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Pharmaceuticals Many people rely on modern medicines to stay alive and well, but others are not as fortunate.

Should countries have to respect intellectual property rights causing citizens to pay for drugs at prices they cannot afford? Are pharmaceutical companies earning too much profit? How do we sustain pharmaceutical research and development without incredibly large prices and profits? Are therapeutic products going too far in developed countries? It is difficult to understand why medicines for diseases that tend to afflict poorer countries - which are often relatively simple and cheap to develop - are neglected while there are drugs readily available for trivial issues such as cosmetics. Are people becoming too dependent on medications? One study in England concluded that over 50% of antibiotic resistant microorganisms are the direct result of the excessive use of antibiotics in intensive animal farming (i.e. battery chickens) and in human medicine as well. Were now encountering the effects of overuse of antibiotics in diseases with resistance to multiple antibiotics which are limiting the ability of modern medicine to cure disease. What other consequences may result from mankinds addiction to medicine in the future? Terms and Definition: Dosage -a. Administration of a therapeutic agent in prescribed amounts. b. Determination of the amount to be so administered. c. The amount so administered. 1. (Medicine / Pharmacology) the administration of a drug or agent in prescribed amounts and at prescribed intervals 2. (Medicine / Pharmacology) the optimum therapeutic dose and optimum interval between doses Dermatologist -- The science which treats of the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases. The dermatologist is a doctor who specializes in treating conditions that affect the skin, hair, and nails. Anatomy -1. The bodily structure of a plant or an animal or of any of its parts. 2. The science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts. 3. A treatise on anatomic science. 4. Dissection of a plant or animal to study the structure, position, and interrelation of its various parts. 5. A skeleton. 6. The human body. 7. A detailed examination or analysis Diagnosis -- The act or process of identifying or determining the nature and cause of a disease or injury through evaluation of patient history, examination, and review of laboratory data and the opinion derived from such an evaluation. Therapeutic products -- Therapeutic products include complementary medicines such as most dietary supplements and herbal medicines; over-the-counter medicines and prescription medicines; medical devices such as contact lenses, condoms, hearing aids, heart valves, pacemakers and endoscopes. Blood and blood products, and cellular and tissue therapies are also examples of therapeutic products. Patient Safety -- The reduction of risk of unnecessary harm associated with healthcare to an acceptable minimum. An acceptable minimum refers to the collective notions of given current knowledge, resources available and the context in which care was delivered weighed against the risk of non-treatment or other treatment. Pharmaceutical Care -- The responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve or maintain a patients quality of life Malfeasance -- the performance by a public official of an act that is legally unjustified, harmful, or contrary to law; wrongdoing (used especially of an act in violation of a public trust).

Category

Problem

Solution

Arts & Aesthetics

Lots of side effects of aesthetic medicine-- Infection, scarring, nerve damage, allergic reactions, death, swelling, bruising Many people are addicted to cosmetic surgery. This may be a problem as those whose surgeons refuse to give them plastic surgery may randomly inject chemicals in their face, causing their faces to be deformed. Some pharmacists end up not protecting their patients safety when there is a miscommunication and/or a mislabelling in the instructions of medicines. This may be a problem as patients may be badly affected only due to these little problems When the side effects of drugs are not communicated to the customers, they may get these and then they will be hurt, especially if the patient continues to take the medicine believing the side effects to be their disease to be acting up. They may even increase the dosage! (ALLERGIC REACTION) If there is no proper communication drugs that are meant for adults may be taken by children. For example Miralax, a popular laxative in America is used by many children. This may not have side effects on children but for some other drugs there may have. When they transport the medicine, they may accidentally switch the medicine and thus leading to the consumers taking the wrong medicine Without optimum conditions of the drugs during transportation, the drugs may perish or turn bad

Separate companies that manufacture aesthetic drugs and medical drugs so that they will not spend their money manufacturing these drugs instead of using it to manufacture more drugs that people need

Communication

Establish that between the pharmacist and the person there should be strong ties and build those ties through talking and other activities Properly print the side effect and all the ingredients on the drugs as well as provide pamphlets to all customers informing them of the side effects and all the things they should not do when taking the drugs Assign one pharmacist on online pharmacies to every patient. When the patient needs to see the pharmacist which was picked by the patient based on their descriptions, the patient will log onto the website and the pharmacist will receive an alert on their computer. The pharmacist and patient will then video chat. Create airtight boxes that are waterproof and shockproof and can only be opened by a special code so that the drugs will not be able to be accessed by just ANYone Invent a kind of x-ray that can not only detect the rough figures of each container, but its chemical components too. Professional scientists will be monitoring these x-rays and the drugs will be put through them, making sure that the drugs are not in the wrong packaging. Make a law to ban people from removing furanocoumarins, test all grapefruits before they are allowed to be sold in the market Hold campaigns to promote the awareness of prescription drugs causing nutritional depletion and provide free tests for nutritional deficiency a health organisation will provide free medication to underdeveloped countries

Transport

Physical Health

Drugs that contain animal parts may be affected and contaminated should the animals have a new disease Drug-resistant bacteria are rapidly emerging and spreading all around the world as a result of the continued overuse and abuse of antibiotic drugs in both conventional medicine and industrial agriculture. The genes spawning these superbugs are also spreading widely. If antibiotics continue to be overused this way, the situation of the superbugs may

worsen and these may cause even the mildest infections to become fatal. The genes of the superbugs latch themselves on to various types of bacteria whenever they can. The end result is that even not so harmful bacteria will become deadly and their health to deteriorate. WHO says the effectiveness of antibiotics is under threat from overuse in China, as diseases mutate to develop immunity. It estimates that 6.8% of tuberculosis cases in China are multidrug resistant, compared just 2% in developed countries The speed with which the antibiotics are being resisted far outpaces the development of replacement drugs. They may not be cured Last month, the country's Ministry of Health revealed that on average each Chinese person consumes 138 g of antibiotics per year 10 times the amount consumed per capita in the U.S. Meanwhile, three times as many Chinese people are prescribed penicillin compared with the international standard. The Ministry also pointed out that 70% of inpatients at Chinese hospitals received antibiotics; the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a maximum of 30%. Over the last decade, almost all varieties of pathogenic bacteria have become less responsive to antibiotic treatment when it is really needed, so it has become difficult to treat common infections that once readily responded to antibiotics. That's dangerous, because when antibiotics fail to work, the consequences include longer-lasting illnesses; more doctor visits or extended hospital stays; and the need for ever more expensive and toxic medications. Some of these antibiotic-resistant infections give rise to severe complications, such as organ failure and death. These supergerms can quickly spread to family members, schoolmates and coworkers, threatening the community with new strains that are more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. In many cases, we're already out of good second- or third-line alternatives that are effective, can be administered by mouth and have few side effects, so we must resort to drugs that are inconvenient to administer or are toxic. This may severely affect the patients health. Will the other patients believe the medication is good and then take it? Many doctors do prescribe an antibiotic even when it's unlikely to work.

Create a super drug that will be able to cure people for a low cost Shanghai has rolled out a similar scheme that limits the variety of antibiotics each hospital can prescribe, slowing down the rate that the antibiotics are burned Create a new bacteria with a totally different genetic makeup that can react to a certain chemical. When the bacteria is released in the affected area, the bacteria will latch themselves onto the new bacteria. It can be removed using the chemical it reacts to.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fully three-quarters of all antibiotics prescriptions from office-based physicians are for the symptoms of upper respiratory infections--sore throats, runny noses, congestion, coughing, earaches and so on--which are most often caused not by bacteria, but by viruses. Thus, antibiotics won't help Scientists have modified the grapefruits and deliberately removed the natural compound, furanocoumarins, to accommodate pharmaceuticals which cause negative reactions. Furanocoumarins increase the potency of the interactive medicines by up to 500%, which can result in serious injury or even death. However, by removing the furanocoumarins, there are no more health benefits in the grapefruits. Normal people eating these grapefruits will only stand to lose out on the health benefits. An estimation of half the population of Americans are taking prescription drugs. Some of the prescription drugs cause nutritional depletion, which is often overlooked by most people. They may not even notice that they have a nutritional deficiency. This may be a problem as the nutritional deficiency may lead to the body weakening and the people being more vulnerable to diseases. The drug-induced nutrient depletions have not been adequately taught through the conventional medical educational model, allowing people's health to to fall victim to problems and disorders that can be very easily treated or even prevented. An authorized generic is the brand company's own product repackaged and marketed as a generic either through a subsidiary or third party. Brand companies generally raise the brand drug's price when the authorized generic is introducedresulting in an even greater expense to consumers. Thus the people may not be able to afford the medicine because of their high prices. Tuberculosis, a serious disease, is usually hard to detect. This may be a problem as the patient may not receive treatment in time in many undeveloped countries that do not have well managed medical system, many people do not get vaccinated, children in particular, so many suffer from diseases, that are easily prevented, leading to many child deaths. Children may use these drugs believing Restrict children from taking drugs

Psychological

Health

them to actually work however they may not work and the kids will not study and they may fail everything. in China the students are given amino acid drips to give them more protein that will let them study more and give them energy. They may become overdependant on it.

that are not under prescription. If they need to boost brain power, they can rely on foods like fish instead of drugs. ("We discovered a clear connection between frequently eating fish and higher (teenage IQ) scores," professor Kjell Toren, who headed up the study at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, said in a statement. Fish makes you smarter!)

Business & Commerce

Poorer countries encourage their drug companies to make cheaper generic alternatives to expensive branded ones or use other tools available at their disposal to help bring the price of medicines down to more affordable levels. But they face immense pressure from international institutions and multinational pharmaceutical corporations, even when generics and other options pursued are legitimate under international rules. For these multinationals, theyve poured billions into some of these drugs and therefore want a patent system that will protect their investments for as long as possible. since most pharmaceutical companies have stopped producing drugs targeted to large groups in the since most pharmaceutical companies have stopped producing drugs targeted to large groups in the population, instead, they target specific groups of people that are significantly smaller, thus marketing costs higher, making people pay more for the drug. Competition has been increasing while profits are being squeezed, yet prices for resources keep increasing. This may be a problem as pharmacies may not be able to buy enough resources for drugs. Drug development is considered a costly and intensive process. This may be a problem as countries may not want to produce much drugs due to its cost the way in which pharmaceutical companies or manufacturers dispose of waste or byproducts, if improper, might have unintended effects on the environment. the public often do not dispose of their unused pharmaceuticals properly, (e.g. flushing them down the toilet), and often sewage companies do not treat the sewage enough, and there may still be residual pharmaceuticals in the sewage upon dumping it, thus there may be unintended side effects. Set aside land space and build infrastructure that supports pharmaceutical research (biopolis and genome institutes)

Environment

Since the Fs states that the amount of vultures is lessening, this may happen to other animals which may lead to lots of animals becoming extinct. Fish changing gender. They will become ladies. This is because of improper disposal of pharmaceuticals. Though to human people, the low dosage of drug is unharming to human people, to wildlife the dosage of drugs may prove fatal Animals may ingest some of these drugs but they may not show symptoms and eventually they may be caught and sent to get eaten by people. This may mean that the people may eat these drugs unknowingly. My research shows that many fish are brought in from China and they are not checked for drugs. That may be legal in China but not in USA. In other words, the vast majority of fish are not inspected. Their production is unsupervised. Consequently, fish containing residues of pharmaceuticals banned in the US may be consumed by residents from the US. If they happen to go for a urine test before the drug is passed out of the body, they may be wrongly punished by the law. the way in which pharmaceutical companies or manufacturers dispose of waste or byproducts, if improper, might have unintended effects on the environment. the public often do not dispose of their unused pharmaceuticals properly, (e.g. flushing them down the toilet), and often sewage companies do not treat the sewage enough, and there may still be residual pharmaceuticals in the sewage upon dumping it, thus there may be unintended side effects. U.S. are almost certainly leaking through the holes in the system. For the developing and poorer countries, as remote as these issues may seem, patents and intellectual property rights issues can mean life or death. (For example, at the end of the 1990s, the pharmaceutical industry lobbied the US government to threaten sanctions on South Africa for trying to produce generic drugs to fight its growing AIDS problem. It took huge public outcry to get the case dropped some 2 years later.) Many children in third-world countries do not have access to sufficient drugs for health treatments GPhA believes that the use of authorized generics undermines the Hatch-Waxman Act by devaluing the 180-day exclusivity period incentive. Ultimately, consumers Set up a law to control the prices of generic pharmaceuticals invent an online quiz which will donate 10 cents to third-world countries whenever someone answers questions correctly so that the recipient country can buy necessary drugs.

Basic Needs

pay the price as brand companies keep drug prices high and access to affordable medicine is delayed. Thus poorer people may not be able to afford or have access to their medicine. In April 2006, the Federal Trade Commission outlined the parameters for a study it is conducting on the competitive effects of the use of authorized generics. This may result in authorized generics being closed down or the price may increase due to the potential risks that the FTC might find. Thus people may not be able to afford this more affordable form of medication and they do not get access to this basic need. In 2005, Congress closed a loophole in federal law that allowed brand companies to charge the federal government a higher price for authorized generics. This may mean that the price for generics may increase and thus the people may not be able to afford it There has been a shortage of drugs in certain countries. This may be a problem as the working poor may not be able to afford these drugs and may not have proper medical treatment in times of need Biological warfare between two parties -eg. the small pox/polio germs are used by the US government for them to do stuff (experiments?) with it. They may use it to kill people whom they dislike. in many undeveloped countries that do not have well managed medical system, many people do not get vaccinated, children in particular, so many suffer from diseases, that are easily prevented, leading to many child deaths. government will provide financial incentives and fundings for pharma companies. this will allow them to spend less money on research, thus keeping the cost of medicine low If something goes wrong with the machines, they will not be able to do stuff like make the medicines. This may be even worse when there is a dire need for the vaccine If the computer is reprogrammed or tampered with, the dosage will be changed and thus this may be too much for human consumption, possibly harming the health of the consumers. If the dosage is too little to have any effect on the consumers, it may just be a waste you can have a joint projects with different pharmaceutical companies with other countries to come up with different vaccines To have a collaboration with academic institutes to enhance their R&D productivity and also to promote working together with foreign minds to pick their brains and to invest in all this things that will probably use lots of money (EDB)

Defence

Government & Politics

Technology

Improve wastewater treatment methods Design and develop green drugs, which rapidly biodegrade in the environment into harmless compounds Smart pill that aids in diagnosis and other things. It reacts with the stomach acids that will make it start to scan the stomach for possible diseases and also determine the dosage.( what about malfunction?

of money, particularly if it is a costly or regularly used drug.

Wrong dosage?) It will send the info to a data scanner that is worn by the consumer and then sent to the main computer. Time release capsule, that will release a certain amount of drugs at certain time intervals as it is digested by the consumer. (a mechanism used in pill tablets or capsules to dissolve slowly and release a drug over time. The advantages of sustained-release tablets or capsules are that they can often be taken less frequently than immediate-release formulations of the same drug, and that they keep steadier levels of the drug in the bloodstream.Today, most time-release drugs are formulated so that the active ingredient is embedded in a matrix of insoluble substance(s) (various: some acrylics, even chitin; these substances are often patented) such that the dissolving drug must find its way out through the holes in the matrix. Some drugs are enclosed in polymer-based tablets with a laser-drilled hole on one side and a porous membrane on the other side. Stomach acids push through the porous membrane, thereby pushing the drug out through the laser-drilled hole. In time, the entire drug dose releases into the system while the polymer container remains intact, to be excreted later through normal digestion.) Set up a Pharmaceutical Administration Party to set up more stringent selection criteria for qualified doctors to give out and diagnose patients and pharmaceuticals so that it will be controlled and not everyone can prescribe/ dispense drugs The government will carry out strict measures to ensure all medicine sold to the people are real, screen all medicine carefully before allowing it to be sold to consumers The government will set up laws to monitor pharma companies and control the price of drugs to ensure that it is affordable to those who need them Have a licence to allow people to give out the correct dosage of medicine (especially for popular

Law & Justice

In 2005, Congress closed a loophole in federal law that allowed brand companies to charge the federal government a higher price for authorized generics. This may mean that the price for generics may increase and thus the people may not be able to afford it Some people create counterfeit medicines and drugs of branded, original medicines by adding in more of certain ingredients, or even the wrong ingredients into these counterfeit drugs. They then sell these fake drugs online. This may be a problem as consumers may die because of the wrong ingredients in the drug The administration of drugs may not be from licensed sources, this may cause the customer not to know the side effects, and/or the correct dosage. For the manufacture of drugs, it not only takes a substantial amount of money but

also the manufacture of drugs are restricted by a lot of rules and regulations. This may mean that the scientists will take longer to manufacture drugs as they are not willing to experiment and go outside the box to manufacture new drugs as they are scared of the potential risks of the law.

drugs) to prevent an improper dosage to be given or they will eat the wrong things Set up a law to allow legal pharmaceutical businesses to let the government price the drugs. the government will then be able to regulate the prices of the drugs. Set up laws to prevent these drugs from being too accessible to the people Set up a law to allow only those with permits to take aesthetic medicine. These permits will require a fee to be paid by the people who want the permit. They are only issued by the government to those of legal age. These permits can only be used for at most 2 time

Recreation

People may fake medical symptoms to go and get a medical allowing slip to allow them to gain access to drugs Cough syrup can cause you to get drowsy so people may mimic symptoms or do things to themselves to make themselves have the symptoms to get the drugs Addiction to sleeping pills. If the consumers are too addicted and overuse the sleeping pills, it is possible that they may take too many and be harmed by the numerous chemicals.

Miscellaneous

Many may think that mixing herbal supplements with drugs does not cause any harm. However, there may be chemical reactions between these ingredients which may cause the consumer to consume unhealthy or harmful substances

Reduce the quantities of drugs prescribed; of those prescribed, choose the least environmentally-hazardous Take back unused drugs instead of flushing them down the toilet or putting them in the bin Increase the drug tests on all food products Those found to be overusing the drugs will have their rankings downgraded a move that will directly affect the fees they can charge, giving the doctors incentive not to do so. Buy foods that are not genetically modified? EAT ONLY the foods that have no antibiotics in them. (: To avoid being exposed to antibiotics or to consume them unknowingly so as to be safe from the superbugs.

Health organisations can organise competitions to invite members of the public to come up with new ways to detect such diseases and at the same time get the drugs to the affected patient in time send volunteers from developed countries to provide free medicine and treatment to those in need in poor countries

Education

Cognitive enhancers may have unwanted side-effects that consumers may not know about. Added to the fact that many people use these cognitive enhancers without proper medical advice and assessment means that it is unlikely that the side-effects are detected sufficiently early.

(example: amphetamines can trigger psychosis in some users, particularly with heavy use)

Raise awareness about the current situation, by holding campaigns or talks to educate the people on the dangers of antibiotic overuse. Get experts (Scientists/Doctors, etc.) from the country to explain the consequences of antibiotic overuse. Let them know about the existence of the superbugs which are drug-resistant so that they will not overuse antibiotics educate the companies on proper waste management - by using seminars put up attractive posters in the hospitals about how to correctly dispose of their pharmaceuticals Hold seminars that educate the public the best way to get rid of their pharmaceutical products The team behind the antibiotic study argues that the simplest solution to the problem is patient education about the use and misuse of antibiotics. Their research showed that patients who displayed some knowledge of antibiotics were far less likely to be prescribed the drugs by their physician--emily the health organisation will sent out officials to each household frequently to check that all medicines and drugs are stored correctly and out of reach from children raise the awareness of counterfeit medicines and their effects through media hold campaigns/put up posters to raise the awareness of the harmful effects of mixing herbal supplements with drugs send professionals to give talk

sessions in schools to raise the awareness of the handling drugs of students educate companies on proper disposal of drugs Set up a very attractive research grant and scholarship to attract the best brains and to pick them to continue to research and and find new drugs for real needs (A* technology)

Economics

At study called "Patient Knowledge and Antibiotic Abuse," published earlier this year by a team from China Europe International Business School, Princeton and Peking University, showed that drug sales now account for over 50% of all hospital revenues and antibiotics account for 47% of all drug sales and that hospitals were allowed to charge a 15% markup on drug sales. They also found that doctors' incomes were also closely linked to their prescription of certain pharmaceuticals, with both bonuses from their hospitals and kickbacks from companies augmenting their salaries.-Emily Since most pharmaceutical companies have stopped producing drugs targeted to large groups in the population, instead, they target specific groups of people that are significantly smaller, thus marketing costs higher, making people pay more for the drug Prices of prescription drugs are increasing. This may be a problem as the government may gradually purchase lesser prescription drugs for the country, not meeting their basic needs -- Tania

Social Relationships

When you are addicted to a certain drug and without it you cannot function, you will affect the people around you and you may say things you dont mean to under the influence of these drugs. Athletes may start to use drugs that will help them to perform better in their events and this will lead to an unfair event and then the countries may fight

Ethics & Religion

Public announcements of drug donations to poor countries are often welcome, but sometimes the details reveal murkier intentions; some of the drugs are close to, or even past, their expiry date (and are expensive to dispose, adding more costs to recipient countries) for example. The results from testing the drug has shown mixed results so the authenticity of the drug is not proven. this may mean that it may have negative externalities on some people. (according to World Health Organisation, up to 25% of the medicines consumed in poor countries are counterfeit or substandard. They define a counterfeit as "a medicine, which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled with respect to identity and/or source") A few companies have claimed to have produced a kind of smart drug to save children from studying for tests. These drugs may not have any help to the childrens cognitive abilities and the children may abuse them -- Tania Many tablets and liquid medicines use gelatin, derived from animal bones or skin. A survey in the Postgraduate Medical Journal shows a quarter of patients are unknowingly prescribed drugs containing gelatin contrary to their beliefs. The patients may be allergic to the products in the gelatin and their allergies may be very serious.--emily

drug companies could adopt an "ingredients" list similar to that found on food packaging, or even use recognised symbols such as those promoted by the Vegetarian Society. Quick response (QR) codes are also being tested. These printed squares are an advanced version of the 2D barcodes. Anyone with a camera-enabled phone and web access can scan the code and be taken instantly to the pharma company website to authenticate the drug. certification system for pharmacists, and an open source website where consumers and companies can access data on fake drugs.

Companies may make the drugs that sell alot and not enough of other drugs that other people need. pharmaceutical companies may contribute heavily to the government, causing the government to feel like they owe the pharmaceutical companies, and when they review the drugs, they may make the drug from that company look good. Testing and thorough clinical trials are fundamental to good medical drugs, but there are numerous accusations of shortcuts, including pressuring for favorable results, testing on people without their proper approval, using drugs for unapproved uses and much more.

(UP): how might we improve/increase the efficiency of the transportation system so that the there will be lesser mistakes in the pharmaceuticals due to transportation manage the (aesthetic) pharmaceutical industry/control the people who have access to pharmaceuticals so that it is not easily accessible by the public? how might we improve the accessibility of the drugs in those countries so that those in need will be able to gain access to the drugs that they need easily? how might we control the price of (Generic) Pharmaceuticals to allow it to remain affordable to people how might we improve the process of R&D/reduce the amount of money used for R&D so that it would not cost as much and make the prices of the subsequent drug skyrocket how might we reduce the amount of miscommunications/improve the communication between pharmaceutical staff and patients so that this will not result in the patient being negatively affected how might we improve the education/increase the awareness of the people so that they will know how to do those things properly how might we reduce these negative externalities on the environment so that the environment will not be affected and deteriorate due to pharmaceuticals. how might we reduce the amount of inauthentic drugs so that consumers will not be mislead to take them thinking that they genuinely work? How might we reduce the reliance on drugs (in our education system) so that the (students) people will not be over-reliant on these drugs in their daily lives

Website

Important notes

http://www.fip.org/files/fip/P atient %20Safety/PatientSafetyAd vidShah.pdf

The report Institute of Medicine 1999 To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System was published a long time ago but still organizations and institutions around the world are still having difficulty identifying, incorporating and utilizing measures to help improve patient safety and reducing errors The five rights: Getting the right drug, with the right dose, with the right route, at the right time, to the right patient Common errors : Dosing errors, directions that were unclear or missing and incorrect prescriptions (Prescrire International, 2004; Feifer R.A. 2003) Contributing factors: Interruptions, distractions, poor working environment and poorly disseminated information from one healthcare professional to another The profession of a pharmacist is changing from simply dispensing medication and counseling patients to one where pharmacists play a more clinical role in patient care. If the scope of practice limits what a pharmacist can do and prevents individual growth and advancement, this can lead to a decrease in job satisfaction. In addition, poor working environments, increased workloads, distractions, improper staffing, unfair rotation of shifts, inadequate salary, employee benefits or holiday time, lack of opportunities for continuing education, limited access to current literature can lead to poor job satisfaction. This in turn can affect the quality of care received and put patients at harm (Aronson 2009) By working with other professionals, healthcare or otherwise, pharmacists can lend their drug knowledge expertise to help identify and solve medical related issues and increase patient safety There is a disproportionately low number of pharmacists and pharmacies in rural areas to meet the needs of that population. Inadequate access can lead to patient harm when the pharmacist expertise is missing

http://www.inpharm.com/ne ws/167736/healthcare2025-what-future-holdspharma

Science and technology is fuelling a greater understanding of medical profile of the individual and its impact on their health The bar is being set higher for the industry on all levels: regulatory approval, demonstration of clinical cost effectiveness and requirements for trust and transparency The growth of populations and income in emerging markets is increasing economic power but also increasing issues of resource sustainability The advances of the 20th century are leading to real issues now for care for the elderly and management and prevention of chronic disease Real-time Wellness. healthcare systems use new technological advances to maximise resource efficiency, and put much greater emphasis on preventing illness and managing existing conditions, rather than simply treating illness. Its manifestation globally will vary depending on the levels of income and growth in markets around the world but this more integrated, interdependent healthcare world in the future will require significantly more sophisticated marketing skills than have historically been employed in the pharmaceutical industry and greater emphasis on collaborative working with other corporations and healthcare bodies. There are two core areas that will define the future model for successful pharmaceutical companies. The first is the core competencies of pharma companies themselves. So what are pharmaceutical companies good at? In recent times the industry has been less successful at discovering innovative new molecules. Proof of this are the current pipelines of the top 20 companies, particularly if you consider how many molecules have been in-licensed. This core competency of discovery now lies as much with smaller, more innovative scientific research companies with whom the pharma industry partners successfully. Pharmaceutical companies are good at shaping late stage clinical trial programmes to meet regulatory requirements and bringing molecules to market. They also excel in commercialising those molecules and realising their patented lifetime value. They have the resources and infrastructure globally to effectively achieve these goals. imagine a world where pharma companies focus on getting molecules to market and commercialising them, and where new solutions are developed in long-term partnership with smaller, more innovative research organisations. In this world, pharma companies facilitate capture of real time patient data from in home and mobile monitoring systems, and this is used to predict and proactively manage the health outcomes of patients. patients can purchase service packages to support their treatment regimens based on their personal preferences, thereby creating new revenue streams. They also feel greater affinity for pharmaceutical corporate brands as they receive relevant feedback on their health and advice and support on how to manage their conditions. Integrated communications that can be used in real time will play a key role in communications with healthcare professionals and patients. The rise of social media and the use of video as a learning medium mean that communications will need to be more flexible and responsive to anticipate customer preferences. This will also mean that pharma will need to rethink its promotional approval processes to meet these needs. In the future, there will not be the luxury of lengthy multiple person processes. for too long the industry has been too passive and accepting of the regulatory, clinical and structural status quo. We must be far more active in creating new approaches. Pressures of rising global population (nine billion in 2025), climate change and finite natural and financial resources lead to a major focus on sustainability Emerging economies have increased healthcare provision, but changes such as westernisation have increased the burden of chronic diseases,

www.roche.com/fbh_zvg05 _e.pdf

The pharmaceutical industry has not been doing well of late, there have been serious problems in pricing with world-famous drugs, mainly in USA and also Switzerland. Confidence levels in them has gone down and their reputation has been damaged. Research-based companies are making great advancements in treating many illnesses. (Eg. Infectious Diseases, Cardiovascular Diseases, Childhood Diseases, Diabetes, etc.) Life expectancy has also risen to 80 years old from the 55 predicted in the 20th century. It costs a lot of money for these great advancements to take place. Only one out of ten thousand substances screened eventually becomes a fully-fledged drug that can be used to treat patients. The total cost to develop such a drug will cost about one billion. Despite the scientists spending so much money, there is NO guarantee of success. Over the past 20 years, the cost of developing new drugs have increased by a factor of 8. The centre of gravity in the pharmaceutical industry has shifted from Europe to other countries, eg. USA, etc., as a result of misguided and short-sighted policies on the European side. Globalization is an increasingly tough race to innovate, USA, Switzerland, and Europe are fighting fiercely for jobs in the pharmaceutical industry in investment. (International Competition) The future can be predicted in four different trends. Trend 1: Demographic Change. Trend 2: More Individual Medical Treatment. Trend Three: The Rising Importance Of Diagnostics - Plus Pharmaceuticals. Trend Four: Biotechnology Trend 1: Demographic Change. The industrialised countries in other words, Japan, Europe and the United States will increasingly be confronted with the phenomenon of an ageing population and its consequences for all areas of life. The ageing population is just a growing burden on healthcare systems. First, let us look at the demographic trends. The industrialised countries in other words, Japan, Europe and the United States will increasingly be confronted with the phenomenon of an ageing population and its consequences for all areas of life. The ageing population is a growing burden on the healthcare systems. The most money is spent on the over-65 population of people. The aim of medical research is to ensure that people do not simply live longer, but that they remain healthy and independent for as long as possible so they are not dependent on care. That is also the goal for the development of innovative drugs. According to Health Economic Studies, improving the general condition of people with dementia can reduce the cost of care of one person by EUR 10,000 per year.One major reason why healthcare spending is increasing worldwide is that: as we become more wealthy, we are prepared to spend more on healthcare, and this will not change in the future. Another major factor is the trend towards personalised medicine, which is the customization of medicine. Trend 2: More Individual Medical Treatment. Drugs often do not have the expected effect. This has caused, according to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association of America, about USD 100 million to be wasted every year in the United States alone because patients take drugs that are ineffective or have serious side effects. One of the possible reasons could be because of the genetic makeup of the patients. Together with its subsidiary Genentech, Roche has produced a genetically engineered drug (monoclonal antibody) to block the action of the growth factor of cancerous cells. This means if this abnormality is identified before treatment, the patient can be given more specific, personalised treatment.Optimum treatment could be achieved if it were possible to test patients first to establish whether they will respond to the drug. Roche Diagnostics introduced their first DNA chip (AmpliChip CYP450) which caused a stir in Europe and the United States. As the first DNA chip test in the world to receive regulatory approval, it represents a pioneering new discovery. This test can be used to show

whether people metabolise a drug faster or more slowly as a result of their genetic make-up. The chip provides information that can aid the selection and dosage of a range of medications (eg. antidepressants, psychopharmaceuticals, painkillers and drugs to treat cardiovascular disease).Estimates indicate that systematic use of the AmpliChip test before treatment could improve overall efficacy by 10-20% and avoid 10-15% of all serious side effects. Trend 3: The Rising Importance Of Diagnostics - Plus Pharmaceuticals. It is the huge progress made by modern diagnostics in combination with Pharmaceuticals. The diagnostic treatments will be able to detect diseases in the shortest period of time so as to prevent it from getting too serious. Trend 4: Biotechnology. Biotechnology is a modern key technology in the 21st century. Highly potent, selective biopharmaceuticals have already proven very successful, especially in the treatment of cancer. In future, the treatment selected will depend on the genetic pattern of the tumour which is diagnosed/in the patient.

http://mindfull.spc.org/vaug han/Vaughan_MPH_Cognit iveEnhancers.pdf

More recently, advance in drug testing and development and a better understanding of how the brain works have resulted in drugs that are intended to boost intelligence or cognition in specific ways. Often, these drugs have been developed to help with specific illnesses or conditions, but are now gaining notoriety, as they are often being used illegally by people hoping to improve performance during intense work or study periods. Others are still in development and are currently only in the experimental stages of development. Pharmaceutical amphetamines (such as Adderall, or Ritalin) have been used without a prescription, for their tiredness-reducing and concentration-enhancing effects, by about 5% of students in US colleges according to a recent study, with some colleges reporting rates as high as 25% Modafinil is a non-amphetamine stimulant, marketed to help people with narcolepsy stay awake. In some places it has been reported as popular with otherwise healthy individuals who are using it maintain concentration levels and alertness during several days of wakefulness . Ampakines are a class of drugs known to affect the sensitivity of the brain to a neurotransmitter called glutamate, a chemical known to be important in fast information transfer and memory formation. These drugs are still in development, but one, known as CX516, and currently targeted at treating schizophrenia, has been shown to improve cognitive performance in the elderly 3 and other ampakines, such as

CX717, are being touted as future cognition enhancing drugs. 4. MEM 1003 is a substance being developed by a company advised by the Nobel Prize winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel. Although few details are available, it is to be marketed, not just for clinically diagnosable conditions, but also for age associated cognitive decline in healthy individuals. In other words, its a chemical pick-me-up for those experiencing the normal decline in memory that typically occurs past middle age. The fact that this drug is being openly promoted for use in people without serious illness, suggests that cognitive enhancers are going to become increasingly mainstream. Non-medical uses of these substances are officially frowned upon and possession could lead to jail time in some countries, although for some people, a greater risk may be unwanted short- or long-term effects of such drugs. It is well known that amphetamines can trigger psychosis in some users, particularly with heavy use, and the fact that most people will use them without proper medical advice and assessment makes it unlikely that any negative effects will be detected sufficiently early. Newer drugs are typically marketed as being free of side effects, although history tells us that some side effects do not come to light until later on. Glucose is the brains fuel, and there is plenty of evidence that a welltimed glucose intake increases mental performance. Your glucose blood level will peak about 60 minutes after you consume a sugary drink. If you time a sugary drink about an hour before a mentally demanding task, your brain should have maximum fuel to do its job. a number of recent studies have found that chewing gum improves mental performance, typically memory It is still not clear exactly why this happens. Speculations include the fact that chewing causes insulin to be released in the body in anticipation of food digestion,which increases the rate of glucose uptake. This might make more glucose available for the brain, temporarily providing more fuel for cognitive functions. Another theory is simply that chewing increases arousal, making us slightly more alert and therefore that little bit sharper. A survey in the Postgraduate Medical Journal shows a quarter of patients are unknowingly prescribed drugs containing gelatin contrary to their beliefs. There are many ingredients in tablets, capsules and other medicines which, while usually not part of the active treatment, help hold it together or thicken liquids. Gelatin is commonly used, particularly in generic medicines - versions of a drug mass-produced more cheaply once the initial patent has expired. The Manchester Royal Infirmary researchers, led by a consultant urologist, surveyed 500 patients, and found that approximately 40% in their inner-city catchment said they preferred not to consume animal products in their day-to-day lives, either because they were vegetarians, or for other cultural and religious reasons. Of the 200 following a restricted diet in this way, 49 were found to be already taking drugs which contained gelatin, despite their wishes. They suggested that drug companies could adopt an "ingredients" list similar to that found on food packaging, or even use recognised symbols such as those promoted by the Vegetarian Society. Two Michigan State University researchers have invented a protein purifier that could help pharmaceutical companies save time and money. Purifying proteins, the process of isolating a single, desired protein from all others, is an expensive, time-consuming hurdle that contributes to the high cost of some prescription drugs. Obtaining pure proteins, however, is a necessary step to increasing these drugs' effectiveness and safety. Streamlining the process could help manufacturers reduce

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ health-17182625

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costs, speed new drugs to consumers and reduce pharmaceutical costs, Bruening said. The membrane devices that we've manufactured can simplify protein purification by rapidly capturing the desired protein as it flows through membrane pores Our membranes have two to three times more capacity than existing commercial devices, and they should reduce the purification process time substantially. Typically, our procedures are complete in 30 minutes or less The smart pill is a ingestible, capsule-based medical devices that aid in the diagnosis, definition and therapeutic intervention of gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. The SmartPill is a single-use, ingestible capsule that utilizes sensor technology to measure pressure, pH and temperature throughout the entire GI tract. The patient ingests a standard meal prior to swallowing the SmartPill capsule at the physicians office. After capsule ingestion the patient returns to their normal routine, wearing a data receiver for three to five days. After the test is complete the patient returns the data receiver to the physician where the information is downloaded to the system computer. The physician analyzes the data and a consultation meeting is scheduled with the patient to review test results. The biotech start-up's ingestible chips are activated by stomach acid and send information to a small patch worn on the patient's skin, which can transmit data to a smartphone or send it over the Internet to a doctor. The Department of Health and Human Resources has estimated that half of all Americans take at least one prescription drug. What a doctor or pharmacist most likely will not tell a patient is that the prescription drug can be causing some major nutritional depletions. Nutritional deficiencies are a major factor to the health and disease states in our society. Major contributors to nutritional deficiencies include diet, lifestyle, age, prescription and non-prescription drugs. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletions could be one of the most overlooked and ignored challenges slowly crippling our health. Aside from extreme deficiencies of malnutrition leading to disease states such as beriberi, visible goiters, and scurvy, many nutritional deficiencies go unnoticed leading to everything from cardiovascular issues, difficulty sleeping, lack of energy, resistance to losing weight, depression, and more In fact, of the top 50 most commonly prescribed drugs prescribed in 2009, over 80% can be associated with drug-induced nutrient depletions. The fact of the matter is that this problem is even greater than it appears considering funding to drug-induced nutrient depletions is not easy to come by. Grapefruits, lemons, celery, and certain other fruits and vegetables contain compounds known as furanocoumarins that can cause a negative reaction when consumed along with certain medications. But rather than examine the medications to see whether or not they themselves are safe, scientists have instead focused on developing genetically hybridized grapefruit that contains little or no furanocoumarins as the solution. After all, furanocoumarins tend to increase the potency of certain medications by up to 500 percent, which can result in serious injury or death.

http://www.smartpillcorp.co m/index.cfm? pagepath=About_Us&id=17 810

http://www.naturalnews.co m/033245_degenerative_di sease_pharmas.html

http://www.naturalnews.co m/034310_grapefruits_fura nocoumarins_drug_interact ions.html

http://www.asianewsnet .net /home/news.php?id=20478

There are no physical signs of mental illness - no swollen joint or broken rib that a doctor can see or feel. Psychiatric diagnosis depends solely on symptoms, and these are often self-reported. Without objective signs, blood tests and X-rays to nail down the diagnosis, how does the doctor know if a patient is just sad, severely depressed, or plain acting? Prozac was introduced in 1987. It was a very effective antidepressant and was said to work by increasing the levels of a brain chemical called serotonin.Most of the evidence that Prozac and other antidepressants seemingly work comes from very short-term studies. Studies show that psychiatrists receive more money from Big Pharma than any other specialists. Through their publications and teaching, key psychiatrists influence how mental illness is diagnosed. Vaccines took a lot of money to make and then it was unused as there was no need for it in the end. Some people think that the WHO was pushed to declare a new flu epidemic. This is so that people can manufacture new vaccines and they will be sold for a lot of money The WHO changed the way a pandemic was defined. The WHO decided that pandemics were to be declared based simply on how fast the virus involved was spreading. The severity of the illness caused was deemed unimportant. In the original definition of a pandemic, many had to be very ill and/or die from the virus. When the WHO declared this a pandemic, there were about 30,000 patients in 74 countries, with 144 fatalities. That mortality rate of less than 0.5 per cent was even lower than that of the seasonal flu. Some patients of osteoporosis may depend on Fosomax, a kind of drug to help their condition. However, Fosomax itself can lead to painful "dead jaw" - a process where jaw bone tissue dies, so patients develop loose teeth and severe gum loss. Hence, it is better for these osteoporosis patients to drink milk instead for their condition. "journals" (in reality, paid pharmaceutical advertising puff pieces cunningly disguised as serious, conservative journals)cannot be sure that a particular article was not funded, or even written, by a drug maker and served exclusively as an advertising ploy The goal from using this technology is to produce dry powder formulations of certain Ceapro products currently sold as liquid formulations. From a technological perspective, the process conditions facilitate the production of preservative free, sterile products, powders, fibres, and agglomerates. The wide range of very fine structures this technology produces facilitates easy solubilisation which is essential for many drying technologies to be successful. by placing it in a dry form it will be able to last longer DBV Technologies has developed a novel method for specific epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) by using its proprietary Viaskin[R] technology. This process enables an allergen to be administered to intact skin while avoiding massive transfer into the bloodstream. It opens up a new way of managing allergy - even in the most severe forms and the most fragile patients. Many FDA-approved prescription drugs in the US are highly addictive, and are the primary cause of mortality in America. Some of these drugs cause patients to be more prone to careless and suicidal behaviours. most drug ingredients sourced from unregulated foreign sources, but nearly half of all drug production facilities are located overseas, most of which have never been inspected by FDA. The US government Accountability Office says that 40% of drug are made overseas, and

http://www.rsis.edu.sg/nts/r esources/db/uploadedfiles/ ST_19.03.2011_Andy %20Ho_Did%20Big %20Pharma.pdf

http://www.asiaone.com/He alth/News/Story/A1Story20 100120-193258.html

http://findarticles.com/p/sea rch/?qt=pharmaceuticals

http://www.naturalnews.co m/034967_celebrities_phar maceuticals_timeline.html http://www.naturalnews.co m/034681_pharmaceuticals _foreign_factories_ingredie nts.html

80% of all ingredients used to manufacture the drugs reportedly come from overseas too. FDA has conducted very few checks on drug manufacturing facilities. There is a growing number of people getting seriously hurt or killed because of tainted drugs produced overseas. In 2008, for example, it was reported that at least 81 people in the US died from a tainted heparin drug produced in India. The drug contained an ingredient that had been sourced from China.

http://www.msfaccess.org/ http://www.globalissues.org /article/52/pharmaceuticalcorporations-and-medicalresearch#PrioritiesofthePh armaceuticalIndustry

Campaign for access to essential medicine Pharmaceutical companies have contributed to peoples improved health and prolonged life, generally speaking. Research and development of drugs that are brought to market can be costly and there are strict regulations and requirements that companies must follow in most countries. But the details reveal further concerns. It seems that there is increasing emphasis on drugs that fit scaremongering and over-medicalized problems. Testing and thorough clinical trials are fundamental to good medical drugs, but there are numerous accusations of shortcuts, including pressuring for favorable results, testing on people without their proper approval, using drugs for unapproved uses and much more. Testing and thorough clinical trials are fundamental to good medical drugs, but there are numerous accusations of shortcuts, including pressuring for favorable results, testing on people without their proper approval, using drugs for unapproved uses and much more. Poorer countries encourage their drug companies to make cheaper generic alternatives to expensive branded ones or use other tools available at their disposal to help bring the price of medicines down to more affordable levels. But they face immense pressure from international institutions and multinational pharmaceutical corporations, even when generics and other options pursued are legitimate under international rules. For these multinationals, theyve poured billions into some of these drugs and therefore want a patent system that will protect their investments for as long as possible. Historically, the desire to protect colonial interests and needs, such as the health of settlers and soldiers, typically drove medical research of tropical diseases. In May 2001 the Guardian newspaper reported that a pharmaceutical company, Aventis, used to produce the only safe medicine for the late, fatal, stage of sleeping sickness. However, they stopped making it in 1995 because they couldnt make any profit from it. this shows that pharmaceutical companies do not care much about the welfare of the consumer but more about the profits. That is, the problem for pharmaceutical companies in wealthy countries (where all their money can be made) is that the population is generally too healthy! They have therefore got to be fed fear and anxiety so that they will buy more products. Encouraging competition in the pharmaceutical market through increasing the use of generic medicine both promotes cost containment and stimulates the innovation needed to provide value-added products

http://www.egagenerics.co m/doc/ega_FuturePharmac euticals.pdf

http://www.dndi.org/

Patents keep the price of medicines high and are a barrier to accessing affordable drugs. In developing countries, where people usually pay for drugs out of their own pockets and very seldom have health insurance, the high price of medicines becomes a question of life and death. When there are no patents and competition can happen between different manufacturers producing more affordable generic versions of medicines, the impact can be tremendous: competition helped to reduce the price of some HIV drugs down by 99 percent over the last decade. But countries home to a strong generic industry such as India, Brazil and Thailand are granting more and more patents on medicines, so the future looks bleak. Pharmaceutical companies sometimes offer developing countries a discounted price on a medicine based on a countrys ability to pay and their disease burden. Patent holders can also grant voluntary licences to other manufacturers either bilaterally or through a new structure known as the Patent Pool - allowing them to produce and export drugs in exchange for royalty payments. The actual impact of voluntary measures on access to medicines varies considerably while some show promise for real change, others are largely inefficient. While in some cases, preferential prices can genuinely improve access to a particular medicine, they do not, and cannot, solve the access to medicines crisis alone. They do not constitute a sustainable solution. There is a clear problem of scale take HIV/AIDS for example, with over thirty million people infected: the volume of donations by multinational pharmaceutical companies can only address a fraction of the needs. In a recent example, MSF was proposed a discounted price by the only manufacturer of a drug that prevents blindness in patients with HIV/AIDS but governments were not given access to the same terms, and the price offer excluded most of the countries in Asia where the problem is the most acute. Whats worse, companies offers may in fact have harmful effects. One of the greatest dangers of such offers is that they come to be relied upon, whereas they are entirely dependent on a companys decisions, and therefore cannot be seen as a sustainable or long-term solution. They are also a form of harmful competition, and when providing products at a loss, may discourage potential competitors. This can negatively impact the most effective and sustainable answer to bring prices down - the development of competition from generic manufacturers. But generic competition can be achieved if a patent holder chooses to grant voluntary licences (VL) to other manufacturers, allowing them to produce and export the drug in exchange for royalty payments. When these VLs are offered to multiple producers within a market or in several countries and are not restrictive in terms of where the licensees are allowed to export the drug, they can be a useful way to increase access. Countries have the right to define, in accordance with their public health needs, what deserves a patent and what doesnt this is known as patentability criteria. Countries also have the right to authorise civil society groups or other actors to oppose a patent application before the patent is granted. This process, known as a pre-grant opposition, is a crucial safeguard to ensure the national patent office grant patents only for inventions that meet the patentability criteria defined in the national patent law. When drugs are patented, and pharmaceutical companies fail to make patented medicines available and affordable to patients in developing countries, governments should therefore make use of their right, under international trade laws, to issue compulsory licences (CLs) to ensure generic competition. CLs are one of the public health safeguards enshrined in the TRIPS Agreement, which allows a government to override a patent by issuing a licence to a third party to produce or import the drug. CLs have proven to bring prices down dramatically by

http://www.epicentre.msf.or g/

Epidemiology research arm, conduct assessment, observational studies, clinical trials and diagnostic studies. Epicentre has a two-fold mission: Research : contributing to the design and promotion of original operational medical projects in MSF intervention settings, or similar environments; Training : supporting MSF teams in conducting operational response. A*STAR Research is an online and print publication highlighting some of the best research and technological developments at the research institutes of Singapores Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). Established in 2002, A*STAR has thrived as a global research organization with a principal mission of fostering world-class scientific research and talent for a vibrant knowledge-based Singapore. A*STAR currently oversees 14 research institutes as well as 7 consortia and centers located in the Biopolis and Fusionopolis complexes and the vicinity, and supports extramural research in collaboration with universities, hospital research centers and other local and international partners. The various A*STAR institutes are involved in research in a wide range of scientific fields, coordinated and funded by Singapores Biomedical Research Council (BMRC) and Science and Engineering Research Council (SER A*STAR provides the ideal environment to push the frontiers of science and engage in world-class research that will benefit the Singapore economy and society at large. Scientists can exploit a world-class research infrastructure at Biopolis and Fusionopolis, the twin biomedical sciences and physical sciences & engineering research hubs at onenorth that provide a conducive environment in which to live, work, play and learn. Since it was first introduced 13 years ago, a drug called Miralax an odorless, tasteless laxative that can be easily diluted in orange juice or water has become a staple in many American households. The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug for use only by adults, and for only seven days at a time. Instead, Miralax has become a long-term solution for childhood constipation a problem that can be troubling not just physically, but also emotionally rather than a shortterm fix so that parents can change their childrens diets to include more fruits and vegetables. The warning label on Miralax does not reflect a known risk to children. It means only that no long-term studies that meet the F.D.A.s standards have been conducted on children using Miralax and its generic counterparts, which work by drawing water into the colon. However, discussion groups on many Web sites suggest that thousands of parents have questions and concerns about it, including the effects of long-term use. Dr. Focht said he is seeing more children who having been taking it for long stretches, even though the label warns that it should be used only for seven days and that parents should consult a doctor before treating children younger than 17. Its definitely not unheard-of that kids are on it for years, Dr. Focht said. Despite the drugs popularity, it has never been approved by the F.D.A. for pediatric use. In 1999, when the F.D.A. first approved Miralax, the patient materials included the warning: Miralax should not be used by children. In 2009, an F.D.A. drug safety oversight board raised a number of concerns about PEGs use in children, including the uncertainty of the long-term effects of large doses, but concluded that current evidence does not suggest that PEG causes severe side effects. Having mapped the physical changes the brain undergoes with years l of habitual drinking, researchers in recent years have discovered a

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http://www.nytimes.com/20 12/05/26/us/miralax-apopular-cure-but-neverapproved-for-children.html? _r=1&ref=drugspharmaceut icals

http://www.nytimes.com/20 12/05/22/health/tailoring-

treatments-foralcoholics.html? ref=drugspharmaceuticals

handfu promising and some say underused drugs that, combined with therapy, help alcoholics break the cycle of addiction. I felt like I had found something that finally helped me through the cravings, said Patty Hendricks, 49, who used one such drug, naltrexone, to help control her drinking habit after four failed rehab attempts. I dont think I could have gotten sober without it. The problem is that alcoholics, like cancer patients, are not a homogeneous group. People drink compulsively for any number of reasons, from genetics to anxiety to post-traumatic stress disorder. The pill that helped Ms. Hendricks get sober might do nothing for, say, a veteran who drinks to ward off nightmares. Instead, some addiction experts now envision a future possibly no more than a decade away in which treatment for alcoholism mirrors contemporary approaches to depression: Patients will choose from a range of drugs to find the one that best suits them, then couple it with therapy and other tools to achieve long-term recover Both Alcoholics Anonymous and the Betty Ford Center, for example, have programs that emphasize abstinence, not pills or injections. Some critics say that treating alcoholism with medication amounts to simply substituting one drug for another. Of the medications currently available, only three have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating alcoholism, and of those, only two naltrexone and acamprosate actually reduce the cravings to drink. (The third, disulfiram, sold as Antabuse, makes patients sick if they drink alcohol by blocking the bodys ability to metabolize it.) The Senate passed a major bipartisan bill on Thursday to prevent drug shortages and to speed federal approval of lifesaving medicines, including lower-cost generic versions of biotechnology products. The bill would increase the governments reliance on user fees, requiring makers of drugs and medical devices to pay $6.4 billion over five years to help finance the evaluation of their products by the Food and Drug Administration. The measure reauthorizes user fees for brand-name drugs and medical devices, and it introduces fees for the review of generic drugs and less expensive versions of certain biotechnology products, known as biosimilars. Fake and substandard malaria drugs are a growing threat to efforts to beat back the disease, a new study sponsored by the federal government has concluded. About a third of the drug samples from both continents failed. Some were clearly criminal counterfeits, some were expired drugs that had been repackaged and some were poorly made with too little active ingredient. Malaria researchers have been warning for years that parasites resistant to even the most modern artemisinin-based drugs are emerging on the Thailand-Cambodia border and that ineffective drugs are to blame. Resistance to older quinine-based drugs emerged in Southeast Asia, too, before spreading to Africa. Prochymal is a preparation of mesenchymal stem cells, which are obtained from the bone marrow of healthy young adult donors. The stem cells are separated out from the marrow and expanded in culture, so that one donation is enough to make as many as 10,000 doses. Because these are adult stem cells, they do not raise the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells, whose creation usually involves the destruction of human embryos. Prochymal is also being developed for the repair of heart tissue following a heart attack, the protection of pancreatic islet cells in patients with type 1 diabetes, and the repair of lung tissue in patients

http://www.nytimes.com/20 12/05/25/us/politics/senatepasses-bipartisan-bill-onnew-medicines.html? ref=drugspharmaceuticals

http://www.nytimes.com/20 12/05/22/health/policy/fakeand-substandard-drugsgrow-as-threat-to-fightmalaria.html? ref=drugspharmaceuticals

http://www.nytimes.com/20 12/05/18/health/a-stemcell-based-drug-getsapproval-in-canada.html? ref=drugspharmaceuticals

with pulmonary disease. In previous studies in gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GvHD), Prochymal has been shown to reduce inflammation and promote crypt regeneration in the damaged intestine.