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Types or Modes of Interaction or social processes Social processes can broadly be divided into Associative and Dissociative types,

co-operation, Assimilation and Accommodation are Associative social processes. Competition and conflict are dissociative social processes. From the standpoint of the operation of the larger society and no doubt, the individual's own feeling of well-being, among the most important qualities of interaction are co-operation and conflict Samnel Butler once observed that our experience with other 'partake of the nature of either a string or a knife they find us closer together or they cut us apart. This is only a picturesque way of saying that in all group life both unifying and dividing forces are operative. Those processes which link and connect individuals either physically or mentally and brings them together are termed as associative and those which disconnects people and sometimes develops antipathy feeling against each other, is associative process. Co-operation: When men work together for common goals, their behavior is called co-operation. One form which co-operation takes is called labour in common when common labor is carried on merely for the pleasure of working together, it is referred to as companionable. While on the other hand there is a real advantage in having assistance at a task, as in getting a car out of the mud, the mode of co- operation is designated supplementary labor. Finally there is integration of differentiated labours.This exists when individuals work towards a common end but each has his own specializes function to perform, as in the case for example, when

carpenters, plumbers and masons cooperate to build a house. The study of co-operation has not received much attention from the sociologists, as Nimkoff says, because of our highly competitive society, sociologists are under considerable compulsion in their selection of subject matter, although perhaps largely unwillingly so. Accommodation: This aspect of social interaction follows from conflict. Accommodation is the term used by the sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups. In accommodation, cooperation and conflict co-exist This fact led summer to refer accommodation as antagonistic cooperation. The more friendly the relationship the greater the degree of cooperation. For example, the case of Negroes in the south at the time of American civil war. There were two classes of slaves, those who worked in the fields and those who worked in the households. The latter had a higher status and enjoyed more privileges, hence felt more friendly towards the white man. The degree of accommodation of the household Negroes was greater than that of the field slaves as may be seen from the fact that far fewer of the former deserted their masters. There are several form of accommodation, like victory, subordination, compromise, toleration, conciliation, conversion etc. Assimilation: An important as pert of social interaction, assimilation is the process where by individuals or groups once dissimilar become similar; that is become identified in their interests and outlook. It is a process of interpenetration and fusion in which persons and groups acquire the memories, sentiments and attitudes of other persons or groups, by sharing their experiences and

history, are incorporated with them in a cultural life. A common but mistaken notion about assimilation is that it is a one way process. Close contact of persons of dissimilar cultures always results in mutual interpenetration and fusion of culture traits.although the borrowing may not bes as pronounced in the one direction as the other. Further some assimilation probably occurs in all lasting interpersonal situations. Again assimilation is often incomplete and creates adjustment problems for individuals. And lastly, assimilation does not proceed equally rapidly and equally effecting in ail inter-group situations. Competition: It occurs whenever there is an insufficient supply of anything that human beings desire insufficient in the sense that all. cannot have as mauch of it as they wish. In other words, as W.H. Hamilton observes, the basic terms of competition are a population of insatiable wants and a world of stufforn and inadequate resources. Conflict: When there is a shift in interest from the objects of competition to the competitors themselves, rivalry or conflict results. It is a personalized competition. However these two processes are not entirely distinct and unrelated process. Doubtless in our society competition is popularly conceived to be the more basic process, a view which extends back atleast to Heraclitus at the close of the 6th century B.C. Later Hoffes thought that struggle is the basic law of life, that earliest man lived in a continued state of warfare, with every man's hand raised against his brother. In this view, Hoffes was followed by a long fine of theorists and philosophers such as Hume, Hegel, Roussean, and Bagchot. The idea that struggle is all

important was later taken over by the evolutionary school of biologists following publication by the Darwin and Wallace of the doctrine of natural selection on the basis of the survival of the fittest. The Darwinian theory was not without influence on social theory . The. conflict school of sociological theory was thus ushered in, represented by such writers as Ratzennofer and Gumploniz. However many prominent sociologists like Kropotkin (mutual aid) challenge the conflict school and argue that the struggle is not so much between members of a given species as it is between different species, and most of all a struggle of all species against adverse circumstances. The idea of competition within a species is overplayed by Darwin, while quite neglected is the fact that cooperation plays a major role in survival. Culture and social Interaction: Culture also has a deep impact on social interaction. It may be said that culture determines both the direction and the development of cooperation and competition. The culture stipulates the goal for which individual will strive. It Indicates whether these goals will be approached competitively or cooperatively. The social interaction in human society, then do not operate naturally as they do among animals, but are subject to a number of pressure and controls. Since these cultures vary from culture to culture, the competitive and cooperative behavior of individuals differ in different societies. The individual with whom one may or may not compete or cooperate are also indicated by social heritage. Finally, the form which the basic social processes take in a particular society is also affected by the culture. A disadvantage of competition can be the loss of local jobs, particularly in the manufacturing industry. As competition pushes prices of goods down firms may move offshore in search of cheaper labour in order to stay competitive. This can lead to some firms exploiting people in less developed countries and in extreme cases even child and or slave labour. Benefits of Competition Competition is the critical driver of performance and innovation. It benefits everyone by enabling us to choose from an array of excellent products at affordable prices. Competition also encourages the adoption of innovation as companies evolve and new ideas flourish in the marketplace. Consumers stand to gain the most from greater competition in the IT market. Competitive markets encourage lower prices and greater choice. Government procurement contracts, in a free market economy, could save governments around the world billions of dollars each year on IT products. Consumers Consumers stand to gain the most from greater competition in the information technology (IT) market. Fair and open competition means lower prices and greater choice.

Limiting consumers freedom of choice stalls innovation. Impediments to innovation are a setback for anyone who wants tomorrows computing technology or any technology for that matter to be better than it is today. Market conditions that permit a single company to become the sole judge of price and quality set a dangerous precedent. Businesses The IT industry is now widely regarded as the primary driver of modern economic growth and the catalyst for that growth is the power of the microprocessor. Fair trade and open competition in the market enables vendors and manufacturers to deliver a greater variety of competitive products to their customers around the world and often results in lower prices and higher performance. When competition allows market forces to prevail, leading technology companies can offer the best products to a broader array of customers and consumers. Government Closed government computer hardware procurement practices unnecessarily cost taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars. Brand specification inhibits market competition, raises prices for computer equipment, limits choice and hurts consumers. Competitive pricing, product innovation and performance improvements coupled with competitive practices help ensure that government authorities get the best value for the public they serve. Furthermore, transparent and unbiased procurement practices are essential components for open government and a healthy free market economy.

Learn more about the benefits of vendor-neutral procurement practices and download procurement guidelines. Economies Regional and global economies will benefit from an environment of fair and open competition in the critical IT sector. The IT sector, led by the semiconductor industry in which AMD participates, is the leading source of economic growth in the world economy. Competition and innovation in the microprocessor industry fuels growth in other industries and encourages economic development worldwide. There are advantages to conflict. While the term conflict generally is associated with negative encounters, conflict itself is neither inherently good nor inherently bad. In fact, engaging in conflict can have positive effects on relationships and organizations. Consider these benefits:

Managing conflicts appropriately helps build self-esteem. Managing conflicts well is a sign of maturity. Conflicts are challenging. Conflicts are exciting. Conflicts encourage people to grow. Conflicts create opportunity.

Disadvantages of Conflict Apathy People may not care to work with the other perspectives, preferring to bow out. Abandonment People may tend to give up on a process if they feel it can't be solved. Confusion Differing opinons about data and analysis may cloud issues and comparisons between alternatives. Stress and frustration Confrontations may get personal or escalate. It is never fun to be the object of someone else's dislike. Conflict will happen--and you want it to happen. People will do many things that subvert a process and ultimate solution just to avoid conflict: Poor solutions People may go along with a poorly thought out idea Lack of support People may not participate Limited perspectives People may not suggest ideas, raise issues or concerns, or discuss evaluation techniques

Conflict fosters an awareness that problems exist. Discussing conflicting views can lead to better solutions. Managing conflict is quicker and more efficient than letting conflicts fester. Challenging old assumptions can lead to changes in outdated practices and processes. Conflict requires creativity to find the best outcomes. Conflict raises awareness of what is important to individuals.