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# THENI KAMMAVAR SANGAM COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY KODUVILARPATTI, THENI 625534

## ME 2208 - FLUID MECHANICS & MACHINERY LABORATORY

YEAR / SEM II / III

## LAB MANUAL FOR STUDENTS

Prepared By P. SIVARAJ, M.E., Assistant Professor / Mechanical, TKSCT, Theni.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Orifice meter. 2. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Venturi meter. 3. Calculation of the rate of flow using Rota meter. 4. Determination of friction factor for a given set of pipes. 5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump / submergible pump 6. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of reciprocating pump. 7. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Gear pump. 8. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel. 9. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristics curves of Francis turbine. 10. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of Kaplan turbine.

INDEX
EXPT. NO. DATE CONTENTS MARKS SIGNATURE

ORIFICEMETER

## DETERMINATION OF THE CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN ORIFICEMETER

AIM: To determine the Co-efficient of discharge of given Orificemeter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Orificemeter Differential U-tube mercury manometer Stop watch Meter scale Collecting tank fitted with Piezometer and control valve

FORMULAE: Theoretical Discharge (Qth): Qth = (a1 a2 (2gh)) / ( a12 - a22) Where, in m3 / s

a1 = Area of the Orificemeter inlet (m2) a1 = Area of the Orificemeter outlet (m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) H = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Actual Discharge (Qact): Qact = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Monometer Reading SI. NO Pipe Size (mm) h1 (cm) h2 (cm) X = (h1 h2) (m) Water h= X ((Sm-SL ) / SL) (m) Time Taken for ---- cm rise of water (t) sec DISCHARGE ( m3 / s) Actual Discharge (Qact) Theoretical Discharge (Qth) Co-efficient of Discharge, Cd (No units)

h (m)

PROCEDURE: 1. The internal plan dimension of the collecting tank and the diameter of the inlet and throat are measured. 2. Close the outlet valve completely, Inlet valve is opened fully. 3. The outlet valves are opened slightly and note the manometric readings. 4. The outlet valve is closed tightly and note the time t for H cm rise of water in collecting tank by using Stop watch. 5. The above procedure is repeated by gradually increase the flow and observe the required readings. 6. Calculate the average Co-efficient of orificemeter. GRAPH: Discharge Vs Head

RESULT:

VENTURIMETER

## DETERMINATION OF THE CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF GIVEN VENTURIMETER

AIM: To determine the Co-efficient of discharge of given Venturimeter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Venturimeter Differential U-tube mercury manometer Stop watch Meter scale Collecting tank fitted with Piezometer and control valve

FORMULAE: Theoretical Discharge (Qth): Qth = (a1 a2 (2gh)) / ( a12 - a22) Where, in m3 / s

a1 = Area of the Venturimeter inlet (m2) a1 = Area of the Venturimeter outlet (m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) H = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Actual Discharge (Qact ): Qact = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Monometer Reading SI. NO Pipe Size (mm) h1 (cm) h2 (cm) X = (h1 h2) (m) Water h= X ((Sm-SL ) / SL) (m) Time Taken for ---- cm rise of water (t) sec DISCHARGE ( m3 / s) Actual Discharge (Qact) Theoretical Discharge (Qth) Co-efficient of Discharge, Cd (No units)

h (m)

PROCEDURE: 1. The internal plan dimension of the collecting tank and the diameter of the inlet and throat are measured. 2. Close the outlet valve completely, Inlet valve is opened fully. 3. The outlet valves are opened slightly and note the manometric readings. 4. The outlet valve is closed tightly and note the time t for H cm rise of water in collecting tank by using Stop watch. 5. The above procedure is repeated by gradually increase the flow and observe the required readings. 6. Calculate the average Co-efficient of orifice meter. GRAPH: Discharge Vs Head

RESULT:

ROTAMETER

## CALCULATION OF THE RATE OF FLOW USING ROTAMETER

AIM: To determine the percentage of error in Rotameter with the actual flow rate. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Rotameter setup 2. Measuring scale 3. Stop watch FORMULAE: Discharge (Qt): Qt = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s) in lit / min

Conversion: Flow rate (lit / min), Qt = (AH / t) x 1000 x 60 Percentage of Error: % of Error = ((Qt QR) / Qt) x 100 Where, Qt = Flow rate (LPM) QR = Rotameter reading (LPM)

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Rotameter Reading (QR) SI. NO Dia of Pipe (mm) LPM X 10-5 (m3/s) Time taken for ---- cm rise of water (t) sec Discharge (Qt) Error = (Qt QR) % of Error = ((Qt QR) / Qt) x 100

LPM

X 10-5 (m3/s)

LPM

X 10 (m3/s)

-5

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Switch on the motor and the delivery valve is opened Adjust the delivery valve to control the rate in the pipe Set the flow rate in the Rotameter, for example say 50 liters per minute Note down the time taken for ____ cm rise in collecting tank Repeat the experiment for different set of Rotameter readings

RESULT:

PIPE FRICTION

## DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR FOR THE GIVEN PIPE (MAJOR LOSSES)

AIM: To determine the Friction Factor of given pipe. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pipe friction apparatus Vernier caliper Stop watch Steel rule

FORMULAE: Darcy Friction Factor (f): f = (2gdhf / 4V2) Where, (No unit)

g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) d = Diameter of pipe (m) V = Velocity of liquid flow in the pipe (m / s) hf = Loss of head due to friction = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Farring Friction Factor (f): f = (2gdhf / 4LV2) Where, L = Length of pipe (m) Actual Discharge (Qact ): Qact = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) (No unit)

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Monometer Reading SI. NO h1 (cm) h2 (cm) X = (h1 h2) (m) Loss of Liquid Head hf = X ((Sm-SL ) / SL) (m) Time Taken for ---- cm rise of water (t) sec

Qact = (AH / t) ( m3 / s)

Velocity, V (m / s)

V2

f = (2gdhf / 4V2)

f = (2gdhf / 4LV2)

H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s) PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the diameters & length of the pipe and dimension of the tank Close the outlet valve completely, Inlet valve is opened fully. The outlet valves are opened slightly and note the manometric readings. The outlet valves are closed tightly and note the timet for h cm rise of water in collecting tank. The experiment is repeated by adjusting the outlet valve.

RESULT:

## DETERMINATION OF CO-EFFICIENT OF LOSS DUE TO ENLARGEMENT (MINOR LOSSES)

AIM: To determine the co-efficient of losses of head due to bend, elbow, enlargement, contraction for the given minor losses pipe. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pipe friction apparatus Inverted U tube manometer Collecting tank with piezometer Stop watch Meter Scale

FORMULAE: Co-efficient of loss (kc): Kc = (2ghf / V2) Where, (No unit) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) d = Diameter of pipe (m) V = Velocity of liquid flow in the pipe (m / s) hf = Loss of head due to enlargement / contraction / elbow / bend = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1 Actual Discharge (Qact ): Qact = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Monometer Reading h1 (cm) h2 (cm) X = (h1 h2) (m) Head Loss of water hf = X ((Sm-SL ) / SL) (m) Time Taken for ---- cm rise of water (t) sec

SNo.

Description

Qact = (AH / t) ( m3 / s)

Velocity, V (m / s)

V2

Kc = (2ghf / V2)

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the diameters & length of the pipe and dimension of the tank Connect the required pipe fitting expansion and close the other locks. The gate valve is opened slightly and note the manometric readings. The outlet valves are closed tightly and note the time t for h cm rise of water in collecting tank. The experiment is repeated by adjusting the outlet valve.

RESULT:

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

## DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

AIM: To determine the characteristic of centrifugal pump using constant speed method. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Centrifugal pump set-up Collecting tank with piezometer Stop watch Meter scale

FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Qact = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = ( 3600 x Nr x 1000 ) / (Ne x T ) Where, Nr = Number of revolutions of Energy meter Ne = Energy meter constant (rev / Kw hr) T = Time taken for Ne Output Power ( Po ) : Po = w x h Where, w = Weight of water lifted = ( x g x Q) in N / s H = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Efficiency ( ): in watts in watts

## Time taken for Ne = _rev (T) sec

Q = (AH / t) ( m3 / s)

## OUTPUT POWER ( Po ) watts

EFFICIENCY ( ) %

Kg / cm

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the internal plan dimension of the collecting tank. The pump is primed with water. Close the delivery valve and switch on the unit Open the delivery valve and maintain the required pressure and delivery. Note the following readings: a. The pressure and vaccum gauge readings. b. The time T for Ne revolutions of energy meter disc. c. The time t for h cm rise of water collecting tank.

## GRAPH: 1. Discharge Vs Head 2. Discharge Vs Output 3. Discharge Vs Efficiency

RESULT:

RECIPROCATING PUMP

## DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC OF RECIPROCATING PUMP

AIM: To determine the characteristic of centrifugal pump using constant speed method. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Reciprocating pump set-up Collecting tank with piezometer Stop watch Meter scale

FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Q = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = ( 3600 x Nr x 1000 ) / (Ne x T ) Where, Nr = Number of revolutions of Energy meter Ne = Energy meter constant T = Time taken for Ne Output Power ( Po ) : Po = w x h Where, w = Weight of water lifted = (s x Q) in N / s s = Specific weight of water = 9810 in N / m3 h = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Efficiency ( ): in % in watts in watts

## Time taken for Ne = _rev (T) sec

Q = (AH / t) ( m3 / s)

## OUTPUT POWER ( Po ) watts

EFFICIENCY ( ) %

Kg / cm

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the internal plan dimension of the collecting tank. The pump is primed with water. Close the delivery valve and switch on the unit Open the delivery valve and maintain the required pressure and delivery. Note the following readings: a. The pressure and vaccum gauge readings. b. The time T for Ne revolutions of energy meter disc. c. The time t for h cm rise of water collecting tank.

RESULT:

## DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC OF GEAR OIL PUMP

AIM: To determine the characteristic of given gear oil pump. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Gear oil pump set-up Collecting tank with piezometer Stop watch Meter scale

FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Q = (AH / t) Where, in m3 / s A = Internal plan area of collecting tank (m2) H = Height of water rise for the given time t (m) t = Time taken for rise of water (s)

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = ( 3600 x Nr x 1000 ) / (Ne x T ) Where, Nr = Number of revolutions of Energy meter Ne = Energy meter constant T = Time taken for Ne Output Power ( Po ) : Po = Q x 9.81 x 850 x h Where, h = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Efficiency ( ): in % in watts in watts

## Time taken for Ne = _rev (T) sec

Q = (AH / t) ( m3 / s)

## OUTPUT POWER ( Po ) watts

EFFICIENCY ( ) %

Kg / cm

PROCEDURE: 1. The gear oil pump is stated. 2. The delivery gauge reading is adjusted for the required value. 3. The corresponding suction gauge reading is noted. 4. The time taken for Ne revolutions in the energy meter is noted with the help of a stopwatch. 5. The time taken for h rise in oil level is also noted down after closing the gate valve. 6. With the help of the meter scale the distance between the suction and delivery gauge is noted. 7. For calculating the area of the collecting tank its dimensions are noted down. 8. The experiment is repeated for different delivery gauge readings. GRAPH: 4. Discharge Vs Head 5. Discharge Vs Output 6. Discharge Vs Efficiency

RESULT:

## PELTON WHEEL TURBINE

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND DRAW THE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF PELTON WHEEL TURBINE
AIM: To conduct the load test on Pelton wheel turbine and to draw the characteristic curves of Pelton wheel turbine. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pelton wheel turbine unit Supply pump Rope brake dynamometer Tachometer Weights (1Kg, 2Kg, 3Kg) Venturimeter fitted

## FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Q = Cd x a1 x a2 x (2gh) / ( a12 - a22) Where, in m3 / s

a1 = Area of the inlet (m2) a1 = Area of the outlet (m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) h = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = w x H Where, w = Weight of water lifted = ( x g x Q) in N / s H = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Output Power ( Po ) : Po = ( 2 x x N x T ) / 60 in watts in watts

## Torque (T) N-m

Discharge ( m3 / s)

## OUTPUT POWER ( Po ) watts

EFFICIENCY ( ) %

T2

Where, N = Speed of the turbine (rpm) Ne = Energy meter constant T = Torque in (N-m) = ((D + d) / 2) x (ws S) Where, D = Diameter of brake drum (m) d = Diameterof rope (m) ws = Break load (N) S = Spring balance reading (N) Efficiency ( ): in %

## = (Po / Pi) x 100 PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The Pelton wheel turbine is started. All the weight in the hanger is removed. The pressure gauge reading is noted down and it is to be maintained constant for different loads. The Venturimeter readings are noted down. The spring balance reading and speed of the turbine are also noted down. A ___Kg load is put on the hanger, similarly all the corresponding readings are noted down. The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated.

RESULT:

FRANCIS TURBINE

## CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND DRAW THE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF FRANCIS TURBINE

AIM: To determine the characteristics of a Francis turbine APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Francis turbine unit Supply pump Rope brake dynamometer Tachometer Pressure gauge Weights

## FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Q = Cd x a1 x a2 x (2gh) / ( a12 - a22) Where, in m3 / s

a1 = Area of the inlet (m2) a1 = Area of the outlet (m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) h = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = w x H Where, w = Weight of water lifted = ( x g x Q) in N / s H = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Output Power ( Po ) : Po = ( 2 x x N x T ) / 60 in watts in watts

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Pressure gauge (Hd) h1 (cm) h2 (cm) h w1 (m) w2 w Kg / cm2 m of H2O Vacuum gauge (Hs) Hg in mm m of H2O

Spring balance

Q ( m3 / s)

## Output Power ( Po ) watts

Efficiency ( ) %

Where, N = Speed of the turbine (rpm) Ne = Energy meter constant T = Torque in (N-m) = ((D + d) / 2) x (ws S) Where, D = Diameter of brake drum (m) d = Diameterof rope (m) ws = Break load (N) S = Spring balance reading (N) Efficiency ( ): in %

## = (Po / Pi) x 100 PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The Francis turbine is started All the weights in the hanger are removed The pressure gauge reading is noted down and this is to be maintained constant for different loads Pressure gauge reading is ascended down The Venturimeter reading and speed of turbine are noted down The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated.

RESULT:

KAPLAN TURBINE

## CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS AND DRAW THE CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF KAPLAN TURBINE

AIM: To determine the characteristics of a Francis turbine APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Francis turbine unit Supply pump Rope brake dynamometer Tachometer Pressure gauge Weight

## FORMULAE: Discharge (Q ): Q = Cd x a1 x a2 x (2gh) / ( a12 - a22) Where, in m3 / s

a1 = Area of the inlet (m2) a1 = Area of the outlet (m2) g = Acceleration due to gravity (m / s2) h = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid = (h1 h2) ((Sm-SL)/Sl) Where, h1 = Manometric head in first limb h2 = Manometric head in second limb Sm = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid (i.e. Liquid Mercury = 13.6) SL = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

Input Power ( Pi ): Pi = w x H Where, w = Weight of water lifted = ( x g x Q) in N / s H = Total head = Suction head (hs) + Delivery head (hd) + Difference inlevel between the center of vaccum and pressure gauge (X) Output Power ( Po ) : Po = ( 2 x x N x T ) / 60 in watts in watts

## OBSERVATION & TABULATION:

Pressure gauge (Hd) h1 (cm) h2 (cm) h w1 (m) w2 w Kg / cm2 m of H2O Vacuum gauge (Hs) Hg in mm m of H2O

Spring balance

Q ( m3 / s)

## Output Power ( Po ) watts

Efficiency ( ) %

Where, N = Speed of the turbine (rpm) Ne = Energy meter constant T = Torque in (N-m) = ((D + d) / 2) x (ws S) Where, D = Diameter of brake drum (m) d = Diameterof rope (m) ws = Break load (N) S = Spring balance reading (N) Efficiency ( ): in %

## = (Po / Pi) x 100 PROCEDURE:

7. The Francis turbine is started 8. All the weights in the hanger are removed 9. The pressure gauge reading is noted down and this is to be maintained constant for different loads 10. Pressure gauge reading is ascended down 11. The Venturimeter reading and speed of turbine are noted down 12. The experiment is repeated for different loads and the readings are tabulated.