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SPSS solution for statistical test using hypothesis:

1. For the following problem, identify the appropriate statistical test you would use to analyze the data. Then perform the statistical test using the five steps to hypothesis testing. A company wants to know if a specific type of sales training will increase sales during the quarter. The company randomly selects 10 salesmen to measure their quarterly sales. The sales from each sales persons first quarter are recorded. Each sales person then participated in company sales training. Sales for the second quarter were then recorded. Using this data, can the researcher show a significant improvement in sales for this type of sales training? Sales Person Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Answer: Step-1: The samples in quarter I and II are ratio scaled and the samples are drawn randomly. As sample size =30 so we may assume the normality of sampling distribution of sample means. We created the difference in sales variable and found from the following K-S and Shapiro tests of normality that the difference in sales before and after training is normally distributed as p-value of both the tests is greater than 0.05.
Tests of Normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistic Diff_Sales .126 df 10
a

Sales Quarter 1 (in the hundred thousands) 520 601 589 470 609 602 597 561 499 543

Sales Quarter 2 (in the hundred thousands) 543 619 591 468 598 605 610 577 507 531

Shapiro-Wilk Statistic
*

Sig. .200

df 10

Sig. .704

.953

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction *. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

Step-2: We are to test the hypothesis

Ho: x-barQ2= x-barQ1 HA: x-barQ2> x-barQ1


Step-3: As same set of salesmen are used before and after training so we will use paired sample t-test. The test statistic is t-statistic which follows t-distribution with n-1 degree of freedom, where n is the number of observations or pairs. We choose =0.05 so that critical t(n-1,0.05, two tailed) =t(10-1,0.05,right-tailed) =t(9, 0.05,right-tailed)

= 1.8331
Step-4: Calculation of paired-sample t-test using SPSS gives the results as follows from where we observe that t-obtained=1.533, p-value=.16
Paired Samples Statistics Mean Pair 1 Sales Quarter 2 (in the hundred thousands) Sales Quarter 1 (in the hundred thousands) Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Std. Mean Deviation Std. Error Mean Lower Upper t df Sig. (2tailed) 559.1000 10 49.16966 15.54881 564.9000 N 10 Std. Deviation 50.40161 Std. Error Mean 15.93839

Paired Samples Statistics Mean Pair 1 Sales Quarter 2 (in the hundred thousands) Pair 1 Sales Quarter 2 (in the hundred thousands) - Sales Quarter 1 (in the hundred thousands) 5.80000 11.96105 3.78242 -2.75642 14.35642 1.533 9 .160 564.9000 N 10 Std. Deviation 50.40161 Std. Error Mean 15.93839

Step-5: Conclusions As p-value is greater than alpha and the t-obtained is not in the rejection region on the curve; therefore,

A paired sample t-test that compared the mean SALES before and after the training of the sample of salesmen was conducted. Difference was found to be non-significant (t(9)=1.53, p=.16, alpha=.05). The mean sales after the training(Mean=564.90) are not significantly different than before the training(Mean=559.10).

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