on earth as Aparajita.

The

of them,

with great energy and power of producing deception, was born

on earth
prowess.

as

the

king of

the Nishadhas gifted

with great

That other amongst them who was known as the

fourth was noted on earth as Sreniman, that best of royal sages.

That great Asura amongst them who was the fifth became noted on earth as king Mahouja the oppressor of' enemies.

That great Asura possessing great intelligence who was the sixth of them became noted on earth as Abhiru that best of The seventh of them became known throughroyal sages.
out the earth,

from the centre

to

the

sea, as

king SamudraShasti'as,

scna well-acquainted with the truths of the

Dharma

The

eiglith of the

Kaleyas known as Vrihat became on earth

a virtuous king ever engaged in the good of all creatures. The mighty Danava known by the name of Kukshi became known
on earth
tain.

as

Parvatia

of form

resplendent as a golden moungifted with

The mighty Asura Krathana

great energy

became noted on earth as the monarch Suryaksha. The great Asura of handsome features known by the name Surya, became on oarth the monarch of the Vahlikas by name Darada,
the loicmoot ul
hII

kings,

And.

king,

froua

the tribe

ADirAllVA.
of Agiiras called

197
I

KroJhavasa, of

whom

Lavo already spoken

thee, were born many heroic kings on earth. Madraka, and Karna-veshta, Sidhartha, and also Kitaka Suvira, and Suvahu, and Mahavira, and also Vahlika Kratha, Vichitra,

to

Saratha, and

handsome king Nila and Chiravasa, and Bhumi-pala; and Dmtavakra, and he who was called Durjaya that tiger amongst kings named Rukmi, and king Janamejaya Ashada, and Vahu-vega, and also Bhuriteja Ekalavya, and
tho
;

Sumitra, Vatadhana, and also


called the Karushakas,

Gomukha

the
;

tribe

of

kin-'-s

and

also
;

Khema-dhurti

Srutayu, and

Udvaha, and

also Vrihat-sena

Kshema, Ugra-tiitha, the king


as

of the Kalingas;

and Matiman, and he who was known


of kings

king
class

Iswara; these

first

were

all

born of the Asnra

called Krodhavasa,
" There was also born on earth a mighty Asura known amongst the Danavas by the name of Kalanemi, endued with great strength, of grand achievements, and blessed with a

large share of prosperity.

He

be came the mighty son of Ugra-

sena and was known on earth by the

name

of Kansa.

And he

Devaka and was besides in splendour like unto Indra himself, was born on earth as the foremost king of the Gandharvas. And, O monof

who was known among

the Asuras by the

name

know thou that Drona the son of Varadwaja, not born of woman, sprung from a portion of the celestial Rishi Vriany And he was the prince of all haspati of grand achievements. bowmen, conversant with all weapons, of mighty achievearch,

ments, of great energy.

Thou

sljouldsb

know he was

also well

acquainted with the Vedas and the science of arms. was of wonderful deeds and the pride of his race.
king, his son the
lotus,
foes,

And he
And,

O
all

heroic

Aswathama,
all

of eyes like the leaves of

gifted

with surpassing energy and


enemies, was

the terror of

the great oppressor of

born on earth of

the united portion of

Mahadeva, Yama,
were bora of
of

Kama, and Krodha.

And

from the curse of Vashista and

Indra, the eight Vasus

command also of Ganga by her husband


the
dispeller of

Shantanu.

The youngest

them was Visma the

the fears of the Kurus, gifted with great intelligence, conver-

sant ^Yith tho Yedas, the

first of

speakers, and the thinner

of

193
the

UA^A'BKA'RA'TA.
enemy's ranks.

And

possessed of mighty energy


all

and

tlie

first of all

persons acquainted with

weapons, he encountered

the iHustrious
race.

Rama

himself the son of Jamadagni of the Bhriga

And,

king, that

Brahmana sage who on earth was

known by the name of Kripa and was the embodiment of all And the manliness, was born of the tribe of the Rudras.
mif^hty charioteer and king
of Sakimi, that crusher of

who on
foe&,

eartli

was known by
know,

tlie

name
king^,

thou shouldst

S \tyaki

was Dwapara himself (the third yioga.) of sure aim and the upholder of the pride of the Visni
race, that

And

he who was

oppressor of foes was begotten of the portion of the

gods called the Marutas.

And

that

royal &age

Drupada who
bearing

on earth was a

monarch the
alsa

first

among

all persons

arms was

also

born of the same tribe of the celestiab.

And^
fore-

king, thou shouldst

know

that Kritavarma, that prince

among men,
most
of the

of deeds, unsurpassed by any one,

and the

of all bulls

amongst Khalrias, was born

of the portion
also,

same

celestials.

And

that

royal

sage

Virata by

name, the scorcher of the kingdoms of others, and the great oppressor of all foes, was born of the portion of the same

That son of Arishta who was known by the name of Hansa was born in the Kuru race and became the monarch of
gods.

the Gandharvas.

He who

was known as Dhrita-rashtra born of

the seed of Krishna-Dwaipayana, and gifted with long arms

and great energy, a monarch besides of the prophetic eye, became blind in consequence of the fault of his mother and the
wrath of

His younger brother possessed of great strength and who was really a great being, known as Pandu, was devoted to truth and virtue and was purity's self. And, O
the
Rishi.

king, thou shouldst

know that he who was known on earth as Vidura, who was the first of all virtuous men, who was the
was the excellent and greatly fortunate The evil-minded and wicked king son of the Rishi Atri. Duryodhana, the destroyer of the fair fame of the Kurus,
justice,

god himself of

was born
caused
all
it

of a

portion
to

of Kali

on earth.

He

it

was who
;

creatures

be slain and the earth to be wMsted


fire of hostility

and he

was who fanned the


all.

that

ultimately
(the

cousuracd

Thcv who had been the sons

of

Pulastya

ABIPARVA.
Rakshasas) were born on earth
brotliers

199
as

among men
first.

Duryodliana'a

that

century

of

wicked individuals

with

Dush-shasana as

tlieir

And,

bull

commenciug among tlie

Bharata princes, Durmukha,

Dush-shaha, and others whose

names

do not mention, who always supported Duryodhuna


were, indeed, the sous of Pulastya.

(in all his schemes*),

Ami

over and

above

these

hundred, Dhrita-rashtra had one sou

named Yuyutsu born


Janamejaya
Dhrita-rashtra's sons

of a Vaisya wife."
illustrious one, tell
to

said, "

me

the

names

of

according

the

order of their births

beginning from the eldest."


Vai.sampayana said,
"

king, they are as follows


;

Duryo-

dhaua, and Yuyutsu, and also Dush-shasana


Dush-shala, and then

Dushshaha, and

Durmukha

Viving-shati, and Vikurna,

Jala-sandha, Sulochana; Vinda and

Anuvinda, Dud-dharsha,

Suvahu,

Dushpradharsana

Durmarshana,

and Durmukha,

Dushkarna, and
Charuchitra,
Vivitsu, Vikata,

Kama
Sama
;
;

Chitra and
;

Upachitra, Chitraksha,

and Angada

Durmada, and Dushpradharsha,

Urua-nava, and Padma-nava,

Nanda

and Upanandaka

Senapati,

and Sushena, Kundodara and


Chitra- varma,

Mahodara
virochaua
;

Chitra-vahu, and

Suvarmu, Dur;

Ayavahu, Maha-vahu, Chitrachapa and Sukundala


;

Bhima-vega, Bhim-vala, Valaki, Bhima-vikramu


Bhima-shara, Kanakayu,
dha-kshatra, Soma-kirti,

Ugrayudba,

Dridhayudha

Dridha-varma, DnUgra-sena, and

Anudara;
;

Jara-sandha, Dridha-sau-

dha, Satya-sandha, Sahasra-vak


;

Ugrasrava,

Kshema-murti Aparajita, Fanditaka, Vishalaksha, Duradhara; Dridha-hasta, and Suhasta, Vata-vega and Suvarchasa Adi;

tya-ketu, Vahvasi, Naga-datta and


chi,

Anuyaina; Nishangi, Kava;

Dandi,

Danda-dhara,
;

Dhanugraha
Ana-dhrishya,

XJgra, Bhima-ratha,
also

Vira, Viravahu, Alolupa

Abhaya, and Raudra-karma,


Kunda-veda,
also a

he

who was Dridha-ratha


kangada

Viravi,

Dhirgha-lochana; Dirgha-vahu, Maha-vahu, Vyudhoru, Kaua;

Kundaja, and Chitraka.

There was
a

daughter

named Dush-shala who was over and above Yuyutsu who was Dhrita-rashtra's son by
also over
Qit<^d

the hundred.

And
I
re-

Vaisya wife was


king, have

and above the hundred.

Thus,

Xh^ uumgs of the Uundi'<^d ^qu^

mi

the uiviue ulso oi tU^

200
d.wgliter

MAHAEHAKATA,
(of Dhrita-rashtra.)

Thou

hast

now kno^YU
All of
in

their

names according
war.
king,
All of
all

to

the order of their biiths.

them
of

were heroes and great charioteers, and skilled

the

art

of

them them had

were, besides, versed in the Vedas, and,


crossed the Shast^xis.
all

All of them were

mighty
ing.

in attack

and defence, and


all

were graced with learnsuitable


king, to

And,

monarch,

of

them had wives


And,

themselves in grace and accomplishments.

when

the time came, the Kaurava nlonarch bestowed

his

daughter

Dush-shala on Jayadratha the king of Sindhu agreeably to the


counsels of Sakuni.

"And,

monarch,

was a portion of

know thou that king Yudhish-thira Dharma that Bhim-sena was of the diety of
;

wind; that Arjuna v/as of Indra the chief of the celestials and that Nakula and Sahadeva, the handsomest beings among all creatures, aad unrivalled in beauty on earth, were similarly portions of the twin Aswinas.

the migiity Varcha

the son of

wonderful de^ds, the son of


tion,
t,*ml-i

And he who was known as Shoma became Abhimanyu of Arjuna. And before his incarna-

O
:

king, the god


'I

Soma had

said these words to

the celesdearer
to

cannot give (part with)

my

son.

He

is

me than life itself. Let this be the compact and let it not be The destruction of the Asuras on earth is the transgressed. celestials and therefore is it our work as well. work of the
Let this Varcha therefore go thither l)ut let him not stay there long. Nara, whose companion is Narayana, will take his
birth as Indra's son and,

indeed,

will

be

known

as

Arjuna the

mighty son of Pandu. This boy of mine shall be his son and become a mighty charioteer in his boyhood. And let him, ye
best of immortals, stay on earth for
sixteen years.
shall

And when
take place

he attaineth to his sixteenth year that war in which all who are born of your portions
destruction ol

shall achieve the

mighty

warriors.

But a

certain encounter shall

take place
part in
it.)

without both Nara

and Narayana (taking any

And, indeed, your

portions, ye celestials, shall fight

having made that disposition of the forces


the

which

is

known by
compell

name

of the Chakra-viiha.

And my

son shall

all foes to retreat before

him,

The boy

of mighty arms Laving

&D1PARVA,
penetrated the impenetrable
lessly

Sol
ran^e within
in
it

Vuha
of

shall

fear-

and send a

t'ourth part of the hostile force,

coarse

of

half a day, unto the

I'egious

tlie

king of the dead.

Then
[

numberless heroes and mighty charioteers returning to the charge towards the close of the day, shall my boy of mighty

arms re-appear before me.


in his line

And

he shall beget one heroic son Bharata


race,'

who

shall continue the almost extinct

Heai'ing these words of Shoma, the dwellers of heaven replied,


'So be
it.'

And they then all

together applauded and worshipstars.

ped (Shoma) the kiug of the


cited to

Thus,
birth

king, have
of

re-

thee the (particulars

of the)

thy

fathers

father

"Know thou
khandi,

also,

monarch, the mighty charioteer Drishta-

tlyumna was a portion of Agni.

And know
Bharata

also

that Shi)

who was
And,

at first a female,

was (the incarnation of


race,

Rakshasa.

thou bull of the


sons of

they who

had become the

five

Draupadi
celestials

those
known

bulls

amongst

the Bharata princes

were the

as

the Viswas,

Their names were Pritivindhya, Suta-soma, Sruta-kirti, Satanika the son of Nakuia, and Sruta-sena endued with mighty
energy.

"Shura

He
on
fire

the first of the Yadus was the father of Vasudeva, had a daughter called Pritha who in beauty was unrivalled
earth.

And

Shura,

having promised in the presence of

that

he would give his first-born child to Kunti-bhoja

the son of his paternal aunt


his

who was without offspring, gave daughter unto that monarch in expectation of his favors. Aud Kunti-bhoja thereupon made her his daughter. And
she

engaged

was thenceforth, in the house of her (adoptive) father, in attending upon Brahmanas and guests. One day
wrathful ascetic
of rigid vows
fully

she had to attend upon the

Durvasha by name
sant

acquainted with truth

and

converall

with

the

mysteries of religion.

And

Pritha with

possible care gratified the v/rathful Rishi

of soul

under com-

plete control.
tions

And

the worshipful one gratified with the attenher,


'

bestowed on him by the maiden told


!

am

satisfied,

fortunate one, with thee

By

this oyiantra (that I

am about

to give thee, thou shalt be able to

summon

(to thy side) what-^

20

g02
ever celestials thou
obtain chiMren
'/

UAHABHARATA,
likep.t.

And by

tlieir

grace shall thon also


girl,

Thus axMressed, the

(a little

while

after) possessed witli curiosity,

of her maiden-hood, the god


light tiiereupon

summoned, during the period Arka (Sun.) And the lord of made her conceive and begat in her a son who
wielders of weapons.

was the

first

of

all

And

from fear of

her relatives she brought forth

in sceresy that child

who came

out with ear-rings and coat of mail. the beauty of a celestial infant, and

And
in

he was gifted with

splendour was like unto

the maker of day himself and every part of his body

was

symmetrical and well embellished.


thild into the water.

And Kunti cast

the handsome

But the child thus thrown into the water was taken up by the excellent husband of Radha and given by him to his wife to be by her adopted as their son. And the couple gave him the name of Vasu-sena by which appellation ihe child soon became known all over the land. And as he grew up he became very strong and excelled in all arms. And the
first

of

all

successful per.^ons, he soon mastered the Vedangas.

And

while the intelligent one

who

ha,d

truth for his streno-th

to the
all

was studying the Vedas, there was nothing he would not give Brahmanas, At that time Indra the oriojinator of

things

moved
ofif

by

the desire of benefiting his

Arjuna, assuming the guise of a Brahmana, came to

own son him and

begged of the hero


the hero taking the Brahmana.

his ear-rings
his ear-rings

and natural armour.

And
to

and armour gave them unto

And Sakra

(accepting the gifts) presented

the giver a Sakti (missile weapon) surprised (at his open-handcduess) and addressed

him these words:

'O

invincible

one,

amongst the

celestials, Asuras,

men, Gandharvas, Nagas, and


the son of Surya was at

Rakshasas, he at

whom
'

thou hurlest (this weapon), that one

shall certainly be slain

And

first

known

in the world

by the name of Vasu-sena.

But

for

his

deeds he subsequently came to be called

Kama.

And

because

the hero of great fame had taken off his natural armour therefore

was he

the
O

first

son

of Pritha

called

Kama.

And,
of

O
all

thou best of kings, the hero began to grow up in the Suta


caste.

And,

king,

know thou

that

exalted

men

the

Kama the
of

first

foremost of

all

wielders

weapons

the

kDl PARVA.
feTayer of foes

20-3

and the best portion of


Narayana

the

maker

of

day

was
And'

the

friend

and counsellor of Duryodhana.

Vasudeva, endued with great valor,


of

And he called was among men a portion


gods

him

called

the

god of

eternal
in

Valadeva of exceeding strength was a portion of the Naga


Shesha.
of great

And,

monarch, know thou that Pradyumna (Kama)

energy was Sanat-kumara.


of

And

this

way the
And,

portions of vai'ious other dwellers

heaven became exalted


thereof.

men

in the race of

Vasudeva increasing the glory

king, the portions of the

Gana

of Apsaras

v/hich

have

mentioned already, also became incarnate on earth according


to Indra's

commands.

And

sixteen *housand portions of those

goddesses became,

king, in this world of

men

the

wives of

Yasudeva.

And

a portion of Sri herself became incarnate on

earth, for the gratification of Narayana, in the line of

Bhismaka,
the fault-

And
less

she was by

name the

chast;e

Rukmini.

And

Draupadi, slender-v/aisted like the wasp, was born of the


of Shachi (the queen of the celestials) in

portion

the line of

Drupada.

And

she was niether low nor

tall in

stature.
ej^es

And
as

she was of the fragrance of the blue lotus, of


lotus
leaves, of

large

thighs fair

and round,
the

of dense

masses of

black curly hair.

And endued

with every auspicious feature


emerald,

and of

complexion like that of

she became

the charmer of the hearts of five

foremost of men.

And

the

two goddesses Siddhi and Dhriti became the mothers of those five and were called Kunti and Madri. And she who wag Mati became the daughter (Gandhari) of Suvala.
"

Thus,

king, have I recited to thee

all

about the ingods,

carnations, according to their respective portions, of the

the Asuras, the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, and of the Rakshasas.

They who were born on earth


high-souled

as

monarchs invincible
in

in war, those

ones

who were born

the wide

extended line of the Yadus, they v/ho were born as mighty

monarchs

in other lines,

they

who were
all

born as Brahmanas

and Kshatrias and Vaisyas, have

been recited by

me

duly.

And
lame,

this

account of the incarnation (af superior beings accord-

ing to their respective portions) capable of bestowing wealth,


offspring, long
life,

and success; should always be heard

20'4';

MAHARHARIT-S,
frame of mind.

in a proper

And having

listened to

tliis

account

of incarnations, according to their portions, of gods, Gandharvas,

and Rakshasas, the hearer becoming acquainted with the creatian, preservation, and destruction of the universe and
acquiring wisdom,
is

never

depressed even under the mosti

engrossing sorrows."

And

so ends the sixty-seventh Section in the

Sambhava of

the Adi Parva.

Section LXYIII. (Sambhava Parva continued.


Janamejaya
portions, of the
said,

"O

Brahmana,

have,

indeed, heard

from thee this account of the incarnation, according to their gods, the Danavas, the Rakshasas, and also
I,

of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras. to hear of the dynasty of the


Therefore,

however, again desire

Kurus from the very beginning.


ali

O Brahmana,
"
\

speak of this in the presence of

these Brahmarshia

Vaisampayana
great energy.

said, "

exalted

one of the Bharata race,

the founder of the Paurava line was Dushmanta gifted Avitb

by the four

And he was the protector of the earth bounded And that king had full sway over four quarters of this world. And he was the lord also of various regions in the midst of the sea. And that great oppressor of all foes
seas.

had sway over the countries even of the mlecchas. And during his rule there were no men of mixed
tillers of

the

soil (for

the land of

itself

no yielded produce), na
castes,

workers of mines (for the surface of the earth yielded abundance),

and no

sinful

men.

All were virtuous, and did

every

thing from motives,

O O

tiger

among men,

of virtue.

There

was no

fear of thieves,

dear one, no fear of famine, no fear

of disease.

And

all

the four orders took pleasure in doing their

respective duties and never performed religious acts for obtain-

ing fruition of desires.

And
fear.

his subjects

depending upon him

never entertained any

And

Parjannya (Indra) poured


fields

showers at

tiie

proper time and the produce of the

was

alwaya I'uipy and juicy.

And

the earth was

full

of all kinds

APT PATIVA,
of wealth

205

and

all

kiads

of

animals.

And

the

Brahmanaa
were always

were always engaged in their duties and


truthful.
ful

they

And

the youthful monarch was

endued with wonder-

prowess and a j^hysical frame hard as thunder-bolt so that he could, taking up the mountain Mandara, support it in his

arms with

its forests

and bushes.

And

he

was well-skilled ia
it

four kinds of encounters with the


distance, striking at those

mace (hurling
foe
before.)

at foes
it

in a

that are
tle

near, whirling

in

the

midst of many,

and driving

And
and
was
in

he was
riding

skilled also in the use of all kinds

of weapons

elephants and horses.

And

in

strength

lie

like

unto

Vishnu, in splendour like unto the maker


like

of day,

in

gravity

unto the Ocean, and in


the

patience like
al
1

unto the E.irth,

And

monarch was loved of

his

subjects,

and he ruled

his contented people virtuously.

"

And

thus ends the sixty-eighth Section

in

the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva.

Section LXIX.
(

Sambhava Parva continued.


said " I desire to

Janamejaya
birth and
life

hear from thee

about

the

of the high-souled

Bharata and of the origin of


desire to

And, about Dushmanta


Sakuntala.
first

worshipful one, I also


lion

hear
the

all

that
It
said, "

among men

and how
knower
"

hero

obtained Sakuntala.
of
all

behoveth thee,

of truth

and

intelligent men, to tell

me

everything.

Once on a time (king Dushmanta) of mighty arm and accompanied by a large force went into the forest. And he took with him also hundreds of horses and
Vaisampayana
elephants.

And

the force that accompanied the monarch was of

four kinds (foot-soldiers, charioteers, cavalry, and elephants,)

heroes armed with swords and darts and bearing in their hands

maces and stout

clubs.

And surrounded by hundreds of


in

warriors

with Prasa and Tomara (missile weapons)


monarcii set out on his journey.
of

their

arms, the
roar

And with
notes

the

leonine

the warriors and with

the

of the

conch

and the

sound of the drum,

with the rumbling of the chariot wheebjj

206
and with the deep
with
the neighing

MAHAIJHARATA.
roar of the
of

huge elephants,

all

mingling-

horses

and the clashing of weapons


in diversified dresses, there hia march.

of the variously
arose a

armed attendants

deafening tumult

while the king was on

And
fame.

ladies gifted with great beauty,

from the terraces of goodly


of hia

mansions, beheld

that

heroic

monarch the achiever

own

And

the ladies saw

that

he was like unto Sakra, the

slayer of bis enemies, capable of repulsing the elephants of foes.

And
war

they believed that he was the wielder

of the thunder-bolt

himself.
is

And

they said, 'This

is

that tiger

among men who

in

equal unto Vasu in prowess, and in


foes left.'

consequence of the

might of whose arm there are no


flowers on his head.

And

saying

this,

the ladies from affection gratified the

And

followed by foremost of

monarch by showering Brahmanaa


of

uttering blessings

all

the way,

the king in great gladness

heart went towards the forest eager on slaying the deer.

And

many Brahmanas, monarch who was


on the back of

Kshatrias, Vaisyas, and Sudras followed the


like

unto the king of the celestials seated

proud elephant.

The

citizens

and other
they at
king.

classes followed the


last refrained

monarch

for

some

distance.

And

from going further at the

command
of

of the

And
tilled

the king, then, ascending on his chariot, the whole earth and even
his chariot wheels.

winged speed

the heavens, with the ghavas he went

ghm^a of

And

he saw around
gardens.)

him

Si

forest like

unto Na}ida7ia

itself

(the celestial

And

it

was

full of
trees.

Vihva, Arkd, Khddira (catechu) Kopithiua,

and Dhava
bouring

And

he saw that the

soil

was

uneven and

scattered over with blocks of stone loosened


cliffs.

from the neigh-

without
around.

And he saw that it was v;ithout Avater and human beings and lay extended for many Yojanas And it was full of deer and lions and other terrible
that tiger

beasts of prey.
"

And king Dushmanta,


and numerous animals.

among men,

assisted

by

his followers

the warriors in his train,

agitated that
piercing

forest

killing

And Dushmanta,

them

with his arrows, felled numerous tigers that were within shooting range. And the king wounded many that were too distant,

and

killed

many

that were too near with his heuvy swoid,

And

ADl PARYA,
that foremost of
bis darts
at
all

207

wieUlers of darts killed

many by

hurling

the arts of whirling the mace, the king of immeasurable prowess fearlessly

them.

And

well

conversant \Yitb

wandered over the

forest.

And

killing the inmates of the wilderness

the king roamed about som times by his swords


his

and sometimes by fast-descending blows of


short clubs.

mace and heavy

"And when the


of

forest

was so agitated by the king possessed


in his

wonderful energy and by the warriors


in

train
to

delight-

ing

warlike sports, the lions began

thereupon

desert

it

in numbers.

And

herds of animals deprived of their


to utter loud cries as

leaders,

from fear and anxiety began


all directions.

they fled in
to
fall

And

fatigued

with

flight

they

began
so

down on

all sides,

unuble

to slake their thirst

having reached
falling

river-beds that were perfectly dry.

And many

were

While others were eaten up after having been duly quartered and roasted in fires lit up by the warriors. And many strong elephants maddened with the wounds they received and alarmed also beyond measure
fled

eaten up by the hungry warriors.

those wild elephants alarm by urinating and ejecting the contents of their stomach and vomitting blood

with trunks ujn-aised on high.


tiie

And

betraying

usual

symptoms

of

in large quantities
death.

trampled, as

they ran,

many

warriors

to

And

that forest which


his

by the king with soon made bereft


wilderness."

was masses of followers and .sharp weapons of lions and tigers and other monarchs of the
fiill

had been

of animals

And

thus endeth the sixty-ninth

Section in the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva.

Section LXX.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Vaisampayana said, "Then the king with his having killed thousands of animals entered another
purposes of hunting.
followers
forest
for

And

attended by a single

follower
large
thia

and
herb-

fatigued with hungrer and thirst he

came upon

desert

on the

frontiers of

the forest.

And having

crossed

208
less plain the

MAHABHARATA.
king came upon
to'

another forest
look
at,

full

of the

re-

treats of ascetics, beautiful

delighting
it

the
of

heart,
trees

and

of

cool,

agreeable

breezes.
soil

And

was

full

covered with blossoms, the

overjjrown with the softest and

greenest grass, extending for

many

miles around, and echoing

with the sweet notes

of

winged warblers.
maguificient trees

And

it

resounded

also with the notes uf the

male Kokila and of the

shrill cicala.

And

it

abounded

with

with outstreched

branches forming a shady canopy overhead.

hovered over flowery creepers


beautiful bowers iu every place.

all

around.

And the bees And there were


Avith-

And

there was no tree

out flowers, none without


it,

fruits,

or none that had prickles on


it.

or

none that had no bees swarming around

And
were

the

whole forest resounded with the melody

of winged

choristers.
re-

And
"

it

was decked with various

flowers.

And

there

freshing shades of blossoming trees.

Such was the

delicious

and excellent

forest that the great

Ibowmau entered.
clusters
of flowers

And

trees wath branches beautified

with

began to gently wave

at the soft breeze

and

rain their flowers over the monarch's head.

And

the trees clad

in

their

flowery

attire

of

all

colors,

with sweet-throated
heads

warblers perching on them, stood there in rows with


toucliing

the very heavens.

And around
chorus.

their branches hang-

ing down with the weight of flowers the

bees

tempted by

the honey

hummed

in sweet

And

the king endued

with great energy beholding innumerable spots covered with

bowers of creepers decked with thick clusters of flowers, from


excess of gladness

became very much charmed. And the


trees

forest

was exceedingly beautiful in consequence of those


looking
color.

ranged

around with flowery branches twining with each other and


like so

many

rain-bows for gaudiness and


of bands

variety of

And

it

was the resort

of ascetics

crowned

with success, of the Ckaranas, of tribes of Gandharvas and


Apsaras, of monkeys and
ous, cool,

Kinnaras drunk with

jo3^

Delici-

and fragrant breezes conveying the


in
all

effluvia

of fresh
to

flowers blew

directions as if tliey

had come there

sport
,

with

the trees.

And

the king saw that charming forest

gifted with isuch

beauties,

Audit was

situate iu a delta

of

ADIPARVA.
the river, and the cluster of high trees standing together

209

made

the place look like a gaudy


"

flatstaff.

And

in that forest

which was
a

the resort

of ever-cheerful

and charming retreat of ascetics. And there were many trees around it. And the sacred fire was burning within it. And the king worshipped!
birds,

the monarch saw

delightful

that unrivalled retreat.


Yotls,

And

he saw sitting in

it

numerous

Valakhillyas, and other Munis,

And

it

was adorned

with

many chambers

containing the sacrificial

fire.

And

the

flowers dropping

from the trees had formed a thick carpeft spread over the ground. And the spot looked exceedingly
tall

beautiful with those

trees of large trunks.

And

by

it

flowed,

king, the sacred and transparent

Malini with every species

of water-fowl

playing on

its

bosom.

And
who

that stream infused


resorted to
it

gladness into the hearts of the ascetics

for

purposes of ablutions.

And

the king beheld on its banks

many

innocent animals of ihe deer species and


lighted with
all

was exceedingly de-

he saw.

"And

the monarch, the course of whose chariot no foe could

obstruct, then entered that

asylum

which

was

like

unto the
all

region of the celestials, being exceedingly beautiful

over.

And

the king saw that


like

it

was on the margent of

the sacred

stream which was


residing in
its

the

mother of
on
its

all

the

living creatures

vicinage.

And

beach sported the Chakra'

vaka, and waves of milk-white foam.


habitation of Kinnaras.
in

And

there stood also the

And monkeys and

bears too disported

numbers.

And

there lived also

holy ascetics

engaged in

study and meditation.

and

tigers

And there could and snakes. And it was


home
to

be seen also elephants

on the banks of that

stream that the excellent asylum of the illustrious Kasyapa


stood offering a

And

beholding that

river,

numerous Rishis of great ascetic merit. and the asylum also washed by
with

that river which was studded


possessed banks
of

many

islands

and which

of so much beauty, an asylum like unto that Nara and Narayuna laved by the waters of the Ganges,

the king then resolved to enter into


that bull

that sacred

abode.

And
of

among men,

desirous of beholding the great Rishi

ascetic wealth, the illustrious

Kanwa

of the

race

of

Kasyapa,

27

M
one Avho
resounding with
the

MAHABHARATA.
possessed every virtvie
at,

and who

for

his

splendouf
tliat

could with difHciilty be gazed


notes

then approached

forest

maddened peacocks and like unto the gardens of the great Gandharva Chittra-ratha himof
self.

And

halting his army,

consisting of flags, cavalry,

in-

fantry,

and elephants,
as follows

at the
:

monarch spoke
ye here until
"

entrance of

the

forest,

the

'

I shall

go to behold the

mighty
Stay

ascetic of Kasyapa'a race, he

who

is

without

darkness.

my

return

And

the

king having
garden,

entered that

forest

which was
thirst.

like unto Indra's

soon forgot his hunger and

And
aside

he was pleased beyond measure.


all

And

the monarch, laying

signs of royalty, entered that e;vce'ly:ii

asylum with

but

his minister

and

his priest, desirous of beholding that Rishi

who was

an indestructible mass of ascetic merit.

And

the

king saw that the aylum was like unto theregion of Brahma,

There were bees sweetly humming here and winged warblera


of

various species

pouring forth their melodies there.


tiger

At

particular places

tliat

among men heard

the chaunting of
to

the Rig hymns by


rules

first-rate

Brahmanas according

the just

of intonation.

Other places again were decked with


sacrifices, of

Brahmanas
again were

acquainted with the ordinances of

the Angas, and the


filled

hymns

of the

Yayurveda.

Other places

with the harmonious strains of

Sama hymns

sung by vow-observing Rishis.

At

other places the asylum

At other

was decked with Brahmanas learned in the Aiharva Veda. places again Brahmanas learned in the Atharva Veda
and those capable of chaunting the
sacrificial

hymns

of the

Sama were
voice.

reciting the Sanhitas according to the just rules of

At other
In
fact,

places again other

Brahmanas well-acquainted

with the science of ortho-epy were reciting mantras of other


kinds.

that sacred retreat resounding with these holy

notes was like unto a second region of


there were
sacrificial

Brahma
in

himself.

And

many Brahmanas

skilled

the art

of makinor

platforms and in the rules of

Krama

in sacrifices,

conversant with logic and the mental sciences, and possessing

a complete knowledge of the Vedas,

There were those


all

also

who were

fully

acquainted with the meanings of

kinds ol

ABIPARVA,
*!fpre?siong, those that

211
al!

were conversant with


in establishing

especial
;

riteg,

those also that were followers of


that were
well-skilled

Moksha-dharma

those agasa

propositions, rejecting

superfluous causes,

and drawing right conclusions.

There

were those having a knowledge of the science of words (grammar), o^f prosody, of NirvJda those again who were conversant
;

with astrology and learned


fruits

in

the

properties of matter and the

of sacrificial

rites,

possessing a

knowledge of causes
the
cries

and

effects,

capable

of understanding
treatises,

of birds
in

and

monkies, well-read in large


sciences.

and

skilled

various
voices.

And

the king, as he proceeded, heard


also with the voices of

their

And
of
also

the retreat resounded

men

capable
heroes

charming human hearts.

And

the slayer of hostile

saw around him learned Brahmanas of rigid vows engaged in Japa and homa. And the king wondered much on beholding the beautiful carpets which those Brahmanas offered to
respectfully.

him

And

that

excellent

of monarchs,

at

sight

Brahmanas worshipped the gods and great Rishis, thought within himself that he was in the region of Brahma. And the more the king saw that auspiciaus and sacred asylum of Kasyapa protected by that Rishi's
of the rites with which those
ascetic virtues

and possessing
see

all

the requisites of a holy retreat,

the more he desired to

it.

In

fact,

he was not satisfied


at
last, ac-

with his short survey.

And

the slayer of heroes


his priest,

companied by

his minister

and

entered that charmall

ing and sacred retreat of Kasyapa peopled

around with

Rishis of great ascetic wealth and exalted vows."

And

thus ends the seventieth Section in the

Sambhava

of

the Adi Parva,

Section LXXI.
(

Sambhava Pdrva continued.


said, "

Vaisampayana
left

The monarch

then, as he proceeded

lum.

even his reduced attendants at the entrance of the asyAnd entering quite alone, he saw not the Rishi (Kanwa)

of rigid vows.

And

not seeing the Rishi and


'

finding that the

abode was empty, he bailed loudly, saying,

Whut

ho,

who

is

ZiZ
here V was.

MAHABHAEATJl

And the sound of his voice was echoed back, loud as i& And hearing the sound of his voice, there came out of the
abode a maiden beautiful as Sree herself but dressed

Rishi's

as an ascetic's daughter. as she

And

the black-eyed

fair one, as

soon

saw king Dushraanta, bade him welcome and worshipped

him

seat,

And showing him due respect by the offer of a Padya and Arghya, enquired after, O king, about the monarch's health and peace. And having worshipped the
duly.

king and asked him about his health and peace, the maiden>
reverentially asked,

'What must be done,

king
her,

I await

your

commands.'

The king duly worshipped by


fortunate Rishi

then said unto


'I

that maiden of faultless features and sweet speech,


to worship the greatly

have come

Kanwa.

Tell me,

amiable and beautiful one, where has the illustrious Rishi gone?*

"Sakuntala then answered, 'My

illustrious father

hath gone

away from the asylum

thou wilt see him when he

to fetch fruits. "


arrives.'

Wait but a moment and

Vaisampayana continued, " The king not seeing the Rishi, and addressed thus by her, beheld that the maiden Avas exceedingly beautiful and endued

with perfect symmetry of shape.

And he saw
decked
ces,

that she was of


for

sweet smiles.

And

she stood

in

beauty

her faultless features, for ascetic penan-

f youth.

And he saw that she was in the bloom She therefore asked her, Who art thou ? And whose daughter, O beautiful one Why hast thou come into
'
!

and for humility.

the woods also

handsome one, gifted with so much beauty


?

and such
to learn

virtues,
first

whence hast thou come


stolen
tell

charming one,
!

at the very

glance hast thou


;

my
me

heart
all
!'

I desire

all

about thee

therefore

And
I

thus

addressed by the monarch in the aslyum, the maiden smilingly


replied
in

these sweet
of the
1

words

'

Dushmanta,

am

the

daughter
ascetic

virtuous, wise,

high-souled, and illustrious

Kanwa

Dushmanta, hearing this replied, "The universally worshipped and greatly fortunate Rishi is one whose seed hath been drawn up. Even Dharma himself might fall off from his
course, but
fore,

ascetics of rigid

vpws can never


complexion,

fall ofif so.

There-

tliou of

the fwirest

how

hast

thou beea

ADI PARVA,
jborn his

daughter
!'

This

great

doubt of mine
king,

it

behoveth

thee to dispel

Sakutala then replied, 'Hear,


regarding all that befell
of the

what
I

I have learnt

me

of old

and how

am

the daughter

Muni

about
"

my

birth.

Once on a time, a Rishi came here and asked All that the illustrious one (Kanwa) told him
king
!

hear now of me,

'My father Kanwa,

in

answer to that Rishi's enquiries

said,

Viswamitra of old having been


of penances

engaged

in the

most austere
celestials

alarmed Indra the chief of

the

who

thought that the mighty ascetic of blazing energy would, by


his penances, hurl

him down from


art

his high

seat in the heavens.


told
her,
!

And

Indra thus alarmed,

summoned Menaka, and


first

"Thou,
Therefore,
I say.

Menaka,

the

of

all

the celestial Apsaras


service.

amiable one, do

me

this

Hear what
penances.

This great ascetic

Viswamitra, like unto the Sun himi

elf in splendour, is

engage

in

the most

severe of

My

heart

is

trembling with
is

fear.
!

Indeed,

slender-waisted

Menaka,
mittra, of

this

thy business

Thou must

see that Viswain

soul

rapt in

contemplation

and engaged

the
seat.

most austere of penances, who might hurl

me from

ray

Go and tempt
accomplish

him, and frustrating

his continued austerities

my

good

beautiful

one, by
arts,

Win him away from his penances, tempting him with thy beauty, youth,
and speech."
Hearing
is

agreeableness,

smiles

all

this,

Menaka
also as

replied, "

The
is

illustrious

Viswamitra

endued with
very wrathful

great energy and


is

a mighty ascetic.

He

is

The energy, penances, and wrath Why of the high-souled one have made even thee anxious. should not I also be anxious ? He it was who made even the
to thee.

known

illustrious Vasishta bear the

pangs of witnessing the premature


it

death of his children.

He
it

was who though


for

at

first

was born

a Kshatria subsequently became a Brahmana by strength of his


ascetic
tions

penances.

He

was who

purposes of his abludifficutly

created a deep river

that can with

be forded,

and which sacred stream is known by the name of the Kausiki. It was Viswamitra whose wife in a season of distress was
muiutaiued by the royal sage Matanga (Trisankuj who was thca

12. 1

MAHABHARATAi
curse as a hunter.
It

living under a father's

was Vis\yamitra

who, returning after the famine was over, changed the name of
the stream laving his asylum from Kausiki into Para.
It

was

Viswamitra who,

in return for the services of


for

Matanga, Limself

became the
lord of the

latter's priest

purj^oses

of a sacrifice.

The

went from fear to that sacrifice the Soma juice. It was Viswamitra who ia for drinking anger created a second world and numerous stars beginning
celestials himself

with Sravana.

He
's

it

was who granted protection


I

to

Trisanku

under a superior

curse.
!

am
may

frightened

to approach him

whose deeds are such

Tell

me,

Indra,

the

means that
his

should be adopted so that I

not be burnt by

wrath.

He

can burn the

three

worlds by his splendour,

can,

by

a,

stamp,

cause the earth to quake.


earth and

He
at
in a

can sever the great

Meru from the


a

hurl

it

any distance.

He

can
can

go round the ten points of the earth

moment.

How

woman
I

like us

even touch such a one


fire,

full

of ascetic

virtue,

like unto blazing

and having
is

his passions

under complete
fire,

control

His mouth

like

unto the blazing


the

the pupile
is

of his eye are like the

Sun and

Moon,

his

tongue

like

unto

Yama himself. How shall, O chief of the woman like us even touch him ? At the thought of
!

celestials,

his prowess,

Yama, Shoma, the great

Rishis, the Saddhyas, the Viswas, the

Valakhillyas, are terrified

How
?

can a

woman

like

me

refrain

from gazing at him in alarm

king of the

celestials, I

Commanded, however, by thee, shall somehow approach that Rishi.

But,

chief of the gods, devise thou some plan whereby, pro-

tected by thee, I

may

safely

move about that Rishi

think

that

when
(the

I begin to play before the Rishi,

wind) had better go there and rob

me

of

my

Maruta (the god of dress, and Man-

matha

god of love) had

also,

at

thy command, better help

me
and

then.

And

let also

Maruta on that occasion bear thither


"

fragrance from the woods to tempt the Rishi.


all

Saying

this,

she said having been duly provided,

Menaka then went


Sambhava

to the retreat of the great Kaushika.

And
of the

thus endeth the seventy-first Section in the

Adi Parva.

Section

LKXIL

(Sambhava Parva continued.)

Kanwa

continued,

And

Sakra,

thus

addressed

by her,
latter

then commanded him who

could aproach

every place (the god


the

of wind) to be present with

Meua^ka at

time the

would be before the Hishi,

And

the

timid and

beautiful

Menaka then entered the retreat and saw there Viswamitra who had burnt, by his penances, all his sins, and was engaged
yet in ascetic penances.

began

to

sport

before him.

And saluting the Rishi, she then And just at this time Maruta
great bashfulness, to catch

robbed her of her garments that were white as the moon.

And
her

she thereupon
attire,

ran, as if in

and

as if she
this

And

she did

all

was exceedingly annoyed with Maruta. in the very sight of Viswamitra who
like

was endued with energy saw her


robes,
in that attitude.

that

of

lire.

And

Viswamitra

And beholding her

divested of her

he saw that she was of faultless features.

And

the

best of

Munis saw that she was exceedingly handsome, with

no marks of age on her person.

And

beholding her beauty

and accomplisliments, that bull amongst Rishis was possessed with desire, and made a sign that he desired her companionship.

And

he invited her accordingly


her
accej^tance
in

and she of
of the

fault-

less features

expressed also

invitation.

And

they then passed a long time there

each other's compleased, for

pany.

And

sporting with each other just as they


if it

a long time as

were only a day, the Rishi begat in Mena-

ka a daughter named Sakuntala.


ception

And Menaka
the

(as

her con-

advanced) went to the banks of

river

Malini

coursing along a valley of the charming mountains of Himvat.

And

there she gave birth

to

that

daughter.

And

she

cast the new-born infant on the bank of that river and went away. And beholding the new-born infant lying in that forest
destitute of

human

beings but abounding with lions and tigers,


it

a number of vultures sat around to protect

from harm.

No
peri

Rakshasas or carnivorous animals took


protected the daugh^i4 of Meuaka.
I

its life.

Those vultures

had gome there to

210
form

MAHABHARATA,

my

ablutions and beheld the infant lying in

the

solitude

of the wilderness surrounded by vultures.


I

Bringing her hither

have made

her

my

daughter.
life,

Indeed, the maker of the


all

body, the protector of

the giver of food, are

three, in

their ordei', fathers according to

the

Dliarma shastras.
she

And me
thus

because she was surrounded,

in the solitude of the wilderness,

by Sakuntas

(birdsj),

therefore

hath

been named by
it is

Sakantala (bird-protected.)
that Sakuntala

Brahmana, know that


daughter.

hath

been

my

And

the faultless

Sakuntala also regards


"This
is

me

as her father.

what
I

my

father had said unto the Rishi having been

asked by him.

And,

king of men,
of
as

it

is

thus

that

thou

must know

am

the daughter

Kanwa.

And

my
my

real father, I regard

Kanwa

my

father.

not knowing Thus have I

told thee,
birth.'

O
"

king,

all

that hath been heard

by me regarding

And
of the

thus ends the seventy-second Section in the

Sambhava

Adi Parva.

SectioxN
(

LXXIII.
)
all

Sambhava Parva continued.


continued, "

Vaisampayana
one, thou

King Dushraanta hearing

this said, 'Well-spoken

by thee,

princess, all that,

O
!

blessed

hast

said
?

Be my

wife,

beautiful one

What

shall I do for thee

Golden garlands, robes, ear-rings of gold,


from various countries, golden

whitest and handsomest pearls

coins, finest carpets, I shall present thee this very day.

Let the
!

whole of
to me,

my kingdom
timid
one,

be thine to-day,

beautiful one

Come
all

wedding me,
!

O
is

beautiful

one, according

to the

Gandharva form
of marriage, the

thou of tapering thighs, of


regarded as the
first.'

modes

Gandharva
this,

"And Sakuntala, hearing


hath gone from this asylum

said,

'O

king,

my

father

for fetching fruits.

Wait but a
faultless

moment, he

will

bestow

me

on thee!'
'0 thou
beautiful and

"And Duslimanta
one, I desire

replied,

that

thou shouldst be
for

my

companion.
is

Know
One
is

thou that

I exist

thee,

and

my

heart

in

thee,

ADI PARVA.
eertaiul}^

217

one's

upon

one's

own friend, and one certainly may depend own self. Therefore, according to the ordinance,
thyself.

thou canst certainly bestow


kinds of marriage.
patya,
eighth.

There

are, in all,

eight

These are Brahma, Daiva,


Rakshasa.

Arsha, Praja-

Asura,

Gandharva,

and

Paishacha

the

The
all

self-create

Manu

hath spoken of the 'appropriate-

ness of

these forms
one,

according to their order.


four
first

Know
is
fit

thou,

faultless

that the
six

of

these

for

the

As regards kings, even the Rakshasa form is permissible. The Asura form ia permitted to the Vaisyas and the Sudras. Of the five first,
Brahmanas, and
first for

the Kshatrias.

three

are proper, the

other

two being improper.

The

Pai-

shacha and the Asura forms should never be practised.


are the
institutes of religion,

These and one may act according to

them.

with the practices of Kshatrias.


the least alarm.

The Gandharva and the Rakshasa forms are consistent Thou needst not entertain
There
is

not the
last

according to any of these

least doubt that whether mentioned forms, or according

to a union of both of them, our

wedding may take


full

place.

thou of the

fairest

complexion,
canst be

of desire

as

am, thou

also in a similar

mood

my

wife according to the

Gan-

dharva form.'
"Sakuntala having listened to
all

this,
if,

answered,

'If this

be the course sanctioned by religion,


disposer,

indeed, I

am my own
race,

hear thou,

thou foremost of

the

Purava

what are my terms. Promise truly to give me what I ask thee amongst ourselves alone. The son that shall be begotten in me shall become thy heir-apparent. This, O king, is my
fixed resolve.
let

And,

Dushmanta,
"

if

thou grantest

this,

then

our union take place.'

Vaisampayana continued,
even take thee,
capital.

"

The monarch, without taking


it

time to consider, at once told her 'Let

be.

O
!

thou of agreeable smiles, with


truly.

And me
one,

I to

will

my

I
all

tell

thee

thou beautiful
that
first

thou
then

deservest

this

And

so

saying,

of kings

wedded the handsome Sakuntala


her as her husband.

of graceful

tread,

and knew

And

assuring her duly he

came away,

telling her repeatedly, *l shall

send for thy escort

my

troops

2S

218
of four classes. to

MAHABHARATA,
Inleed, it
is

even thus that I shall take thee


"

my

capital,

thou of beautiful smiles.'


continued,
"

Vaisampayana
his

O
to

Jauamejaya,

having proretraced

mised so to her the king went away.

And
of

as he

way homewards he began


'

think

Kasyapa.
ascetic

And
say,
his

he asked himself,
after he
capital.

What
all
?'

shall

the

illustrious
this,

hath known

Thinking of

he entered

"The moment the king had But Sakuntala, from a sense


receive her father.
spritual knowledge,

left,

Kanv/a arrived at
shame,

his abode.
to

of

did not go out

That great

ascetic, hov/ever,

possessed of

knew
'

all.

Indeed, beholding everything

with his spiritual eye,


addressing her said,

the illustrious one

was pleased and

Amiable one, what hath been done by


having waited for me,
viz, in-

thee today in secret, without


tercourse
virtue.

with a man,

hath not

been destructive
to

of thy

Indeed,

union according
with a
is

the

Gandharva form,
without mantras

of a wishful

woman

man

full of desire,

of any
of men,
liast,

kind,

it is said,
is

the best for Kshatrias.

That best

Dushmanta,

also

high-souled and virtuous.

Sakuntala, accepted him for thy husband.

Thou The son


this

that

shall

be born of thee shall be mighty and illustrious in

this world.

And he

shall

have sway over the whole of

earth bounded by the sea.

And

the

forces of that
his
foes,

illustrious
shall

king of kings, while he goeth out against


irresistible.

be

washed

"And Sakuntala then approached her fatigued father and his feet. And taking down the weight he had on
fruits in

and placing the


ed
for

proper order, told him,

'It

behoveth

thee to give thy grace to that

Dushmanta whom
to his ministers.'

I have accept-

my

husband, as well as
replied,
'

"Kanwa
thy sake, I

thou of

the fairest complexion, for

am

inclined to bless

him.

But

receive from

me,

thou blessed one, the boon that thou


the desire of benefiting Dushmanta,
"

desirest.'

Vaisampayana continued, "Sakuntala thereupon moved by


asked
tiie

boon that the

Paurava monarchs might ever be virtuous and never be deprivet^


oi their thrones.

&D1PARVA,

219
the

And

so ends the seventy-third Section in

Sambhava

of

the Adi Purva.

Section

LXXIT.

(Sambhava Parva, continued.)


Vaisampayana
Ijiving
said, "After

Dashmanta had

left

the

asylum

those

promises to

Sakuntala, the latter of tapering

thighs

brought forth a boy of immeasurable energy.


the
child

And
in

when

was

full

three years
fire.

of age, he

became

splendour like the blazing


possessed of beauty and
Rient.
rites of

And,

Janamejaya, he was

And

the

first

magnanimity and every aecomplishof virtuous men, Kanwa, caused all the

religion

to

be performed on that intelligent child

thriving day by

day.

And

the boy gifted with pearly teeth


lions

and shining
with
all

locks,

capable of slaying

even at that age,

auspicious signs on his palm, and broad expansive fore-

head, grev/ up in beauty and strength.


tial

And

like

unto a celes-

child

in

splendour he began to grow up rapidly.

And

when he was

only six years of age, endued with great strength

he used to seize and bind to the trees that stood around thafe asylum lions and tigers and boars and buffaloes and elephants.

And

he rode on some animals, seized some, and pursued others

in sportive

mood.

The
all

dwellers of

Kanwa's asylum therethey


said,

upon bestowed on him a name.


seizes

And

because he
let

called

that

him be Sarva-damana ( the restrainer of all. And it was thus the boy came to be named Sarva-damana, endued as he
)

and restrains

animals however strong,

was with
seeing the

pi-owess

and energy, and strength.


also

And

the Rishi

boy and marking

his extraordinary acts, told


for his

Sakuntala that the time had come


heir-apparent.

installation

as the

And

beholding the strength of the boy,


''

Kanwa

commanded

his disciples, saying,

Sakuntala with her son from

Bare ye without delay thia this abode to that of her


sign.

husband blessed with every auspicious


relations.

Women

should

not live long in the houses of their paternal

or maternal

Such residence

is

destructive

of their reputation in bei^r*

their good conduct; their virtue.

Therefore delay cot

220
ing her hence.'
*

MAHABHARATA,
The
disciples of the Rishi thereupon,

saying

so be

it,

'

went towards the


)

city

named

after

the elephant

Ilastinapore

with Sakuntala
fair

and her son before them.


the

And

then she of

eye-brows taking with ber that boy of


left

celestial

beauty endued with eyes like lotus leaves,


first

woods where she had been

known by Dushmanta.

And

liaving approached the king, she with her

boy resembling in

splendour the rising Sun was introduced to him.


ciples

And

the dis-

of the

asylum.

And

having introduced her, returned to the Sakuntala having worshipped the king according
Rishi
is

to proper form, told hlra, 'This

thy

son,

king

Let him
like

be

installed as
celestial,

thy heir-apparent.

king, this

child,

unto a
fore,

me.

hath been begotten by thee in me. ThereO thou best of men, fulfil now the promise thou gave&t Call to thy mind, O thou af great good fortune, the

agreement into which thou hadst entered on the occasioa of thy union with me in the asylnm of Kanwa.'
'The

king,

hearing these her words, and remembering

everything,

said, 'I

do not remember anything.


in ascetic guise
?

thou,

O wicked woman

Whose art do not remem-

ber having contracted any connection with you in respect of

Dharma, Kama and Artha. Go or stay or do as thou pleasest.' Thus addressed by him, the fair-complexioned innocent one became abashed. Grief deprived her of consciousness and she
stood for a time like an wooden
post.

Soon, however, her


to
quiver.

eyes became red like copper and her lips began

And

the glances she

to burn the latter. her asceticism, she extinguished within herself by an extraordi-

now and then cast upon the king seemed Her rising wrath, however, and the fire of

nary

effort.

Gathering her thoughts within a moment, her heart

possessed with sorrow and rage, she thus addressed her lord
in anger, looking at him.

'Knowing everything,
person, thus
is

monarch,

how

canst thou, like an


?

inferior

say that thou


truth or

knowest not

Thy
'

heart

a witness a regards the


truly

falsehood of this matter.

Therefore speak

without de-

grading thyself

He who
'jin

being one thing, representeth himself


is

as another thing (o others

like a thief

and a robber of
?

his

own

3cU.

Of whut

is

he not capable

Thou Ihinkest that

ADIPARVA.
thou alone hast knowledge
of thy
deed.

221

But knowest thou

not that the ancient omniscient one (Narayana) lieth in thy heart ? He knoweth all thy sins, and thou sinnest in his
presence.

He

that sins thinks that none observeth

him.

But

gods and by him also who occupieth The Sun, the Moo n, the Air, Fire, Earth, Sk}^, Water, the heart, Yama, the day, the night, both twilights, and Dharma, all witness the acts of man. Yama, the son of

he

is

observed by the

every heart.

Surya, taketh no account of his sins with


witness of
all acts is gratified.
is

not gratified

tortured for

whom Naiayana the But he with whom Narayana is his sins by Yama. Him who
falsely, the

degradeth himself by representing his self

gods
I

never

bless.

Even

his

own

saul
I

doth not bless him.

am

a wife devoted to
it is true.

my

husband.

have come of

my own
me

accord,

But do

not,

on that account, treat

with disres-

pect.

am

thy wife and therefore deserve to be treated res-

pectfully.

Wilt thou not treat

me

so because I have

come

hither of

my own
me

accord
like

In the presence of so many,


?

why

dost thau treat

an ordinary woman

tainly crying in the wildneness. Dost thou not hear


if

am not cerme ? But


Dushmanta,

thou refusest to do what I supplicate thee

for,

thy head this

moment

shall

burst in hundred pieces.


of the wife
is

The

husband entering the


in the form of the son.

womb

cometh out himself


called

Therefore

the wife

by those
is

cognisant with

the Veda as
that
is

Jdyd

(she in

whom

one

born)

And

the son

so

born unto persons cognisant of the


spirits of

Yedic Mantras, rescueth the

deceased ancestors.
call

And

because the son rescueth ancestors from the hell


fore

Put, there-

hath he been called by the self-ereate himself Puttra (the

rescuer from Put.)

By

a son one

conquereth the three worlds.

By

a son's son, one enjoyeth eternity.

And by

a grand-son's

son great-grand-fathers enjoy everlasting happiness.

She

is

wife

who is skilful in house-hold affairs. She is a true who hath borne a son. She is a true wife whose heart ia devoted to her lord. She is a true wife who knoweth none but her lord. The wife is man's half. The wife is the first of friends. The wife is the root of Dharma, Artha, and Kama. The wife is the root of salvation, They that havg wives can
true wife

222
perform religious
tic lives.
ful.

MAHABHAKATA,
They that have wives can lead domesThe}^ that have wives have the means to be cheeracts.

They that have wives can achieve good


friends

fortune.

Sweet-

speeched wives are as

on occasions of joy.

as fathers on occasions of religious acts.

They

are

They are as moth era

in hours af sickness and woe.


to a traveller
is
is

Even

in the

deep woods> a wife

his
all.

refreshment and solace.

He

that hath a wife

trusted

by

wife

tlierefore

is

one's most

valuable

Even when the husband leaving this world goeth into the region of Yama, it is the devoted wife that accompanies him there. A wife gone before waits for the liusband. But if the husband goeth before, the chaste wife folloAveth For these reasons, O king, doth marriage exist. The close.
possession.

husband enjoj^eth the companionship of the wife both in this and the other world. It hath been said by learned persons that one is himself born as one's son. Therefore should a

man whose
his

wife hath borne a son look upon her as his mother.


fiice

Beholding the

of the son one hath begot in his wife, like

own

face in a mirror, one feeleth as

happy

as

virtu tons

man

on attaining to heaven.

Men

scorched by mental grief

or suffering under bodily pain feel as

much

refreslied

in

the
hofc

companionship of their wives as one perspiring (under the


sun) in a cool bath.

No man

even in anger should ever do


his

anything that
ness, joy,

is

disagreeable to

wife, seeing

that happiwife.

and

virtue, everything
field in

dependeth on the
is'

wife

is

the sacred

which the husband

born himself.

Even Rishis cannot create creatures without women. What happiness is greater than what the father feels when the son running towards liim, even 4:hough his body be smeared Avith
dust, clasps his

limbs

Why

then dost thou treat Avith inliimself

difference such a son

who hath approached thee


glances tOAvavds
tliee

and

who
eggs.

casteth wishful
?

for

climbing thy
their
art,

knees

Even ants support, without destroying,

own
supof of

port thy

Then why shouldst not thou, virtuous as thou own child ? The touch of soft sandal
as the

paste,

women, of (cool) water, is not so agreeable one's own infant son locked in one's embrace.
is

touch

As a Brahmana
of
all

the

foremost

of

all

bipeds,

cow the foremost

ADI PARVA,
qnadrnpeds, a preceptor the
the son foremost of
therefore, this
is

223
all

foremost of

superiors', so is

all

objects agreeable
child

to

the

touch.

Let

haadsome
son.

touch thee in embrace.

There
have
all

nothing in the world more agreeable to the touch

than the

embrace of one's
brought forth
this

O child, O

thou chastiser of the

foe, I

monarch, capable of dispelling


in

thy sorrows, after bearing him

And,

monarch

of the

Puru

race,

my womb for " He shall

full

three years,

perform a hun-

dred horse-sacrifices" were the words uttered in the skies when


I was in the

lying-in room.

Indeed,

men going

into

places

remote from their homes take up others' children on their


laps

and smelling their heads

feel

great happiness.

Thou

knowest that Brahmanas repeat these Vedic mantras on the


occasion of the consecrating rites of infancy.
"

Thou

art born,

son, of

my

body

Thou
thee,

art

sprung from

my

heart.

Thou

art myself in the form of son.

Live thou for a hundred years!

My
also
for

life

dependeth on
thee.

and the continuation of


son, live thou
in

my

race

on

Therefore,
years. "

great happiness

a hundred

He

hath sprung from thy body


in

this
thou
fire

second being from thee.

Behold thyself
!

thy son as
sacrificial

beholdest thy image in the clear lake


is

As the

kindled from the domestic one, so hath this one sprung from

thee.

Though

one, thou hast divided thyself. In course of hunt-

ing while engaged in the

pursuit

of deer, I

was approached

by

thee,
!

king, I

who was then

a virgin in the asylum of

my

father

Urvasi, Purva-chitti, Saha-janya,

Menaka,

Viswaclii,

and Ghritachi, these are the six foremost Apsaras. them again, Menaka, born of Brahma, is the first.
ing from heaven
she gave

Amongst
Descend-

on earth, after intercourse with Viswamitra

me
in

birth.

That celebrated Apsara, Menaka, brought


the

me

forth

valley of

Himalya.

And
as

bereft
if I

of

all

affection, she

went away casting

me

there
I

was any
in

body
other

else's child.
life

What

sinful act

did

do of old

some
at

that I was in infancy cast off by


cast off hy thee
!

my

parents and
I

present

am

Cast

off

by thee
it

am

ready to

return to the asylum of


to cast off this child

my
is

father.

But

behoveth thee not


nob

who

thy own.'
said, '0

"Hearing

all this,

Dushmauta

Sakuntala, I do

224!

MAHAEHARATA.
liaving begof;
in

know

thee this son.


believe in thy
is

Women
words
?

generally speak
Destitute of
all

untruths.

Who

shall

affection, the

lewd Menaka

thy mother,

for

by her wast thou


had made
to his

cast off on the surface of the

Himalya

as one throws away, after

the worship
gods.
tra,
all

is

over, the

flowery

offerings he

Thy who was tempted


father
also is the

father too of the Kshatria race, the lustful Viswatiiito

become a Brahmana,

is

destitute of

affection.

However,

Menaka

is

the

first

of Apsaras,

and

thy

first

of Rishis.

Being their daughter,


Is

why

dost thou

speak like a

woman

that

lewd

Thy words
?

deserve no credit.
cially

Art thou not ashamed


?

to

speak them

Espeascetic
also

before

me
is

Go

hence,

wicked

woman
Rishis,

in

guise.
is

Where

that foremost
?

of great
art

where

that Apsara
in the

Menaka
is

And where
?

thou, low
too
is

as thou

art,

guise of an ascetic
a

Thy
is

child

grown up.

Thou
he
so

sayest he

boy, but

he

very
?

strong.

How
is

hath
low.

soon grown like a Shala sprout


like a

Thy

birth

Thou speakest
sayest
is

lewd woman.

Lustfully

hast thou been

begotten by Menaka.
quite

O woman
to me.

of ascetic
I don't

guise, all that thou

unknown

know

thee.

Go

whither-

soever thou choosest.'

"Sakuntala replied,
others,

'

Thou

seest,

king,

the

faults

of

even though they be so small as a mustard seed.


noticest not thy

seeing, thou

as large as the

Vilwa

fruit.

Bub own faults even though they be Menaka is of the celestials. Indeed,
of celestials.

Menaka
fore,

is

reckoned as the
is

first

My

birth, there-

Dushmanta,
earth,

far

higher than

thine.
skies.

Thou walkest
Behold, the

upon the
difference

king, but I
is

roam

in the

between ourselves

as that

between (the mountain

of

Meru and a mustard


repair
to

seed.

Behold
Indra,

my

power,

king

I can

the

abodes of
is

Kuyera,

Yaraa,

and

Varuna.

The saying
one
!

true which I shall refer to before thee,


it

sinless

I refer to
it

for

example's sake and not from evil

motives.

Therefore
it.

behoveth thee to pardon

me

after

thou

hast heard

An

ugly person considereth himself handsomer


his

than others until he sees


sees his

own

face in the mirror.


it is

But when he
that
really

own ugly

face in the mirror,

then that he perceives

the difference between

himself and others.

He

is

ADl PARVA.
handsome never taunts
evil
filth

225
that always

anyboily.

And he

talketh

becometh a
even when

reviler. in the

And

as the

swine always affect dirt and

midst of a flower-garden, so the wicked


evil

always choose the evil out of both


speak.

and good that others


good and

Those,

however, that are wise, hearing the speeches


evil,

of others that are intermixed with both

accept}

only

what
it

is

good, like

geese that always extract the milk

though
in

be mixed with water. As the honest are always pained


ill

speaking

of others, so are the wicked always


thing.
for

rejoiced in

doing the same

As the honest are always pleased in

showing regard

the old, so are the wicked always rejoiced

in aspersing the good.


for faults.

The honest
are

are

happy

in

not seeking

The wicked
ill

happy

in seeking for them.

The
never

wicked ever speak

of the

honest.

But the

latter

injure the former even if injured


ridiculous
in the

by them.
those

What
that are

can be more
themselves
?

world than

that

wicked should represent the


truth and virtue and
lent poison,
faith
?

really

honest as
tliat

wicked

When
off

even atheists are annoyed with those

have fallen

from

who

are really

like

angry snakes of viru-

what
that,

shall

I say of myself

He

having begotten a son who


never attaineth

who am nurtured in is his own image,

regardeth him not,

to the worlds he coveteth,

and

verily the gods

destroy his good fortune and possesions.

The
line

pitris have said that the son continueth the race

and the
Therefore

and

is,

therefore, the best of all religious acts.

should none abandon a son.


five kinds of sons
:

Manu

hath said that there are

those begotten

by

one's

self in

his

own

wife, those obtained (in gift) from others, those

purchased for
beo-otten

a consideration, those reared with affection and those


in others than

Sons support the religion and achievements of men, enhance their jojs, and rescue deceased
wives.
It

wedded

ancestors from hell.

behoveth thee

not, therefore,
is

tiger

among

kin^rs, to

abandon a son who

such.

Therefore,

own self, truth, and virtue, by cherishing thy son. O thou lion among monarchs, it behoveth thee not to support this deceitful ness. The dedication of a
lord of the earth, cherish thy

tank

is

more meritorious than that of an hundred


29

wells.

sacrifice again is

more meritorious than the dedication of a

220
tank,

MAHABHARATA.

more meritorious than a sacrifice. Truth ia more meritorious than an hundred sons. An hundred horseTruth was sacrifices had once been weighed with Truth.
son
is

found heavier than an hundred horse-sacrifices, O king, Truth, I ween, may be equal to the study of the whole Vedas and
ablutions in
all

holy places.

There

is

no virtue equal to Truth.

There

is

nothinrr

superior to
is

Truth.

king,

Truth

is

God

himself.

Truth

the
!

highest vow.

Therefore, violate nob

thy pledge,

monarch

Let Truth and thee be ever united.

If thou placest no

credit on

my

words, I shall

of

my own
this

accord go hence. Indeed, thy companionship should be avoided.

But know thou, O Dushraanta, that when thou art gone, son of mine shall rule the whole earth surrounded by the
seas

four

and adorned by the king of the mountains.' Vaisampayana continued, " And Sakuutala having spoken
left

to the monarch in this wise, then

his

presence-

But

as

soon as she had

left,

a voice from the skies, emanating from no


to

visible shape, thus

spoke

Dushmanta
Purohita,
Tiie

as he

was sitting sur-

rounded by
ters.

his

Ritwijas,
'

Acharyas,
is
is

and Minishimself.

And
:

the voice said,

mother
father

but the sheath of


the
father

flesh

the son sprung from

the

Therefore,

Dushmanta,

cherish

thy son, and insult not


is

Sakuntala.
one's

thou best of men, the son, who

but a form of
of Yaraa.

own

seed, rescueth (ancestors) from the regions

Thou
oi his

art the progenitor of this boy.

Sakuntala hath spoken

the truth.

The husband dividing


the

his

body

in twain

is

born

wife in

form of son.
a great

Therefore,

Dushmanta,

cherish thou,

monarch, thy son born of Sakuntala.


is

To

live

forsaking one's living son

misfortune.

Therefoi'c,

thou of the Puru race, cherish thy high-souled son born of

Sakuntala

And

because this child


shall

is

to

be cherished by thee

even at our word, therefore


the

this

thy son be

known by
Pau-

name

of

Bharata (the

cherished.)'

Hearing these words


of the

uttered by the dwellers of heaven, the monarch

rava race became overjoyed and spoke

as

follows

unto his

Purohita and ministers.


celestial messengei?

'Hear ye these words uttered by the


myself do know this one to be
as

I also

iy son,

If I hud takeu

him

my

son

ou the strength of

A.DI

PARVA,
people
woiiUl
liave

227
been susas

Sakimtala's
picious and
pure.'

words alone,

my

my

sou also

would not have been regarded


"

Vaisarapayana continued,
the Bharata
the celestial

The monarch

then,

thou of

race, seeing the purity of his son

established

by
he

messenger, became

exceedingly glad.

And

took unto him that son with joy.


heart then performed
all

And

the king with a joyous

those rites upon his son that a father

should perform.

And

the

king smelt

his

child's

head and
to utter

hugged him with


blessings

affection.

And

the

Brahmanas began
to api)laud

upon him and the bards began

him.

And
feel-

the monarch

then experienced the great delight that one

eth at the touch of one's son.

that wife of his with affection.


pacifying her affectionately.
'

And Dushmanta And he told her

also

received

these words,

Goddess,

my

union with thee

took place

privately.

Therefore, I was thinking of

to establish thy purit}-.

My

people might think that

how best we were


;

only

lustfully
thia

united and not as

husband and wife


installed as

and
heir-

therefore,

son that I would have

my

apparent would only have been regarded as of impure birth. And, dearest, every hard word thou hast uttered in thy anger,

have

I,

large-eyed one, forgiven thee.


royal
sage,

Thou

art

my

dearest.
his

And

that

Dushmanta, having spoken thus to

dear wife, then,

Bharata, received her with offerings of per-

fume, food, and drink.


the

And

king Dushmanta then, bestowing


intsalled

name

of Bharata

upon
like

his child, formally

him as

the heir-apparent.
chariot, invincible

And
and

the famous bright v/heels of Bharata'a

unto the wheels of the cars owned every region filling the v/hole earth by the gods, traversed with their ghar-gkara. And the son of Dushmanta reduced
to subjection all the kings of the earth.

And he

ruled virtu-

ously and earned great fame.

And

that monarch of great

prowess was known by the

titles

of Chahra-vavti

and Sarva-

bhcmma.

And

he performed

lord of the Marutas.


sacrifices in

many sacrifices like Sakra or the And Kanwa was the chief priest in those

which the offerings to Brahmanas were great. And the blessed monarch performed both the cow- and the And BharaU gave unto Kuuwa a thousand horse-sacririccs.

22S

MAHABHARAIA,
fee.

gold coins as the sacrificial

It

is

that Bbarala from


It
his
is

whom
And
called

have flowed so many mighty achievemeuts.


that the great race hatli sprung called
all

from him

after in

name.

monarchs that have come after liim

his race are

aUer him.

And

in the

Bhai^ta race there have been bora


great energy, and
like

many
But,

god-like monarchs gifted with

unto Brahma himself.

Their numbers cannot be counted.

O thou of

the Bharata mce, I shall

name

the

principal

ones that were blessed with great good fortune, like unto the
gods, and devoted to trutlj and honesty."

And

so ends the seventy-fourth Section in the

Sambhava

oi

the Adi Parva.

Section

LXXV.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Vaisampayana
genealogy, that
is

said,

"Hear
royal

now,^ as I

recite,

the recorded
profit,

sacred
these

and subservient
sages
:

to

religion,

and

pleasure,
;

of

the

lord

of

creation^
;

Dalisha

Manu
I

the son of Surya; Bharata;


shall

Euru

Puru

and Ajmida.
genealogies of

also

recite

to

thee,

sinless one,
;

the

the Yadavas and of


line.

the Eurus

snnd

of the

kings of the Bharata


their- recitation is

These genealogies are sacred and

a great act of propitiation.


fame, and long
life.

That

recitation

confereth
all

wealth,

And,

sinless one,

those I have

named shone

in

their splendour

and were

equal unto the great Rishis in energy.

Fracheta had ten sons who were all devoted to asceticism and possessed every virtue. They burnt of old, by the fire

"

emanating from their mouths, several plants of poisonous properties, and innumerable large trees that had covered the earth and become a source of great discomfort to man. After
these ten, was born another

named Daksha.
Therefore

It is

from Daksha
tiger

that

all

creatures have sj)rung.


the

is he,

among
the

men,

called

Grand-father.

And

born

of Pracheta,

Muni Daksha, uniting himself


sons of rigid vows,

with Virini, begat a thousand

all like himself.

And Narada

taught these

ihouBiind sona of Diikaha the c:iculknt philuaopby of

Sankbya

B.DI

PAUVA,"

229

as a

means

of Salvation.
]

These, therefore, totally abstained

from begetting creatures.


creation,
fifty

And,

O
all

Janamejaya, the lord of

Daksha, then, from desire of making creatures, begat

daughters.

And he made
^/^e^r

of

them

his

appointed
for

daughters (so that

sons

might be

hi^

sons

also

the

performance of

all

religious acts.)

And
all

he bestowed ten of hia

daughters on Dharma, and thirteen on Kasyapa.


twenty-seven to Chandra,
time.

And

he gave

who

are

engaged

in indicating

And Kasyapa,

the son

of Marichi,

begat in her

who

was the eldest of his thirteen wives, the Adityas, the celestials

endued with great energy and having Indra as their head, and And from Vivaswan was born the also Vivas wan (the Sun.
)

Yama. And Martanda (Vivaswan) also begot another son after Yama, gifted with great intelligence and named Manu. And Manu was endued with great wisdom and devoted to And he became the progenitor of a line. And ia virtue. Manu's race have been born all human beings who have,
lord

therefore, been called Manttvas.


all

And

it

is

from

Manu

that}

men

including

Brahmanas,

Kshatrias, and others

have

been born.
sequently,

And

therefore are they all called

Manavas.

Sub-

monarch, the Brahmanas became united with

the Kshatrias.

And

those sons of

Manu

that were Brahmanas

devoted themselves to the study of the Vedas.

And Manu

begot ten other children

named Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan,

ter

Nabhaga, Ikshaku, Karusha, Sharyati, the eighth a daughnamed Ila, Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta

the tenth.
Kshatrias.

They

all

betook themselves to the practices of

Besides these,

Manu had

fifty

other sons on earth.

But we heard that they all perished quarreling with each other. The learned Pururava v^as born of Ila. It hath been
heard by us that Ila was both his mother and father.
great Pururava had sway
over

And

the

thirteen islands of the sea.

And though

human

being he was always surrounded by

companions that were inhuman.


for their anger robbed

And

Pururava,

intoxicated
little

with power, quarreled with the Brahmanas and

caring

Beholding all them of their wealth. Sanatkumara came from the region of Brahma and gave him good counsels whiob were, however, all rejected by Puruthis,

230
rava.

MAHABHARATA.
Then
the wrath
of the

great

RIshis

was

excited,

and
lost

the avaricious monarch, Avho,


his reason, "It

intoxicated with power,


curse.

had

was immediately destroj'ed by their


first

was Purarava who

brought from the region


fire

of

the
)

Gandharvas the three kinds of

(for

sacrificial
also.

purposes.
tlie

And

he brought thence the Apsara Urvarsi

And

son

of Ila begat in Urvasi six sons

who were

called Aya, Dhiraan,

And Amavasu, and Dhridhayu, and Vanayu, and Shatayu. VridhaNahusha, it is said that Ayu begat four sons, named Rajingaya, and Anena, in the daughter of Sharvanu. sarma,
And,

monarch, Nahusha,

of all the

sons af Ayu, was

gifted

with great intelligence and prowess. And he And king Nahusha supported evenly sive kingdom virtuously.
ruled his exten-

the Pitris,

the celestials, the

Risliis,

the

Brahmanas,

the

Gandharvas, the Nagas, the Rakshasas, the Kshatrias, and the


Vaisyas.

And

he suppressed

all

robber gangs with


tribute

a mighty

hand.

But he made
like

the Rlshis pay

and carry him


conquering the

on their backs

beasts

of burden.

And

very gods by the beauty of his person, his asceticism, prowess^ and energy, he ruled as if he were Indra himself. And

Nahusha begot

six sons,

all

of sweet

speech,

named

Yati,

Yayati, Sangyati, Ayati, Ayati, and Dhruva. himself to asceticism became a

Yati betaking

Muni

like

unto Brahma himself.

Yayati became a monarch of great prowess and virtue. He ruled the whole earth, performed numberless sacrifices, worshipped the Pitris with great veneration, and always respected
the gods.

And he brought
great

the whole
foe.

world under his sway

and was never vanquished by any


were
all

And

the sons of Yayati

bowmen

and resplendent with

every

virtue.

two wives) Devayani and Sharmishta. And in Devayani were born Yadu and Turvasu, and in Sharmishta were born Drahyu, Ann, and
And,

king, they were begotten in (his

Puru.

And,

king, having virtuously ruled his

subjects for

a long time, Yayati was attacked with hideous decrepitude


destroying his personal beauty.

And

attacked by
sons

decrepitude,

the monarch then spoke,

Bliarata, unto his

Yadu and
:

'O Puru and Turvashu and Drahyu and Ann these words man and to gratify my appedear sona, I wish to be a young

ADIPARVA.
tites in the

231

to
*

!'

company of young women. Do you help me thereTo him his ehlest son born of Devayani then said,
needesfc thou,

What
son
!

king

Dost thou want to have our


'Accept thou

3'outh V

Yayati

tlien told him, I

my

decrepitude,

with thy youth

would enjoy myself.


I

During the

time of a

great sacrifice I have


)

been cursed by the Muni


enjoy myself with your

Usana
youth.
rule ye

Sukra.

sons,

would

Take any

of ye this
I

my

decrepitude and with

my body
!'

my

kingdom.

would enjoy myself with a renovated


sons, take ye

body.

Therefore, ye
of his sons

my
'

my

decrepitude
his

But

none

took his decrepitude.

Then
I shall

youngest son

Puru

said unto

him,

king, enjoy
!

thou once again with a


take

renovated body and returned youth


pitude and at thy

thy decre-

command

rule thy kingdom.'

Thus addressed,

the royal sage, by virtue of his ascetic power, then transferred


his

own decrepitude unto

that high-souled

son

with the 3^outh of Puru the monarch became a


a thousand years had passed
kings,

And young man


of his.

while with the monarch's age Puru ruled his kingdom.


*'Then, after

away, Yayati,

that tiger
tiger.

among

remained as strong and powerful as a


gardens of Chittra-ratha (the king of
enjoyed the company of the
all this,

And

he enjoyed for a long time the companionship of his

two

wives.

And

in the

the Gandharvas), the king also

Apsara Viswachi.

But even after

the great king found


follow-

his appetites'unsatiated.

The king then recollected the


'

ing truths contained in the Puranas.


are never satiated with enjoyment.
sacrificial

Truly,

one's

appetites
like

On

the other hand,

butter poured into the


if

fire,

they flame up with indulits Avealth,

gence.

Even

one enjoyeth the whole earth with


gold,

diamonds and
satiated.

animals

and

Avomen,

one

is

not yet
sin

It is only wlien

man

doth not commit any

respect of any living thing, in heart, deed, or word,

it is

then

that he attaineth
feareth nothing,

to

purity as that of Brahma.

When

one

when one is not feared by any thing, when one wisheth for nothing, when one injureth nothing, it is then that one attaineth to the purity of Brahma.' The wise monarch
seeing this and satisfied that one's appetites are
set his

never satiated,

miad

at

rest

by

meditation, and took back from his sou

232
his

MAnABiTARATA.
(lecrepifude.

own

And
:

giving liim

back his yonth though

his appetites were unsatiated, and installing him on the throne, 'Thou art ray true heir, thon arb he spoke unto Puni thus

my

true

son in
race be

whom
known

m}''

race

is

to

continue
!'

In the world

shall

my

after thy

Vaisampayana continued,
raount of Bhrjo-u

name " "Then that

tiger

among

kings,

having installed his son Puru on the throne, went away to the
for

devoting himself

to

asceticii^m.

And
hia
to

having acquired great ascetic merit,

after

long yenrs he suc-

cumbed

to

the

inevitable
"

influence

of

Time.

He

left

human

body by observing the

vow

of fasting,

and ascended

heaven with his wives.

And

thus ends the seventy-fifth

Section in the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva,

Section LXXVI.
(

Samhhava Parva continued.

Janamejaya

said,

me how
obtained

our ancestor
for wife

"0 thou whose wealth is asceticism, tell Yayati who is the tenth from Prajapati
I desire

the unobtainable daughter of Sukra.


Tell

to hear of

it in detail.

me

also,

one after another, of those

monarchs separately who have been the founders of dynasties." Vaisampayana said, "The monarch Yayati was in splendour
like

unto Indra himself.

I will

tell

thee,

in

reply to

thy

how both Sukra and Vrishaparva bestowed upon him with due rites their daughters, and how
question,

Janamejaya,

his union took place with

Devayani in

especial.

"Between the

celestials

and the Asuras there happened


them.

frequent encounters of yore for the sovereignty of the three

worlds with everything in


of victory, installed
priest to

The gods
while

then,

from desire
their
in-

the son

of Angira
;

(Yrihaspati) as
their

conduct their

sacrifices

opponents

stalled the learned

Usana

as their

priest for the

same purpose.
encounter that

And between
boastful

those two

Brahmanas
all

there

was always much


for

rivalry.

Those Danavas assembled


revived by

were

slain

by the gods were

Kavya (Sukra) by

aid of the power of his

knowledge.

And

then starting agaiu

ADIPARVA.
into
life,

2-^3

these

fouorlit,

wiHi the gods.

the

field of battlo

many

of the celestials.

The Asuras also slew on But the open-mind-

science

ed Vrihaspati could not revive them, because he knew not the called Sanjivani (re-vivification) which Kav3'a endued

with great energy knew so well.


in great sorrow.

And
in

the gods were, therefore,


of'

And

the gods

great anxiety

heart and
to

entertaining a fear of the learned Usana, then

went

Kacha,

the eldest son of Vrihaspati, and spoke unto him,

.saying,

'We

pay court
that
in

to

thee,

therefore be kind to
great.

us

and do us a service

we regard

Sukra

That knowledge which resides that Brahmana of immeasurable prowess, make


as very

thy own as soon as thou canst.


with us in
all

Thou

shalt then be a sharer

sacrificial

offerings.

Thou

shalt

find

the

Brahmana

in the

court of Vrishaparva.
their

He

always protects

the Danavas but never us

opponents.

Thou

art

his

junior in age, and therefore capable of adoring him with reverence.

Thou

canst also

adore Deva-yani, the favorite daughter


Indeed,

of that

high-souled

Brahmana.
gratifying

thou alone art capa-

ble of conciliating

them both by worship.

There

is

none else

that can do

so.

By
that

Deva-yani with thy conduct,


cer-

liberality, sweetness,

and general behaviour, thou canst


knowledge.'

tainly obtain
solicited

The

son of Vrihaspati,

thus

by the gods, then saying 'So be it,' went to where Vrishaparva was. And, O king, Kacha, thus sent by the gods,
soon

wended

into the capital

of the

chief of the Asuras, and

beheld SivJcra there.

him

as thy disciple. I am the grand-son of the Angira and son of Vrihaspati himself. By name am I known as Kacha. Thy.self becoming my preceptor, I shall
:

'Accept me

And

beholding him he thus spoke unto

Rishi

practise

the Brahmacharya
then,

Command me
Kacha!
by

mode O Brahmana

of

life

for a

thousand years.

!'

"And Sukra
so doing, it
is

(hearing this) said,

'

Welcome

art
"

thou,
;

O
for

I accept thy speech.

I will treat

thee with regard

Vrihasi)ati

who

is

being regarded.

Vaisampayana continued,

"And

Kacha,

commanded by

Usana himself called also Sukra, then saying. So be it', took the vow he had spoken of And, O Bharata, accepting the vow as he had said, at the proper time, Kacha
or

Kavya

30

2-34

MAHABHARATA,
conciliate

Jaegau to
]>receptor's

regardfuUy both his 2>rectplor

anil (his

daughter) Deva-yani.
as

And

he began to conciliate

both.

And young

he was, by

singing

and dancing and


lie

playing on different kinds of instruments,

soon

gratified

Deva-yani wlio was herself

in
it,

her youth.

And,

Bharata>

vith

his

whole heart set upon

he soon gratified that maiden


her

Deva-yani

already

arrived

in

youth,

by presents of

flowers and fruits and services rendered with alacrity. And Deva-yani also by her songs and sweetness of manners used,

while they were alone, to attend upon


out his vow.

thiit

youth carrying

And when

five

hundred years had thus passed


to

of Kacha's vow, the Danavas came

learn of his

intention.

And

having uo compunctions about slaying a Brahmana, they

became very angry with him. And one day they saw Kaclia his engaged in a solitary pnrt of the woods in tending
(

preceptor's)

kine.

And

they

then slew Kacha

from their

liatred of Vrihaspjiti

and from their desire

also of protecting

the knowledge of reviving the dead from

being taken
Ids

nway

by him.

And

having slain him they hacked


tliese

body into

pices and gave

to

be devoured by jackals and wolves.


the

And (when
Jiine return

twilight came)

kine returned to their fold

without him who tended them.

And

Deva-yani,

seeing the

from the woods without Kacha, spoke,


:

Bharata,

unto her father thus 'Thy Evening fire hath been kindled
pet,

father!

teudeth them.

the Sun also hath The kine have returned without him who Indeed, Kacha is not to be seen It is jtlaiu
:
!

that Kacha hath

been

lost or dead.
live.'

Truly do I

say,

father,

that without him I would not

"And Sukra hearing this said, 'I will revive him b}' saying Let this one come.' Then having recourse to tlie science of reviving the dead, Sukra summoned Kacha. And summoned
by
his preceptor,

Kacha appeared before


his preceptor's

hiin

in

gladness of

heart, tearing

by virtue of
delay, he

science the bodies

of the wolves (that

had devoured him.)


thu.;
l)y

And asked about


daughter,

the

cause of his
dau-ghter.

spoke unto

Bhargava's (Sukra's)

Indeed, asked

that Brahmaua's

he

told her,

'I

was dead.

thou of pure maunors, bearing the

ADI PARVA.
sacrificial
fuel,

235
of wood, I
tree.

Kiisa grass, and


I

logs

was coming

towards our abode.

had sat under a banian

The kino

also having been gathered shade of that same banian. The Asuras, beholding me, asked They heard me answer lam tfie son of 'WJto art thou'?

together were staying under the

Vrihaspatl.

As soon

had snid

this,

the

Danavas slew

ma

and hacking ray

bo<ly into pieces

gave
to

my

remains to jackaLj

and wolves.

And

they

then went

their

homes

in

gladness

summoned by the high-souled BharO of heart. gava, I come before thee somehow fully revived.' On another occasion, asked l)y Deva-yani, the Brahmana Kacha went into the woods. And as he was roving about for They again slew gathering flowers, the Danavas beheld iiim.
amiable one,
*'

him and pounding him


waters of the ocean.

into

paste

they mixed

it

with the

Finding him

late,

the maiden again repre-

again by Brahmana with the aid of his science, Kacha appearint^ before (his preceptor and his daughter) told evrything as it had Then slaying him for the third time and burning hap{)ened.
sented the matter unto her father.
the

And summoned

him and reducing him


the preceptor

to ashes the

Asuras gave those ashes to


his

himself

mixing

them with

wine.

And
Kacha
Ifc

Deva-yani again spoke unto her father, saying, 'O father,

had been sent


ia

to gather flowers.

But he

is

not to be seen.
truly,

plain he hath been lost or dead,

1 tell thee

would

not live without him.'


'Sukra hearing
patl hath
this

said,

'

daughter, the son of Vrihasdead.

gone
do

to

the
is

region of the

Though revived
What, indeed,
cry.

by

my
I

science,
?

he

thus slain

frequently.

am

to

Deva-yani, do not grieve, do not


not
grieve for one
in

Ono
wor-

like thee should

that

is

mortal.

Indeed,

thou

art,

daughter,

consequence of
gods with
fact

my

prowess,

shipped thrice a day, during the ordained hours of prayer, by

Brahma,
Aswinas,
impossible
killed,'

Brahmanas,
the
to

the

Indra, the

Vasus,

the

Asuras, in

keep him

alive,

by the whole universe. It ia for revived by me he is as often


replied,

To

all this

Deva-yani

'Why
is

shall

I,

father,

not grieve

for
is

him whose grand-father


Vrihaspatl

old

Angira himself,
merit, who.

whose father

that ocean

of aacctic

236
13

MAHABHAKATAt

and the son also of a RisM ? He himself too was a Brahmachaii and an ascetic always wakeful and skilled in everything. I will stai've and follow
the grand-son of a Rishi
;

the way
dear unto

Kacha hath gone.

The handsome Kacha


"

is,

father,

me

!'

"

Vaisampayana continued,
then,
afflicted

The great Rishi Kavya


said,
.to

(Sukra)^
in.

by what Deva-yani had


stayeth with me.

then cried

anger, 'Certainly, the Asuraa seek

injure me, for they slay

my
me

disciple that

These followers of Rudra

desire to divest

me

of

my

character as a

Brahmana by making
crime hath a terrible

participate in their crime.

Truly

this

The crime of slaying a Brahmana would even burn Indra Having said this, that Brahmana Sukra, urged by himself.' Deva-yani, began to summon Kacha who had entered the jaws of death. But Kacha, summoned with the aid of science, and
end.
afraid at

the

consequences to his preceptor,


his
I

feebly

replied
saidj

from within the stomach of


'Be graceful unto me,

preceptor.
I

And Kacha
"

lord

am Kacha

that worshippetb

thee

Behave unto me as to thy own dearly-loved son.' Vaisampayana continued, " Sukra then said, 'By what path,
!

Brahmana, entering
this

my

stomach,

dost

thou
I

stay

there

?'

Leaving the Asuras


gods!'

very moment, shall

go over to

the

And Kacha

then answered, 'By thy grace,

memory
it

hath not failed me. Indeed, I do recollect everything as

hath
It is

happened.

My

ascetic virtues have not

been destroyed.

therefore that I

am

able to

bear this insufferable pain.


to

Kavya,
have
I

slain

by the Asuras and burnt and reduced


with thy wine.
arts of the

powder
thou art

been given to thee

When

present,

Brahmana, the

Asuras will never be able


!'

to vanquish the science of the

Brahmana
'

"Hearing
do to thee
his
life
!

this, Suki-a said,

daughter, v;hat good

can I

It

is

with

my

death that Kacha can have back


is

Deva-yani, Kacha

even within me.

There

ia

no other way of his coming out except


stomach.

by ripping open
evils shall, like

my
fire,

But Deva-yani

replied,

'

Both

burn me.

The death of Kacha and thy own death too are to me as same. The death of Kacha would deprive me of life. Then If thou aliso diest, I shull not be able to bear life
'.'

ADI PARVA.
Sukra
said,
'

237
thou
art,

son

of

Vrihaspati,

indeed,

one

already crowned with success, because Deva-yani regardesb thee so well. Accept now the science that I v/ill today impart to thee, if indeed, thou art no Indra in the form of Kacha
j

None can come


however,

out of

my stomach
slain.

with

life.

A Brahmana,
thou the
as
it

must not be

Therefore,

accept
life

science I impart to

thee.

Start thou into

my

son

And

possessed of the knowledge, having received

from me,

and revived by me, look thou that coming out of my body " thou may est have in view what gratitude dictateth.'
Vaisampivyana continued,
"

Receiving then the science imhis

parted to him by his preceptor, ripping open

stomach

the

handsome Bralmiiana Kacha came out like the moon at evening And beholding in the fifteenth day of the lighted fortnight. the remains of his preceptor lying like a heap of Brahma, even

Kacha revived him with the aid of the science he had received. And worshipping him with regard, Kacha then said unto his preceptor, 'Him who poureth the nectar of knowledge into one's ears, even as thou hast done into those of myself who am void of all knowledge, him do I regard both as my father and mother. And remembering the immense service done by him, who is there so ungrateful as to injure him ? They that, having acquired knowledge, injure their preceptor who is
always an object of worship, who
is

the giver of knowledge;


objects
to

who
the

is

the
"

most precious of

all

precious

on earth,

become

hated on earth and


"

finally

go

the regions of

sinful.'

Vuisampayana continued,
loss of consciousness that is

The learned Sukra, having


total

been deceived while under wine, and remeinberinor the

one of the terrible consequences of

drink,

and beholding too before him the handsome Kacha


his

whom
wine,

he had, in a state of unconsciou3nes&, drunk with

then thought of effecting a reform in the manners of the Brahmanas.

The high-souled Usana


:

anger then spoke as follows


from
this

rising

up from the ground in

'

That wretched Brahmana who


virtue, shall

day

will,

being unable to resist the temptation,


lost his

drink wine, shall be regarded to have

be

reckoned

to

have committed the

sin

of slaying

Brahmunaj

238
shall be hated both

MA.HABHARATA..
in

this

and the other world.


of

I set thrsi

limit to the

conduct and dignity


let

Brahmanas everywhere..
those
retrardful
listen
!'

Let the honest,

Brahmanas,

let

of theii*

superiors, let the gods, let the

three Avorlds,

Having

that ascetic of ascetics then summoning the Danavas who had been deprived by fate of their good sense, then told them these words: 'Ye
said these woids, that high-souled one
foolish

Danavas, know ye that Kacha hath attained his wishes.


will henceforth dwell with

He

the valuable knowledge of reviving the dead, that Brahmana hath

me.

Indeed, having obtained


"

become

in

prowess even as Brahma himself


"

!'

Vaisampayana continued,

And Bhargava

having said so
surprised

much

cut short his speech.


to their homes.

The Danavas were

and
with
re-

went away

And Kacha
after

too having staid


to

his preceptor for a full

thousand

years then prepared

turn to the abode of the celestials


preceptor's permission."

having obtained his

And
of the

thus ends the seventy-sixth

Section

in the

Sambhava

Adi Parva.

Section LXXVII.
(

Sambhava Parva continued.

}
period of

Vaisampayana
his vow,

said, " After the expiration of the


his precejjtor's leave
celestials.
'

Kacha having obtained


of the

was about
this

to return to the abode

Just at

time,

Deva-yani, addressing him,


Angira, in conduct
humility,

said,

grand-son of the Rishi


asceticism,

and

birth,

in

learning,
!

and

thou
is

shinest

most brightly

As the celebrated

Rishi Angira

honored and regarded by

my
by

father, so is

thy

father Vrihaspati regarded and worshipped


ascetic wealth,

me

thou of

knowing

this,

listen to

what
It

I say.

Recollect

my
fix

behaviour to thee during the period of thy vow (of Brahma-

charya.)

Thy vow hath now been

over.

behoveth

thee to

thy affections on me.


1'

accept

my hand
to

duly with ordained

mantras "Kacha

replied,

'Thou

art
!

me

an

object

of regard

and worship even

as thy father

Indeed,

thou of faultless

ADIPARVA,
features, tliou art art dearer than

239
!

even an object of greater reverence


to
I

Thou

life

lie

iiigU-souled

Bhargava
art

amiable

ene, as the daughter of


of

my

preceptor, tliou

ever worthy
father
!

my

worship.

As my preceptor
regards, so art

Sukra thy

is

ever

deserving of
fore it

my

thou,
so.'

Deva-yaui
this

There-

behoveth

thee not to say

Hearing
father's

Deva-yaui
son.

replied,

'Thou

too art the

sou of

my

preceptor's

Brahmanas, thou art deserving of my regards and worship. O Kacha, when thou wert slain so many times by the Asuras, recollect today the affection I showed
Therefore,

best of

for thee

Remembering my friendship and

affection

for thee,
it

and, indeed,

my

devoted regard
to

also,

virtuous

one,
I

be-

hoveth thee not

abaudoa me
!'

without any

fault

am

truly devoted to thee

"Hearing
do not urge

all this

Kacha

said,

'

thou of virtuous
!

vows,
of fair

me

into

such a sinful course

O
!

thou

eye-brows, be graceful unto

me

Beautiful one, thou art to

me

an object of greater regard than


tuous resolves,

my

preceptor

Full of vir-

large-eyed one, of face,

besides, as

handsome
tridy

as the moon, the place where thou hadst resided, viz, the body
of

Kavya, hath
!

also

been

my

abode.

Thou
one,

art

my
so
!

sister

Therefore,

slender-waisted

do

iu)t

say

Amiable
us
I

one, happily liave

been together.
ask thy
iiouQce blessings

There
on

is

we passed the days that we have perfect good understanding between


to my abode. Therefore jiromy journey may be safe. I wiien thou dost remember me

leave to return

me

so that

must be remembered by
transgressed
virtue

thee,

in connection with topics of conversation, as one that hath not


!

Always attend upon my preceptor with


of heart
if,
!
'

readiness and singleness

To

all

this,

Deva-yani
refuse
shall

answered, 'Solicited by me,


to

indeed, thou

dost

trul}^

make me
"Hearing

thy wife, then,


!

Kacha,

this thy

knowledge

not bear fruit

all this,

Kacha
fault.

said, 'I

have refused thy request

only because thou art the

daughter of

my

j)receptor,

and not
in this
!

because thou hast any


respect issued any

Nor

hatli

my
if

preceptor
it

command.

Curse me

])leiise

thee

have told thee what the behaviour should be of

llihis. 1

do not

240
deserve thy curse,

MAHABHARATA.

Dev;i-3'ani

But

yet hast thou cursed me.

Thou

hast acted under the iaflueuce of passion and not from a


sliall

sense of duty. Therefore thy desire


Rishi's sou shall ever accept thy

not be

fulfilled.

No
so.

hand

in

marriage.
fruit.

Thou hast
it
it.'

said that

my knowledge

shall

not bear

Let

be

But

in

him

it shall bear fruit to

whom

may

impart

Vaisampa3'ana continued,

"

That

first

of Brahnmnas, Kacha,

having said so unto Deva-yani,

speedily

v/ended

unto

the

abode of the chief of


ed,

the

celestials.

And

beholding

him
per-

arrived, the celestials with Indra ahead, having first worshipp-

spoke unto him as follows:


for us.

'Thou
!

hast, indeed,

formed an act of great good


achievement
!

Wonderful hath been thy

Thy fame

shall never die


"

And

thou

shalt be

a sharer with us in

sacrificial offerings.'

And

thus end:^ the seventy-seventh Section in the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva.

Section LXXVIII.
(

Sambhava Parva continued.


said,
"

Vaisampayana
wonderful science.

exceedingly glad to

The dwellers of heaven became welcome Kacha w^ho had mastered the

And,

thou

i)ull

of the

Bharata race
consi-

the celestials then learnt that science from

Kacha and
then
sacrifices,

dered their object as already achieved.

And

assembling
saying,
foes,

together they spoke unto him of an hundred

'The time hath come

for

showing thy prowess.


out, saying

Slay thy then


it.'

Purandara

!'

And

thus addressed, Maghava,


'So be

accom-

panied by the
his

celestials, set

But on
were

way he saw

a iiumljer
in

of damsels.

These maidens

sporting in a lake
ratha.

the gardens of the Gandharva Chittra-

And changing

himself into

wind he soon mixed up


kept on
tlie

the garments

of those maidens which they had

bank.

little

while

after,

the maidens
iiad,

getting up

from the

water approached their garments that


with
eacii other.

indeed, been mingled


inter-

And
tlie

it

so

happened that from the


Deva-yani was

mingled heap

attire of

appropriated by

Sharmishta the daughter of Yrishaparva, from ignorance that

ADIPARVA.
it

241

was not

hers.

And,

king,

upon

this,

between them, Deva-

yani and Sharmishta, then occurred a dispute.


said,

And Deva-yani
dost

'O daughter

of the Asiira (chief),

why
?

thou

take

my

attire, being, as thou art, ray disciple

Destitute of good
!'

behaviour, nothing good can happen to thee

Sharmishta,

however, quickly replied,

'

Thy

father occupying a lower seat


like

always adoreth,
of praises,

Avith

downcast looks

a hired chaunter his ease

my

father whether

reclineth at full length.

when he sitteth at Thou art the daughter


the
praises

or

of one that

beggeth, one

that

chaunteth
I

of others,

of one
adored,

that accepteth alms.

am
art,

the daughter of one


of ever

who

is

one who bestoweth alms instead

accepting

them.

Beggar woman
to use
ill

thou art free to strike thy breast, words, to vow enmity to me, to give way to thy
as

thou

wrath.
vain.

Acceptress of alms, thou weepest

tears

of anger in

Thou art perfectly harmless, whereas, if so minded, I can harm thee. Thou desirest to quarrel. But know thou that
I

do not reckon thee as ray equal.'

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these words Deva-yani became exceedingly angry and began to pull at her clothes.
Sharmishta thereupon threw her into a
dead, bent her steps
"

well,

and went home.


Deva-jani was

Indeed, the wicked Sharmishta believing that

homewards

in a wrathful

mood.

After Sharmishta had

left,

Yayati the son of Nahusha

soon came to that spot.

And

the king had been out ahunting.

And
self

the

couple of horses

harnessed to his car and the other


all fatigued.

.single

horses with
thirsty.

him were

And
in

the king
well

himthat

was
b3^

And

the
it

son

of

Nahusha saw a
But

was
it,

And

he saw that
in

was

dry.

looking

within

he saw a maiden who

splendour was like unto the blazinoit,

fire.

And

beholding her within

the best of kings addressed

that girl of the complexion of the celestials, soothing her with

sweet words.

And
?

he

said,

'Who
and

art thou,
-with to

fair one, of nails

bright as burnished copper,


celestial

ear-rings

decked with

gems

Thou seemest
in
affliction
?

be greatly anxious.

Why
And O
art!'

dost thou

weep

How,
truly

indeed, hast thou fallen

into this well covered with creepers

and long grass?

slender-waistedgirl, answer

me

whose daughter thou


31

42
"Deva-yaiii then
v/lio

MAHAEHARATA,
answered,
life
'

am

the daughter of Sukra

brings back into

the Asuraa that are slain by the gods.


liath

He

doth not know Avhat

befallen me.

This

is

my

right

hand,

O
I

king, with nails


;

bright as burnished copper.


it

Thou
there-

art well-descended
fore
!

I ask thee, take

and raise

me up

knaw thou
!

art of

good behaviour, of great prowess,


to raise

and wide fame


this well
"
r

It

behoveth thee, therefore

me from

Vaisampayaua continued, "King Yayati, learning that she

was a Brahmana's daughter, then


catching
liold

raised

her from that well

of her right

haiid.

And

raising her from the pit and speaking to


thighs, sweetly
"

monarch promptly her who was of tapermg


the
his capital.

and courteously, returned to


the son of

And when

Nahusha had gone away, Deva-yani


spoke unto her

of faultless features, afflicted with grief, then

maid, Ghurnika by name,


said, 'O

who met

her at the time.


to

And

she

Ghurnika hie thou soon and speak


time of everything as
it

my

father withI shall

out

loss of

hath happened.

not now enter the city of Vrisha-parva.'

Vaisampayana continued,
ed, repaired

"

And

Ghurnika, thus commandchief.

quickly to the

mansion of the Asura

And

there she saw Kavya and spoke unto him with her perception

dimmed by
forest

anger.

And

she said,

'I tell

thee,

great Brahraa-

na, that Deva-yani hath been ill-used,

fortunate one, in the


!'

by

Sharmishta the daughter

of Vrishaparva

And

mishta, speedily
in the woods.

Kavya, hearing that his daughter had been ill-used by Sharwent out with a heavy heart, seeking for her

And when

he found her in the woods he claspher

ed her with affection and spoke unto


'with grief.
is

with

voice

choked

'0 daughter, the weal or woe that befalleth people

always due to their


I ween,

own
it

faults.

Thou

hast, therefore,
!'

some
this,

fault,

which hath been expiated thus


a
all

Hearing

Deva-yani replied, 'Be


with attention
!

penalty or not, listen

thou to

me

hear

that Sharmishta, the daughter of

Vrishaparva, hath

said unto

me

Really hath she

said that

thou art only the hired chaunter of the praises of the Asura
king.

Even

thiis

hath she
to

daughter,

spoken

that

Sharmishta,

Vrisliaparva's

mo, with red eyes, these piercing and cruel

ADIPARVA.
words

243
that

:" Thou

ai'b

the daughter of one


;

ever cliaunteth

for hire the praises of others

of one

that asketh for charity


I

of one that

accepteth

ahns

whereas

am

the daughter of
of one that

one that receiveth adorations, of one


never accepteth anything in gift."

that giveth,

words repeatedly spoken unto


father, I

i:ne

These have been the by the proud. Sharmishta,


red in
anger.
If,

the daughter of Vrishaparva, with eyea

O
iu

am

really the

daughter of a hired chaunter of praises,

of one that accepteth gifts, I

must

offer

her

my

adorations

hopes of obtaining her grace.


her.'

O, of this I

have already told

"

Sukra

replied,

'

Thou

art,

Deva-yani, no daughter of

a hired
gifts
!

adorer, of one

that

asketh for alms and accepteth


;

Tliou art the


is

daughter of one that adores none


all,

of
it,

one that

adored

by

Vrishaparva himself knoweth


too, that the inconceivable
is

and Indra, and king Yayati


the un-opposable God-head,
himself, gratified
of that

Brahma,

my

strength.

The
for

self-create

by me, hath said


things

that I

am

aye the lord


I tell

which

is

in all

on earth or in heaven.
rain for the

thee truly that


tures and
"

it is I

who poureth

good of crea^
sustain
all

who nourisheth the annual


" It

plants

that

living things.'

Vaisampayana continued,
excellent import

was by such sweet words of


his
"

that

the

father endeavoured to pacify

daughter afflicted with woe and oppressed by anger.

And

so ends the seventy-eighth Section in the

Sambhava

of

the Adi Parva,

Section

LXXIX.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


"

Sukra continued,

Know
evil

then,

O
a

Deva-yani,

that

hf?

that re^ardeth

not the

speeches of others, couquereth


is

everything

The wise say that he


is

true

charioteer
of his

who

without slackening hoideth

tightly

the reins

horses.

man that subdueth, without indulgKnow thou, O Deva-yani, that by him ing, his rising wrath. is everything conquered who calmly subdueth his rising anger.
He, therefore,
the true

244

MAHABHARATA.
is

He

regarded as a

man

-who

by Laviug recourse

to

forgiveliia-

ness casteth off his rising anger like a snake


outerskin.

casting off

He

that suppressetii his auger,

lie

that regardeth not

the evil speeches of others, he that becometh not angry though


there be cause, certainly acquireth the tour objects for

which

we

live.

(Religion,

profit,

desire,

and salvation.)

Between

him that performeth witiiout fatigue sacrifices every month for an hundred years, and him that never feeleth wrath in respect
of anything, he that feeleth

not anger

is

certaiidy the higher.

Boys and

girls,

unable to distinguish between right and wrong,

quarrel with each other.


yani, hearing
this

The

v/ise

never imitate them.'


fatlier,

DevaI

speech of

her

said,

'

father, I

know, though a
also

girl,

what are our duties and


is

virtues,

know
as-

what

the difference

between anger and forgiveness

regards

tiie

power

of each.

But when a

disciple

behaveth disif

respectfully, he should never bfr forgiven

by the preceptor

the latter

is

realy desirous of benefiting the former.

Therefore
evil

I do not desire to live any

longer in a country wiiere

be-

haviour

is

on

tiie

ascendant.

The wise man

desirous of good,

should not dwell

among

those

sinfully-inclined

men who
But

al-

aways speak
should one

ill

of good behaviour and high birth.

there

live,

dewelling places,
are

indeed, that hath been said to be the best of wh good behaviour and purity of birth
are

known and
fire

respected.

The

cruel words uttered by Vrisha-

parva's daughter burn


ling a

my

heart even as
I do not

men

desirous of kind-

burn the dry

fuel.

think

anything more

miserable for a

man

in the three worlds than for

him

to

adore

his enemies blessed with

good fortune, himself possessing none.


for

Indeed,

it

hath been said by the learned that


better.'

such a

man

even death would be

And
of the

thus ends the seventy -ninth Section in the

Sambhava

Adi Parva.

Section

LXXX.

(Sanibhava Parva continued.)


Vaisainpayana
line
said,

became

angry

himself.

"Then Kavja tlie foremost of Bhrigu's And approaching Vrishaparva


to

where the

latter

was seated, began


immediately.

address

him without
secretly

weio-hino- his words.

'O king,' he said, 'sinful acts do not, like

the earth, bear

fruit

But gradually and


Such
in

do they cut away the roots of their doer.


either in one's

fruit is

seen

own

self,

in

one's

son, or

one's

grandson.

Sins must bear


digested.

their fruit.

Like rich food

they

can

never be

And

because ye slew the

Brahmana

Kaclia, the

grand-son of Angira, who was


precepts of religion,

virtuous, acquainted
to his

with the

and attentive
tiiis

duties, while resid-

ing in
for it

my

abode, even for


for

act of slaughter

unfit as he
too,

was

and

the mal-tieatment of
leave thee and

my

daughter

know,

O O

Vrishaparva, I shall

thy relatives.
thee
?
!

Indeed,

king, for this I can no

longer

stay with

Dost thou,

Asura
little "

chief,

think that I

am

a raving

liar

Thou makest

of thy offence without seeking to correct

it.'

Vrishaparva then said, 'O son of Bhrigu, never have I


!

attributed want of virtue or falsehoood to thee

Indeed, virtue

and truth ever dwell


gava,
if

in thee

Be

graceful unto

me

Bharthen go
else for

leaving us thou

really

guest hence,

we
is

shall

into the depths of the ocean.

Indeed, there

nothing

us to

do.'

"Sukra then

replied, 'Ye
fly

Asuras, whether
in

ye go into the
I care little.
is

depths of the ocean or


1

away

all directions,

am

unable to bear

my

daughter's grief.

My

daughter

ever

dear to me.
her.

My

life

dependeth on

her.

Seek ye to please
do I

As Vrihaspati everseeketh

the good of Indra, so

always seek thine by

my
is

ascetic merits.'
'

'Vrishaparva then said,

Bhargava, thou art the absolute by the Asura chiefs in this

master of whatever

possessed

world, their elephants, kine, and horses, of even

my own

self.'

"Sukra then answered,


I

'If it is true,

great Asura, that

lord of all the " gratify Deva-jaiii'

am

the

wealth

of the

Asuras,

then go and

246

MAHABHARATA.

Vaisampayana continued, "And when the great Kavya had been so addressed by Vrishaparva he then went to Devayani and told her all. Deva-yani, however, quickly replied,
'O Bhargava,
himself and of
if

thou art truly the lord of the Asura king


wealth, then let the king himself
presence.'
her, '0

all his

come

to

me and

say so in

my

Vrishaparva then approached

Deva-yani and

told

Deva-yani of sweet smiles, what-

ever thou desirest I


it

am

willing to give thee

however

difficult

may

be

to grant the

Sharmishta with a
also follow
"

Deva-yani answered, 'I desire thousand maids to wait on me. She must
?

same

me

to

where

my

father

may bestow

me.'

Vrishaparva then commanded a maid-servant in attendance

on him, saying, 'Go and quickly

bring Sharmishta hither.

Let her also accomplish what Deva-yani wisheth.' " Vaisampayana continued, "The maid servant then repairing to Sharmishta told her, '0 amiable Sharmishta, rise and
follow me.

Accomplish thou the good of thy


(

relatives.

Urged
of

by Deva-yani, the Brahmana


leaving his

Sukra

is

on

the

point

disciples (the Asuras.)


!'

sinless

one, thou
replied,
'I

must
shal^

do

what Deva-yani wisheth


is

Sharmishta

cheerfully

do what Deva-yani wisheth.

Sukra

calling

Urged by Deva-yani me. Both Sukra and Deva-yani must not leave-

the Asuras through

my

fault.'

"

Vaisampayana continued,
in a palanquin, out

"

Commanded by

her father then,

Sharmishta, accompained by a thousand maidens, soon came,


of

her father's excellent mansion.


said,

approaching Deva-yani
thy

'With
shall

my

thousand maids I
thee
v/here
'I

And am
thy
the

waiting-woman.

And
thee.'

follow

father

may

bestow

Deva-yani
alms.
is

replied,

am

daughter of one who chaunteth the praises of thy

father,

and

who beggeth and


art the

accepteth

Thou, on the other hand,

daughter of one who

adored.

How
all

canst thou be

my

waiting

woman

'

"Sharmishta answered, 'One must by


to the

means contribute
Therefore shall
"
!'

happiness of one's afflicted

relatives.

I follow thee

wherever thy father may bestow thee Vaisampayana continued, " When Sharmishta
to

had thus
latter,

promised

be Deva-yani's

waiting-woman, the

ADI PARVA.
'lilng,

247
:

tlien

spoke imto her father thus

*0 best of
now

all excell-

ent Brahmanas, I
capital.
I
"
futile.'

am

gratified.

I shall

enter the Asura

now know

that thy science and power of knowledge

are not

Vaisampayana

continued, "That

best

of Brahmanas, of

great reputation, thus addressed by his daughter, then entered

the Asura capital in gladness of heart.

And
the

the Danavas

worshipped

hina with great reverence.

"

And

thus

ends

tlie

eightieth Section in

Sambhava

of

the Adi Parva.

Section LXXXI.
(

Sambhava Parva continued.


said, "

Vaisampayana
the same

After

some

length of time,

bef?t

of monarchs, Deva-yani of the fairest complexion

went

into

woods

for

purposes of pleasure.

And accompanied
waited upon by
happy.
all

by Sharmishta with her thousand maids she reached the same


spot and began to wander in freedom.
those companions she
felt

And

herself

supremely

And

sporting with light hearts, they began di'inking the honey of


flowers, eating various kinds of fruits

and biting some.


of

And

just at

this

time, king
in

Yayati the son


the

Nahusha, again

came
in

there

course

of his wanderings,

tired

and

thirsty,

search of deer.

And
full of

king saw Deva-yani and Sharalso,


all

mislita,
tial

and those other maidens


flowery

decked with

celes-

ornaments and

voluptuous langour in

consequence
of sweet

of the
smiles,

honey they drank.

And Deva-yani
the
at her ease.

unrivalled iu beauty and


all,

possessing

fairest

comshe

plexion amongst them

was reclining
said, '0

And

was waited upon by Sharmishta gently pressing her

feet.

"And Yayati
ask ye both

seeing

all this,

amiable ones, I would


It

your names and parentage.


two.'

seems that these


men.

two thousand maids wait on ye


thou that I
the Asuras.

Hearing the monarch,

Deva-yani then answered, 'Listen to me,

best of

Know
She

am

the

daughter of Sukra the spiritual guide of

This

my

companion

h my

waiting-woman.

248
attendefh

MAHA RITA RATA.


on

me wherever
'I

go.

She

is

Sliarmishta

the

daughter of the Asura king Vrishjiparva.'


"

Yayati then asked,


fair

am

curious to
this

know why

is

this thy

companion of
plexion

eye-brows

maiden of the
cliief

fairest

com!'

tlie

daughter of the Asura


'

thy waiting- woman


everytliing

Deva-yani replied,

best
this

of kings,
also

resulteth
of fate,

from the
cease to

fates.

Knowing
at
it.

to

be the

result
fire

wonder

Thy
also is

features and attire


fair

both like
that of the

king's.

Thy
Tell

speeeii

and correct
art,

as

Veda.
also
"
!'

me

thy name, whence thou

and whose son


Brahmacharya,
as

The monarch
son

replied, 'During

my vow
I

of

the

whole Vedas entered

my

ears.

am known
Is it to

Yayati,

a king's

and a king
for hast

myself.'

Deva-yani then enquired,


?
'

'O king, what

thou come here

gather lotuses,
tliirsty

or to angle or to hunt?'
in the pursuit

Yayati

said,

amiable one,

of deer

have I come
I wait

hither

in search of water.

am
"

very

much

fatigued.

but your commands to leave

this spot.'

Deva-yani answered, 'With

my

two thousand damsels and


but your commands.
!'

my

waiting-woman
t]ie3
!

Sharmislita, I wait

Prosperity to

Be thou my

friend and lord

"Yayati hearing this


serve thee.

replied, 'Beautiful

one, I do not defar

Thou

art the daughter of Sukra,

my

superior.

Thy

father cannot bestow

thee even

on great kings.'
this

To

this

Deva-yani: 'Brahmanas have before


Khatrias, and Khatrias
of a Rishi and a Rishi

been mixed with the

with Brahmanas.
tlwself.

Thou

art

the son

Therefore,

son of Nahusha,
of the

marry thou me
one body.

!
'

Yayati, however, replied, '0 thou

handsomest features, the four orders have, indeed, sprung from

But
is

their duties

and purity are not the same.


to
all
!'

The

Brahmana
'This

truly

superior
h;ith

Deva-j'ani ansAvered,

hand of mine
save

never been touched before by any

man
How,
hath

thee

Therefore

do I accept
touch

thee for

my

lord.

indeed, before

shall

any other man


touciied

my

liand

which
Rishi
is
?'

been
said,

by

thj'self
tiiat

Yayati then
to be

'The wise

know

who art a Brahmana

more

avoided than an

angry snake of virulent poison or a

ADT PARVA.
Viazing
fire

249
tlien told

of sproading flames.'

Deva-yani

the mon-

arch, '0 thou bull

amongst men, why dost


or

tliou,

indeed, say

that a Bralimana should be more avoided than an angry snake of virulent


poi.on

blazing

fire

of spreading flames?'

The monarch answered, *rhe snake but killeth only one.


sharpest weapon slayeth but a single person.
if

The

The Brahmaua,
Therefore,

angry, destroyeth
timid one, do I

whole
a

cities

and kingdoms.

than either.

Brahmana as more to be avoided amiable one, unless cannot hence wed thee,
deem

thy father bestov/eth thee on


art,

me

'

Deva-yani then

said, 'Thoti

indeed, chosen by me.

And,
if

O
my

king, it

is

understood then

that

thou wilt accept


need'st not

me

my

father bestoweth

me on

thee.

Thou
thee.

fear to

accept

poor self

if

bestowed on

Thou

dost not, indeed, ask for me.'


"

Vaisarapayana continued,
sent a maid-servant to

After

thi.i,

Deva-yani quickly

The maid represented to Sukra everything as it had happened. And as soon as he had heard all, Bhargava came and saw Yayati. And beholding Bhargava come, Yayati, that lord of the earth, bowing down
her father.

worshipped and adored that Brahmaua, and stood with joined

hands in expectation of

i)is

commands.
said,

"And Deva-yani then


Nahusha.

'This,

father,
I

is

the son of
distress. I

He
the

took hold of

my

hand when

was in

bow

to thee. in

Bestow me unto him.


world
!'

person

I shall not wed any othei? Sukra exclaimed, '0 thou of splendid

courage, thou hast, indeed, been


this

accepted as her husband

by

my
of

dear daughter

bestow her on thee.


as thy wife
!

Therefore,

O son
by

Nahusha, accept her


'I

"Ya}ati then said,

beseech

the

boon,

Brahmana, that

so doing, the sin of begetting a


'
!

me

mixed caste might not touch Sukra, however, assured him by saying, *I shall absolve
sin.

thee from

Ask thou the boon that thou


I grant thee absolution!

desirest

Fear

not to wed her. thy wife

Maintain virtuously
!

the slender-waisted
summon

Deva-yani

Transports of happi-

ness be thine in her company.

This other maiden, Vrishaparva'."?

daughter Sharmishta, should ever be regarded by thee.


thou shalt not
her to thy bed
!'

But

"

Vaisarapayana continued, "Thus addressed by Sukra, Yayati

32

2r"0

MAHABHARATA,
And
the

then walked round the Brahmana.

king

then went

rites of the Shastras.

through the auspicious ceremony of niarriage according to the And having received from Sukra a rich
treasure in the excellent Deva-jani with Sharmishta and those

two thousand maidens, and duly honored and the Asuras, the best of monarchs
the high-souled Bhargava,
returned

also

by Sukra himself

then,
his

commanded by
capital

to

with

joyous heart

And
the

so ends the

eighty-first

Sectiou in the

Sambhava

of

Adi Parva.

Section LXXXTI.
(

Sambhava Parva continued

Taisampayana said, "Yayati then, having returned to bis capital which was like unto the city itself of Indra, entered
his

inner apartments and

established

there

his

bride Deva-=

yani.

And

the

monarch, directed by Deva-yani, established

Vrishaparva's daugiiter Sharmishta in a mansion especially erected near the aitificial forest of Asokas in his gardens.

And

the

king surrounded Vrishaparva/s daughter Sharmishta with a

thousand maids and honored her by making every arrange-

ment regarding her


tial for

food

and garments.

But

it

was with

Deva-yani that the royal son of Nahusha sported

like a celes-

many

years in joy and

bliss.

the fair-Deva-yani conceived.


first child

And when her And she brought

season came,
forth as

her

a fine boy.

And

Avhen

thousand years had passed

away, Vrishaparva's

daughter Sharmishta having attained to

puberty saw that her season too had come.


thoughtful.

And

she became

And

she said to herself, 'My season hath arrived.

But

have not yet chosen a husband.


should I do
! !

what hath happened


the
fruition of

What
wishes

How am

I to

obtain

my
my my

Deva-yani hath become a mother.

My

youth

is

des-

tined to pass

away

in vain.

Shall

choose him also


?

for
is

husband whom Deva-yani hath chosen


resolve
:

Indeed, this
a
son.

that monarch

should give

me

Will not the


"

virtuous one grant

me

an interview in private T
"

Vaisampayami continued,

While Sharmishta

was thus

ADIPARVA.
busy with her thoughts, the king wandering
to
listlessly

251

came

that

very

forest

of

Asokas,

and beholding

Sharmishta
of beau-

before hitn, stood there in silence.


tiful

Then Sharmishta

smiles seeing the monarcii before her with nobody to wit-

ness what might pass, approaching the monarch said, joining

her hands,
that dwell

'0 sou of Nahusha, no one can


in

behold the ladies

the inner apartments of Shoma, of Indra, of

ishnu, of Yama, of Varuna, and of thine.


king,
thee,

Thou knowest,
I
it

that

I
I

am

both

handsome and
:

v/eli-boru.

ivilicit

king

My

season hath arrived

see that

goeth not

in vain.

"Yayati answered,
is

Well do

know that

the honor of birth

thine, born as

thou art in the proud race of the Danavas.


with beauty.
in thy

Tiiou art also

gifted

Indeed, I do not see even

the speck of a fault

features.

But Usana commanded


to

me

while I was

united Avith

Deva-yani that never should

Vrishaparva's daughter be

summoned

my

bed.'

"Sharmishta then
is

said, 'It

hath been

said,

king, that

it

not sinful to
to

lie

on the occasion

of a joke, in respect of wo-

men sought
Lying
is

be enjoyed, on

occasions of marriage, in pros-

pect of immediate death and of the loss of one's whole fortune.

excusable on these five occasions.


fallen

king,

it is false

that he

is

who speaks

not

the truth

when

asked.

Both

Deva-yani and myself have been called hither as companions


to serve the

same purpose.

When,

therefore, thou hadst said


us,

that thou wouldst confine thyself to one only amongst

that

was a

lie

thou hadst spoken.'

Yayati replied, 'A king should

ever be a pattern in the eyes of his people.


tainly meets with

That monarch
untruths.
if

cer-

destruction

who speaks

As

for

myself, I do
loss

not dare speak an untruth even


me.'

the greatest/

threatens

Sharmishta answered, 'O monarch, one


One's friend's

may
by

look upon her friend's husband as her own.


is

marriage

the samG as one's own.

Thou hast been chosen


art as

my

friend as her husband.

Thou
Tl

much my husband

therefore.'

Yayati then
do

said,

is,

indeed,

my vow
me.

to al-

ways grant what one asketh.


tell

Thou
virtue!

askest

Therefore

me what am

I to
!

!'

Sharmishta then

said,

'Absolve me,
a

king, from

ain

Piotgct

mv

Becoming

mother

252

MAHABHARA.TA.
let

by thee
18 said,

me

practise the highest

virtue

in this world.

king, that a wife, a slave, and a son, can never earn

wealth for themselves.


eth to him
of Deva-yani.
art.

That which they earn always belongI

who owneth them.

am, indeed, the slave of


lord.

Tliou art Deva-yani's master and

Thou
Deva-

therefore,

yani's.

I solicit thee.

O king, my O

master and lord as

much

as

fill

my

wishes

"
!'

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by Sharmishta, the monarch was persuaded tliat all she spoke was true. He, by protecting her virtue. therefore, honored Sharmishta And they passed some time together. And taking an affectionate
farewell of each

other they then separated, each returning to

whence he or she had come.

"And
and
fair

it

came

to

pass

that Sharmishta of sweeb smiles

eye- brows

conceived in

consequence of that connec-

tion of hers with

that best of monarchs.

And,

king, that

lotus-eyed lady then in

due time brought forth a son of the

splendour of a celestial child and of eyes like lotus leaves."

And
of the

thus ends the eighty-second Section in the Sambhava

Adi Parva,

SicCTiON

LXXXIIL
l>eva-ya;a

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Vaisampayana
licard of the birth
said,
"

When

of

sv/eet

smilea

of this

child, she

became

jealous, and,

Bharata, Sharmishta became an object of her unpleasant reflections.


'

And

Deva-yani repairirg

to her addressed her thus


is this

thou of

fair

eye-brows what sin


the
influence

thou hast committed

by

yellding to

of lust V

Sharmishta replied,

'A certain Eishi of virtuous soul and fully conversant with the Vedas came to me. Capable of granting boons, he was solicited

by me
virtue.

to grant

my

wishes that were based on considerations of


SAveet smiles, I

O
by

thou of

would not seek the


this
'It is all

sinful

fulfilment of

my

desires.

I tell thee truly that

child

of
if

mine
that

is

that Rishi.'

Deva-yani answered,

right

is

the case,

timid one!

But

if

the

lineage,

name, and

family of that Briihmana

be

known

to

thee,

I bhould like to

ADIPARVA.
hear them.'
Rishi,
himself.
in

25
tliou of

Sharniishta replied,
ascetism

'

sweet smiles, that


the
to

and energy
Deva-j^ani

is

resplendent as

Beholding him, I had


!'

not, indeed, the


said,
'

power
is

Sun make
if,

these enquiries

then

If this

true,

indeed, thou hast

obtained thy child

from such a superior

Brahmana, then,
with each other,

Sharmishta,
"

I Iiave

no cause of auger,'"
talked and lauglied

Vaisampayana continued,
palace with the knowledge

Having thus

they separated, Deva-yani returning to the

imparted to her by Sharmishta,


like

And,

king, Yayati also begat in Deva-yani


Avere

Yadu and Turvasu who

two sons India and Vishnu,

called

And

Sharmishta the daughter of Vrishaparvu became mother by


the royal sage of three sons ia
all,

named Drahyu, Anu, and

Puru.

"And,

king,

it

so

came
the

to

of sweet smiles accampanied

pass that one day Deva-yaniby Yayati went into a solitary

part of the

woods

(in

king's

extensive park.)

And

thei-e

she saw three children of celestial beauty playing with perfect


trustfulness.

And Deva-yani

asked in

surprise,

'Whose

child-

ren are these,

O
'

king, so handsome, and so like unto the child-

ren of the celestials?


thee I think;

In splendour and beauty they are like

Vaisampayana continued, ''And Devayani without waiting


for a reply

from the king, asked the children themselves,


is

*Ye

children,

what

your lineage
to

Who
all,'

is

your father

An-

swer me truly.

I desire

know

Those children then

pointed to the king with their

fore-finger

and spoke of Sharthe king to

mishta as their mother,

"And having
clasp his knees.

said so, the children

approached

But the king dared not caress them in the presence of Deva-yani. The boys then left the place weep-

ing in grief and going towards their mother.


at this conduct of the boys

And
for

the king

became very much

abaslied.

But

Deva-yani, marking the affection of the children


learnt the secret

the king,

and addresing Sharmishta

said,

'How hast
to

thou dared to do

me an

injury,

being as thou
to

art dependent)

on

me

Dost thou not fear

huve recourse once more

thatj

Asurti usage-of thiuo V

2oi

MAHABHARATA.
tliou of

"Sharmishta said, 'O


tliee

sweet
I

smiles,

all

that. I told

of a Rishi

is

perfectly true.

have acted

riglitly

and

according to the
thee.

precepts of virtue.

Therefore I do not fear

When
is,

thou hadst chosen the king for thy hushand I

too chose him for mine.

thou beautiful one, a friend's

hus-

band

according

the daughter of a
ship and regard.
is

Thou art Brahmana and, therefore, deservest my worBut dost thou not know that this royal sage
to usage, one's
also.

own husband

held by

me

in greater

esteem

still

?'

"

Vaisampayana
of hers, exclaimed,

said, "

Deva-yani then, hearing those words


:

king, thus

'

Thou hast wronged me,


longer.'

monarch

I shall

not live here

any

And

saying
father.

this she quickly rose,

with tearful eyes, to go to her


to see her thus.

And
ly,

the king

was grieved

And

alarmed great-

lie

followed

her footsteps endeavouring to appease her


v.'ith

wrath.

But Deva-yani

eyes red in anger Avould not desist.

Speaking not a word

to the king, with eyes

bathed in

tears,

she soon reached the side of her father

And

beholding her

fatlier,

she stood before

Usana the son of Kavi. him after due saluand wor-

tation.

And Yayati

also,

immediately

after, saluted

shipped Bhargava,

"And Deva-yani
quished by
vice.

said,

'

father, virtue
risen, the

hath been vanfallen.

The low

liave

high have

1 have been

transgressed

by Sharmishta the
in

daughter of
her by this

Vrishaparva.

Three sons have been begotten


But,
son

king Yayati.

father, luckless as I

am, I have got only

two sons

of Bhrigu, this

king

is

renowned

for

hig

knowledge of the precepts of religion. But, O Kavya, thee that he hath deviated from the path of rectitude.'
"

I tell

Sukra, hearing

all

this, said,

*0 monarch,

since thou

hast

made

vice thy loved pursuit though fully acquainted with

the precepts of religion, therefore shall invincible decrepitude


paralyse thee.'
cited

Yayati answered,
of the

'

Adorable one, I was


to fructify her

soli-

by the daughter

Danava king
solicited
called,

sea-

son. I did it from a sense of virtue

and not from other motives.

That male person, who being


doth not grant her wishes,

by a

woman

in season

is

Brahmana, by those

cognisant of the Yedn as a slayer of the embryo,

He

who,

soli-

ADtPARVA.
cited in secret

255
season, goeth

by a woman
embryo.
avoid

full

of desire and in
ia

not unto her, loseth virtue


killer

and
son
1

called

by the learned a
reasons,

of the
to

O
sin,

of Bhrigu, for these

and anxious

went unto Sharmishta.'


acted
falsely

Sukra
in

then replied,

"Thou

art

dependent on me.

Thou shouldab
the

have awaited
matter of thy

my command. Having duty, O son of Nuhusb a,


"'

thou hast been guilty

of the sin of theft.'

Vais.impayana continued,
thus cursed by
the

'

And

Yayati the son of Nahusha,

angry Usana,

was then divested of big

youth and immediately overcome by decrepitude.


said,
'

And Yayati

son of Bhrigu, I have not yet


Therefore,

been satiated with

youth or with Deva-yani.


ful

Brahmana, be gracetouch
me.'

unto rae so that decrepitude might not


'

Sukra

then answered,
art thou art

I never speak an untruth.

Even now,
if

king,

attacked
to

by decrepitude.
transfer this

But

thou

likest,

thou
'

competent
said,

thy decrepitude to another.

Yayati
tliat

son of m.ine

'O Brahmana, let it be commanded by thee that who giveth me his youth shall enjoy my kingvirtue and
fame.'

dom, and

shall achieve both

Sukra

replied,

'0 son of Nahusha, tiiinking of

me

thou raayst transfer this thy

decrepitude to whomsoever thou

likest.

That son who


the

shall

give thee his youth shall become thy successor on

throne.

He

shall also

have long

life,

wide fame, and a large progeny.'"


in

Thus ends the eighty-third Section


Adi Parva,

the Sarabhava of thg

Section

LXXXIV.

(Samhhava Parva contimted.)


Vaisampayana said, Yayati then, having been overcome with decrepitude, returned to his capital, and summoning his eldest son Yadu who was also the most accomplishpfl, address

ed him thus : Dear


'

child,

from

the curse of

Kavya

called

and wrinkles and whiteness of hair have come over me But I have not been gratified yet with the enjoyment of youth. Thou, O Yadu, take this my weak!

also Usana, decrepitude

ness

abng

with

my

decrepitude.

I shall

enjoy with thy youth,

256

MAHAP.HARATA.
a
full

And when
thy youth
"

thousand

\-ears

have elapsed, returning to thee

I shall take

back

my

weakness with this decrepitude.'

Yadu

replied,

'

There are innumerable inconveniences in


eating.

decrepitude, in respect of drinking and


king, I shall not

Therefore,
is,

take

th)'

decrepitude.

This

indeed,

O my
re-

determination.

White

hair

on the head, cheerlessness, a

laxation of the nerves, wrinkles all over the hody, deformities,

weakness of the limbs, emaciation, incapacity


ces of decrepitude.
if.

to

work, defeat at

the hands of friends and companions, these are the consequenTherefore,

king, I

desire

not to take
are

king, thou hast

many

sons some of

whom

dearer
:

to thee.

Thou

art acquainted with the precepts of virtue


to take

ask

some other son of thine


"

thy decrepitude.'

Yayati replied,

'

Thou

art

sprung from
youth.

my

heart,

son,

but thou givest


shall never

me

not thy

Therefore thy children

be kings.'
'

And

he continued, addressing another

son of

his,

Turvasu,

t;dce

thou this v/eakness of mine along


son, I like to

with

my

decrepitude.
life.

With thy youth,

enjoy thou-

the pleasures of

And

after the expiration

of a full

sand years I shall give thee thy


thee

youth, and take


!'

back from

my
!

weakness and decrepitude


replied,
" I

"Turvasu then
father

do not like decrepitude,

It destroyeth all appetites

and enjoyments, strength and even


life.'
!

and beauty of person, the


told him,
'

intellect,

Yayati
thy race

Thou
not

art

sprung from

my

heart,

son

But thou

givest
shall

me
be

thy youth.

Therefore,

Turvasu,

extinct.

Wretch, thou shalt be the king of those


Avomen of superior blood,

whose practices and precepts are impure, amongst whom men


of inferior blood procreate children in

who

on meat, Avho are mean, who hesitate not to appropriate the wives of their superiors, whose practices are as " those of birds and beasts, who are sinful, and non-Aryan.'
live

Visampayana
Druhyu, take
thy youth.

said,

"

Yayati iiaving

tlius

cursed

his son

Turvasu then addressed Sharmishta's son Druhyu thus;


thou
for

'O

thousand

years

my

decrepitude

destructive of complexion

and personal beauty and give

me

And when

a thousand years have passed away I

shall return thee

thy youth aud take back

my own

weakness,

ADI PARVA,

toi
'

and decrepitude.'
Lhiit is

To

this

Druhyu answered,
becometh hoarse.
son.

king, one

decrepit can never enjoy elepliants aiid cars

and hordes
1

and women.
art

Even

his voice

Therefore
'

do

not desire (to take) thy decrepitude.'

Yayati told him,

Thou

sprung from ray heart,

But thou

refusest to give
desires

me

thy youth.

Therefore thy most cherished

shall never

be accomplished.

Thou

shalt be

king, only in name,

of that

region where there are no


cars

roads for the passage of horses and

vehicles, and asses, and goats and bullocks, and palanquins; where there is swimming only by rafts and floats.' Yayati next addressed Anu and said,

and elephants, and good

Thou,

Anu, take

my

weakness and decrepitude.


the
pleasures
of life
for

I shall

with thy youth


years.'

enjoy

thousand
always

To

this

Anu
in

replied, 'Those that are

decrepit

eat like children


libations on

and are always impure.


pro[)er times.

Tliey can not pour

Agni

Therefore I do not like to

take thy decrepitude.'

Yayati told him, 'Thou art sprung from

my

heart.

Thou
in

givest

mo

not thy youth.

Thou
shall

findest

so

many

faults

decrepitude.

Therefore

decrepitude
soon aa
not be

overcome thee.

And,

Anu, thy progeny

also, as

they attain to youth,

shall die.

And

thou

shall

also

able to perform sacrifices before Agni.'


"

Yayati at

last

turned

to his
art,

youngest child Puru, and


Puru,
all.

addressing him said, 'Thou

my
in

youngest sou.
consequence of

But thou
and
ever,

shalt

be

the

first

of

Decrepitude, wrinkles,

whiteness of hair

have come over

me
I

the curse of

Kavya

called also Usana.

have not yet, howtake thou


thia

been satiated

with youth.

Puru

my
for

weakness and decrepitude!

some

years, the

i)leasures

With thy youth I shall enjoy, of life. And when a thousand


thee thy youth

years liave passed away I shall give

and take

back

my own

decrepitude.'
said, "

"

Vaisampayana
dest me.

Thus addressed by the


shall do,

king,

Puru

answered with humility,


I shall take,

'I

monarch, as thou bid-

king, thy

weakness and decrepitude.

Take thou
of
life.

youth and enjoy as thou listeth the pleasureo Covered with thy decrepitude and becoming. as one
as

my

old, I shall,

thou

comniandest, continue to
0<j

live,

giving to

25S
tliee

MAHABHARATA.'

my

youtli.'
!

Yayati then

said,

'

Puru, I liave been gra-

tified

with thee

And

being gratified I tell thee that the people


all

of thy kingdom shall have

their desires accomplished.'

'And having

said

this,

the

great

ascetic Yayati,

then

thinking of Kavya, transferred his


of the high-souled Puru.
"

decrepitude unto the body

And

thus ends the eighty-fourth Section in the

Sambhava

of the Adi Parva,

Section
(

LXXXV.
)

Samhhava Pdrva continued,

Yaisampayana said, "


ceedingly gratified.

And
with

the

excellent

the son of Nahusha, having received Puru's youth,

monarch Yayati became ex-

And

it

he onco more began to infull


t^o

dulge in his favorite pursuits to the

extent of his desires


season, so as to derive

and the limit of

his powers,

according

the greatest pleasure thereform.

And,

king,

in

nothing

that he did, he acted against the precepts of his religion as

behoved him

well.

He

gratified the gods

by his

sacrifices
all

the

pitr is by Sradhas; the

poor by his
their desire
;

charities;
all

excellent

Brahmanas, by
protection

ful-filling

persons entitled to
;

the rites of hospitality, by


;

food

and drink

the Vaisayas, by

and the Sudras, by kindness.


criminals
all

And

the king re-

pressed

all

by
of

proper punishments.
his

And

Yayati,
vir-

gratifying

sections

subjects, protected

them

tuously

like

another ludra.
lion,

And

the

monarch possessed of

the prowess of a

with

youth and every object of enjoy-

ment under
happy

control, enjo3"ed unlimited happiness without tran.s-

gressing the precepts of religion.


iu thus

And
all

the king became


excellent

very
of

being able to enjoy


he was only
years would
for'

the

objects

his desire.

And
youth

sorry
to

when he thought
an
end.

that

those thousand

come
and

And having
proper Kalas
Viswachi,

obtained

a thousand
time,

years, the

king acquainted

with

t.lie

mysteries of

Avatching

and Kashtas, sported with


Bometimes
in

(the

celestial

damsel)

the

beautiful

gardens of Indra, sometimes in

Alaka (the

city of

Kuvera), and sometimes on the summit of

ADI PARVA.
the mountain

259

Mem on the north. And when the -virtuous saw that the thousand years were iull, summoning monarch : O thou oppressor of his son Puru he addressed him thus
'

the
of

foe,

with thy youth,


each according to

O
my

son, I

have enjoyed the


full

pleasures

life,

its

season, to the

extent of

my

desires,

to the limit of

powers.

Our
the

desires, however, are

never gratified by indulgence.

On
fire

other

hand, with insacrificial

dulgence they only flame up like


If a single person were

with libations of

owner of everything on earth, butter. all its yield of paddy and barley, its silver, gold, and gems, ThirsO its animals and women, he would not yet be content.
therefore,

of enjoyment,

should be abandoned.

Indeed, true

happiness

is theirs

who have

cast off their thirst for the objects


is difficult

of the earth,

a thirst which
sinful,

to be cast

off

wicked and the


which
full
is

which faileth not with

failing

life,

by the and

truly the fatal desease of man.

My

heart hath for a

thirst for these, however, without

thousand years been fixed upon the objects of desire. My abating, increaseth day by
Therefore shall I cast
it
off,

day.

and

fixing

ray

mind on

Brahma
object.

shall I pass the rest of

my

days with the innocent deer


affection for

of the forest, peacefully

and without

any worldly
with
thy youth.
that son
oi'

And,

Puru, I have been exceedingly gratified


!

thee

Prosperity be thine

Receive back

this

Receive thou also

my kingdom. Thou art, indeed, mine who has done me the greatest of services.' Vaisampayana continued, "And then Yayati,
Nahusha received back
also received

the

son of

his

decrepitude.

And

his

son Puru

back his own youth. And Yayati was desirous of But the four installing Puru his youngest son on the throne. orders with the Brahmanas at their head then addressed the

monarch thus

'

king, hov/ shalt thou bestow tiiy

kingdom

on Puru passing over thy eWest son Yadu born of Deva-yani and therefore the grandson of the great Sukra ? Indeed, Yadu
is

thy eldest son

after

Sharmishta's sons, the

first

him hath been born Turvasu and of is Druliyu. then Anu, and then
;

Puru.
all

doth the youngest deserve the throne passing 0, This we represent to thee his elder brothers over ?
:

How

conform to virtuous practice

1'

260

MAHABHAUATA,
"Yayatilhen
said,
'

Ye

four

orders
to
!

with

Brabmanas at
should

their head, hear ye

not bo given
disobeyed by
sou

to

my words, as my ehlest son


Yadu.

why my kingdom

My commands

have been

my

eldest son

who

disobeyeth his father. That son, however,

bidding of his parents,


to them,
is,

The wise say that he is no who doth the who seeketh their good, who is agreeable
I

indeed, the best of sons.


too.

have been disregard-

ed by Yadu, and by Turvasu

Much

have

been disre-

garded by Druhyu and Anu also. By Puru alone hath my word been obeyed. By him have I been much regarded. ThereHe took my decrepitude. fore shall the youngest be my heir. did what was so agieeable to He Indeed, Puru is my fricutJ It hath also been commanded by Sukra himself the son me of Kavi, that that son of mine who should obey me become king after me and bring the whole earth under his sway. I
!

therefore beseech ye, let Puru be installed on the throne "The people then .said, True it is, O king, that that
!'
'

son

who

is

accomplished and always seeketh

the good of his pa-

rents, deserveth prosperity

even

if

he be the youngest.

There-

fore doth Puru, who hath done thee good, deserve the crown. And as Sukra himself hath commanded it, we have nothing ta

say to

it.'

Vaisarapayana continued,

"

And

the sou of Nahusha,

thus

addressed by the contented people,

then installed his son Puru


his

on the throne.

And having bestowed


initiatory

kingdom on Puru,
for

the monarch performed the


into the woods.

ceremonies
his

retiring

And

soon after he

loft

capital, followed

by Brahmanas and

ascetics.

known by the name of the Yadavas while those of Turvasu have come to be called the Yavanas. And the sons of Druhyu are the Bhojas, while The progeny of Puru, howthose of Anu the Mlechchas.
''And the sons of
;

Yadu

are

ever, are the

Pauravas amongst whom,


for a
!"

monarch, thou art

born, iuorder to rule

thousand years with thy passions


in the

under complete control

And
cl the

thus ends the cighty-fiifth

Section

Sambhava

A'.li

Pavva.

Section

LXXXVI.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Viiisampayana said,
"

King Yayati the son

of

Nahusha,

having thus installed his dear son on the throne, became exceedingly

happy, and entered into the woods to lead the

life

of a hermit.

And
and

having lived

for

some time

in the

forest in

the

company
of fruits

of Brahmanas, observing
roots, patiently

many
to

rigid

vows, eatall

ing

bearing privations of
heaven.

sorts,

the monarch
to

at

last

ascended

And

having

ascended

heaven he lived there

in bliss.
it

But

soon, however,

he was hurled down by Indra.

And

hath been heard by me,

king, that though hurled from heaven, Yayati, without reach-

ing the surface

of the earth, stayed in the firmament.

I have

heard that some time after he again entered the region of the
celestials

in
"

the

company of Vasuman, Ashtaka, Pratarddana,


said,
first
*'I

and Shivi.

Janamejaya then

desire to hear from thee in detail

why Yayati having


all this,

obtained admission into heaven waa

hurled therefrom and

why also he gained re-admittance. Let Brahmana, be narrated by thee in the presence of
sages.

these

Brahmana
the

Yayati the lord

of

the earth was,


progenitor of

indeed, like

chief of the celestials.

The
of

the extensive race of the the Sun


!

Kurus, he
full

was

the splendour of
life

I desire to hear in

the

story of his
v/as, of

both in

heaven and on earth,


brity,

illustrious as

he

world-wide cele-

and of wonderful achievements!"


said, "

Vaisarapayana

Indeed, I

shall

recite

to thee

the

excellent story of Yayati's adventures on

earth and in heaven.


sins of those that

That story
hear
"
it.

is

sacred

and destroycth the


of Nahusha,

King Yayati the son


for

having installed his

youngest son Puru on the throne after casting his sons with

Yadu
fruits
iind

their

eldest
life

amongst the Mlcchchas, entered the


of a hermit.

woods to lead the

And
in the

the

king eating of

and roots lived


passions

for

sometime

forest.

With mind
grtvtified

under complete coutrol,

the king

by

262
sacrifices

MAHABHAKATA.
both the pitris and the gods.
of clarified
for

And

he poured
to

li-

bations

butter into
leading the

fire

according

the
of

rites
life.

prescribed

those

Vanaprasta

mode

And

the illustrious one entertained guests

and strangers with


he himself sup-

fruits of the forest

and

clarified butter, while

ported

life

by gleaning
life for

scattered

corn-seeds.

led this sort of

the vow

of silence
full

passed one

observing a full thousand years. and with mind under complete control, he year living upon air alone and without sleep.

And And

the

king

he passed another year practising the severest austerities And in the midst of four fires around and the sun overhead. ei'ect for six months on one leg. living upon air alone, he stood

And

And

then the king,

of sacred

deeds,

ascended to heavea

covering heaven as
achievements.)

well

as

the

Earth (with the fame of his

And

so ends the

eighty-sixth Section

in the

Sambhava

of

the Adi Parva.

Section
(

LXXXVII.

Sambhava Parva continued)


said, "

While that king of kings dwelt in heaven the home of the celestials he was reverenced by the Of sacred gods, the Sadhyas, the Marutas, and the Vasus. under complete control, the monarch used to deeds, and mind

Vaisampayana

repair

now and then from

the abode of the celestials


it

unto the
that

region of Brahma.

And
best

hath been heard by

me
to

he

dwelt for a long time in lieaven.


"

One day

that

of kings

Yayati

went

Indra and

there in course of conversation the lord of the Earth was asl>

ed by Indra as follows
'

What

didst thou say,

decrejtitude

when thy son Puru took thy on earth and Avhen thou didst bestow upon him
king,
?*

thy kingdom
"

Yayati answered,
rivers

between the
is,

him that the whole country Ganges and the Yamuna is thine. That
'

told

indeed, the central

region of the

Earth

while

the
I

out-

lying regions are to be the

domiuiona of thy

brothcrtj.

aUo

ADTPARVA.
told

263
superior
to

him that those without anger


its

are ever

those

under

sway

those disposed to forgive are ever superior to

the unforgiving.

Man

is

superior to the lower animals,


are

Amnnj^
If

men

again the

learned

superior

to

the

unlearned.

wronged thou shouldst not wrong in return. One's wrath, if while he that rcgardeth disregarded, burneth one's own self it not taketh away all the virtues of him tliat exhihiteth it.
;

Never shouldst thou pain others by


subdue thy foes by despicable means
scorching and
pricketh
as
sinful

cruel
;

speeches.

Never

and never utter such


others.

words as

may

torture

He

that

with thorns

men by means
carrieth in his

of hard

and cruel

words, thou must

Prosperity and luck

know ever fly away

at his very sight.

mouth a Rakshasa, Thou shouldst


:

ever keep the virtuous before thee as thy models

thou shouldst
;

ever in retrospect compare thy acts with those of the virtuous

thou shouldst ever disregard the hard words of the wicked. Thou
shouldst ever

make

the

conduct of the wise the model upon.

which thou

art to act thyself.

The man hurt by the arrows of


weepeth day and night.
body.

cruel speech emitted from one's lips,

Indeed, these strike at


wise never
fling these

tiie

core of the

Therefore tho
is

around at others.

There

nothing in

the three worlds by which thou canst worship


dieties better than

and adore the

by kindness, friendship, charity, and sweet


Therefore shouldst tliou always utter words

speeches unto all

that soothe, never those that scorch.


those
tliat

And

thou shouldst regard

deserve thy regards


"

thou shouldst always give bub

never

beg,'

Thus ends the eighty-seventh Section


the Adi Parva.

in

the

Sambhava

of

Section LXXXVIII.

(Sambhava Parva continued.)


Vai.sampayana
said, "

After

this,

Indra again asked Yayati,


king, after accomplishing

'Thou hadst
all

retired into the woods,

thy duties.
art

Yayati son of Nahusha, I would ask thee,


in

with wiiom
then

thou equal

ascetic

austerities

'

Yayati

answered, 'O Vasava, I do not, in ascetic

austerities^

264
behold

MAHABHARATA,

my

equal

among men,
!'

the

clestials,

the Gaiidharvas,

and the great Rishis


even thy
inferiors,

Indra then

said, '0

monarch, because

thou dost disregard those that are thy superiors, thy equals, and
without, in
fact,

knowing their

real merits,

therefore, thy virtues have sufiered a diminution and thou must fall from heaven!' Yayati then said, 'O Sakra, if, in-

deed,

my

virtues

have really sustained a diminution and I


fall

must on

that account
celestials,

chief of the

that

down I may

from heaven, I
at least
fall

desire,

among

the vir-

tuous and the honest.'


shalt
fall

Indra then replied, 'Yes


that a