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Readings

Begbie(2007).ResoundingTruth. Readcompletetext. Cherry(2010).TheWorshipArchitect. Chapter10(pp.151178) Westermeyer(1998).TeDeum. Readcompletetext. WilsonDickson(1992).TheStoryofChristianMusic.Read completetext.

MusicinChristianWorship
Objectives:
1. 2. 3. 4. Brieflyreviewthebiblicalteachingontheuseofmusic. OutlinethemajordevelopmentsinthehistoryofwesternChristianmusic. SurveythedominantuseofsingingandthehumanvoiceinChristianworship. Outlinetheninemainstylesofmusicusedthroughoutthechurchtoday.

Outcomes:
Theaimofthissessionistoprovidethestudentwithanoverviewofmusicanditsuseintodayschurch constructs.Commencingwithanevangelicalunderstandingofmusic,anditsplacewithinworship,this sessionwillsurveythedevelopmentofwesternChristianmusicandtheuseofthehumanvoiceasthe predominant instrument in Christian music. The session concludes with an overview of the nine main musicalstylesusedthroughoutthewesternchurch.

The Arts in the Church


Godhasgiftedhumanbeingswiththecapacitytocreateandtheabilitytoexpressthemselvesthrough theircreativity.Collectivelyknownasthearts,humanexpressionwhetherbypainting,drama,danceor music, has at times been celebrated in the church while at other points in history (sometimes simultaneously)theartshavebeenmaligned.Thescopeoftheartsisfartoowideforthissessionso the artistic expression of music has been singled out for review; which given its singular breadth can onlybecoveredeversobriefly.
MusichasbeentheartformelectedfromamongallotherstogivevoicetoChristianworship,tobejoined tothewordsofthepoetevangelists,andtobeusedbythechurchtoteachandcorrectthesaints.Servant totheverywordofGoditself,musichasbeenthechosenmessengerforconfession,praise,thanksgiving, edification,andproclamation.Christiansmayhavearguedhowtosingorwhattosing,butfewhaveever disputedthatsingingwasthenaturalresponseofthecreaturetothecreator.(Payne,2001,p.800)
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1.

Biblical Teaching

DavidsoothesSaul (1Sam16:16;23)

Musicholdsanimportantplaceinourworship;andhasdonesothroughout thehistoryofthechurch.Thebibleisrichwithreferencestomusic(itsuse and practice) with the first mention in Gen. 4:21 which records Jubal the musician. Despite this early reference music was not central to biblical worship until the time of King David. While there were indications that Israel already used songs in their worship (Ex. 15:121; Deut.32; Judg. 5; 1Sam. 2:110), other cultures had much more developed musical guilds and worship repertoires. David changed that (Sweetman, 2012a, p. 11). Theorganisationofmusicanditsperformanceisheavilystructuredduring (andafter)Davidsreign.

MusicintheOldTestament
JohnSweetman(2012a)outlinesDavidsadministrationofmusicinthetemplerite(p.11): DevelopmentofMusicalGuilds o Davidselected3Leviticalfamiliestobethetemplemusicians o Thesefamiliesweredividedinto24groupsofsingers/instrumentalists. o Therewereapproximately4000musicians,whichmeantabout150pergroup(1Chron.23:5). o Thefamilyheadsresidedinthetempleandwereprobablyresponsibleforthedevelopment ofmusicalmaterialsandsupervisingandcoordinatingtheprogram.Themusicianslivedwith theLevitesamongthepeople. o 288masterteachersweredispersedtotutorpupils(1Chron.25:78). OrganisationofMusicians:ThemusicianswerealldrawnfromthetribeofLeviandhadmany similaritieswiththeotherLevites(1Chron.6:3132;9:33;15;25).They: o Hadaprominentroleintempleservices o Receivedtithesfromthepeople o LivedtogetherinLeviticaltowns o Sharedcommoneducationandstructurei.e.24groups(Neh.7:73;11:13;18,20) o Ledworshipfor2separateweekseachyearatthetemple(decidedbylot) o Cametogetherforthe3galaJewishfestivals(Passover,Weeks,Tabernacles)

Thedisadvantageofsupportingsuchalargegroupofprofessionalworshipperswasbalancedagainstthe advantagesofthestructurewhichensuredthatthewholepopulationwasrepresented.
As priestmusicians, these performers gave full time to their musical service. They were chosen on the basis of their talent (1 Chron. 15:22) and were thoroughly trained, serving five years of apprenticeship before being admitted to the regular chorus. The Jewish choir was organized under at least three composerconductorsAsaph,Herman,andJeduthun(2Chron.5:12).Thesingingwasaccompaniedby many kinds of instrumentslyres, pipes, harps, trumpets, and cymbalsand was also associated with dance(Ps.150:4).(Hustad,1994b,p.189)

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ThePsalms
AncientJewishworshiphasalwayscombinedthepublicreadingofscripturewithmelodiousvoiceand instrumentation. Donald Hustad (1994b) writes, They were always sung in a fervent cantillation. (Ps. 47:1).Theywereaccompaniedbyinstrumentsinwhatisbelievedtohavebeenasortofheterophony,in which the instruments provided embellishments of the vocal melody (p. 189). Hustad goes onto list threemaintypesofinstrumentsusedbytheHebrewpeople(p.189): String: kinnor (lyre,related to the Greeks kithara) andnebhel (harp with up to tenstrings,sometimescalledpsalteryinkjv). Wind:shophar(aramshorn),halil(adoublereed,liketheoboe),hazozerah(ametal trumpet),andugabh(averticalflute,usedmainlyinsecularmusic). Percussion:toph(tambourine,orhanddrum),zelzelim(cymbals),andmenaanim(a sistrum;picturedright).

The main body of songs contained within the bible are collectively known as the Psalms. Andrew WilsonDickson (1992) writes in The Story of Christian Music, The book of all 150 psalmswascompiledoveralongperiod,itspresentformbeingestablishedwellaftertheexileandthe rebuildingofthetemple(p.20).Hegoesontostate, Someofthetitles,suchasapsalmofAsaphorofthesonsofKorah,indicatetherepertoireof a particular hereditary guild of musicians; others indicate the occasion on which the psalms wereused,stillothersgivingthenameofthemelodicformulausedtoaccompanythem.(p.20) ThePsalmscanbeorganisedintothreegroupsofworshipexpression(Hustad,1994b,p.190): Praise o PraisetheLord! o ForitisgoodtosingpraisestoourGod;forheisgracious,andasongofpraiseisseemly. (Ps.147:1) Petition o Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou who leadest Joseph like a flock! Thou who art enthroneduponthecherubim,shineforthbeforeEphraimandBenjaminandManasseh! Stirupthymight,andcometosaveus!(Ps.80:12) Thanksgiving o IlovetheLord,becausehehasheardmyvoiceandmysupplications.(Ps.116:1) GodcommandsbothinstrumentalandvocalpraiseinScripture.Psalm150sayswereto praisetheLordwithhorns,cymbals,andstrings.OverfiftytimesinthebookofPsalms weretoldtosingGodspraise.Psalm47isparticularlyclear:SingpraisestoGod,sing praises!SingpraisestoourKing,singpraises!(v.6)(Kauflin,2008,p.98)

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MusicintheNewTestament
Despite the scant mention of music throughout the New Testament, we can draw a range of observationsastomusicsuseandpractice;bothintheJewishSynagogueandtheearlychurch.
ThetraditionsofthesynagoguecontinuedtobeabsorbedintoChristianworshipforsometime,inspite ofthepersecutionsofAD44andtheCouncilofJerusalem,whichinAD49ruledthatpaganconvertsto ChristianityneednotkeeptheLawofMoses.Cantors,trainedtoleadthesinginginthesynagogueand then converted to the Christian faith, continued to put their skills to use in their new church. (Wilson Dickson,1992,p.25)

Synagogueworshipcentredontheceremonialreadingofthescriptures(Torahandtheprophets);and wasgenerallyfollowedbyahomily.Whileitisnotknownwhenmusiccameintosynagogueworship,it has been suggested that certain Levitical singers may have continued to practicetheir art inthe lay orientated gathering (Hustad, 1994a, p. 192). We can observe musics intended use threaded throughoutthecomponentsofsynagogueworshipwhichDonaldHustad(1994a,p.192)listsas:
ScriptureReadings(Torah;theProphets) Homily,followedbydiscussion Psalmody TheKedusha,Holy,Holy,Holy,(Isa.6:3) Prayers (The Yotzer and the Ahabah, emphasizing the creative acts of God and his love for his people, endingwiththeShemaHear,OIsrael;theLordourGodisoneLord,etc.,adeclarationoffaithanda gladbenediction,fromDeut.6:49,11:1321;Numbers15:3741) The Eighteen Benedictions (expressions of praise, petitions for material and spiritual blessings, and intercessionsformanypeople,concludedwithaunitedamen).

ItisnotpossibletodrawadetailedstructurefromtheNewTestamentwritings,butmostscholarsagree that there was a natural borrowing of structure from the Jewish synagogue. Sweetman (2012b) identifies ten elements that were contained in the more spontaneous structure of early Christian churchworship(pp.56):
1. 2. 3. 4. Prayer:thehomemeetingsinvolvedprayer(Acts16:15;21:8). Praise:ThePsalterwasprobablythehymnbook,butChristologicalhymnsarealsoused(Phil.2:611). ScriptureReading:itislikelythattheOTwasreadaloudaswellasPaulsepistles(1Thess.5:27). Preaching/Teaching: The ministry of the word of God (Acts 6:2) also included a teaching element. InstructingChristiansinsounddoctrinewasessential(1Tim.4:1113). 5. LordsSupper:ThecelebrationoftheLordsSupperdevelopedfromamealtoamoreformalact(1Cor. 11:1734). 6. Baptism:JesusinstructedhisdisciplestoGoandmakedisciples,baptisingthem(Matt28:19). 7. Offering:Bringinganofferingwasanimportantpartofworship(1Cor.16:14). 8. ConfessionofSin:Inherenttobaptism,1John1:89mayindicateconfessionasanessentialelement. 9. HolySpiritaction:Somespiritualgiftsweremeantforuseinthepublicmeetingforthebenefitofother believers(1Cor.1214). 10. Creeds:Itislikelythattheearlychurchsetoutsomestatementsoffoundationaltheologyforworship.
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2.

An Overview of the History of Christian Music

(WilsonDickson,1992)

The following timeline, A Brief Overview of the History of Christian Music (Leader, 2011), provides a conciseoutline of the development of Christian music from the Old Testament through to relatively recent history. It is important to note that the trajectory of Eastern Orthodox is not represented.WilsonDicksons(1992)TheStoryofChristianMusic(pictured left) does provide the interested reader with an overview of the Eastern Orthodox developments as well as an excellent survey of the African Americancontribution(BlackGospeletc.)whichisalsonotpresentedinthe followingtimeline:

OldTestamentEra

NewTestamentEra

The morning stars sang together to herald creation(Job38:7). Jubal is appointed the father of all such as handletheharpandpipe(Genesis4:21). Davids harp refreshes and restores Saul, so thattheevilspiritwoulddepartfromhim(1 Samuel16:32). KingDavidformsalargechoirwithorchestra for the tabernacle worship (1 Chronicles 15:16). AminstrelplaysasElishadeliversGodsWord (2Kings3:1516). Music fills the house of God with Glory (2 Chronicles5:1314). Singers go out before the army of the Israelites, and the Ammonites and Moabites aredestroyed(2Chronicles20:21,22). Asongofpraisewillcausemanytosee,fear andtrusttheLord(Psalm40:13). The Lord is praised with trumpet, harp, lyre, timbrel, stringed instruments, pipe, cymbals, anddancing(Psalm150:36). Musicians are rejected by God for lack of righteousness(Amos5:23).

Mary sings the Magnificat: My soul doth magnifytheLord(Luke1:4655). Jesus sings a hymn with His disciples (Matthew26:30). Believers are exhorted to speak to one another in hymns and spiritual songs to make melody with your heart to the Lord (Ephesians5:19). Paul and Silas sing in jail, the prison is destroyed and many are saved (Acts 16:25 31).

EarlyChristianEra

90 The Odes of Solomon are written and sung by the early church becoming Christianitys oldest surviving hymnbook, otherthantheBookofPsalms. 112 Pliny writes of Christians gathering at dawntosinghymns. 300 Hilary of Poitiers, inspired by Greek hymns, begins writing hymns in Latin which utilize marching rhythms of Roman Legionnaires. 313 Constantine the Great is converted. Christian worship develops liturgies and rituals. 320Ephriamwriteshymnsfortheliturgy.

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385 John Chrysostom warns of pernicious influenceofsecularmusic,declaringitatthe root of acts of violence and dishonor, wars anddailydeaths. 388 The Laodecian Council bans extra biblicallyricsfromcongregationalsingingand deplores handclapping and the use of instrumentsinworship.

TheReformation

TheMiddleAges

578Womenarebannedfromchurchchoirs. 590 Gregory the Great established ritual church music, resulting in Gregorian chants andplainsong. 1100 Hildegard of Bingen gives concerts in theSpiritwhichareattendedbythousands. 1100 Popular Singing Guilds are formed andhymnsaresunginthecommonlanguage. 1325 Pope John XX2 forbids extravagances in church music and orders plainsong restored. The Church condemns singing in harmony, saying it almost deprives the ears ofthepowertodistinguish. 1360 Reformer John Wycliff declares that sincerity in worship is of more value than form. He declares, Formalism and elaborate servicesmighthindertrueworship. 1360 Lollard Movement is established by John Wycliff. They go forth singing and preachingtheWordtothecommonpeople. 1409 John Huss declares, Church music shouldbebythepeopleandforthepeople. Hewriteshymnsand translates other from Latin. Huss followers become known has The Singing Church and publish the first protestantHymnalin JohnHuss(AD13731415) 1501.

1523 Luther stresses the importance of congregational singing. He issues a hymnal and composes hymns himself, often taking tunesfromsecularsources.Luthersaid,The devilhadnorighttoallthegoodtunes. 1540 Anabaptists (radical reformers who stresstheimportanceofmusicinworshipand who actively write hymns) are persecuted by bothCatholicsandProtestants. 1549JohnCalvinwarnsagainstornamental aids to worship and stresses simplicity. He suggests that songs have only one note per syllable. As a result instruments are banned fromchurches. 1560 The popularity of Scottish psalters bringspsalmsingingintohomes,toparties,to dinnersandontothestreets. 1600 Puritans, prompted by Calvin, accept only metrical psalms sung in unison by the congregation. Choirs and church organs are condemned and many instruments are destroyed.

TheGreatAwakening

1701 Isaac Watts publishesHymns and Spiritual Songs. He is greatly criticized by the religiousestablishmentforworldliness. 1725AmajorrevivalinEuropeandAmerica is marked by an emphasis on singing and praying. 1746 J.S. Bach, writing music for the glory of God, collides with church authorities and is reproved for making curious variation in the chorale and mingling strange tones. Bachgoesovertheheadsofchurchsuperiors byappealingdirectlytosecularauthoritiesso hemaycontinuecomposing. 1788 Charles Wesley publishes more than 4,000 hymns. Why should the devil have all thegoodmusic?heasks.

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17921857 Major revivals sweep the U.S. and British Isles. Charles Finney and others use music as part of a broad, national evangelicalmovement.

EvangelicalEra

1863 William Booth uses drums and brass bands in his ministry in London slums. The Salvation Army is formed and members are arrested for disturbing the peace. Their activities in England, America and India are metwithridiculeandviolentopposition. 1870 D.L. Moody becomes the first world evangelist and places great emphasis on musicatrevivalmeetings.IraSankeybecomes Moodysmusicalministerandpopularizesthe gospelsong. 1904Aworldwideawakeningoccurs atthe end of nearly forty years of evangelical advance.ItwassparkedbytheWelshRevival in which over 100,000 outsiders are convertedandaddedtothechurches. 19101935EvangelistBillySundayandsong leader Home Rodeheaver use gospel music formintabernaclesacrosstheU.S. 1920 Charles Fuller pioneers radio evangelism with Rudi Atwood and the Old FashionedGospelHourQuartet. 1923 Aimee Semple McPhersons Angelus Temple begins holding extravagant musical attractionstogetthesinnersoffthestreets. 1945 Earl Williams forms the first Christian recordlabelcalledSacredHeartRecords. 1949 Evangelist Billy Graham, with the musical team of Cliff Barrows and George BeverlyShea,holdthefirstcitywidecampaign in Los Angeles. It receives worldwide attention. 1956GeoffreyBeaumontwritesfolkmassin popstylefortheChurchofEngland.

1960s Several entertaining Christian travel groups form to witness through the pop music sound. The most notable of these was the Spurlows, sponsored by the Chrysler Corporation. 1963 Vatican II permits vernacular instead of Latin in the mass and encourages participationinsinging. 1968 The Jesus Movement captures international attention. There is a spiritual awakening among the rock generation and thousands are baptized in one summer. The music of the drug culture is appropriated by young Christians for witness, instruction and worship.Jesusrockbandsareformed. 1970 Jesus rock groups begin national and international tours. Meanwhile, evangelical leaders denounce the music of the Jesus Movement. Drumbeat is labeled as satanic andabadmoralinfluence.Jesusrockrecords areburned. 1971 New Christian companies begin and productsaremarketed. 1972 Various Jesus Movement festivals are heldbeginningwithcampuscrusadesCotton Bowl gathering of 180,000. These festivals spotlighttheJesusrocksound. 1975ThereisariseofcompetitiveChristian record labels and a growth of conventional entertainment apparatus to produce and promote Christian music (i.e., managers, promoters,agents,etc.). 1977 National Christian T.V. networks are formed:PTL,TBN,CBN,etc. 1979 The conversion of Bob Dylan prefiguresthewidespreadavowalsoffaithby majormusicfigures,mostofwhomremainin thesecularmusicmainstream.

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3.

Singing

Singing is, and has always been the primary instrument used to declarethegoodnessandgreatnessofGod.Despiterecentcultural imbalance which has seen the word worship used to singularly represent the sung portions of the service, singing retains its importance as one of the preeminent activities that can be performed by the corporate body (the laity). Ligon Duncan (2009) reminds us, Scripture passages that discuss singing in public worship include Psalm 98:1; Revelation 5:9;Matthew26:30;Nehemiah12:27,46;Acts16:25;Ephesians5:19;Colossians3:16(p.107).Begbie (2008)furthersourscripturalunderstandingwhensingingbyobserving: RoughlythreequartersoftheBibleversesonmusicrefertosong.AncientIsraelwasasinging culture,andthevarietyofsongsseemstobeaswideasthevarietyofhumanactivity.So,for example, we read of work songs (Isa. 16:10), military songs (Judg. 5:131; 1 Sam. 21:11; 2 Chron. 20:21), songs of instruction, prophecy, and mutual edification (1 Kings 4:32; 1 Chron. 25:13),lovesongs(Isa.5:1;23:1516),songsofentertainment(Job21:12;Isa.24:9;Lam5:14; Amos 6:5), songs with dance (Exod. 15:20; 1 Sam. 18:67), songs of derision (Job 30:9; Ps. 69:12;Lam.3:14,63),andsongsofmourningandlamentation(2Chron.35:25).(p.61) Chuck Fromm (2011), in an article titled Singing as Communication, outlines five elements (values) of singingandthebenefitsofoursingingtogether(p.32): 1. Singingisthemostparticipatorythingwedocongregationally 2. Singing is metonymic and points toward our expression of newsong/Christ in the larger world 3. Singingisbasedonthetext/ScriptureandassuchformsusasChristians:thewordbecome flesh 4. Thesongswesing,theaestheticandmusicalformsareimportantmarkersofthephasesof lifeofourchurchorfaithtradition 5. Theformswillnaturallybecomerigidandloseexpressivepowerasthelanguage,symbols becomehardenedandneedtoberevivifiedorreinvented. Bonhoefferspeakstothepowerofthis[singingtogether]whenheasksandanswersan important question: Why do Christians sing when they are together? The reason is, quite simply, because in singing together it is possible for them to speak and pray the sameWordatthesametime;inotherwords,becauseheretheycanuniteintheWord. (Cherry,2010,p.255)
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Of course, singing and the inherent value of corporately giving voice to our beliefs and collective experiences,requiresteaching(astothevalues)andawarenessoftheobstacleswhichfacethesinging congregation.InMasteringWorship,Hayford,KillingerandStevenson(1990)presentfiveobstaclesto effectivesinging(pp.5152)1: 1. Ashrinkingbodyofcommonlyacceptedcongregationalsong:theadventoftheinternethas curtailedthistosomedegree,butthechallengeisstillnoticeablewhenChristiansgatherin ecumenicalsettings;suchasacitywideprayermeetingetc. 2. Aspectatororientation:withinthewiderculture(outsideofChristianity)musichasbecomea spectatorsport;i.e.musichasbecomesomethingwelistento,notsomethingweopenour own mouths and participate in. The obstacle that challenges congregational singing here is oneofencouragingparticipation:simplygettingpeopletosingandjoinin. 3. Misunderstanding the role of music in worship: sadly, many Christians perceive music as simply the gapfiller. Our congregations must be taught to appreciate the full value of singingtogether. 4. Lack of time: When the place of music, specifically the importance of singing, is misunderstooditisalltooeasytodropasonghereandthereinordertodevotetimeto othermoreimportantelementsoftheworshiptime.Itisimportanttorememberthatwhen we reduce the opportunity for the congregation to sing, we rob (in proportion to the reductionofsinging)thepeopleoftheiropportunitytoparticipate. 5. Pooracoustics:Thechallengeofachievingtherightbalanceacousticallyseekstoblendthe leading voices (music/worship team) which are generally amplified with the unamplified voicesofthecongregation.
Thedifficultyisthatpeoplesingwhentheyareconfidentthattheirownvoicewilljoinwiththe voices around them in way that does not overly expose their own singing. Balance must be obtained. Too much volume and the worship participant will cease participating due to physical discomfort. Too little volume and the worshipparticipantwillceaseparticipatingdue tosocialdiscomfort.(Robinson,2011,p.218)


AcousticSpaceBalance(Robinson,2011,p.218)

Itisimportanttonotethattheseobstacleswereoutlinedin1990.Itisthereforeimportanttocontextualiseeachofthefive obstaclesagainsttodaysworshipconstructs;recognisingthattheChurchhasaddressedorisintheprocessofaddressingthe obstaclesnoted. Page9 MusicinWorship 2012DrDanielK.Robinson


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4.

Todays Worship Music

Music has always been intrinsically involved in Christian worship. The challenge facing todays worship curators (Pierson, 2010) is nottheinclusionofmusic(whichiswidelyacceptedasnecessary), but moreover what music to include. A good deal of the debate surrounding music in todays worship constructs centres on the style(musicalgenre)ofthemusic:hymnsorchoruses.KentHuges (2002) writes in Worship by the Book, The selection of appropriate worship music is not merely a matterofchoicebetweentraditionalandcontemporaryChristianmusic.Thedecisionmustbemadeon principle.Whateverthegenreofmusic,itmustmeetthreecriteria:text,tune,andfit(p.169).Hughes has identified the central feature of the worship wars: principle driven selection or repertoire. One difficultyremainsagreeingontheprinciple. Giventhelimitedscopeofthissessionwewillnottrytosettletoageoldargumentshere.Insteadwe willreviewtherangeofmusicgenresavailabletoday.Whilemanycommentatorsandchurchmusicians onlyreferencetraditionalandcontemporarymusic(hymnsandchorusesrespectively)itisimportantto notetherepertoireisfarmorenuancedthanthetraditional/contemporaryduopolysuggests.Constance Cherry (2010) in her text Worship Architect references nine styles of music on her menu of congregationalsong.Cherrywrites, Thereisstrongmeritinsuggestingthatawidevarietyoftypesofcongregationalsongareuseful evenneedfulforthechurchinourdayThejudiciousandpassionateuseofanyandallof thesepossibilitieswilldeeplyenrichtheworshipofanycongregation.(p.156) Letsnowlookattheninetypesofcongregationalsongavailabletotodayscongregations: Psalms: Psalms have been used for worship since the temple worship of Kind David. Calvin is known to have commissioned the writing of many metrical psalms (psalms that were paraphrased).Cherrywrites,thepsalmsareremarkablefortheirpoeticbeauty,honesty,and expressionofhumanpathos(p.160). o Special Contribution: they express image and circumstance tied to emotion as well as usingconversationallanguagewithGod. o Suggestions for use: Able to be used throughout the service, psalms are helpful when praising God andfortimesofpetitionandintercession. o Examples: O Lord, Our Lord, How Majestic if Your NameandOnEaglesWings

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Canticles:Thesearethesongsrecordedthroughoutscripturewhicharenotwithinthebookof Psalms. One example is the song of Moses and Miriam after the crossing of the Red Sea (Ex.15:118,21).Likethepsalms,canticleshavehadacontinuoususeinChristianity,especially inRomanCatholic,Anglican,andLutherantraditions(p.161). o SpecialContribution:canticlesarewonderfullyexpressivein how they convey Gods deliverance; allowing Gods people toconnectwithwhatGodhasdoneandwillcontinuetodo. o Suggestionsforuse:thesepiecesofscriptureinsongoften providethecongregationtheopportunitytoassociatetheir praisewithGodsmiraculousacts;makingthemexcellentfor useduringthegatheringandtheWord. MiriamcelebratestheLord's o Example:MySoulMagnifiestheLord Hymns:Oftenthetermgiventorepresentthetraditionalgenres,hymnsspecificallyexpressthe truthsoftheChristianfaithusinglanguageotherthanscripture.MarkEvans(2006) writes,The evangelicalhymnwritersgreatlyincreasedthevocabularyoftheircongregationsandtheirability tocopewithcomplextheologicallanguageandthought(p.35). o Special Contribution: the musical form of hymns (multiple stanzas) enables the song writer to communicate a sustained and developed teaching and/or reflection on a biblicalortheologicaltruth(Cherry,2010,p.162). o Suggestionsforuse:Hymnscanbeusedthroughouttheworshipservice. o Examples:CrownHimwithManyCrownsandAsWeGatheratYourTable GospelSongs:Closelyrelatedtothehymn,gospelsongsarepoemsofpersonaltestimonythat conveywordsofsubjectivewitnessortrust;[theyare]aboutselfandothersinrelationtoGod and [are] written in metered stanzas with refrain (p. 163). The gospel song differs from the hymn in its content: hymns convey doctrine and theology, whereas gospel songs present personalexperienceandresponse. o Special Contribution: a forerunner to the modern chorus, gospel songs allow the worshippertoexpresspersonalexperienceandtestimony. o Suggestionsforuse:GospelsongsworkextremelywellasaresponsetotheWo.rdand mayalsobesuitedtosheerpraise. o Examples:ToGodbetheGlory,ISurrenderAll,andBlessedAssurance

deliveranceoftheHebrewpeople

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Choruses:Thechoruscanbeconsidered,initsformandstructure,anabbreviatedformofthe gospelsong.Becauseofitsabbreviatedstructure,thechorushasfewerwordsthanothersong formsIts form does not lend itself to a welldeveloped doctrinal argument; the lyrics must simplystatefactsandleaveitatthat(p.166).Thechorusiscertainlylimitedinitscapacityto conveydeepdoctrinaltruths,butthisisnotnecessarilyaweakness.Chapell(2009)remindsus that, Beforewecomplaintoostridentlyaboutachorusbeingrepeatedtwoorthreetimes,wemay need to reread Psalm 136 or give thanks that we do not have to repeat the Kyrie twelve timesasCalvinrequiredofhispeopleinStrasbourg.(p.140) o SpecialContribution:despitetheshortnessofthechorus,manyarescripturallybased. ChorusconveyjoyexceedinglywellandoftendevelopafeltsenseofGodsimmanence. Chorusesarealsowellsuitedtomoderninstrumentationandthepopidiomsthatmany modernworshippersstylisticallyappreciate. o Suggestions for use: Choruses are excellent during the gathering of a service and help worshippers to orientate to an awareness of God among his people. Choruses are also excellentinpreparingforandreinforcingthethemeofthesermon. o Examples:SeekYeFirst,andShouttotheLord

Taiz: The devotional nature of Taiz material is born out of its origins. A French brother, RogerLouisSchutzMarsauche,establishedacommunityofprayerandservicetothepoorinthe southeastern French village of Taiz. A unique style of worship song has emerged from the Taiz community, where contemplative worship occurs three times dailyThe music employs short repetitive refrains, canons, ostinatos, etc. devices that make it easy for such diverse crowdstojointhesinging(Cherry,2010,p.168). o Special Contribution: specifically, Taiz worship material aids congregations in contemplative worship. In particular, emerging worship communities use Taiz material because of its mystical sounds and the authentic,simplepresentation(p.168) o Suggestionsforuse:Taizmaterialisbestsuited totimesofresponse.MostTaizsongsaresung prayers which make them particularly suited to respondingtotheWord. o Examples: O Lord Hear my Prayer, and Jesus, RememberMe
TheTaizcommunityatprayer

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Spirituals: The contribution of AfricanAmericans to western worship constructs cannot and should not be underestimated. Often referred to Negro spirituals, this body of songs has its rootsinthemournfulmusicoftheslaves.Originatinginthe18thcentury,thespiritualwasthe religiouscounterparttotheworksong.Spiritualsarebasedheavilyonbiblicalstories,especially ofdeliveranceanddeliverers(Daniel,Moses,Elijah,Ezekiel,Jesus,etc.)(p.169). o Special Contribution: Spirituals embody the human experience, good and bad, like no othergenre.Theythereforeaffordthecongregationtheopportunitytoexpresstheirfelt needswithahighdegreeofvulnerability. o Suggestions for use: Like hymns, spirituals can be placed almost anywhere within the worshipcontextdependentonthelyric. o Examples: Where you there when they crucified my Lord, and Didnt my Lord Deliver Daniel. BlackGospel:Thehybridofspirituals,hymns,blues,ragtime,jazz,andnineteenthcenturyEuro Americangospelhymns,BlackGospelisbothanounandaverb.OnecansingBlackGospeland onecangospelizeanysong,thatistosaythatanysongcanbeperformedinBlackGospelstyle (p.171).DespiteitsrootsamongAfricanAmericancommunitiesBlackGospelistransculturaland is widely accepted for its ability to irresistibly draw in the worshipper and urge participation fromthecongregationvocally,physically,emotionally,andspiritually(p.171). o Special Contribution: Due to the disarming nature of the musical form, Black Gospel is helpfulinencouragingworshippersfromapassivestancetoaparticipativeposition. o Suggestionsforuse:Becauseanysongcanbegospelized,BlackGospelisaformthatcan be placed throughout the worship service structure. It is particularly helpful during the responseandsendingportionsoftheservice. o Examples:ThroughitAll,andWalkinguptheKingsHighway. Global Song: The grouping of Global Song is the term given to any musical form that is indigenous to cultures outside the western perspective. Cherry quotes Roberta King when she definesGlobalSong:GlobalChristianmusicisdefinedasanymusicfoundintheChristianchurch worldwide.Particularly,itspecialisesinculturalmusicsfromthenonWesternworldwheresongs are often sung in vernacular languages and performance practices remain fairly loyal to their surroundingmusictraditions(p.171). o SpecialContribution:TheuseofGlobalSongremindsusthatGodspurposeisforevery tribeandpeoplegroup.TheinclusionofGlobalSongsinourworshipservicesenablesus tojoinwithGodspeopleacrossbordersandcultures. o Suggestionsforuse:EmployingGlobalSongsinworshipcanbechallenging,especiallyif theyarewritteninaforeignlanguage.Thisshouldnotdissuadetheiruse;itmaysimply takealittlelongerforthecongregationtolearnthematerial. o Examples:Siyahamba,andCantodeesperanza.

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MusicinConvergence
Mostcongregationswillbefamiliarwith at least two or three of the musical genres listed above. It is important to note that the introduction of new genres is not intended to change or challengetheexistingmusicaltastesofa particular worshiping family. Moreover, the introduction of various musical forms is intended to enrich the worshipping experience with variety. Cherry(2010)concludesheroverviewof congregational song by offering a illustrative model (Circles of Convergence)forhowtheninevarieties of congregational song might be approached(p.175): Whatisyourearliestmemoryofcongregationalsong?Whatstylewasthematerialthat youremember?Doesthatmusicalstylefromyourpastdifferfromthemusicthatyou experience in your worship community today? Is there anything you miss about your pastexperience?Whatdoyouvaluemostaboutyourcurrentexperience?
CirclesofConvergence(Cherry,2010,p.175)

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References
Begbie, J. (2008). Resounding truth: Christian wisdom in the world of music. London, UK: Society for Promoting ChristianKnowledge. Chapell, B. (2009). Christcentered worship: Letting the gospel shape our practice. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Cherry, C. M. (2010). The worship architect: A blueprint for designing culturally relevant and biblically faithful services.GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Duncan, J. L. (2009). Traditional evangelical worship. In J. M. Pinson (Ed.), Perspectives on christian worship: 5 views(pp.99123).Nashville,TN:BroadmanandHolmanPublishers. Evans,M.(2006).Openupthedoors:Musicinthemodernchurch.London,UK:EquinoxPublishingLtd. Fromm,C.(2011,November/December).Singingascommunication.WorshipLeader,20,3233. Hayford,J.W.,Killinger,J.,&Stevenson,H.(1990).Masteringworship.Portland,OR:MultnomahPress. Hughes,R.K.(2002).Freechurchworship.InD.A.Carson(Ed.),Worshipbythebook(pp.136192).GrandRapids, MI:Zondervan. Hustad, D. P. (1994a). Music in the worship of the New Testament. In R. Webber (Ed.), Music and the arts in Christianworship(Vol.4).Nashville,TN:StarSongPublishingGroup. Hustad, D. P. (1994b). Music in the worship of the Old Testament. In R. Webber (Ed.), Music and the arts in Christianworship(Vol.4).Nashville,TN:StarSongPublishingGroup. Kauflin, B. (2008). Worship matters: Leading others to encounter the greatness of God. Wheaton, Illinois: CrosswayBooks. Leader, W. (2011). A brief overview of the history of Christian music. Retrieved 5 September, 2012, from http://worshipleader.com/worshipleaders2/ Payne,T.L.(2001).Musicintheevangelicaltradition.InW.A.Elwell(Ed.),Evangelicaldictionaryoftheology(2nd ed.,pp.800803).GrandRapids,MI:BakerAcademic. Pierson, M. (2010). The art of curating worship: Reshaping the role of worship leader. Minneapolis, MN: SparkhousePress. Robinson, D. K. (2011). Contemporary worship singers: Construct, culture, environment and voice. Unpublished Dissertation,GriffithUniversity,Brisbane,QLD. Sweetman,J.(2012a).Definingcorporateworship:Module2.UnpublishedLearningGuide.MalyonCollege. Sweetman,J.(2012b).Definingcorporateworship:Module4.UnpublishedLearningGuide.MalyonCollege. WilsonDickson,A.(1992).Thestoryofchristianmusic:Fromgregorianchanttoblackgospel;anillustratedguide toallthemajortraditionsofmusicinworship.Oxford,England:LionPublishing.

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